Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1132

Search results for: budget uncertainty

1132 A Robust Optimization Method for Service Quality Improvement in Health Care Systems under Budget Uncertainty

Authors: H. Ashrafi, S. Ebrahimi, H. Kamalzadeh

Abstract:

With the development of business competition, it is important for healthcare providers to improve their service qualities. In order to improve service quality of a clinic, four important dimensions are defined: tangibles, responsiveness, empathy, and reliability. Moreover, there are several service stages in hospitals such as financial screening and examination. One of the most challenging limitations for improving service quality is budget which impressively affects the service quality. In this paper, we present an approach to address budget uncertainty and provide guidelines for service resource allocation. In this paper, a service quality improvement approach is proposed which can be adopted to multistage service processes to improve service quality, while controlling the costs. A multi-objective function based on the importance of each area and dimension is defined to link operational variables to service quality dimensions. The results demonstrate that our approach is not ultra-conservative and it shows the actual condition very well. Moreover, it is shown that different strategies can affect the number of employees in different stages.

Keywords: allocation, budget uncertainty, healthcare resource, service quality assessment, robust optimization

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1131 Solving One of the Variants of Necktie Paradox for Business Proposals

Authors: Natarajan Vijayarangan, Viswanath Kumar Ganesan, G. Kumudhavalli

Abstract:

This abstract figures out an uncertainty problem pertaining to evaluating business proposals or concept notes in an organisation. Let us consider business proposal evaluation process (BPEP) for execution of corporate research cum business projects in the organisation. Assume that two concept notes X and Y of BPEP are approved: one of them is a full-fledged type (100% financial approval given by the organisation) - X and other one is a conditional type (a partial financial approval given by the organisation) - Y. Then a penalty criteria has been introduced during the process. At the end of annual appraisal, if both of them complete as per the goals and objectives committed or figured out at the time of concept note submission, then both will get an incentive of $N from the organisation. If one of them doesn't fulfill the goals and objectives at the year-end appraisal, then d% reduction or cut will be levied on the project budget for the next year. If X fulfills the goals and objectives and Y doesn't , then X gets a gain of d% on Y's previous year budget and Y gets a loss of d% from the previous year budget for the next year. And vice-versa. Further, an incentive of $N will be given to those who gains. This process is a part of Necktie paradox and inherits an uncertainty principle on X or Y getting more than $N even if X or Y performs well.Solving the above problem and generalizing on finitely many concept notes will be a challenging task.

Keywords: concept notes, necktie paradox, annual appraisal, project budget and gain or loss

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1130 Mind Your Product-Market Strategy on Selecting Marketing Inputs: An Uncertainty Approach in Indian Context

Authors: Susmita Ghosh, Bhaskar Bhowmick

Abstract:

Market is an important factor for start-ups to look into during decision-making in product development and related areas. Emerging country markets are more uncertain in terms of information availability and institutional supports. The literature review of market uncertainty reveals the need for identifying factors representing the market uncertainty. This paper identifies factors for market uncertainty using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and confirms the number of factor retention using an alternative factor retention criterion, ‘Parallel Analysis’. 500 entrepreneurs, engaged in start-ups from all over India participated in the study. This paper concludes with the factor structure of ‘market uncertainty’ having dimensions of uncertainty in industry orientation, uncertainty in customer orientation and uncertainty in marketing orientation.

Keywords: uncertainty, market, orientation, competitor, demand

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1129 Development of Construction Cost Optimization System Using Genetic Algorithm Method

Authors: Hyeon-Seung Kim, Young-Hwan Kim, Sang-Mi Park, Min-Seo Kim, Jong-Myeung Shin, Leen-Seok Kang

Abstract:

The project budget at the planned stage might be changed by the insufficient government budget or the design change. There are many cases more especially in the case of a project performed for a long period of time. If the actual construction budget is insufficient comparing with the planned budget, the construction schedule should also be changed to match the changed budget. In that case, most project managers change the planned construction schedule by a heuristic approach without a reasonable consideration on the work priority. This study suggests an optimized methodology to modify the construction schedule according to the changed budget. The genetic algorithm was used to optimize the modified construction schedule within the changed budget. And a simulation system of construction cost histogram in accordance with the construction schedule was developed in the BIM (Building Information Modeling) environment.

Keywords: 5D, BIM, GA, cost optimization

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1128 An Empirical Diagnosis of the Maladies and Therapies of Budgeting in Nigeria

Authors: Ben-Caleb Egbide, Omolehinwa O. Eddy, Adeyemi S. Keyinde, Eriabie Sylvester, Ojeka Stephen

Abstract:

The national budget remains an integral part of the developmental plan of the economy of any country. The budget reflects the fundamental values underlying the government’s economic policies and objectives and whose execution is expected to realize national/public desires. In Nigeria, over three decades budget had failed to deliver the desired benefits, suggesting the existence of infractions, which are yet to be empirically ascertained. This paper attempts a diagnosis of the infractions peculiar to Nigeria budgetary system and their suggested panacea. Data were collected through the administration of questionnaire to a cross section of organizations/institutions representing government agencies and the general public. Mann-Whitney U test was employed to gauge the consistency in perception of the two groups. The result revealed that budget indiscipline, official corruption, allocative inefficiency and poor budget governance are the most influential infractions of budgeting in Nigeria. Consequently, it was suggested that budget transparency, target budgeting, zero tolerance on corruption and budget discipline are the most cogent therapies to the malfunctioning in Nigerian budgetary system.

Keywords: budgeting, budget maladies, budget therapies, Nigeria

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1127 The Budget Profile of the Municipality of AtaleIa-MG in the Context of the Micro-Region of Teofilo Otoni in Brazil

Authors: Jeferson Gomes Dos Santos, Mirelle Cristina De Abreu Quintela

Abstract:

Considering that after the 1988 Constitution, in Brazil, municipalities have acquired new roles in the face of a financial reality that jeopardizes more substantial actions, the Public Budget is essential for the establishment of guidelines for action, within each budgetary reality. Within this, the present work sought to understand the budget profile of the mining municipality of Ataleia, with a view to identifying its budget composition, in relation to the main sources of revenue and expenditure. To achieve the purposes of the study, information was collected on the municipality's finances, from the years 2000 to 2016, visualizing the progress of its revenues in terms of funding and origin, and expenses in terms of nature and purpose. It was evidenced that the municipality, having its budget revenue in the period, still shows great dependence on intergovernmental transfers, as the own collection was relatively low. The budget expenditure of the period was mainly influenced by social expenditures, but it must be said that the municipality complied with the limits of spending, minimum and maximum, established by law.

Keywords: expenses, municipal budget, planning, revenue

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1126 Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Technological Change in Armed Forces: Indonesian Case

Authors: Citra Pertiwi, Muhammad Fikruzzaman Rahawarin

Abstract:

Government of Indonesia had committed to increasing its national defense the budget up to 1,5 percent of GDP. However, the budget increase does not necessarily allocate efficiently and effectively. Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the operational units of Indonesian Armed Forces are considered as a proxy to measure those two aspects. The bootstrap technique is being used as well to reduce uncertainty in the estimation. Additionally, technological change is being measured as a nonstationary component. Nearly half of the units are being estimated as fully efficient, with less than a third is considered as effective. Longer and larger sets of data might increase the robustness of the estimation in the future.

Keywords: bootstrap, effectiveness, efficiency, DEA, military, Malmquist, technological change

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1125 Extended Kalman Filter and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method for Uncertainty Estimation: Application to X-Ray Fluorescence Machine Calibration and Metal Testing

Authors: S. Bouhouche, R. Drai, J. Bast

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with a method for uncertainty evaluation of steel sample content using X-Ray Fluorescence method. The considered method of analysis is a comparative technique based on the X-Ray Fluorescence; the calibration step assumes the adequate chemical composition of metallic analyzed sample. It is proposed in this work a new combined approach using the Kalman Filter and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for uncertainty estimation of steel content analysis. The Kalman filter algorithm is extended to the model identification of the chemical analysis process using the main factors affecting the analysis results; in this case, the estimated states are reduced to the model parameters. The MCMC is a stochastic method that computes the statistical properties of the considered states such as the probability distribution function (PDF) according to the initial state and the target distribution using Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Conventional approach is based on the linear correlation, the uncertainty budget is established for steel Mn(wt%), Cr(wt%), Ni(wt%) and Mo(wt%) content respectively. A comparative study between the conventional procedure and the proposed method is given. This kind of approaches is applied for constructing an accurate computing procedure of uncertainty measurement.

Keywords: Kalman filter, Markov chain Monte Carlo, x-ray fluorescence calibration and testing, steel content measurement, uncertainty measurement

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1124 State Budget Accounting: Factors Affected and Basic Orientation to Vietnamese Public Sector Entities

Authors: Pham Quang Huy

Abstract:

State budget is considered as an effective tool for controlling, adjusting and regulating the market economy of any countries. To ensure that the activities of the state in the fields of politics, economy and society has been efficiency, it requires major sources of certain budget. These financial funds are formed from tax revenues and tax revenues beyond. Therefore, the Governments need to have an accounting regime to manage the receipt, expenditure which are suitable for recording a full range of items. From that, it can help to increase the transparency and accountability in budget system. One of the main requirements in Vietnamese policies is to improve that accounting system of revenues and expenditures which can provide many reports to meet the information required of government and users, as well as directions to the trends of international standards requirements. By using quantitative research methods and analytical models to exploring factors, the main purpose of this article is to identify the factors affecting budget accounting and providing some direction for Vietnamese public sector in the future. The results indicated that Vietnam budget accounting has been impacted by seven factors and aims to implement three main orientations in the public sector units.

Keywords: state budget, accounting, IPSAS, budget management, government, public sector

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1123 Tax Expenditures: A Review and Analysis

Authors: Khalid Javed

Abstract:

This study examines a feature of the budget process called the tax expenditure budget. The tax expenditure concept relies heavily on a normative notion that shielding certain. Taxpayer income from taxation deprives government of its rightful revenues. This view is inconsistent with the proposition that income belongs to the taxpayers and that tax liability is determined through the democratic process, not through arbitrary, bureaucratic Assumptions. Furthermore, the methodology of the tax expenditure budget is problematic as its expansive tax base treats the multiple taxation of saving as the norm. By using an expansive view of income as the underlying assumption of the tax expenditure concept, this viewpoint institutionalizes a particular bias into the decision-making process.

Keywords: revenue, expenditure, tax budget, propostion

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1122 Consideration of Uncertainty in Engineering

Authors: A. Mohammadi, M. Moghimi, S. Mohammadi

Abstract:

Engineers need computational methods which could provide solutions less sensitive to the environmental effects, so the techniques should be used which take the uncertainty to account to control and minimize the risk associated with design and operation. In order to consider uncertainty in engineering problem, the optimization problem should be solved for a suitable range of the each uncertain input variable instead of just one estimated point. Using deterministic optimization problem, a large computational burden is required to consider every possible and probable combination of uncertain input variables. Several methods have been reported in the literature to deal with problems under uncertainty. In this paper, different methods presented and analyzed.

Keywords: uncertainty, Monte Carlo simulated, stochastic programming, scenario method

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1121 Donoho-Stark’s and Hardy’s Uncertainty Principles for the Short-Time Quaternion Offset Linear Canonical Transform

Authors: Mohammad Younus Bhat

Abstract:

The quaternion offset linear canonical transform (QOLCT), which isa time-shifted and frequency-modulated version of the quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT), provides a more general framework of most existing signal processing tools. For the generalized QOLCT, the classical Heisenberg’s and Lieb’s uncertainty principles have been studied recently. In this paper, we first define the short-time quaternion offset linear canonical transform (ST-QOLCT) and drive its relationship with the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT). The crux of the paper lies in the generalization of several well-known uncertainty principles for the ST-QOLCT, including Donoho-Stark’s uncertainty principle, Hardy’s uncertainty principle, Beurling’s uncertainty principle, and the logarithmic uncertainty principle.

Keywords: Quaternion Fourier transform, Quaternion offset linear canonical transform, short-time quaternion offset linear canonical transform, uncertainty principle

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1120 A Probability Analysis of Construction Project Schedule Using Risk Management Tool

Authors: A. L. Agarwal, D. A. Mahajan

Abstract:

Construction industry tumbled along with other industry/sectors during recent economic crash. Construction business could not regain thereafter and still pass through slowdown phase, resulted many real estate as well as infrastructure projects not completed on schedule and within budget. There are many theories, tools, techniques with software packages available in the market to analyze construction schedule. This study focuses on the construction project schedule and uncertainties associated with construction activities. The infrastructure construction project has been considered for the analysis of uncertainty on project activities affecting project duration and analysis is done using @RISK software. Different simulation results arising from three probability distribution functions are compiled to benefit construction project managers to plan more realistic schedule of various construction activities as well as project completion to document in the contract and avoid compensations or claims arising out of missing the planned schedule.

Keywords: construction project, distributions, project schedule, uncertainty

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1119 Inter Laboratory Comparison with Coordinate Measuring Machine and Uncertainty Analysis

Authors: Tugrul Torun, Ihsan A. Yuksel, Si̇nem On Aktan, Taha K. Vezi̇roglu

Abstract:

In the quality control processes in some industries, the usage of CMM has increased in recent years. Consequently, the CMMs play important roles in the acceptance or rejection of manufactured parts. For parts, it’s important to be able to make decisions by performing fast measurements. According to related technical drawing and its tolerances, measurement uncertainty should also be considered during assessment. Since uncertainty calculation is difficult and time-consuming, most companies ignore the uncertainty value in their routine inspection method. Although studies on measurement uncertainty have been carried out on CMM’s in recent years, there is still no applicable method for analyzing task-specific measurement uncertainty. There are some standard series for calculating measurement uncertainty (ISO-15530); it is not possible to use it in industrial measurement because it is not a practical method for standard measurement routine. In this study, the inter-laboratory comparison test has been carried out in the ROKETSAN A.Ş. with all dimensional inspection units. The reference part that we used is traceable to the national metrology institute TUBİTAK UME. Each unit has measured reference parts according to related technical drawings, and the task-specific measuring uncertainty has been calculated with related parameters. According to measurement results and uncertainty values, the En values have been calculated.

Keywords: coordinate measurement, CMM, comparison, uncertainty

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1118 Government of Ghana’s Budget: An Assessment of Its Compliance with Fundamental Budgeting Principles

Authors: Mohammed Sani Abdulai

Abstract:

Public sector budgeting, all over the world, is underpinned by some universally accepted principles of sound budget management such as budget unity, universality, annuality, and a balanced budget. These traditional principles, though fundamental, had, in recent years, been augmented by the more modern principles of budgeting within fiscal objective, alignment with medium-term strategic plans as well as the observance of such related concepts as transparency, openness and accessibility. In this paper, we have endeavored to shed light, from literature and practice, on the meaning and purposes of such fundamental budgeting principles. We have also assessed the extent to which the Government of Ghana’s budget complies with the four traditional principles of budget unity, universality, annuality, and a balanced budget and the three out of the ten modern principles of budgetary governance of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We did so by using a qualitative method of review and analysis of existing documents and the performance assessment reports on Ghana’s Public Financial Management (PFM) measured using such frameworks as the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA), the Open Budget Survey (OBS) and its Index (OBI), the reports and action plans of Open Government Partnership (OGP) and the Global Initiative for Fiscal Transparency (GIFT). Other performance assessment reports that were relied on included, but not limited to, the Joint Evaluation Report of PFM in Ghana, 2001-2010, and the Joint Evaluation of Budget Support to Ghana, 2005-2015. We have, through this paper, brought to the fore the lessons that could be learned on how those budgetary principles undergird the Government of Ghana’s budget formulation, execution, accounting, control, and oversight. These lessons include, but are not limited to, the need for both scholars and practitioners in the PFM space to be aware of the impact of those principles on public sector budgeting.

Keywords: annulaity, balanced budget, budget unity, budgetary principles, OECD’s principles on budgetary governance, open budget index, public expenditure and financial accountability, universality

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1117 Statistical Classification, Downscaling and Uncertainty Assessment for Global Climate Model Outputs

Authors: Queen Suraajini Rajendran, Sai Hung Cheung

Abstract:

Statistical down scaling models are required to connect the global climate model outputs and the local weather variables for climate change impact prediction. For reliable climate change impact studies, the uncertainty associated with the model including natural variability, uncertainty in the climate model(s), down scaling model, model inadequacy and in the predicted results should be quantified appropriately. In this work, a new approach is developed by the authors for statistical classification, statistical down scaling and uncertainty assessment and is applied to Singapore rainfall. It is a robust Bayesian uncertainty analysis methodology and tools based on coupling dependent modeling error with classification and statistical down scaling models in a way that the dependency among modeling errors will impact the results of both classification and statistical down scaling model calibration and uncertainty analysis for future prediction. Singapore data are considered here and the uncertainty and prediction results are obtained. From the results obtained, directions of research for improvement are briefly presented.

Keywords: statistical downscaling, global climate model, climate change, uncertainty

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1116 Epistemic Uncertainty Analysis of Queue with Vacations

Authors: Baya Takhedmit, Karim Abbas, Sofiane Ouazine

Abstract:

The vacations queues are often employed to model many real situations such as computer systems, communication networks, manufacturing and production systems, transportation systems and so forth. These queueing models are solved at fixed parameters values. However, the parameter values themselves are determined from a finite number of observations and hence have uncertainty associated with them (epistemic uncertainty). In this paper, we consider the M/G/1/N queue with server vacation and exhaustive discipline where we assume that the vacation parameter values have uncertainty. We use the Taylor series expansions approach to estimate the expectation and variance of model output, due to epistemic uncertainties in the model input parameters.

Keywords: epistemic uncertainty, M/G/1/N queue with vacations, non-parametric sensitivity analysis, Taylor series expansion

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1115 Uncertainty in Risk Modeling

Authors: Mueller Jann, Hoffmann Christian Hugo

Abstract:

Conventional quantitative risk management in banking is a risk factor of its own, because it rests on assumptions such as independence and availability of data which do not hold when rare events of extreme consequences are involved. There is a growing recognition of the need for alternative risk measures that do not make these assumptions. We propose a novel method for modeling the risk associated with investment products, in particular derivatives, by using a formal language for specifying financial contracts. Expressions in this language are interpreted in the category of values annotated with (a formal representation of) uncertainty. The choice of uncertainty formalism thus becomes a parameter of the model, so it can be adapted to the particular application and it is not constrained to classical probabilities. We demonstrate our approach using a simple logic-based uncertainty model and a case study in which we assess the risk of counter party default in a portfolio of collateralized loans.

Keywords: risk model, uncertainty monad, derivatives, contract algebra

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1114 Analysis of Casting Call Process in Thai Film Industry

Authors: Panprae Bunyapukkna

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to analyze the process that most of the Thai film industries commonly use in order to find the right cast to play the role. The result proved that most of the low-budget film productions find the cast by asking from the crew’s friends or friend of friend. Therefore, finding the cast in low-budget film productions normally has only few people shown up for the auditions and sometimes either none of them has acting knowledge or their appearances do not match the character. However, since most of the low-budget film productions do not have much ability to find members of the cast, thus some of them still will be selected. On the other hand, most of the high-budget film productions use modeling companies to find the cast for them. However, most of modeling agencies in Thailand seek and select their cast members from the cast’s appearances or talents rather than the knowledge of acting.

Keywords: casting for film, modeling business, acting, film, performing arts, film business

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1113 Estimation of Uncertainty of Thermal Conductivity Measurement with Single Laboratory Validation Approach

Authors: Saowaluck Ukrisdawithid

Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of thermal insulation materials are measured by Heat Flow Meter (HFM) apparatus. The components of uncertainty are complex and difficult on routine measurement by modelling approach. In this study, uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement was estimated by single laboratory validation approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.1%. The standard uncertainty of method and laboratory bias by using SRM1453 expanded polystyrene board was dominant at 1.4%. However, it was assessed that there was no significant bias. For sample measurement, the sources of uncertainty were repeatability, density of sample and thermal conductivity resolution of HFM. From this approach to sample measurements, the combined uncertainty was calculated. In summary, the thermal conductivity of sample, polystyrene foam, was reported as 0.03367 W/m·K ± 3.5% (k = 2) at mean temperature 23.5 °C. The single laboratory validation approach is simple key of routine testing laboratory for estimation uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement by using HFM, according to ISO/IEC 17025-2017 requirements. These are meaningful for laboratory competent improvement, quality control on products, and conformity assessment.

Keywords: single laboratory validation approach, within-laboratory reproducibility, method and laboratory bias, certified reference material

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1112 The Effect of Political Characteristics on the Budget Balance of Local Governments: A Dynamic System Generalized Method of Moments Data Approach

Authors: Stefanie M. Vanneste, Stijn Goeminne

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of political characteristics of 308 Flemish municipalities on their budget balance in the period 1995-2011. All local governments experience the same economic and financial setting, however some governments have high budget balances, while others have low budget balances. The aim of this paper is to explain the differences in municipal budget balances by a number of economic, socio-demographic and political variables. The economic and socio-demographic variables will be used as control variables, while the focus of this paper will be on the political variables. We test four hypotheses resulting from the literature, namely (i) the partisan hypothesis tests if left wing governments have lower budget balances, (ii) the fragmentation hypothesis stating that more fragmented governments have lower budget balances, (iii) the hypothesis regarding the power of the government, higher powered governments would resolve in higher budget balances, and (iv) the opportunistic budget cycle to test whether politicians manipulate the economic situation before elections in order to maximize their reelection possibilities and therefore have lower budget balances before elections. The contributions of our paper to the existing literature are multiple. First, we use the whole array of political variables and not just a selection of them. Second, we are dealing with a homogeneous database with the same budget and election rules, making it easier to focus on the political factors without having to control for the impact of differences in the political systems. Third, our research extends the existing literature on Flemish municipalities as this is the first dynamic research on local budget balances. We use a dynamic panel data model. Because of the two lagged dependent variables as explanatory variables, we employ the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator. This is the best possible estimator as we are dealing with political panel data that is rather persistent. Our empirical results show that the effect of the ideological position and the power of the coalition are of less importance to explain the budget balance. The political fragmentation of the government on the other hand has a negative and significant effect on the budget balance. The more parties in a coalition the worse the budget balance is ceteris paribus. Our results also provide evidence of an opportunistic budget cycle, the budget balances are lower in pre-election years relative to the other years to try and increase the incumbents reelection possibilities. An additional finding is that the incremental effect of the budget balance is very important and should not be ignored like is being done in a lot of empirical research. The coefficients of the lagged dependent variables are always positive and very significant. This proves that the budget balance is subject to incrementalism. It is not possible to change the entire policy from one year to another so the actions taken in recent past years still have an impact on the current budget balance. Only a relatively small amount of research concerning the budget balance takes this considerable incremental effect into account. Our findings survive several robustness checks.

Keywords: budget balance, fragmentation, ideology, incrementalism, municipalities, opportunistic budget cycle, panel data, political characteristics, power, system GMM

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1111 The European Research and Development Project Improved Nuclear Site Characterization for Waste Minimization in Decommissioning under Constrained Environment: Focus on Performance Analysis and Overall Uncertainty

Authors: M. Crozet, D. Roudil, T. Branger, S. Boden, P. Peerani, B. Russell, M. Herranz, L. Aldave de la Heras

Abstract:

The EURATOM work program project INSIDER (Improved Nuclear Site Characterization for Waste minimization in Decommissioning under Constrained Environment) was launched in June 2017. This 4-year project has 18 partners and aims at improving the management of contaminated materials arising from decommissioning and dismantling (D&D) operations by proposing an integrated methodology of characterization. This methodology is based on advanced statistical processing and modelling, coupled with adapted and innovative analytical and measurement methods, with respect to sustainability and economic objectives. In order to achieve these objectives, the approaches will be then applied to common case studies in the form of Inter-laboratory comparisons on matrix representative reference samples and benchmarking. Work Package 6 (WP6) ‘Performance analysis and overall uncertainty’ is in charge of the analysis of the benchmarking on real samples, the organisation of inter-laboratory comparison on synthetic certified reference materials and the establishment of overall uncertainty budget. Assessment of the outcome will be used for providing recommendations and guidance resulting in pre-standardization tests.

Keywords: decommissioning, sampling strategy, research and development, characterization, European project

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1110 The Role of the State Budget: An Evaluation of Public Expenditures and Taxes in Turkey

Authors: Erdal Eroğlu, Özhan Çetinkaya

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to show how state plays a regulatory role in the relations of distribution by analyzing tax and expenditure in Turkey. This paper has two main arguments. First, state intervenes in economic and social life via budget policies and steers the relations of distribution within the scope of the reproduction of the capital accumulation and legitimacy. Secondly, a great amount of public expenditure benefits capital owners while state gains its tax income mainly from low and middle income groups.

Keywords: distribution, public expenditure, state budget, taxes

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1109 Twin Deficits Hypothesis: The Case of Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Mucuk, Ayşen Edirneligil

Abstract:

Budget and current account deficits are main problems for all countries. There are different approaches about the relationship between budget deficit and current account deficit. While Keynesian view accepts that there is a casual link between these variables, Ricardian equivalence hypothesis rejects it. The aim of this study is to analyze the validity of Keynesian view for Turkish Economy using VAR analysis with the monthly data in the period of 2006-2014. In this context, it will be used Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse-Response Function and Variance Decomposition Tests.

Keywords: budget deficit, current account deficit, Turkish economy, twin deficits

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1108 Management of Therapeutic Anticancer at Oran Teaching Hospital, Algeria

Authors: S. Boulenouar, M. Sefir, M. Benahmed

Abstract:

All facilities need medication and other pharmaceuticals for their operation. Management and supply is therefore to provide the different services of the facility goods and services in required quantity and quality. The permanent availability of drugs in the facilities is very difficult because most face many difficulties at the inventory management and drug supplies. Therefore, it is necessary for each health facility to know the causes for the malfunction of its management system to cope with them. It is in this context that we have undertaken to conduct this study to know the causes which should be taken into consideration by the concerned authorities to carry out their mission, which is to provide quality health care for the population. In terms of financial resources, the budget for medicines represents a significant part of the budget of the pharmacy. Our study shows that the share of the hospital budget reserved for the drugs procurement represent on average 70% of the budget of the pharmacy. The results show a state of lack of anticancer drugs at Oran teaching hospital. The analysis of the management process allowed us to know the level that the problem of stock-outs of anti-cancer drugs is at. Suggestions were made to that effect to improve the availability for these products and to respond better to the needs of patients.

Keywords: anticancer drugs, health care facility, budget, hospital pharmacist, hospital service

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1107 Airport Investment Risk Assessment under Uncertainty

Authors: Elena M. Capitanul, Carlos A. Nunes Cosenza, Walid El Moudani, Felix Mora Camino

Abstract:

The construction of a new airport or the extension of an existing one requires massive investments and many times public private partnerships were considered in order to make feasible such projects. One characteristic of these projects is uncertainty with respect to financial and environmental impacts on the medium to long term. Another one is the multistage nature of these types of projects. While many airport development projects have been a success, some others have turned into a nightmare for their promoters. This communication puts forward a new approach for airport investment risk assessment. The approach takes explicitly into account the degree of uncertainty in activity levels prediction and proposes milestones for the different stages of the project for minimizing risk. Uncertainty is represented through fuzzy dual theory and risk management is performed using dynamic programming. An illustration of the proposed approach is provided.

Keywords: airports, fuzzy logic, risk, uncertainty

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1106 Energy Budget Equation of Superfluid HVBK Model: LES Simulation

Authors: M. Bakhtaoui, L. Merahi

Abstract:

The reliability of the filtered HVBK model is now investigated via some large eddy simulations of freely decaying isotropic superfluid turbulence. For homogeneous turbulence at very high Reynolds numbers, comparison of the terms in the spectral kinetic energy budget equation indicates, in the energy-containing range, that the production and energy transfer effects become significant except for dissipation. In the inertial range, where the two fluids are perfectly locked, the mutual friction maybe neglected with respect to other terms. Also the LES results for the other terms of the energy balance are presented.

Keywords: superfluid turbulence, HVBK, energy budget, Large Eddy Simulation

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1105 Decision Making Approach through Generalized Fuzzy Entropy Measure

Authors: H. D. Arora, Anjali Dhiman

Abstract:

Uncertainty is found everywhere and its understanding is central to decision making. Uncertainty emerges as one has less information than the total information required describing a system and its environment. Uncertainty and information are so closely associated that the information provided by an experiment for example, is equal to the amount of uncertainty removed. It may be pertinent to point out that uncertainty manifests itself in several forms and various kinds of uncertainties may arise from random fluctuations, incomplete information, imprecise perception, vagueness etc. For instance, one encounters uncertainty due to vagueness in communication through natural language. Uncertainty in this sense is represented by fuzziness resulting from imprecision of meaning of a concept expressed by linguistic terms. Fuzzy set concept provides an appropriate mathematical framework for dealing with the vagueness. Both information theory, proposed by Shannon (1948) and fuzzy set theory given by Zadeh (1965) plays an important role in human intelligence and various practical problems such as image segmentation, medical diagnosis etc. Numerous approaches and theories dealing with inaccuracy and uncertainty have been proposed by different researcher. In the present communication, we generalize fuzzy entropy proposed by De Luca and Termini (1972) corresponding to Shannon entropy(1948). Further, some of the basic properties of the proposed measure were examined. We also applied the proposed measure to the real life decision making problem.

Keywords: entropy, fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, generalized fuzzy entropy, decision making

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1104 Establishment of the Regression Uncertainty of the Critical Heat Flux Power Correlation for an Advanced Fuel Bundle

Authors: L. Q. Yuan, J. Yang, A. Siddiqui

Abstract:

A new regression uncertainty analysis methodology was applied to determine the uncertainties of the critical heat flux (CHF) power correlation for an advanced 43-element bundle design, which was developed by Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) to achieve improved economics, resource utilization and energy sustainability. The new methodology is considered more appropriate than the traditional methodology in the assessment of the experimental uncertainty associated with regressions. The methodology was first assessed using both the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) and the Taylor Series Method (TSM) for a simple linear regression model, and then extended successfully to a non-linear CHF power regression model (CHF power as a function of inlet temperature, outlet pressure and mass flow rate). The regression uncertainty assessed by MCM agrees well with that by TSM. An equation to evaluate the CHF power regression uncertainty was developed and expressed as a function of independent variables that determine the CHF power.

Keywords: CHF experiment, CHF correlation, regression uncertainty, Monte Carlo Method, Taylor Series Method

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1103 Decision Making under Strict Uncertainty: Case Study in Sewer Network Planning

Authors: Zhen Wu, David Lupien St-Pierre, Georges Abdul-Nour

Abstract:

In decision making under strict uncertainty, decision makers have to choose a decision without any information about the states of nature. The classic criteria of Laplace, Wald, Savage, Hurwicz and Starr are introduced and compared in a case study of sewer network planning. Furthermore, results from different criteria are discussed and analyzed. Moreover, this paper discusses the idea that decision making under strict uncertainty (DMUSU) can be viewed as a two-player game and thus be solved by a solution concept in game theory: Nash equilibrium.

Keywords: decision criteria, decision making, sewer network planning, decision making, strict uncertainty

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