Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 877

Search results for: white patch

877 Evaluating the Performance of Color Constancy Algorithm

Authors: Damanjit Kaur, Avani Bhatia

Abstract:

Color constancy is significant for human vision since color is a pictorial cue that helps in solving different visions tasks such as tracking, object recognition, or categorization. Therefore, several computational methods have tried to simulate human color constancy abilities to stabilize machine color representations. Two different kinds of methods have been used, i.e., normalization and constancy. While color normalization creates a new representation of the image by canceling illuminant effects, color constancy directly estimates the color of the illuminant in order to map the image colors to a canonical version. Color constancy is the capability to determine colors of objects independent of the color of the light source. This research work studies the most of the well-known color constancy algorithms like white point and gray world.

Keywords: color constancy, gray world, white patch, modified white patch

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
876 Design of Broadband W-Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna

Authors: Neeraj G. Nahata, K. S. Bhagat

Abstract:

Microstrip patch antenna widely used in communication area because it offers low profile, narrow bandwidth, high gain, and compact in size. It has big disadvantage of narrow bandwidth. To improve the bandwidth a W-slot technique is used, it is efficient to enhance the bandwidth of antenna. The feeding point of antenna is very important for efficient operation, so coaxial feeding technique is applied to microstrip patch antenna for impedance matching. A broadband W-slot microstrip patch antenna is designed successfully which attains a bandwidth of 22.74% at 10dB return loss with centre frequency of 4.5GHz and also it attains maximum directivity 8.78dBi. It is designed by cutting a W-slot into the patch of antenna, because of this resonant slot, the antenna gives broad bandwidth. This antenna is best suitable for C-band frequency spectrum. The proposed antenna is designed and simulated using IE3D software.

Keywords: broadband, microstrip antenna, VSWR, W-slotted patch

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
875 Improvement and Miniaturization RFID Patch Antenna by Inclusion the Complementary Metamaterials

Authors: Seif Naoui, Lassaad Latrach, Ali Gharsallah

Abstract:

This paper is specialized to highlight the method of miniaturization and improvement the patch antenna by using the complementary metamaterial. This method is presented by a simple technique is composed a structure of patch antenna integrated in its surface a cell of complementary split ring resonator. This resonator is placed at the middle of the radiating patch in parallel with the transmission line and with a variable angle of orientation. The objective is to find the ultimate angle where the best results are obtained on improving the characteristics of the considered antenna. This motif widespread at the traceability applications by wireless communication for RFID technology at the operation frequency 2.45 GHz. Our contribution is based on studies empirical often presented in this article. All simulation results were made by the CST Microwave Studio.

Keywords: complimentary split ring resonators, computer simulation technology microwave studio, metamaterials patch antennas, microstrip patch antenna, radio frequency identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
874 The Study of Dissolving Microneedle Patch for Androgenetic Alopecia

Authors: Li-Yu Lee, Yu-Shuan Chen, Jun Sheng Wang, I-Ming Chu

Abstract:

Microneedle patch is a painless transdermal drug delivery method, It could solve some problems in traditional drug delivery such as digestive system causing drug metabolism and subcutaneous injection causing some side effects. Coating drug on or loading drug in microneedle can carry active ingredient through stratum corneum, also can control dose well when microneedle patch apply on localized topical area. We used hyaluronic acid to fabricate dissolvable microneedle patch and encapsulated minoxidil into microneedles. Minoxdil is a drug for exterior use that can be used to treat Androgenetic alopecia, but related commercial products have some shortcomings, for example, propylene glycol which is used to soften stratum corneum cause skin allergic reaction, comparing chemical promotion, microneedle patch provide physical way to make drugs through nature barrier of skin. In this research, we designed a two-step process to fabricate microneedle patch, that can effectively reduce drug waste, and gentle production process could maintain drug activity well. We also do in vitro test on cadaver to make sure patch has enough mechanical strength to penetrate stratum corneum. In the release test and animal test, we found microneedle patch has higher delivery efficiency than tradition way. In this study, we may determine that germinal MNs patch is a potential commodity.

Keywords: dissolving microneedles, androgenetic alopecia, minoxidil, transdermal drug delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
873 Repair of Cracked Aluminum Plate by Composite Patch

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, A. Zeggane, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this work, repaired crack in 6061-T6 aluminum plate with composite patches presented, firstly we determine the displacement, strain, and stress, also the first six mode shape of the plate, secondly we took the same model adding central crack initiation, which is located in the center of the plate, its size vary from 20 mm to 60 mm and we compare the first results with second. Thirdly, we repair various cracks with the composite patch (carbon/epoxy) and for (2 layers, 4 layers). Finally, the comparison of stress, strain, displacement and six first natural frequencies between un-cracked specimen, crack propagation and composite patch repair.

Keywords: composite patch repair, crack growth, aluminum alloy plate, stress

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872 Complementary Split Ring Resonator-Loaded Microstrip Patch Antenna Useful for Microwave Communication

Authors: Subal Kar, Madhuja Ghosh, Amitesh Kumar, Arijit Majumder

Abstract:

Complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) loaded microstrip square patch antenna has been optimally designed with the help of high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). The antenna has been fabricated on the basis of the simulation design data and experimentally tested in anechoic chamber to evaluate its gain, bandwidth, efficiency and polarization characteristics. The CSRR loaded microstrip patch antenna has been found to realize significant size miniaturization (to the extent of 24%) compared to the conventional-type microstrip patch antenna both operating at the same frequency (5.2 GHz). The fabricated antenna could realize a maximum gain of 4.17 dB, 10 dB impedance bandwidth of 34 MHz, efficiency 50.73% and with maximum cross-pol of 10.56 dB down at the operating frequency. This practically designed antenna with its miniaturized size is expected to be useful for airborne and space borne applications at microwave frequency.

Keywords: split ring resonator, metamaterial, CSRR loaded patch antenna, microstrip patch antenna, LC resonator

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
871 A Study of the Relationship between Habitat Patch Metrics and Landscape Connectivity with Reference to Colombo Wetlands Sri Lanka

Authors: H. E. M. W. G. M. K. Ekanayake, J. Dharmasena

Abstract:

Natural Landscape fragmentation and habitat loss are emerging issues in Sri Lanka, which is due to rapid urban development and inadequate concern of managing Landscape connectivity. Urban Wetlands are the most vulnerable ecosystem effects from the fragmentation. Therefore, management of landscape connectivity with proper analysis and understanding has become a most important measure for urban wetland habitats. This study aimed to introduce spatial planning strategy to identify and locate landscape developments appropriately in order to restore landscape connectivity. Therefore, the study focuses on understanding the relationship between habitat patch metrics and landscape connectivity with reference to Colombo wetlands. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to measure the wetland patch metrics; Patch area, Total edge, Perimeter-area ratio, Core area index and Inter-patch distances. Further, GIS-enabled least-cost path tool was used to measure the Landscape connectivity and calculate the number of species flow paths per wetland patch. According to the research findings; increasing the patch area, maintaining a mean perimeter-area ratio and core area index also reducing the inter-patch distances could enhance the landscape connectivity. Further, this study introduces three patch typologies; ‘active patches,' ‘open patches’ and ‘closed patches’ that severs to landscape connectivity in different levels. In the end, the study proposes a strategy for Landscape Architects to select most suitable locations to implement ecological based landscape developments with adjacent to the existing urban habitat in order to enhance habitat patch metrics and to restore the landscape connectivity.

Keywords: landscape fragmentation, urban wetlands, landscape connectivity, patch metrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
870 A Compact Ultra-Wide Band Antenna with C-Shaped Slot for WLAN Notching

Authors: Maryam Rasool, Farhan Munir, Fahad Nawaz, Saad Ahmad

Abstract:

A patch antenna operating in the Ultra-Wide Band of frequency (3.1 GHz – 10.6 GHz) is designed with enhanced security from interference from other applications by incorporating the notching technique. Patch antennas in the Ultra-Wide Band are becoming widely famous due to their low power, light weight and high data rate capability. Micro strip patch antenna’s patch can be altered to increase its bandwidth and introduce UWB character in it. The designed antenna is a patch antenna consisting of a conductive sheet of metal mounted over a large sheet of metal called the ground plane with a substrate separating the two. Notched bands are public safety WLAN, WLAN and FSS. Different techniques used to implement the UWB antenna were individually implemented and there results were examined. V shaped patch was then chosen and modified to an arrow shaped patch to give the optimized results operating on the entire UWB region with considerable return loss. The frequency notch prevents the operation of the antenna at a particular range of frequency, hence minimizing interference from other systems. There are countless techniques for introducing the notch but we have used inverted C-shaped slots in the UWB patch to get the notch characteristics as output and also wavelength resonators to introduce notch in UWB band. The designed antenna is simulated in High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) 13.0 by Ansoft.

Keywords: HFSS, Notch, UWB, WLAN

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
869 Miniaturized Wideband Single-Feed Shorted-Edge Stacked Patch Antenna for C-Band Applications

Authors: Abdelheq Boukarkar, Omar Guermoua

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a miniaturized and wideband patch antenna for C-band applications. The antenna miniaturization is obtained by loading shorting vias along one patch edge. At the same time, the wideband performance is achieved by combining two resonances using one feed line. The measured results reveal that the antenna covers the frequency band 4.32 GHz to 6.52 GHz (41%) with a peak gain and a peak efficiency of 5.5 dBi and 87%, respectively. The antenna occupies a relatively small size of only 26 x 22 x 5.6 mm3, making it suitable for compact wireless devices requiring a stable unidirectional gain over a wide frequency range.

Keywords: miniaturized antennas, patch antennas, stable gain, wideband antennas

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
868 Design of Liquid Crystal Based Tunable Reflectarray Antenna Using Slot Embedded Patch Element Configurations

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflect array antenna with different design configurations within X-band frequency range. The effect of LC volume used for unit cell element on frequency tunability and reflection loss performance has been investigated. Moreover different slot embedded patch element configurations have been proposed for LC based tunable reflect array antenna design with enhanced performance. The detailed fabrication and measurement procedure for different LC based unit cells has been presented. The waveguide scattering parameter measured results demonstrated that by using the circular slot embedded patch elements, the frequency tunability and dynamic phase range can be increased from 180 MHz to 200 MHz and 120° to 124° respectively. Furthermore the circular slot embedded patch element can be designed at 10 GHz resonant frequency with a patch volume of 2.71 mm3 as compared to 3.47 mm3 required for rectangular patch without slot.

Keywords: liquid crystal, tunable reflect array, frequency tunability, dynamic phase range

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867 Study of Superconducting Patch Printed on Electric-Magnetic Substrates Materials

Authors: Fortaki Tarek, S. Bedra

Abstract:

In this paper, the effects of both uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate and high Tc superconducting patch on the resonant frequency, half-power bandwidth, and radiation patterns are investigated using an electric field integral equation and the spectral domain Green’s function. The analysis has been based on a full electromagnetic wave model with London’s equations and the Gorter-Casimir two-fluid model has been improved to investigate the resonant and radiation characteristics of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch in the case where the patch is printed on electric-magnetic uniaxially anisotropic substrate materials. The stationary phase technique has been used for computing the radiation electric field. The obtained results demonstrate a considerable improvement in the half-power bandwidth, of the rectangular microstrip patch, by using a superconductor patch instead of a perfect conductor one. Further results show that high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch on the uniaxial substrate with properly selected electric and magnetic anisotropy ratios is more advantageous than the one on the isotropic substrate by exhibiting wider bandwidth and radiation characteristic. This behavior agrees with that discovered experimentally for superconducting patches on isotropic substrates. The calculated results have been compared with measured one available in the literature and excellent agreement has been found.

Keywords: high Tc superconducting microstrip patch, electric-magnetic anisotropic substrate, Galerkin method, surface complex impedance with boundary conditions, radiation patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
866 The Minimum Patch Size Scale for Seagrass Canopy Restoration

Authors: Aina Barcelona, Carolyn Oldham, Jordi Colomer, Teresa Serra

Abstract:

The loss of seagrass meadows worldwide is being tackled by formulating coastal restoration strategies. Seagrass loss results in a network of vegetated patches which are barely interconnected, and consequently, the ecological services they provide may be highly compromised. Hence, there is a need to optimize coastal management efforts in order to implement successful restoration strategies, not only through modifying the architecture of the canopies but also by gathering together information on the hydrodynamic conditions of the seabeds. To obtain information on the hydrodynamics within the patches of vegetation, this study deals with the scale analysis of the minimum lengths of patch management strategies that can be effectively used on. To this aim, a set of laboratory experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume where the plant densities, patch lengths, and hydrodynamic conditions were varied to discern the vegetated patch lengths that can provide optimal ecosystem services for canopy development. Two possible patch behaviours based on the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production were determined: one where plants do not interact with the flow and the other where plants interact with waves and produce TKE. Furthermore, this study determines the minimum patch lengths that can provide successful management restoration. A canopy will produce TKE, depending on its density, the length of the vegetated patch, and the wave velocities. Therefore, a vegetated patch will produce plant-wave interaction under high wave velocities when it presents large lengths and high canopy densities.

Keywords: seagrass, minimum patch size, turbulent kinetic energy, oscillatory flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
865 Bacterial Decontamination of Nurses' White Coats by Application of Antimicrobial Finish

Authors: Priyanka Gupta, Nilanjana Bairagi, Deepti Gupta

Abstract:

New pathogenic strains of microbes are continually emerging and resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is growing. Hospitals in India have a high burden of infections in their intensive care units and general wards. Rising incidence of hospital infections is a matter of great concern in India. This growth is often attributed to the absence of effective infection control strategies in healthcare facilities. Government, therefore, is looking for cost effective strategies that are effective against HAIs. One possible method is by application of an antimicrobial finish on the uniform. But there are limited studies to show the effect of antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial finish treated nurses’ uniforms in a real hospital set up. This paper proposes a prospective non-destructive sampling technique, based on the use of a detachable fabric patch, to assess the effectiveness of silver based antimicrobial agent across five wards in a tertiary care government hospital in Delhi, India. Fabrics like polyester and polyester cotton blend fabric which are more prevalent for making coats were selected for the study. Polyester and polyester cotton blend fabric was treated with silver based antimicrobial (AM) finish. At the beginning of shift, a composite patch of untreated and treated fabric respectively was stitched on the abdominal region on the left and right side of the washed white coat of participating nurse. At the end of the shift, the patch was removed and taken for bacterial sampling on Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) plates. Microbial contamination on polyester and blend fabrics after 6 hours shift was compared in Brain Heart Infusion broth (BHI). All patches treated with silver based antimicrobial agent showed decreased bacterial counts. Percent reduction in the bacterial colonies after the antimicrobial treatment in both fabrics was 81.0 %. Antimicrobial finish was equally effective in reducing microbial adhesion on both fabric types. White coats of nurses become progressively contaminated during clinical care. Type of fabric used to make the coat can affect the extent of contamination which is higher on polyester cotton blend as compared to 100% polyester. The study highlights the importance of silver based antimicrobial finish in the area of uniform hygiene. Bacterial load can be reduced by using antimicrobial finish on hospital uniforms. Hospital staff uniforms endowed with antimicrobial properties may be of great help in reducing the occurrence and spread of infections.

Keywords: antimicrobial finish, bacteria, infection control, silver, white coat

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
864 The Design and Analysis of a Novel Type High Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna System for the Satellite Communication

Authors: Shahid M. Ali, Zakiullah

Abstract:

An individual feed, smooth and smart, completely new shaped, dual band microstrip patch antenna has been proposed in this manuscript. Right here three triangular shape slots are usually presented in the 3 edges on the patch and along with a small feed line has utilized another edge on the patch to find out the dual band. The antenna carries a condensed framework wherever patch is around about 8.5mm by means of 7.96mm by means of 1.905mm leading to excellent bandwidths covering 13. 15 GHz to 13. 72 GHz in addition to 16.04 GHz to 16.58GHz. The return loss(RL) decrease in -19. 00dB and will be attained in the first resonant frequency at 13. 61 GHz and -28.69dB is at second resonance frequency at 16.33GHz. The stable average peak gain that may be observed along the operating band in lower and higher frequency is actually three. 53dB in addition to 5.562dB correspondingly. The radiation designs usually are omni directional along with moderate gain within equally most of these functioning bands. Accomplishment is proven within double frequencies at 13.62GHz since downlink in addition to 16.33GHz since uplink. This kind of low and simple configuration of the proposed antenna shows simplest fabrication and make it ensure that it is adaptable for your application within instant in satellite and as well as for the wireless communication system.

Keywords: dual band, microstrip patch antenna, HFSS, Ku band, satellite

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
863 Utilization of Sorghum and White Bean Flour for the Production of Gluten Free and Iron Rich Cookies

Authors: Tahra Elobeid, Emmerich Berghofer

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to find innovative approaches for the production of iron rich foods using natural iron sources. The vehicle used for fortification was sorghum whereas the iron fortificant was white bean. Fortified sorghum cookies were produced from five different mixtures; iron content, iron bioavailability, cookie texture and acceptability were measured. Cookies were prepared from the three fortified flours; 90% sorghum + 10% white bean (S9WB1), 75% sorghum + 25% white bean (S3WB1), 50% sorghum + 50% white bean (S1WB1) and 100% sorghum and 100% white bean. The functional properties gave good results in all the formulations. Statistical analysis of the iron content in the five different cookies showed that there was significant difference at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA). The iron content in all the recipes including the 100% sorghum improved, the increase ranging from 112% in 100% sorghum cookies to 476% in 100% white bean cookies. This shows that the increase in the amount of white bean used for fortification leads to the improvement of the iron content of cookies. The bioavailability of iron ranged from 21.3% in 100% sorghum to 28.6% in 100% white bean cookies. In the 100% sorghum cookies the iron bioavailability increased with reference to raw sorghum due to the addition of eggs. Bioavailability of iron in raw sorghum is 16.2%, therefore the percentage increase ranged from 5.1% to 28.6%. The cookies prepared from 10% white bean (S9WB1) scored the lowest 3.7 in terms of acceptability. They were the least preferred due to their somewhat soft texture. The 30% white bean cookies (S3WB1) gave results comparable to the 50% (S1WB1) and 100% white bean cookies. Cookies prepared with high percentage of white bean (50% and 100% white bean) gave the best results. Therefore cookie formulations from sorghum and white bean are successful in improving the iron status of anaemic individuals.

Keywords: sorghum, white bean, iron content, bioavailable iron, cookies

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
862 Iterative White Balance Adjustment Process in Production Line

Authors: Onur Onder, Celal Tanuca, Mahir Ozil, Halil Sen, Alkım Ozkan, Engin Ceylan, Ali Istek, Ozgur Saglam

Abstract:

White balance adjustment of LCD TVs is an important procedure which has a direct influence on quality perception. Existing methods adjust RGB gain and offset values in different white levels during production. This paper suggests an iterative method in which the gamma is pre-adjusted during the design stage, and only 80% white is adjusted during production by modifying only RGB gain values (offset values are not modified). This method reduces the white balance adjustment time, contributing to the total efficiency of the production. Experiment shows that the adjustment results are well within requirements.

Keywords: color temperature, LCD panel deviation, LCD TV manufacturing, white balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
861 A Reconfigurable Microstrip Patch Antenna with Polyphase Filter for Polarization Diversity and Cross Polarization Filtering Operation

Authors: Lakhdar Zaid, Albane Sangiovanni

Abstract:

A reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna with polyphase filter for polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation is presented in this paper. In our approach, a polyphase filter is used to obtain the four 90° phase shift outputs to feed a square microstrip patch antenna. The antenna can be switched between four states of polarization in transmission as well as in receiving mode. Switches are interconnected with the polyphase filter network to produce left-hand circular polarization, right-hand circular polarization, horizontal linear polarization, and vertical linear polarization. Additional advantage of using polyphase filter is its filtering capability for cross polarization filtering in right-hand circular polarization and left-hand circular polarization operation. The theoretical and simulated results demonstrated that polyphase filter is a good candidate to drive microstrip patch antenna to accomplish polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation.

Keywords: active antenna, polarization diversity, patch antenna, polyphase filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
860 Multiband Fractal Patch Antenna for Small Spacecraft of Earth Remote Sensing

Authors: Beibit Karibayev, Akmaral Imanbayeva, Timur Namazbayev

Abstract:

Currently, the small spacecraft (SSC) industry is experiencing a big boom in popularity. This is primarily due to ease of use, low cost and mobility. In addition, these programs can be implemented not only at the state level but also at the level of companies, universities and other organizations. For remote sensing of the Earth (ERS), small spacecraft with an orientation system is used. It is important to take into account here that a remote sensing device, for example, a camera for photographing the Earth's surface, must be directed at the Earth's surface. But this, at first glance, the limitation can be turned into an advantage using a patch antenna. This work proposed to use a patch antenna based on a unidirectional fractal in the SSC. The CST Microwave Studio software package was used for simulation and research. Copper (ε = 1.0) was chosen as the emitting element and reflector. The height of the substrate was 1.6 mm, the type of substrate material was FR-4 (ε = 4.3). The simulation was performed in the frequency range of 0 – 6 GHz. As a result of the research, a patch antenna based on fractal geometry was developed for ERS nanosatellites. The capabilities of these antennas are modeled and investigated. A method for calculating and modeling fractal geometry for patch antennas has been developed.

Keywords: antenna, earth remote sensing, fractal, small spacecraft

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859 Optimal Design of Composite Patch for a Cracked Pipe by Utilizing Genetic Algorithm and Finite Element Method

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Seyed Mohammad Navid Ghoreishi

Abstract:

Composite patching is a common way for reinforcing the cracked pipes and cylinders. The effects of composite patch reinforcement on fracture parameters of a cracked pipe depend on a variety of parameters such as number of layers, angle, thickness, and material of each layer. Therefore, stacking sequence optimization of composite patch becomes crucial for the applications of cracked pipes. In this study, in order to obtain the optimal stacking sequence for a composite patch that has minimum weight and maximum resistance in propagation of cracks, a coupled Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) and Finite Element Method (FEM) process is proposed. This optimization process has done for longitudinal and transverse semi-elliptical cracks and optimal stacking sequences and Pareto’s front for each kind of cracks are presented. The proposed algorithm is validated against collected results from the existing literature.

Keywords: multi objective optimization, pareto front, composite patch, cracked pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
858 Unsteady Similarity Solution for a Slender Dry Patch in a Thin Newtonian Fluid Film

Authors: S. S. Abas, Y. M. Yatim

Abstract:

In this paper the unsteady, slender, symmetric dry patch in an infinitely wide and thin liquid film of Newtonian fluid draining under gravity down an inclined plane in the presence of strong surface-tension effect is considered. A similarity transformation, named a travelling-wave similarity solution is used to reduce the governing partial differential equation into the ordinary differential equation which is then solved numerically using a shooting method. The introduction of surface-tension effect on the flow leads to a fourth-order ordinary differential equation. The solution obtained predicts that the dry patch has a quartic shape and the free surface has a capillary ridge near the contact line which decays in an oscillatory manner far from it.

Keywords: dry patch, Newtonian fluid, similarity solution, surface-tension effect, travelling-wave, unsteady thin-film flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
857 A Low Profile Dual Polarized Slot Coupled Patch Antenna

Authors: Mingde Du, Dong Han

Abstract:

A low profile, dual polarized, slot coupled patch antenna is designed and developed in this paper. The antenna has a measured bandwidth of 17.2% for return loss > 15 dB and pair ports isolation >23 dB. The gain of the antenna is over 10 dBi and the half power beam widths (HPBW) of the antenna are 80±3o in the horizontal plane and 39±2o in the vertical plane. The cross polarization discrimination (XPD) is less than 20 dB in HPBW. Within the operating band, the performances of good impedance match, high ports isolation, low cross polarization, and stable radiation patterns are achieved.

Keywords: dual polarized, patch antenna, slot coupled, base station antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
856 The Effect of Backing Layer on Adhesion Properties of Single Layer Ketoprofen Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Maryam Hamedanlou, Shahla Hajializadeh

Abstract:

The transdermal drug delivery system is one of the types of novel drug delivery system that the drug is absorbed into the skin. The major considerations for designing and producing transdermal patch are small size, suitable drug release and good adhering. In this study, drug-in-adhesive transdermal patch contained non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ketoprofen is prepared. Also, the effect of non-woven fabric and plastic backing layers on adhesion properties is assessed. The results of the test, demonstrated the use of plastic backing layer increases tack and peel rather than non-woven fabric type. The balance tack with plastic backing layer patch is 6.7 (N/mm2), and the fabric one is 3.8 (N/mm2), and their peel is 9.2 (N/25mm) and 8.3 (N/25mm) by arrangement.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery system, single layer patch of ketoprofen, plastic layer, fabric backing layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
855 Liquid Crystal Based Reconfigurable Reflectarray Antenna Design

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with slot embedded patch element configurations within X-band frequency range. The slots are shown to modify the surface current distribution on the patch element of reflectarray which causes the resonant patch element to provide different resonant frequencies depending on the slot dimensions. The simulated results are supported and verified by waveguide scattering parameter measurements of different reflectarray unit cells. Different rectangular slots on patch element have been fabricated and a change in resonant frequency from 10.46GHz to 8.78GHz has been demonstrated as the width of the rectangular slot is varied from 0.2W to 0.6W. The rectangular slot in the center of the patch element has also been utilized for the frequency tunable reflectarray antenna design based on K-15 Nematic LC. For the active reflectarray antenna design, a frequency tunability of 1.2% from 10GHz to 9.88GHz has been demonstrated with a dynamic phase range of 103° provided by the measured scattering parameter results. Time consumed by liquid crystals for reconfiguration, which is one of the drawback of LC based design, has also been disused in this paper.

Keywords: liquid crystal, tunable reflectarray, frequency tunability, dynamic phase range

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854 Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Potential of White and Brown Sesame Seed Oils

Authors: Fatima Bello, Ibrahim Sani

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are the most important sources of life saving drugs for the majority of world’s population. People of all continents have used hundreds to thousands of indigenous plants in curing and management of many diseases. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most widely cultivated species for its nutritious and medicinal seeds and oil. This research was carried out to determine the flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of two varieties of sesame seeds oil. Oil extraction was done using Soxhlet apparatus. The percentage oil yield for white and brown seeds were 47.85% and 20.72%, respectively. Flavonoid was present in both seeds with concentration of 480 mg/g and 360 mg/g in white and brown sesame seeds, respectively. The antioxidant potential was determined at different oil volume; 1.00, 0.75, 0.50 and 0.25ml. The results for the white and brown sesame seed oils were 96.8 and 70.7, 91.0 and 65.2, 83.1 and 55.4, 77.9 and 50.2, respectively. The white seed oil has higher oil yield than the brown seed oil. Likewise, the white seed oil has more flavonoid content than the brown seed oil and also better reducing power than the brown seed oil.

Keywords: antioxidant potential, brown sesame seeds, flavonoid content, sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum L., white sesame seeds

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853 Spectra Analysis in Sunset Color Demonstrations with a White-Color LED as a Light Source

Authors: Makoto Hasegawa, Seika Tokumitsu

Abstract:

Spectra of light beams emitted from white-color LED torches are different from those of conventional electric torches. In order to confirm if white-color LED torches can be used as light sources for popular sunset color demonstrations in spite of such differences, spectra of travelled light beams and scattered light beams with each of a white-color LED torch (composed of a blue LED and yellow-color fluorescent material) and a conventional electric torch as a light source were measured and compared with each other in a 50 cm-long water tank for sunset color demonstration experiments. Suspension liquid was prepared from acryl-emulsion and tap-water in the water tank, and light beams from the white-color LED torch or the conventional electric torch were allowed to travel in this suspension liquid. Sunset-like color was actually observed when the white-color LED torch was used as the light source in sunset color demonstrations. However, the observed colors when viewed with naked eye look slightly different from those obtainable with the conventional electric torch. At the same time, with the white-color LED, changes in colors in short to middle wavelength regions were recognized with careful observations. From those results, white-color LED torches are confirmed to be applicable as light sources in sunset color demonstrations, although certain attentions have to be paid. Further advanced classes will be successfully performed with white-color LED torches as light sources.

Keywords: blue sky demonstration, sunset color demonstration, white LED torch, physics education

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
852 Wavelet Coefficients Based on Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) Based Filtering for Remotely Sensed Images

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Kamaljit Kaur

Abstract:

In recent years, the technology of the remote sensing is growing rapidly. Image enhancement is one of most commonly used of image processing operations. Noise reduction plays very important role in digital image processing and various technologies have been located ahead to reduce the noise of the remote sensing images. The noise reduction using wavelet coefficients based on Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) has less consequences on the edges than available methods but this is not as establish in edge preservation techniques. So in this paper we provide a new technique minimum patch based noise reduction OMP which reduce the noise from an image and used edge preservation patch which preserve the edges of the image and presents the superior results than existing OMP technique. Experimental results show that the proposed minimum patch approach outperforms over existing techniques.

Keywords: image denoising, minimum patch, OMP, WCOMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
851 Multiband Multipolarized Planar Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

Authors: Sanjeeva Reddy, D. Vakula

Abstract:

A single layer, multi-band triangular patch antenna is proposed for WLAN/WiMAX applications with different polarization requirements. This probe feed patch is integrated with arc shaped slit to achieve circular polarized (CP) and linearly polarized (LP) radiation characteristics. The main contribution of antenna is to resonate the frequencies of 2.4 GHz with CP and 3.5 GHz, 5.28 GHz with LP. The design procedure of antenna is described and the performance is validated using measurements. Size of antenna is also reduced and provides stable gain at all resonant frequencies. Proposed structure also provides better enhancement in terms of 10-dB impedance bandwidth, achieved gain of 5.1, 5.6, and 2.9 dBi at respective bands.

Keywords: circular polarization, arc shaped slit, multi band antenna, triangular patch antenna, axial ratio

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850 Examining the Racialisation of White Workers in Rural Louisiana as a Technology of Capitalist Management and Control

Authors: Kendall Artz

Abstract:

In the 1950s, a wave of violent labor unrest shook a small town in south-western Louisiana leading to the racialisation of workers—previously considered white—as ‘mixed-race’ or, in local terms, ‘Redbone.’ This paper examines why the group known as ‘Redbones’ were marked as non-white in relation to strike violence and their opposition to capitalist expansion. Utilising archival research, historiography and oral testimony, I examine how an instance of labor unrest was reinterpreted by local law enforcement, an interstate capitalist class and the national press as calling into question the racial integrity of a group of workers who had been formerly marked as white. This explosive and largely unstudied strike provides an opportunity to better understand how racialisation operates as a technology of control, even over individuals who appear phenotypically white. The strike at Elizabeth allows a glimpse at the tactics of representatives of white supremacy when white workers do not fully embrace the ‘wages of whiteness.

Keywords: American federation of labor, labor history, Louisiana history, wages of whiteness

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849 Carbon Based Wearable Patch Devices for Real-Time Electrocardiography Monitoring

Authors: Hachul Jung, Ahee Kim, Sanghoon Lee, Dahye Kwon, Songwoo Yoon, Jinhee Moon

Abstract:

We fabricated a wearable patch device including novel patch type flexible dry electrode based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and silicone-based elastomer (MED 6215) for real-time ECG monitoring. There are many methods to make flexible conductive polymer by mixing metal or carbon-based nanoparticles. In this study, CNFs are selected for conductive nanoparticles because carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are difficult to disperse uniformly in elastomer compare with CNFs and silver nanowires are relatively high cost and easily oxidized in the air. Wearable patch is composed of 2 parts that dry electrode parts for recording bio signal and sticky patch parts for mounting on the skin. Dry electrode parts were made by vortexer and baking in prepared mold. To optimize electrical performance and diffusion degree of uniformity, we developed unique mixing and baking process. Secondly, sticky patch parts were made by patterning and detaching from smooth surface substrate after spin-coating soft skin adhesive. In this process, attachable and detachable strengths of sticky patch are measured and optimized for them, using a monitoring system. Assembled patch is flexible, stretchable, easily skin mountable and connectable directly with the system. To evaluate the performance of electrical characteristics and ECG (Electrocardiography) recording, wearable patch was tested by changing concentrations of CNFs and thickness of the dry electrode. In these results, the CNF concentration and thickness of dry electrodes were important variables to obtain high-quality ECG signals without incidental distractions. Cytotoxicity test is conducted to prove biocompatibility, and long-term wearing test showed no skin reactions such as itching or erythema. To minimize noises from motion artifacts and line noise, we make the customized wireless, light-weight data acquisition system. Measured ECG Signals from this system are stable and successfully monitored simultaneously. To sum up, we could fully utilize fabricated wearable patch devices for real-time ECG monitoring easily.

Keywords: carbon nanofibers, ECG monitoring, flexible dry electrode, wearable patch

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
848 A Dual Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for WLAN and WiMAX Applications

Authors: P. Krachodnok

Abstract:

In this paper, the design of a multiple U-slotted microstrip patch antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) as a superstrate for WLAN and WiMAX applications is presented. The proposed antenna is designed by using substrate FR4 having permittivity of 4.4 and air substrate. The characteristics of the antenna are designed and evaluated the performance of modelled antenna using CST Microwave studio. The proposed antenna dual resonant frequency has been achieved in the band of 2.37-2.55 GHz and 3.4-3.6 GHz. Because of the impact of FSS superstrate, it is found that the bandwidths have been improved from 6.12% to 7.35 % and 3.7% to 5.7% at resonant frequencies 2.45 GHz and 3.5 GHz, respectively. The maximum gain at the resonant frequency of 2.45 and 3.5 GHz are 9.3 and 11.33 dBi, respectively.

Keywords: multi-slotted antenna, microstrip patch antenna, frequency selective surface, artificial magnetic conduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 274