Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Vinogradov Dmitriy Valerievich

11 Survey of Some Important Nepalese and Russian Anti-Diabetic Herbs

Authors: Ram Prasad Baral, Vinogradov Dmitriy Valerievich, Rameshwar Adhikari

Abstract:

Diabetes has posed a great threat to the human health worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The disease has basically rooted from the dramatically changed way of living of the present day human civilization as our living has deviated from what the nature has adapted us for. In this context, due to availability of wide range of climatic condition and hence the wide spectrum of biodiversity, Nepal is blessed with a valuable reservoir of medicinal herbs. These assets have been utilized and developed practices in traditional medicines and Ayurvedic way of treatment over several thousand years in the region. It has been established since ancient times that each and every plant has a specific medicinal value. There are many plants’ products which have been utilized in Ayurvedic medicine for the effective treatment of diabetes. The medicaments are less expensive and pose practically no side effects. In this work, we report a general survey of anti-diabetic properties of some medicinal herbs with pronounced effects and their applications. The plants covered in this study originate from far western region of Nepal and include Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Azadirachta indica, Helieteres isora, Saraca asoca, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Tinospora sinensis, Commiphora mukul, Coccinia grandis, and Hippophae salicifolia.

Keywords: Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Azadirachta indica, Helieteres isora, Saraca asoca, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Tinospora sinensis, Commiphora mukul, Coccinia grandis, Hippophae salicifolia

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10 Improvement of Reaction Technology of Decalin Halogenation

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Ravshan M. Nuraliev, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

In this research paper, we investigated the main regularities of a radical bromination reaction of decalin. We studied the temperature effect, durations of reaction, frequency rate of process, ratio of initial components, type and number of the initiator on decalin bromination degree. We found specified optimum conditions of synthesis of a perbromodecalin by the method of a decalin bromination. We developed the technological flowchart of receiving a perbromodecalin and the mass balance of process on the first and the subsequent loadings of components. The results of the research of antibacterial and antifungal activity of synthesized bromoderivatives have been represented.

Keywords: decalin, optimum technology, perbromodecalin, radical bromination

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9 Metabolites of Polygonum L. Plants Having Antitumor Properties

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

The article represents the results of research of antitumor activity of different structural types of plant flavonoids extracted by authors from Polygonum L. plants in commercial reserves at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the first time ever the results comparative research of antitumor activity of plant flavonoids of different structural groups and their synthetic derivatives have been represented. The results of determination of toxicity of flavonoids in single parenteral infusion conditions have been represented. Experimental substantiation of possible mechanisms of antiproliferative and cytotoxic action of flavonoids has been suggested. The perspectives of usage of plant flavonoids as medications and creation of effective dosage forms of antitumor medicines on their basis have been substantiated.

Keywords: antitumor activity, cytotoxicity, flavonoids, Polygonum L., secondary metabolites

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8 Experimental Evaluation of Succinct Ternary Tree

Authors: Dmitriy Kuptsov

Abstract:

Tree data structures, such as binary or in general k-ary trees, are essential in computer science. The applications of these data structures can range from data search and retrieval to sorting and ranking algorithms. Naive implementations of these data structures can consume prohibitively large volumes of random access memory limiting their applicability in certain solutions. Thus, in these cases, more advanced representation of these data structures is essential. In this paper we present the design of the compact version of ternary tree data structure and demonstrate the results for the experimental evaluation using static dictionary problem. We compare these results with the results for binary and regular ternary trees. The conducted evaluation study shows that our design, in the best case, consumes up to 12 times less memory (for the dictionary used in our experimental evaluation) than a regular ternary tree and in certain configuration shows performance comparable to regular ternary trees. We have evaluated the performance of the algorithms using both 32 and 64 bit operating systems.

Keywords: algorithms, data structures, succinct ternary tree, per- formance evaluation

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7 Ultrasound-Assisted Sol – Gel Synthesis of Nano-Boehmite for Biomedical Purposes

Authors: Olga Shapovalova, Vladimir Vinogradov

Abstract:

Among many different sol – gel matrices only alumina can be successfully parenteral injected in the human body. And this is not surprising, because boehmite (aluminium oxyhydroxide) is the metal oxide approved by FDA and EMA for intravenous and intramuscular administrations, and also has been using for a longtime as adjuvant for producing of many modern vaccines. In our earlier study, it has been shown, that denaturation temperature of enzymes entrapped in sol-gel boehmite matrix increases for 30 – 60 °С with preserving of initial activity. It makes such matrices more attractive for long-term storage of non-stable drugs. In current work we present ultrasound-assisted sol-gel synthesis of nano-boehmite. This method provides bio-friendly, very stable, highly homogeneous alumina sol with using only water and aluminium isopropoxide as a precursor. Many parameters of the synthesis were studied in details: time of ultrasound treatment, US frequency, surface area, pore and nanoparticle size, zeta potential and others. Here we investigated the dependence of stability of colloidal sols and textural properties of the final composites as a function of the time of ultrasonic treatment. Chosen ultrasonic treatment time was between 30 and 180 minutes. Surface area, average pore diameter and total pore volume of the final composites were measured by surface and pore size analyzer Nova 1200 Quntachrome. It was shown that the matrices with ultrasonic treatment time equal to 90 minutes have the biggest surface area 431 ± 24 m2/g. On the other had such matrices have a smaller stability in comparison with the samples with ultrasonic treatment time equal to 120 minutes that have the surface area 390 ± 21 m2/g. It was shown that the stable sols could be formed only after 120 minutes of ultrasonic treatment, otherwise the white precipitate of boehmite is formed. We conclude that the optimal ultrasonic treatment time is 120 minutes.

Keywords: boehmite matrix, stabilisation, ultrasound-assisted sol-gel synthesis

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6 CYP2D6*4 Allele Frequency and Extrapyramidal Side Effects during Haloperidol Therapy Among Russians and Tatars: A Pilot Study

Authors: Irina S. Burashnikova, Dmitriy A. Sychev, Ruslan Y. Kazakov

Abstract:

Сytochrome P450 CYP2D6 activity affects antipsychotic therapy safety. CYP2D6*4 polymorphism frequency varies among different ethnic groups. We studied CYP2D6*4 polymorphism frequency in Tatar and Russian schizophrenic patients and association of CYP2D6*4 polymorphism and extrapyramidal disorders (EPD) frequency in schizophrenic patients on haloperidol monotherapy in daily doses up to 20 mg. Results: Heterozygous CYP2D6*4 allele carrier frequency among Tatars was lower (23.8% vs 32.4% in Russians), but the differences did not reach statistical significance. CYP2D6*4 allele frequency among Tatars was also lower (11.9% vs 24.3% in Russians), but the difference was not quite significant (p=0.0592). Average daily haloperidol dose in the group without EPD was significantly higher than in the group with EPD (11.35±4.6 vs 13.87±3.3 mg, p=0.0252), but average daily haloperidol dose/weight ratios in the compared groups had no significant differences. Statistically significant association between EPD development and heterozygous CYP2D6*1/*4 genotype and CYP2D6*4 allele carrier frequency was revealed among all schizophrenic patients and among those of Tatar nationality. Further well designed pharmacogenetic studies in different Russian regions are needed to improve psychotropic therapy safety and to establish evidence-based indications for pharmacogenetic testing in clinical practice.

Keywords: antipsychotic, CYP2D6 polymorphism, ethnic differences of CYP2D6*4 allele frequency, extrapyramidal side effects/disorder, schizophrenia, pharmacogenetics, Russians, Tatars

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5 Escalation of Commitment and Turnover in Top Management Teams

Authors: Dmitriy V. Chulkov

Abstract:

Escalation of commitment is defined as continuation of a project after receiving negative information about it. While literature in management and psychology identified various factors contributing to escalation behavior, this phenomenon has received little analysis in economics, potentially due to the apparent irrationality of escalation. In this study, we present an economic model of escalation with asymmetric information in a principal-agent setup where the agents are responsible for a project selection decision and discover the outcome of the project before the principal. Our theoretical model complements the existing literature on several accounts. First, we link the incentive to escalate commitment to a project with the turnover decision by the manager. When a manager learns the outcome of the project and stops it that reveals that a mistake was made. There is an incentive to continue failing projects and avoid admitting the mistake. This incentive is enhanced when the agent may voluntarily resign from the firm before the outcome of the failing project is revealed, and thus not bear the full extent of reputation damage due to project failure. As long as some successful managers leave the firm for extraneous reasons, outside firms find it difficult to link failing projects with certainty to managers that left a firm. Second, we demonstrate that non-CEO managers have reputation concerns separate from those of the CEO, and thus may escalate commitment to projects they oversee, when such escalation can attenuate damage to reputation from impending project failure. Such incentive for escalation will be present for non-CEO managers if the CEO delegates responsibility for a project to a non-CEO executive. If reputation matters for promotion to the CEO, the incentive for a rising executive to escalate in order to protect reputation is distinct from that of a CEO. Third, our theoretical model is supported by empirical analysis of changes in the firm’s operations measured by the presence of discontinued operations at the time of turnover among the top four members of the top management team. Discontinued operations are indicative of termination of failing projects at a firm. The empirical results demonstrate that in a large dataset of over three thousand publicly traded U.S. firms for a period from 1993 to 2014 turnover by top executives significantly increases the likelihood that the firm discontinues operations. Furthermore, the type of turnover matters as this effect is strongest when at least one non-CEO member of the top management team leaves the firm and when the CEO departure is due to a voluntary resignation and not to a retirement or illness. Empirical results are consistent with the predictions of the theoretical model and suggest that escalation of commitment is primarily observed in decisions by non-CEO members of the top management team.

Keywords: discontinued operations, escalation of commitment, executive turnover, top management teams

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4 The Dynamics of a Droplet Spreading on a Steel Surface

Authors: Evgeniya Orlova, Dmitriy Feoktistov, Geniy Kuznetsov

Abstract:

Spreading of a droplet over a solid substrate is a key phenomenon observed in the following engineering applications: thin film coating, oil extraction, inkjet printing, and spray cooling of heated surfaces. Droplet cooling systems are known to be more effective than film or rivulet cooling systems. It is caused by the greater evaporation surface area of droplets compared with the film of the same mass and wetting surface. And the greater surface area of droplets is connected with the curvature of the interface. Location of the droplets on the cooling surface influences on the heat transfer conditions. The close distance between the droplets provides intensive heat removal, but there is a possibility of their coalescence in the liquid film. The long distance leads to overheating of the local areas of the cooling surface and the occurrence of thermal stresses. To control the location of droplets is possible by changing the roughness, structure and chemical composition of the surface. Thus, control of spreading can be implemented. The most important characteristic of spreading of droplets on solid surfaces is a dynamic contact angle, which is a function of the contact line speed or capillary number. However, there is currently no universal equation, which would describe the relationship between these parameters. This paper presents the results of the experimental studies of water droplet spreading on metal substrates with different surface roughness. The effect of the droplet growth rate and the surface roughness on spreading characteristics was studied at low capillary numbers. The shadow method using high speed video cameras recording up to 10,000 frames per seconds was implemented. A droplet profile was analyzed by Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analyses techniques. According to change of the dynamic contact angle and the contact line speed three sequential spreading stages were observed: rapid increase in the dynamic contact angle; monotonous decrease in the contact angle and the contact line speed; and form of the equilibrium contact angle at constant contact line. At low droplet growth rate, the dynamic contact angle of the droplet spreading on the surfaces with the maximum roughness is found to increase throughout the spreading time. It is due to the fact that the friction force on such surfaces is significantly greater than the inertia force; and the contact line is pinned on microasperities of a relief. At high droplet growth rate the contact angle decreases during the second stage even on the surfaces with the maximum roughness, as in this case, the liquid does not fill the microcavities, and the droplet moves over the “air cushion”, i.e. the interface is a liquid/gas/solid system. Also at such growth rates pulsation of liquid flow was detected; and the droplet oscillates during the spreading. Thus, obtained results allow to conclude that it is possible to control spreading by using the surface roughness and the growth rate of droplets on surfaces as varied factors. Also, the research findings may be used for analyzing heat transfer in rivulet and drop cooling systems of high energy equipment.

Keywords: contact line speed, droplet growth rate, dynamic contact angle, shadow system, spreading

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3 Antiinflammatory and Wound Healing Activity of Sedum Essential Oils Growing in Kazakhstan

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

Abstract:

The last decade the growth of severe and disseminated forms of inflammatory diseases is observed in Kazakhstan, in particular, septic shock, which progresses on 3-15% of patients with infectious complications of postnatal period. In terms of the rate of occurrence septic shock takes third place after hemorrhagic and cardiovascular shock, in terms of lethality it takes first place. The structure of obstetric sepsis has significantly changed. Currently the first place is taken by postabortive sepsis (40%) that is connected with usage of imperfect methods of artificial termination of pregnancy in late periods (intraamnial injection of sodium chloride, glucose). The second place is taken by postnatal sepsis (32%); the last place is taken by septic complications of caesarean section (28%). In this connection, search for and assessment of effectiveness of new medicines for treatment of postoperative infectious complications, having biostimulating effect and speeding up regeneration processes, is very promising and topical. Essential oil was obtained by the method hydrodistillation air-dry aerial part of Sedum L. plants using Clevenger apparatus. Pilot batch of plant medicinal product based on Sedum essential oils was produced by Chimpharm JSC, Santo Member of Polpharma Group (Kazakhstan). During clinical test of the plant medicinal product based on Sedum L. essential oils 37 female patients at the age from 35 to 57 with clinical signs of complicated postoperative processes and 12 new mothers with clinical signs of inflammatory process on sutures on anterior abdominal wall after caesarean section and partial disruption of surgical suture line on perineum were examined. Medicine usage methods - surgical wound treatment 2 times a day, treatment with other medicines of local action was not performed. Before and after treatment general clinical test, determination of immune status, bacterioscopic test of wound fluid was performed to all women, medical history data was taken into account, wound cleansing and healing time, full granulations, side effects and complications, satisfaction with the used medicine was assessed. On female patients with inflammatory infiltration and partial disruption of surgical suture line anesthetic wound healing effect of plant medicinal product based on Sedum L. essential oils was observed as early as on the second day after beginning of using it, wound cleansing took place, as a rule, within the first row days. Hyperemia in the area of suture line also was not observed for 2-3-d day of usage of medicine, good constant course was observed. The absence of clinical effect on this group of patients was not registered. The represented data give evidence of that clinical effect was accompanied with normalization of changed laboratory findings. No allergic responses or side effects were observed during usage of the plant medicinal products based on Sedum L. essential oils.

Keywords: antiinflammatory, bioactive substances, essential oils, isolation, sedum L., wound healing

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2 Study of Formation and Evolution of Disturbance Waves in Annular Flow Using Brightness-Based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (BBLIF) Technique

Authors: Andrey Cherdantsev, Mikhail Cherdantsev, Sergey Isaenkov, Dmitriy Markovich

Abstract:

In annular gas-liquid flow, liquid flows as a film along pipe walls sheared by high-velocity gas stream. Film surface is covered by large-scale disturbance waves which affect pressure drop and heat transfer in the system and are necessary for entrainment of liquid droplets from film surface into the core of gas stream. Disturbance waves are a highly complex and their properties are affected by numerous parameters. One of such aspects is flow development, i.e., change of flow properties with the distance from the inlet. In the present work, this question is studied using brightness-based laser-induced fluorescence (BBLIF) technique. This method enables one to perform simultaneous measurements of local film thickness in large number of points with high sampling frequency. In the present experiments first 50 cm of upward and downward annular flow in a vertical pipe of 11.7 mm i.d. is studied with temporal resolution of 10 kHz and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm. Thus, spatiotemporal evolution of film surface can be investigated, including scenarios of formation, acceleration and coalescence of disturbance waves. The behaviour of disturbance waves' velocity depending on phases flow rates and downstream distance was investigated. Besides measuring the waves properties, the goal of the work was to investigate the interrelation between disturbance waves properties and integral characteristics of the flow such as interfacial shear stress and flow rate of dispersed phase. In particular, it was shown that the initial acceleration of disturbance waves, defined by the value of shear stress, linearly decays with downstream distance. This lack of acceleration which may even lead to deceleration is related to liquid entrainment. Flow rate of disperse phase linearly grows with downstream distance. During entrainment events, liquid is extracted directly from disturbance waves, reducing their mass, area of interaction to the gas shear and, hence, velocity. Passing frequency of disturbance waves at each downstream position was measured automatically with a new algorithm of identification of characteristic lines of individual disturbance waves. Scenarios of coalescence of individual disturbance waves were identified. Transition from initial high-frequency Kelvin-Helmholtz waves appearing at the inlet to highly nonlinear disturbance waves with lower frequency was studied near the inlet using 3D realisation of BBLIF method in the same cylindrical channel and in a rectangular duct with cross-section of 5 mm by 50 mm. It was shown that the initial waves are generally two-dimensional but are promptly broken into localised three-dimensional wavelets. Coalescence of these wavelets leads to formation of quasi two-dimensional disturbance waves. Using cross-correlation analysis, loss and restoration of two-dimensionality of film surface with downstream distance were studied quantitatively. It was shown that all the processes occur closer to the inlet at higher gas velocities.

Keywords: annular flow, disturbance waves, entrainment, flow development

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1 Biodegradation of Chlorophenol Derivatives Using Macroporous Material

Authors: Dmitriy Berillo, Areej K. A. Al-Jwaid, Jonathan L. Caplin, Andrew Cundy, Irina Savina

Abstract:

Chlorophenols (CPs) are used as a precursor in the production of higher CPs and dyestuffs, and as a preservative. Contamination by CPs of the ground water is located in the range from 0.15-100mg/L. The EU has set maximum concentration limits for pesticides and their degradation products of 0.1μg/L and 0.5μg/L, respectively. People working in industries which produce textiles, leather products, domestic preservatives, and petrochemicals are most heavily exposed to CPs. The International Agency for Research on Cancers categorized CPs as potential human carcinogens. Existing multistep water purification processes for CPs such as hydrogenation, ion exchange, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption by activated carbon, forward and inverse osmosis, electrolysis, sonochemistry, UV irradiation, and chemical oxidation are not always cost effective and can cause the formation of even more toxic or mutagenic derivatives. Bioremediation of CPs derivatives utilizing microorganisms results in 60 to 100% decontamination efficiency and the process is more environmentally-friendly compared with existing physico-chemical methods. Microorganisms immobilized onto a substrate show many advantages over free bacteria systems, such as higher biomass density, higher metabolic activity, and resistance to toxic chemicals. They also enable continuous operation, avoiding the requirement for biomass-liquid separation. The immobilized bacteria can be reused several times, which opens the opportunity for developing cost-effective processes for wastewater treatment. In this study, we develop a bioremediation system for CPs based on macroporous materials, which can be efficiently used for wastewater treatment. Conditions for the preparation of the macroporous material from specific bacterial strains (Pseudomonas mendocina and Rhodococus koreensis) were optimized. The concentration of bacterial cells was kept constant; the difference was only the type of cross-linking agents used e.g. glutaraldehyde, novel polymers, which were utilized at concentrations of 0.5 to 1.5%. SEM images and rheology analysis of the material indicated a monolithic macroporous structure. Phenol was chosen as a model system to optimize the function of the cryogel material and to estimate its enzymatic activity, since it is relatively less toxic and harmful compared to CPs. Several types of macroporous systems comprising live bacteria were prepared. The viability of the cross-linked bacteria was checked using Live/Dead BacLight kit and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy, which revealed the presence of viable bacteria with the novel cross-linkers, whereas the control material cross-linked with glutaraldehyde(GA), contained mostly dead cells. The bioreactors based on bacteria were used for phenol degradation in batch mode at an initial concentration of 50mg/L, pH 7.5 and a temperature of 30°C. Bacterial strains cross-linked with GA showed insignificant ability to degrade phenol and for one week only, but a combination of cross-linking agents illustrated higher stability, viability and the possibility to be reused for at least five weeks. Furthermore, conditions for CPs degradation will be optimized, and the chlorophenol degradation rates will be compared to those for phenol. This is a cutting-edge bioremediation approach, which allows the purification of waste water from sustainable compounds without a separation step to remove free planktonic bacteria. Acknowledgments: Dr. Berillo D. A. is very grateful to Individual Fellowship Marie Curie Program for funding of the research.

Keywords: bioremediation, cross-linking agents, cross-linked microbial cell, chlorophenol degradation

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