Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Hippophae salicifolia

9 Survey of Some Important Nepalese and Russian Anti-Diabetic Herbs

Authors: Ram Prasad Baral, Vinogradov Dmitriy Valerievich, Rameshwar Adhikari


Diabetes has posed a great threat to the human health worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The disease has basically rooted from the dramatically changed way of living of the present day human civilization as our living has deviated from what the nature has adapted us for. In this context, due to availability of wide range of climatic condition and hence the wide spectrum of biodiversity, Nepal is blessed with a valuable reservoir of medicinal herbs. These assets have been utilized and developed practices in traditional medicines and Ayurvedic way of treatment over several thousand years in the region. It has been established since ancient times that each and every plant has a specific medicinal value. There are many plants’ products which have been utilized in Ayurvedic medicine for the effective treatment of diabetes. The medicaments are less expensive and pose practically no side effects. In this work, we report a general survey of anti-diabetic properties of some medicinal herbs with pronounced effects and their applications. The plants covered in this study originate from far western region of Nepal and include Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Azadirachta indica, Helieteres isora, Saraca asoca, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Tinospora sinensis, Commiphora mukul, Coccinia grandis, and Hippophae salicifolia.

Keywords: Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Azadirachta indica, Helieteres isora, Saraca asoca, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Tinospora sinensis, Commiphora mukul, Coccinia grandis, Hippophae salicifolia

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8 Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Leaves and Stems of Hippophae Salicifolia

Authors: Bhupendra Kumar Poudel, Sadhana Amatya, Tirtha Maiya Shrestha, Bharatmani Pokhrel, Mohan Prasad Amatya


Background: H. salicifolia is a dense, branched, multipurpose, deciduous, nitrogen fixing, thorny willow-like small to moderate tree, restricted to the Himalaya. Among the two species of Nepal (Hippophae salicifolia and H. tibetana), it has been traditionally used as food additive, anticancer (bark), and treating toothache, tooth inflammation (anti-inflammatory) and radiation injury; while people of Western Nepal have largely undermined its veiled treasure by using it for fuel, wood and soil stabilization only. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to explore biological properties (analgesic, antidiabetic, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of this plant. Methodology: The transverse section of leaves and stems were viewed under microscope. Extracts obtained from soxhlation subjected to tests for phytochemical and biological studies. Rats (used to study antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties) and mice (used to study analgesic, CNS depressant, muscle relaxant and locomotor properties) were assumed to be normally distributed; then ANOVA and post hoc tukey test was used to find significance. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS 17 and Excel 2007. Results and Conclusion: Pharmacognostical analysis revealed the presence of long stellate trichomes, double layered vascular bundle 5-6 in number and double layered compact sclerenchyma. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was found to exhibit the positive reaction tests for glycoside, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, coumarin and reducing sugar. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay tested in 1000, 100 and 10 ppm revealed cytotoxic activity inherent in methanol, water, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 (μg/ml) values of 61.42, 99.77, 292.72 and 277.84 respectively. The cytotoxic activity may be due to presence of tannins in the constituents. Antimicrobial screening of the extracts by cup diffusion method using Staphylococcus aereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa against standard antibiotics (oxacillin, gentamycin and amikacin respectively) portrayed no activity against the microorganisms tested. The methanol extract of the stems and leaves showed various pharmacological properties: and antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic [chemical writhing method], CNS depressant, muscle relaxant and locomotor activities in a dose-dependent fashion, indicating the possibility of the presence of different constituents in the stems and leaves responsible for these biological activities. All the effects when analyzed by post hoc tukey test were found to be significant at 95% confidence level. The antidiabetic activity was presumed to be due to flavonoids present in extract. Therefore, it can be concluded that this plant’s secondary metabolites possessed strong antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity which could be isolated for further investigation.

Keywords: Hippophae salicifolia, constituents, antidiabetic, inflammatory, brine shrimp

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7 In vivo Antidiabetic and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich. (Myricaceae) Root Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

Authors: Yohannes Kelifa, Gomathi Periasamy, Aman Karim


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health and economical problem across the globe. Modern antidiabetic drugs have a number of limitations, and scientific investigation of traditional herbal remedies used for diabetes may provide novel leads for the development of new antidiabetic drugs that can be used as alternative or complementary to available antidiabetic allopathic medications. Though Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich. is used for the management of diabetes in Ethiopian traditional medicine, there was no previous scientific evidence about its antidiabetic effect to the authors’ knowledge. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic activity the root extracts of Myrica salicifolia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (150 mg/kg) in male mice. Diabetic mice were treated with oral doses of M. salicifolia root extracts at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) at a dose of 400 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Fasting blood glucose level (BGL) was measured at 0, 5th,10th, and 15th day. The free radical scavenging activity of the crude extract was determined using in vitro by DPPH assay. The statistical significance was assessed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. Results were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: Daily administration of the M. salicifolia 80% methanol root extracts (at three different doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) reduced fasting BGL compared with diabetic control. The aqueous and butanol fractions at a dose of 400 mg/kg resulted in maximum reduction of fasting BGL by 42.39%, and 52.13%, respectively at the 15th day in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Free radical scavenging activity of the 80% methanol extract of M. salicifolia was comparable to ascorbic acid. The IC50 values of the crude extract and ascorbic acid (a reference compound) were found to be 4.54 μg/ml and 4.39 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that the methanolic extracts of M. salicifolia root and its fractions (n-butanol and aqueous) exhibit a significant antihyperglycemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the result of the present study indicates that M. salicifolia root extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

Keywords: antidiabetic, diabetes mellitus, DPPH, mice, Myrica salicifolia, streptozotocin

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6 In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Selected Tanzania Medicinal Plants

Authors: Mhuji Kilonzo, Patrick Ndakidemi, Musa Chacha


Objective: To evaluate antibacterial activity from four selected medicinal plants namely Mystroxylon aethiopicum, Lonchocarpus capassa, Albizia anthelmentica and Myrica salicifolia used for management of bacterial infection in Tanzania. Methods: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of plants extracts against the tested bacterial species was determined by using 96 wells microdilution method. In this method, 50 μL of nutrient broth were loaded in each well followed by 50 μL of extract (100 mg/mL) to make a final volume of 100 μL. Subsequently, 50 μL were transferred from first rows of each well to the second rows and the process was repeated down the columns to the last wells from which 50 μL were discarded. Thereafter, 50 μL of the selected bacterial suspension were added to each well thus making a final volume of 100 μL. The lowest concentration which showed no bacterial growth was considered as MIC. Results: It was revealed that L. capassa leaf ethyl acetate extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella kisarawe and Salmonella typhi with MIC values of 0.39 and 0.781 mg/mL respectively. Likewise, L. capassa root bark ethyl acetate extracts inhibited growth of S. typhi and E. coli with MIC values of 0.39 and 0.781 mg/mL respectively. The M. aethiopicum leaf and root bark chloroform extracts displayed antibacterial activity against S. kisarawe and S. typhi respectively with MIC value of 0.781 mg/mL. The M. salicifolia stem bark ethyl acetate exhibited antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa with MIC value of 0.39 mg/mL whereas the methanolic stem and root bark of the same plant inhibited the growth of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MIC value of 0.781 mg/mL. Conclusion: It was concluded that M. aethiopicum, L. capassa, A. anthelmentica and M. salicifolia are potential source of antibacterial agents. Further studies to establish structures of antibacterial and evaluate active ingredients are recommended.

Keywords: Albizia anthelmentica, Lonchocarpus capassa, Mystroxylon aethiopicum, Myrica salicifolia

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5 Phenolic Rich Dry Extracts and Their Antioxidant Activity

Authors: R. Raudonis, L. Raudonė, V. Janulis, P. Viškelis


Pharmacological and clinical studies demonstrated that phenolic compounds particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids are responsible for a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are regarded as natural antioxidants that play an important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Qualitatively prepared dry extracts possess high stability and concentration of bio active compounds, facility of standardization and quality control. The aim of this work was to determine the phenolic and antioxidant profiles of Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Betula pendula Roth., Tilia cordata Mill., Sorbus aucuparia L. leaves dry extracts and to identify markers of antioxidant activity. Extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with FRAP post-column assay. Dry extracts are versatile forms possessing wide area of applications, final product ensure consistent phytochemical and functional properties. Seven flavonoids: rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin were identified in dry extract of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. leaves. Predominant compounds were flavonol glycosides which were chosen as markers for quantitative control of dry extracts. Chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, isorhamnetin were prevailing compounds in Betula pendula Roth. leaves extract, whereas strongest ferric reducing activity was determined for chlorogenic acid and hyperoside. Notable amounts of protocatechuic acid and flavonol glycosides, rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, isoquercitrin were identified in the chromatographic profile of Tilia cordata Mill. Neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids were significantly dominant compounds in antioxidant profile in dry extract of Sorbus aucuparia L. leaves. Predominant compounds of antioxidant profiles could be proposed as functional markers of quality of phenolic rich raw materials. Dry extracts could be further used for manufacturing of pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals.

Keywords: dry extract, FRAP, antioxidant activity, phenolic

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4 The Effect of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Berries on Some Quality Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages

Authors: Anna M. Salejda, Urszula Tril, Grażyna Krasnowska


The aim of this study was to analyze selected quality characteristics of cooked pork sausages manufactured with the addition of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries preparations. Stuffings of model sausages consisted of pork, backfat, water and additives such a curing salt and sodium isoascorbate. Functional additives used in production process were two preparations obtained from dried Sea buckthorn berries in form of powder and brew. Powder of dried berries was added in amount of 1 and 3 g, while water infusion as a replacement of 50 and 100% ice water included in meat products formula. Control samples were produced without functional additives. Experimental stuffings were heat treated in water bath and stored for 4 weeks under cooled conditions (4±1ºC). Physical parameters of colour, texture profile and technological parameters as acidity, weight losses and water activity were estimated. The effect of Sea buckthorn berries preparations on lipid oxidation during storage of final products was determine by TBARS method. Studies have shown that addition of Sea buckthorn preparations to meat-fatty batters significant (P≤0.05) reduced the pH values of sausages samples after thermal treatment. Moreover, the addition of berries powder caused significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in weight losses after cooking process. Analysis of results of texture profile analysis indicated, that utilization of infusion prepared from Sea buckthorn dried berries caused increase of springiness, gumminess and chewiness of final meat products. At the same time, the highest amount of Sea buckthorn berries powder in recipe caused the decrease of all measured texture parameters. Utilization of experimental preparations significantly decreased (P≤0.05) lightness (L* parameter of color) of meat products. Simultaneously, introduction of 1 and 3 grams of Sea buckthorn berries powder to meat-fatty batter increased redness (a* parameter) of samples under investigation. Higher content of substances reacting with thiobarbituric acid was observed in meat products produced without functional additives. It was observed that powder of Sea buckthorn berries added to meat-fatty batters caused higher protection against lipid oxidation in cooked sausages.

Keywords: sea buckthorn, meat products, texture, color parameters, lipid oxidation

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3 Radiation Induced DNA Damage and Its Modification by Herbal Preparation of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (SBL-1): An in vitro and in vivo Study in Mice

Authors: Anuranjani Kumar, Madhu Bala


Ionising radiation exposure induces generation of free radicals and the oxidative DNA damage. SBL-1, a radioprotective leaf extract prepared from leaves Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Common name; Seabuckthorn), showed > 90% survival in mice population that was treated with lethal dose (10 Gy) of ⁶⁰Co gamma irradiation. In this study, early effects of pre-treatment with or without SBL-1 in blood peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBMCs) were investigated by cell viability assays (trypan blue and MTT). The quantitative in vitro study of Hoescht/PI staining was performed to check the apoptosis/necrosis in PBMCs irradiated at 2 Gy with or without pretreatment of SBL-1 (at different concentrations) up to 24 and 48h. Comet assay was performed in vivo, to detect the DNA strands breaks and its repair mechanism on peripheral blood lymphocytes at lethal dose (10 Gy). For this study, male mice (wt. 28 ± 2g) were administered radioprotective dose (30mg/kg body weight) of SBL-1, 30 min prior to irradiation. Animals were sacrificed at 24h and 48h. Blood was drawn through cardiac puncture, and blood lymphocytes were separated using histopaque column. Both neutral and alkaline comet assay were performed using standardized technique. In irradiated animals, alkaline comet assay revealed single strand breaks (SSBs) that showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in percent DNA in tail and Olive tail moment (OTM) at 24 h while at 48h the percent DNA in tail further increased significantly (p < 0.02). The double strands breaks (DSBs) increased significantly (p < 0.01) at 48 h in neutral assay, in comparison to untreated control. The animals pre-treated with SBL-1 before irradiation showed significantly (p < 0.05) less DSBs at 48 h treatment in comparison to irradiated group of animals. The SBL-1 alone treated group itself showed no toxicity. The antioxidant potential of SBL-1 were also investigated by in vitro biochemical assays such as DPPH (p < 0.05), ABTS, reducing ability (p < 0.09), hydroxyl radical scavenging (p < 0.05), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), superoxide radical scavenging activity (p < 0.05), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (p < 0.05) etc. SBL-1 showed strong free radical scavenging power that plays important role in the studies of radiation-induced injuries. The SBL-1 treated PBMCs showed significant (p < 0.02) viability in trypan blue assay at 24-hour incubation.

Keywords: radiation, SBL-1, SSBs, DSBs, FRAP, PBMCs

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2 Plant Supporting Units (Ekobox) Application Project for Increasing Planting Success in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

Authors: Gürcan D. Baysal, Ali Tanış


In this study, samples of plant types including rose hip (Rosa canina L.), jujube (Ziziphus jujube), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) were grown using plant supporting units called Ekobox and drip irrigation systems in the Karapınar, Konya region of Turkey to reveal the efficiency of Ekobox and drip irrigation compared against a control with no irrigation. The plant diameter, height, and survival rates were determined, compared with each other, and statistically analyzed. According to the statistical analysis of the results, Ekobox applications resulted in the highest values for survival rate, diameter, and height measurements whereas the lowest values were determined in the control groups. These results indicate that the cultivation of plants with Ekobox may help protect against the loss of fertile soils as an effective mechanism for combating erosion and desertification. These advantages may also lead to a lasting economic effect on the cultivation of plants by locals of the Karapınar, Konya province who suffer from an ever-decreasing underground water level as a result of agricultural consumption.

Keywords: drip irrigation, ekobox, plant diameter, plant height, plant survival rate

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1 Examinations of Sustainable Protection Possibilities against Granary Weevil (Sitophilus granarius L.) on Stored Products

Authors: F. Pal-Fam, R. Hoffmann, S. Keszthelyi


Granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Col.: Curculionidae) is a typical cosmopolitan pest. It can cause significant damage to stored grains, and can drastically decrease yields. Damaged grain has reduced nutritional and market value, weaker germination, and reduced weight. The commonly used protectants against stored-product pests in Europe are residual insecticides, applied directly to the product. Unfortunately, these pesticides can be toxic to mammals, the residues can accumulate in the treated products, and many pest species could become resistant to the protectants. During recent years, alternative solutions of grain protection have received increased attention. These solutions are considered as the most promising alternatives to residual insecticides. The aims of our comparative study were to obtain information about the efficacies of the 1. diatomaceous earth, 2. sterile insect technology and 3. herbal oils against the S. granarius on grain (foremost maize), and to evaluate the influence of the dose rate on weevil mortality and progeny. The main results of our laboratory experiments are the followings: 1. Diatomaceous earth was especially efficacious against S. granarius, but its insecticidal properties depend on exposure time and applied dose. The efficacy on barley was better than on maize. Mortality value of the highest dose was 85% on the 21st day in the case of barley. It can be ascertained that complete elimination of progeny was evidenced on both gain types. To summarize, a satisfactory efficacy level was obtained only on barley at a rate of 4g/kg. Alteration of efficacy between grain types can be explained with differences in grain surface. 2. The mortality consequences of Roentgen irradiation on the S. granarius was highly influenced by the exposure time, and the dose applied. At doses of 50 and 70Gy, the efficacy accepted in plant protection (mortality: 95%) was recorded only on the 21st day. During the application of 100 and 200Gy doses, high mortality values (83.5% and 97.5%) were observed on the 14th day. Our results confirmed the complete sterilizing effect of the doses of 70Gy and above. The autocide effect of 50 and 70Gy doses were demonstrated when irradiated specimens were mixed into groups of fertile specimens. Consequently, these doses might be successfully applied to put sterile insect technique (SIT) into practice. 3. The results revealed that both studied essential oils (Callendula officinalis, Hippophae rhamnoides) exerted strong toxic effect on S. granarius, but C. officinalis triggered higher mortality. The efficacy (94.62 ± 2.63%) was reached after a 48 hours exposure to H. rhamnoides oil at 2ml/kg while the application of 2ml/kg of C. officinalis oil for 24 hours produced 98.94 ± 1.00% mortality rate. Mortality was 100% at 5 ml/kg of H. rhamnoides after 24 hours duration of its application, while with C. officinalis the same value could be reached after a 12 hour-exposure to the oil. Both essential oils applied were eliminated the progeny.

Keywords: Sitophilus granarius, stored product, protection, alternative solutions

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