Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5477

Search results for: emerging countries

5477 Volatility Transmission between Oil Price and Stock Return of Emerging and Developed Countries

Authors: Algia Hammami, Abdelfatteh Bouri

Abstract:

In this work, our objective is to study the transmission of volatility between oil and stock markets in developed (USA, Germany, Italy, France and Japan) and emerging countries (Tunisia, Thailand, Brazil, Argentina, and Jordan) for the period 1998-2015. Our methodology consists of analyzing the monthly data by the GARCH-BEKK model to capture the effect in terms of volatility in the variation of the oil price on the different stock market. The empirical results in the emerging countries indicate that the relationships are unidirectional from the stock market to the oil market. For the developed countries, we find that the transmission of volatility is unidirectional from the oil market to stock market. For the USA and Italy, we find no transmission between the two markets. The transmission is bi-directional only in Thailand. Following our estimates, we also noticed that the emerging countries influence almost the same extent as the developed countries, while at the transmission of volatility there a bid difference. The GARCH-BEKK model is more effective than the others versions to minimize the risk of an oil-stock portfolio.

Keywords: GARCH, oil prices, stock market, volatility transmission

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5476 Time Variance and Spillover Effects between International Crude Oil Price and Ten Emerging Equity Markets

Authors: Murad A. Bein

Abstract:

This paper empirically examines the time-varying relationship and spillover effects between the international crude oil price and ten emerging equity markets, namely three oil-exporting countries (Brazil, Mexico, and Russia) and seven Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia). The results revealed that there are spillover effects from oil markets into almost all emerging equity markets save Slovakia. Besides, the oil supply glut had a homogenous effect on the emerging markets, both net oil-exporting, and oil-importing countries (CEE). Further, the time variance drastically increased during financial turmoil. Indeed, the time variance remained high from 2009 to 2012 in response to aggregate demand shocks (global financial crisis and Eurozone debt crisis) and quantitative easing measures. Interestingly, the time variance was slightly higher for the oil-exporting countries than for some of the CEE countries. Decision-makers in emerging economies should therefore seek policy coordination when dealing with financial turmoil.

Keywords: crude oil, spillover effects, emerging equity, time-varying, aggregate demand shock

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5475 University-Industry Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Offices in Emerging Economies

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to get insight on the nature of university-industry technology transfer (UITT) and technology transfer offices (TTOs) activity at universities in the case of emerging economies. In relation to the process of transferring knowledge/technology in the case of emerging economies, knowledge/technology transfer in these economies are more reactive than in developed economies due to differences in maturity of technologies. It is assumed in this paper that knowledge/technology transfer is a complex phenomenon, and thus the paper contributes to get insight on the nature of UITT and TTOs creation in the case of emerging economies by using a system dynamics model of knowledge/technology transfer in these countries. The paper recognizes the differences between industrialized countries and emerging economies on these phenomena.

Keywords: university-industry technology transfer, technology transfer offices, technology transfer models, emerging economies

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5474 Stock Market Integration of Emerging Markets around the Global Financial Crisis: Trends and Explanatory Factors

Authors: Najlae Bendou, Jean-Jacques Lilti, Khalid Elbadraoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we examine stock market integration of emerging markets around the global financial turmoil of 2007-2008. Following Pukthuanthong and Roll (2009), we measure the integration of 46 emerging countries using the adjusted R-square from the regression of each country's daily index returns on global factors extracted from the covariance matrix computed using dollar-denominated daily index returns of 17 developed countries. Our sample surrounds the global financial crisis and ranges between 2000 and 2018. We analyze results using four cohorts of emerging countries: East Asia & Pacific and South Asia, Europe & Central Asia, Latin America & Caribbean, Middle East & Africa. We find that the level of integration of emerging countries increases at the commencement of the crisis and during the booming phase of the business cycles. It reaches a maximum point in the middle of the crisis and then tends to revert to its pre-crisis level. This pattern tends to be common among the four geographic zones investigated in this study. Finally, we investigate the determinants of stock market integration of emerging countries in our sample using panel regressions. Our results suggest that the degree of stock market integration of these countries should be put into perspective by some macro-economic factors, such as the size of the equity market, school enrollment rate, international liquidity level, stocks traded volume, tax revenue level, imports and exports volumes.

Keywords: correlations, determinants of integration, diversification, emerging markets, financial crisis, integration, markets co-movement, panel regressions, r-square, stock markets

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5473 Role of Digital Economy in the Emerging Countries Like Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Fagge Muhammad

Abstract:

The digital economy is fast becoming the most innovative and widest reaching economy in the world, especially in developing countries. The paper aimed at examining role of digital economy in the emerging countries like Nigeria. The methodology used in the study is Business Model Perspective: lying between the process and structural perspectives, bring in the idea of the new business models that are being enabled e.g. e-business or e-commerce. The paper concluded that, the policy objectives and measures, and processes and structures necessary to enhance digital economy growth and its contribution to socio-economic development. The finding reveals that, digital infrastructure is in part incomplete, costly and poorly-performing in emerging economies like Nigeria. The wider digital ecosystem suffers a shortfall in human capabilities, weak financing, and poor governance. It is also found that, Growth in the digital economy is exacerbating digital exclusion, inequality, adverse incorporation and other digital harms. It is recommended that, government in partnership with private sector should build strong local infrastructure to enable broadband availability and accessibility and to create an enabling environment for strong competition in the telecom and technology ecosystem.

Keywords: Digital Economy, Emerging Countries, Business Model , Nigeria

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5472 Impact of Reverse Technology Transfer on Innovation Capabilities: An Econometric Analysis for Mexican Transnational Corporations

Authors: Lissette Alejandra Lara, Mario Gomez, Jose Carlos Rodriguez

Abstract:

ransnational corporations (TNCs) as units in which it is possible technology and knowledge transfer across borders and the potential for generating innovation and contributing in economic development both in home and host countries have been widely acknowledged in the foreign direct investment (FDI) literature. Particularly, the accelerated expansion of emerging countries TNCs in the last decades has guided an uprising research stream that measure the presence of reverse technology transfer, defined as the extent to which emerging countries’ TNCs use outward FDI in a host country through certain mechanisms to absorb and transfer knowledge thus improving its technological capabilities in the home country. The objective of this paper is to test empirically the presence of reverse technology transfer and its impact on the innovation capabilities in Mexican transnational corporations (MXTNCs) as a part of the emerging countries TNCs that have successfully entered to industrialized markets. Using a panel dataset of 22 MXTNCs over the period 1994-2015, the results of the econometric model demonstrate that the amount of Mexican outward FDI and the research and development (R&D) expenditure in host developed countries had a positive impact on the innovation capabilities at the firm and industry level. There is also evidence that management of acquired brands and the organizational structure of Mexican subsidiaries improved these capabilities. Implications for internationalization strategies of emerging countries corporations and future research guidelines are discussed.

Keywords: emerging countries, foreign direct investment, innovation capabilities, Mexican transnational corporations, reverse technology transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
5471 Sensitivity of Credit Default Swaps Premium to Global Risk Factor: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Authors: Oguzhan Cepni, Doruk Kucuksarac, M. Hasan Yilmaz

Abstract:

Risk premium of emerging markets are moving altogether depending on the momentum and shifts in the global risk appetite. However, the magnitudes of these changes in the risk premium of emerging market economies might vary. In this paper, we focus on how global risk factor affects credit default swaps (CDS) premiums of emerging markets using principal component analysis (PCA) and rolling regressions. PCA results indicate that the first common component accounts for almost 76% of common variation in CDS premiums of emerging markets. Additionally, the explanatory power of the first factor seems to be high over sample period. However, the sensitivity to the global risk factor tends to change over time and across countries. In this regard, fixed effects panel regressions are employed to identify the macroeconomic factors driving the heterogeneity across emerging markets. There are two main macroeconomic variables that affect the sensitivity; government debt to GDP and international reserves to GDP. The countries with lower government debt and higher reserves tend to be less subject to the variations in the global risk appetite.

Keywords: emerging markets, principal component analysis, credit default swaps, sovereign risk

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5470 Foreign Direct Investment and Its Impact on the Economic Growth of Emerging Economies: Does Ease of Doing Business Matter?

Authors: Mutaju Marobhe, Pastory Dickson

Abstract:

This study explores the role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in stimulating economic growth of emerging economies. FDIs have been associated with higher economic growth rates in developed countries due to the presence of conducive business conditions e.g. advanced financial markets which may accelerate the rate at which FDI boosts economic growth. So this study sets out to evaluate this macroeconomic phenomenon in emerging economies using the case study of Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) countries. The study uses Ease of Doing Business Index as a variable that moderates the relationship between FDI and economic growth. Panel data ranging from 2010 to 2019 from all SADC members are used and due to the unbalanced nature of the data, fixed effects regression analysis with moderation effect is used to assess this phenomenon. The conclusions and recommendations generated by this study will enable emerging economies to depict how they can be able to significantly improve FDI’s role in accelerating economic growth similarly to developed economies.

Keywords: ease of doing business, economic growth, emerging economies, foreign direct investment

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5469 The Sensitivity of Credit Defaults Swaps Premium to Global Risk Factor: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Authors: Oguzhan Cepni, Doruk Kucuksarac, M. Hasan Yilmaz

Abstract:

Changes in the global risk appetite cause co-movement in emerging market risk premiums. However, the sensitivity of the changes in risk premium to the global risk appetite may vary across emerging markets. In this study, how the global risk appetite affects Credit Default Swap (CDS) premiums in emerging markets are analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and rolling regressions. The PCA results indicate that the first common component derived by the PCA accounts for almost 76 percent of the common variation in CDS premiums. Additionally, the explanatory power of the first factor seems to be high over the sample period. However, the sensitivity to the global risk factor tends to change over time and across countries. In this regard, fixed effects panel regressions are used to identify the macroeconomic factors driving the heterogeneity across emerging markets. The panel regression results point to the significance of government debt to GDP and international reserves to GDP in explaining sensitivity. Accordingly, countries with lower government debt and higher reserves tend to be less subject to the variations in the global risk appetite.

Keywords: credit default swaps, emerging markets, principal components analysis, sovereign risk

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5468 Islamic Financial Services in Africa: Development and Operations of the Big Emerging Markets

Authors: Shamsuddeen Muhammad Ahmad

Abstract:

The emergence and operations of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs) are being regarded as the new economic and financial pride at the global stage today. Admittedly, therefore, the IFIs has continued to impact positively on the economies of its host countries, especially the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region, Asian and Western countries as well as making a steady in-road into the sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the number of countries that adopted Islamic financial system in Africa has continued to increase. As a matter of fact, this paper examines the role and contributions of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs) to the economic growth and financial development of the big emerging markets in the African continent i.e. South Africa, Nigeria, and Egypt. The methods adopted for this study are descriptive, comparative and analytical in nature. Essentially, the findings from this study reveal that the three sampled countries are benefitting from the presence of IFIs in their economies in terms of contributions to economic growth and real sector participation, particularly for Egypt and South Africa. Similarly, they reap from foreign direct investments and economic diversification among others. However, this study recommends that African countries should integrate IFIs as part and parcel of their economic and financial systems, in order to benefit optimally from this new economic phenomenon.

Keywords: Islamic financial services, Africa, emerging markets, development, operation

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5467 Doing More with Less: Passion for Entrepreneurship in the Research-Constraint Contexts of Developing and Emerging Economies

Authors: Marcel Hechler

Abstract:

Since passion is considered one of the most important motivating factors for entrepreneurship, we examined the influence of the availability of resources and information on the emergence of a harmonious passion for entrepreneurship (HPE). Drawing on self-determination theory and a cross-cultural sample of 1,085 entrepreneurs from seven developing countries, we argue that the availability of resources and information increases an entrepreneur's autonomy and, thus, promotes the emergence of HPE.

Keywords: harmonious passion, access to resources and information, developing and emerging countries, self-determination theory

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5466 A Qualitative Exploration into Australian Muslims Emerging into Adulthood

Authors: Nuray Okcum, Jenny Sharples

Abstract:

While the scrutinization towards marginalized groups throughout the globe has been existent for decades, prejudice towards Muslims in Western countries has been increasing dramatically. The vicious attacks across the globe by perpetrators who identify with Islam as well as popular political discourse by politicians in Western countries claiming and portraying Muslims as being dangerous, oppressed, or lacking the ability to assimilate into the community, adds to the exclusion and lack of belonging Muslims living in Western countries experience. The early stages of adulthood which have recently been conceptualized as emerging adulthood is a critical and socially ambiguous transition. For a young Muslim emerging into adulthood in a Western country, a variety of different challenges and demands that can exceed their coping abilities can arise. While in search for their identity and in a bid to structure themselves with their past childhood experiences together with their newly forming values, the emerging adult may attempt to direct or change the way in which they are viewed by others. This can be done to gain approval from others and to feel a sense of belonging. A change in the emerging adult’s interpersonal interactions and relationships, the way in which they view themselves and others, their sense of belonging, and their identity, also occurs during this developmental stage. To explore the manner in which Muslims emerging into adulthood carve their identity, their experiences, and representation of their Muslim identity, social identification, and their sense of belonging in Australia, an interpretative phenomenological methodology was utilized. This allowed participants to offer their own subjective experiences. A total of eight emerging adults took part in the study whilst four adults who work with emerging adults took part. Adult participants who work with emerging adults took part in the study to bring forth their insight and experiences. Common experiences were organized into themes. Themes included identifying as a Muslim, social identification, and belonging. Identification included visual identification and name, discrimination and resilience. Findings clearly indicated that Muslims emerging into adulthood in Australia do face various hurdles while they try to retain and represent their religious identity. Despite the unique challenges that they face, they still feel a sense of belonging and identity as being Australian.

Keywords: Muslim, Islam, emerging adulthood, Australia

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5465 Good Advice Is Hard to Come By: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Opposing Views and Entrepreneurial Passion

Authors: Marcel Hechler

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of entrepreneurs' receptiveness to opposing views on their entrepreneurial passion. Following a cross-cultural approach, we surveyed 1,228 entrepreneurs in seven developing and emerging countries. Besides a positive relationship between receptiveness to opposing views and harmonious passion for entrepreneurship, we found first evidence for a significant moderating effect of access to information reinforcing the positive main effect.

Keywords: harmonious passion, developing and emerging countries, self-determination theory, receptiveness to opposing views

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5464 Contagion of the Global Financial Crisis and Its Impact on Systemic Risk in the Banking System: Extreme Value Theory Analysis in Six Emerging Asia Economies

Authors: Ratna Kuswardani

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the impact of recent Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on 6 selected emerging Asian economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Singapore, and South Korea). We first figure out the contagion of GFC from the US and Europe to the selected emerging Asian countries by studying the tail dependence of market stock returns between those countries. We apply the concept of Extreme Value Theory (EVT) to model the dependence between multiple returns series of variables under examination. We explore the factors causing the contagion between the regions. We find dependencies between markets that are influenced by their size, especially for large markets in emerging Asian countries that tend to have a higher dependency to the market in the more advanced country such as the U.S. and some countries in Europe. The results also suggest that the dependencies between market returns and bank stock returns in the same region tend to be higher than dependencies between these returns across two different regions. We extend our analysis by studying the impact of GFC on the systemic in the banking system. We also find that larger institution has more dependencies with the market stock, suggesting that larger size bank can cause disruption in the market. Further, the higher probability of extreme loss can be seen during the crisis period, which is shown by the non-linear dependency between the pre-crisis and the post-crisis period. Finally, our analysis suggests that systemic risk appears in the domestic banking systems in emerging Asia, as shown by the extreme dependencies within banks in the system. Overall, our results provide caution to policy makers and investors alike on the possible contagion of the impact of global financial crisis across different markets.

Keywords: contagion, extreme value theory, global financial crisis, systemic risk

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5463 Nexus among Foreign Private Investment, CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption and Sustainable Economic Growth

Authors: Aysha Zamir

Abstract:

This study examines to what extent foreign private investment (FPI) affects the clean industrial environment and sustainable economic growth through developed countries investment in China. Moreover, this study investiage an association among FPI, CO2 emission, energy consumption, and sustainable economic growth. This study uses random effects and generalized least squares (GLS) and panel VAR estimators for data analysis. The results indicate that the Chinese economy has a vastly positive influenced regarding the location and choice of emerging and developed countries’ investment in the domestic market. Furthermore, emerging and developed economies investment increases the contribution among domestic firms, environment sustainability toward the national economy. The further results show that foreign private investment and gross domestic investment have a positive impact on sustainable economic growth.

Keywords: clean industrial environment, energy consumption, CO2 emmission, foreign private investment, developed and emerging economies

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5462 Economic Development Process: A Compartmental Analysis of a Model with Two Delays

Authors: Amadou Banda Ndione, Charles Awono Onana

Abstract:

In this paper the compartmental approach is applied to build a macroeconomic model characterized by countries. We consider a total of N countries that are subdivided into three compartments according to their economic status: D(t) denotes the compartment of developing countries at time t, E(t) stands for the compartment of emerging countries at time t while A(t) represents advanced countries at time t. The model describes the process of economic development and includes the notion of openness through collaborations between countries. Two delays appear in this model to describe the average time necessary for collaborations between countries to become efficient for their development process. Our model represents the different stages of development. It further gives the conditions under which a country can change its economic status and demonstrates the short-term positive effect of openness on economic growth. In addition, we investigate bifurcation by considering the delay as a bifurcation parameter and examine the onset and termination of Hopf bifurcations from a positive equilibrium. Numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate the theoretical part and to support discussion.

Keywords: compartmental systems, delayed dynamical system, economic development, fiscal policy, hopf bifurcation

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5461 Effects of Corruption and Logistics Performance Inefficiencies on Container Throughput: The Latin America Case

Authors: Fernando Seabra, Giulia P. Flores, Karolina C. Gomes

Abstract:

Trade liberalizations measures, as import tariff cuts, are not a sufficient trigger for trade growth. Given that price margins are narrow, traders and cargo operators tend to opt out of markets where the process of goods clearance is slow and costly. Excess paperwork and slow customs dispatch not only lead to institutional breakdowns and corruption but also to increasing transaction cost and trade constraints. The objective of this paper is, therefore, two-fold: First, to evaluate the relationship between institutional and infrastructural performance indexes and trade growth in container throughput; and, second, to investigate the causes for differences in container demurrage and detention fees in Latin American countries (using other emerging countries as benchmarking). The analysis is focused on manufactured goods, typically transported by containers. Institutional and infrastructure bottlenecks and, therefore, the country logistics efficiency – measured by the Logistics Performance Index (LPI, World Bank-WB) – are compared with other indexes, such as the Doing Business index (WB) and the Corruption Perception Index (Transparency International). The main results based on the comparison between Latin American countries and the others emerging countries point out in that the growth in containers trade is directly related to LPI performance. It has also been found that the main hypothesis is valid as aspects that more specifically identify trade facilitation and corruption are significant drivers of logistics performance. The exam of port efficiency (demurrage and detention fees) has demonstrated that not necessarily higher level of efficiency is related to lower charges; however, reductions in fees have been more significant within non-Latin American emerging countries.

Keywords: corruption, logistics performance index, container throughput, Latin America

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5460 The Impact of Trade on Stock Market Integration of Emerging Markets

Authors: Anna M. Pretorius

Abstract:

The emerging markets category for portfolio investment was introduced in 1986 in an attempt to promote capital market development in less developed countries. Investors traditionally diversified their portfolios by investing in different developed markets. However, high growth opportunities forced investors to consider emerging markets as well. Examples include the rapid growth of the “Asian Tigers” during the 1980s, growth in Latin America during the 1990s and the increased interest in emerging markets during the global financial crisis. As such, portfolio flows to emerging markets have increased substantially. In 2002 7% of all equity allocations from advanced economies went to emerging markets; this increased to 20% in 2012. The stronger links between advanced and emerging markets led to increased synchronization of asset price movements. This increased level of stock market integration for emerging markets is confirmed by various empirical studies. Against the background of increased interest in emerging market assets and the increasing level of integration of emerging markets, this paper focuses on the determinants of stock market integration of emerging market countries. Various studies have linked the level of financial market integration with specific economic variables. These variables include: economic growth, local inflation, trade openness, local investment, budget surplus/ deficit, market capitalization, domestic bank credit, domestic institutional and legal environment and world interest rates. The aim of this study is to empirically investigate to what extent trade-related determinants have an impact on stock market integration. The panel data sample include data of 16 emerging market countries: Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, South Africa, Thailand and Turkey for the period 1998-2011. The integration variable for each emerging stock market is calculated as the explanatory power of a multi-factor model. These factors are extracted from a large panel of global stock market returns. Trade related explanatory variables include: exports as percentage of GDP, imports as percentage of GDP and total trade as percentage of GDP. Other macroeconomic indicators – such as market capitalisation, the size of the budget deficit and the effectiveness of the regulation of the securities exchange – are included in the regressions as control variables. An initial analysis on a sample of developed stock markets could not identify any significant determinants of stock market integration. Thus the macroeconomic variables identified in the literature are much more significant in explaining stock market integration of emerging markets than stock market integration of developed markets. The three trade variables are all statistically significant at a 5% level. The market capitalisation variable is also significant while the regulation variable is only marginally significant. The global financial crisis has highlighted the urgency to better understand the link between the financial and real sectors of the economy. This paper comes to the important finding that, apart from the level of market capitalisation (as financial indicator), trade (representative of the real economy) is a significant determinant of stock market integration of countries not yet classified as developed economies.

Keywords: emerging markets, financial market integration, panel data, trade

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5459 Financial Crises in the Context of Behavioral Finance

Authors: Nousheen Tariq Bhutta, Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah

Abstract:

Financial crises become a key impediment towards the development of countries especially in emerging economies. Based on standard finance, many researchers investigated the financial crises in different countries in order to find the underlying reason regarding occurrence these event; however they were unable to provide it. In this essence behavioral finance may be helpful in providing answers to some queries regarding occurrence and prevention of financial crises. In this paper, we explore the some psychological factors comprises of our inspiration, emotion, cognition and culture along with their reflection companies, financial markets and governments that present some supportive arguments. Moreover, we compared the views of Keynes and Minsky in order to validate the underling justification towards occurrence of financial crises and their prevention in future. This study helps the practitioners and policy makers through providing valuable recommendation in order to protect the economies.

Keywords: financial crises, behavioral finance, financial markets, emerging economies

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5458 The Rule of Architectural Firms in Enhancing Building Energy Efficiency in Emerging Countries: Processes and Tools Evaluation of Architectural Firms in Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud F. Mohamadin, Ahmed Abdel Malek, Wessam Said

Abstract:

Achieving energy efficient architecture in general, and in emerging countries in particular, is a challenging process that requires the contribution of various governmental, institutional, and individual entities. The rule of architectural design is essential in this process as it is considered as one of the earliest steps on the road to sustainability. Architectural firms have a moral and professional responsibility to respond to these challenges and deliver buildings that consume less energy. This study aims to evaluate the design processes and tools in practice of Egyptian architectural firms based on a limited survey to investigate if their processes and methods can lead to projects that meet the Egyptian Code of Energy Efficiency Improvement. A case study of twenty architectural firms in Cairo was selected and categorized according to their scale; large-scale, medium-scale, and small-scale. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to the firms, and personal meetings with the firms’ representatives took place. The questionnaire answered three main points; the design processes adopted, the usage of performance-based simulation tools, and the usage of BIM tools for energy efficiency purposes. The results of the study revealed that only little percentage of the large-scale firms have clear strategies for building energy efficiency in their building design, however the application is limited to certain project types, or according to the client request. On the other hand, the percentage of medium-scale firms is much less, and it is almost absent in the small-scale ones. This demonstrates the urgent need of enhancing the awareness of the Egyptian architectural design community of the great importance of implementing these methods starting from the early stages of the building design. Finally, the study proposed recommendations for such firms to be able to create a healthy built environment and improve the quality of life in emerging countries.

Keywords: architectural firms, emerging countries, energy efficiency, performance-based simulation tools

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5457 Management Accounting Revolution: Developed and Developing Country

Authors: Puwanenthiren Pratheepkanth

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to analyse existing literature (1960 -2016) on management accounting revolution by firms in a comparative perspective to see whether any differences between developed and developing countries context. The significant role that management accounting practices play in corporate finance is well established by reams of research articles. The study reveals that there are clear limitations to the literature review, it suggests that a majority of management accounting practices’ studies are focused on developed markets and that there is a scarcity of serious analyses of the situation in emerging markets.

Keywords: developed countries, developing countries, literature review, management accounting practices

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5456 Testing the Validity of Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle in BRICS Countries

Authors: Teboho J. Mosikari, Johannes T. Tsoku, Diteboho L. Xaba

Abstract:

The increase of capital mobility across emerging economies has become an interesting topic for many economic policy makers. The current study tests the validity of Feldstein–Horioka puzzle for 5 BRICS countries. The sample period of the study runs from 2001 to 2014. The study uses the following parameter estimates well known as the Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS), and Dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results of the study show that investment and savings are cointegrated in the long run. The parameters estimated using FMOLS and DOLS are 0.85 and 0.74, respectively. These results imply that policy makers within BRICS countries have to consider flexible monetary and fiscal policy instruments to influence the mobility of capital with the bloc.

Keywords: Feldstein and Horioka puzzle, saving and investment, panel models, BRICS countries

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5455 A Settlement Strategy for Health Facilities in Emerging Countries: A Case Study in Brazil

Authors: Domenico Chizzoniti, Monica Moscatelli, Letizia Cattani, Piero Favino, Luca Preis

Abstract:

A settlement strategy is to anticipate and respond the needs of existing and future communities through the provision of primary health care facilities in marginalized areas. Access to a health care network is important to improving healthcare coverage, often lacking, in developing countries. The study explores that a good sanitary system strategy of rural contexts brings advantages to an existing settlement: improving transport, communication, water and social facilities. The objective of this paper is to define a possible methodology to implement primary health care facilities in disadvantaged areas of emerging countries. In this research, we analyze the case study of Lauro de Freitas, a municipality in the Brazilian state of Bahia, part of the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, with an area of 57,662 km² and 194.641 inhabitants. The health localization system in Lauro de Freitas is an integrated process that involves not only geographical aspects, but also a set of factors: population density, epidemiological data, allocation of services, road networks, and more. Data were collected also using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to the local population. Synthesized data suggest that moving away from the coast where there is the greatest concentration of population and services, a network of primary health care facilities is able to improve the living conditions of small-dispersed communities. Based on the health service needs of populations, we have developed a methodological approach that is particularly useful in rural and remote contexts in emerging countries.

Keywords: healthcare, settlement strategy, urban health, rural

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5454 International Student Mobility to China: A Fastest and Emerging Market for International Students among Developing Countries

Authors: Yasir Khan, Qiu Bin, Antonio-Mihi Ramirez

Abstract:

This study determines the inflow of international students to China in recent years and the corresponding internationalization strategies in the higher education sector. China has placed attracting international students on in its plan along with the growing of global impact. Acknowledging the stable economy, growth rate, trade, lower renminbi rate, high wages, employment opportunities, high level income per capita, relative low taxes and political system consolidate to attract more international students. A large number of international students making a vast contribution to the higher education sector of China. Understanding the significance of education mission as well as of financial ‘bottom line’ the Chinese government gave great importance to invite more international students from worldwide. The large number of international students in the China has been particularly notable from Asian countries specifically neighboring countries, Pakistan, Thailand, India, Vietnam, South Korea, Magnolia, Malaysia, and Russia. This study summarizes internationalization of higher education in China and also provides directions for future research in this regard.

Keywords: international student mobility, 2020 Govt Planning, emerging market, internationalization of higher education

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5453 Theorizing Digital Transformation, Digitization and Digitalization in Africa Emerging Research in Digital Business: A Critical Review of the Current Scholarship

Authors: Ayanda Magida

Abstract:

The paper aims to provide a critical review of the current state-of-the-art literature on emerging digital business theories. They are specifically focusing on the emergent theories on digital transformation, digitization, and digitalization and their importance in the global south. Digital business is an emergent field that cuts across the different existing disciplines. The paper is threefold- to provide the conceptual and theoretical definition of the DT, digitization and digitization. There is a growing need to provide some of the differences between digitalization, digitization and digital transformation from a theoretical and conceptual basis. These tend to be confused and often use interchangeably the second aim is to focus on the emerging theories on digital transformation and digital business. Finally, the paper provides some critical review of the importance of scholarship in the field from the global south. The systematic review of the literature was conducted through the different research databases to provide some of the major theories in the field of digital business and critically argue for the global south stance. Much of the research on the development and adoption of digital technologies, specifically digital transformation, has been done in the west and developed countries. There is thus a dearth of research conducted in developing countries and the global south.

Keywords: digital transformation, digitization, digital business, digitalization

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5452 Assessment of Pakistan-China Economic Corridor: An Emerging Dynamic of 21st Century

Authors: Naad-E-Ali Sulehria

Abstract:

Pakistan and china have stepped in a new phase of strengthening fraternity as the dream of economic corridor once discerned by both countries is going to take a pragmatic shape. Pak-China economic corridor an under construction program is termed to be an emerging dynamic of 21st century that anticipates a nexus between Asian continent and Indian Ocean by extending its functions to adjoining East, South, Central and Western Asian regions. The $45.6 billion worth heavily invested megaprojects by China are meant to revive energy sector and building economic infrastructure in Pakistan. Evidently, these projects are a part of ‘southern extension’ of Silk Road economic belt which is going to draw out prominent incentives for both countries particularly bolstering China to acquire influential dominance over the regional trade and beyond. In pursuit to adhere, by these progressive plans both countries have began working on their respective assignments. This article discusses the economical development programs under China’s peripheral diplomacy regarding its region-specific-approach to accumulate trade of Persian Gulf and access the landlocked Central Asian states through Pakistan in a sublimate context to break US encirclement of Asia. Pakistan’s utmost preference to utilize its strategic channel as a trade hub to become an emerging economy and surpass its arch-rival India for strategic concerns is contemplated accordingly. The needs and feasibility of the economic gateway and the dividends it can provide in the contemporary scenario are examined carefully and analysis is drawn upon the future prospects of the Pakistan-China Economic corridor once completed.

Keywords: pak-china economic corridor (PCEC), central asian republic states (CARs), new silk road economic belt, gawadar

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5451 Consumer Ethnocentrism: A Dynamic Literature Review from 1987-2015

Authors: Thi Phuong Chi Nguyen

Abstract:

Although consumer ethnocentrism has been widely studied in academic research since 1987, somehow it is still considered as a new and unknown concept in marketing theory and practice. By analyzing the content, three mainstreams of consumer ethnocentrism were found including economic, management and marketing approaches. The present study indicated that the link between consumer ethnocentrism and consumer behaviours varies across countries. Consumers in developing countries might be both patriotic about their home countries and curious about foreign cultures at the same time. The most important finding is identifying three main periods in the chronological development of consumer ethnocentrism research. The first period, spanning from 1987 to 1995, was characterized by the introduction of the consumer ethnocentrism concepts and scales, the unidimensionality and the adaptation of the standard CETSCALE version. The second period 1996-2005 witnessed the replication of CETSCALE in various fields, as well as an increase in the volume of researches in developing and emerging countries; the exploration of determinants and the begin of multidimensionality. In the third period from 2006 to present, all variables related to CET were syntherized within the theory of planne behavior. Consumer ethnocentrism analyses were conducted even in less-developed countries and in groups of countries within longitudinal studies. The results from this study showed many inadequacies relating to consumer ethnocentrism in the context of globalisation for further researches to examine.

Keywords: CETSCALE, consumer behavior, consumer ethnocentrism, business, marketing

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5450 Examining Motivational Strategies of Foreign Manufacturing Firms in Ghana

Authors: Samuel Ato Dadzie

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the influence of eclectic paradigm on motivational strategy of foreign subsidiaries in Ghana. This study uses binary regression model, and the analysis was based on 75 manufacturing investments made by MNEs from different countries in 1994–2008. The results indicated that perceived market size increases the probability of foreign firms undertaking a market seeking (MS) in Ghana, while perceived cultural distance between Ghana and foreign firm’s home countries decreased the probability of foreign firms undertaking an market seeking (MS) foreign direct investment (FDI) in Ghana. Furthermore, extensive international experience decreases the probability of foreign firms undertaking a market seeking (MS) foreign direct investment (FDI) in Ghana. Most of the studies done by earlier researchers were based on the advanced and emerging countries and offered support for the theory, which was used in generalizing the result that multinational corporations (MNCs) normally used the theory regarding investment strategy outside their home country. In using the same theory in the context of Ghana, the result does not offer strong support for the theory. This means that MNCs that come to Sub-Sahara Africa cannot rely much on eclectic paradigm for their motivational strategies because prevailing economic conditions in Ghana are different from that of the advanced and emerging economies where the institutional structures work.

Keywords: foreign subsidiary, motives, Ghana, foreign direct investment

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5449 E-Payments, COVID-19 Restrictions, and Currency in Circulation: Thailand and Turkey

Authors: Zeliha Sayar

Abstract:

Central banks all over the world appear to be focusing first and foremost on retail central bank digital currency CBDC), i.e., digital cash/money. This approach is predicated on the belief that the use of cash has decreased, owing primarily to technological advancements and pandemic restrictions, and that a suitable foundation for the transition to a cashless society has been revealed. This study aims to contribute to the debate over whether digital money/CBDC can be a substitute or supplement to physical cash by examining the potential effects on cash demand. For this reason, this paper compares two emerging countries, Turkey, and Thailand, to demystify the impact of e-payment and COVID-19 restrictions on cash demand by employing fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS), and the canonical cointegrating regression (CCR). The currency in circulation in two emerging countries, Turkey and Thailand, was examined in order to estimate the elasticity of different types of retail payments. The results demonstrate that real internet and mobile, cart, contactless payment, and e-money are long-term determinants of real cash demand in these two developing countries. Furthermore, with the exception of contactless payments in Turkey, there is a positive relationship between the currency in circulation and the various types of retail payments. According to findings, COVID-19 restrictions encourage the demand for cash, resulting in cash hoarding.

Keywords: CCR, DOLS, e-money, FMOLS, real cash

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5448 Trade Outcomes of Agri-Environmental Regulations’ Heterogeneity: New Evidence from a Gravity Model

Authors: Najla Kamergi

Abstract:

In a world context of increasing interest in environmental issues, this paper investigates the effect of agri-environmental regulations heterogeneity on the volume of crop commodities’ exports using a theoretically justified gravity model of Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) for the 2003–2013 period. Our findings show that the difference in exporter and importer environmental regulations is more relevant to agricultural trade than trade agreements. In fact, the environmental gap between the two partners is decreasing slightly but significantly crop commodities’ exports according to our results. We also note that the sector of fruit and vegetables is more sensitive to this determinant, unlike cereals that remain relatively less affected. Furthermore, high-income countries have more tendency to trade with countries characterized by similar environmental stringency. Further results show that the BRICS are clearly importing from developed countries where the environmental difference is relatively important. It is likely that emerging countries are witnessing a growing demand for high-quality and “green” crop commodities captured by high-income exporters. Surprisingly, our results suggest that low and middle-income countries with the same level of environmental stringency are more likely to trade crop commodities.

Keywords: agricultural trade, environment, gravity model, food crops, agri-environmental efficiency, DEA

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