Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Uttam K. Roy

17 Genodata: The Human Genome Variation Using BigData

Authors: Surabhi Maiti, Prajakta Tamhankar, Prachi Uttam Mehta

Abstract:

Since the accomplishment of the Human Genome Project, there has been an unparalled escalation in the sequencing of genomic data. This project has been the first major vault in the field of medical research, especially in genomics. This project won accolades by using a concept called Bigdata which was earlier, extensively used to gain value for business. Bigdata makes use of data sets which are generally in the form of files of size terabytes, petabytes, or exabytes and these data sets were traditionally used and managed using excel sheets and RDBMS. The voluminous data made the process tedious and time consuming and hence a stronger framework called Hadoop was introduced in the field of genetic sciences to make data processing faster and efficient. This paper focuses on using SPARK which is gaining momentum with the advancement of BigData technologies. Cloud Storage is an effective medium for storage of large data sets which is generated from the genetic research and the resultant sets produced from SPARK analysis.

Keywords: human genome project, Bigdata, genomic data, SPARK, cloud storage, Hadoop

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16 Biodiesel Production from Fruit Pulp of Cassia fistula L. Using Green Microalga Chlorella minutissima

Authors: Rajesh Chandra, Uttam K. Ghosh

Abstract:

This study demonstrates microalgal bio-diesel generation from a cheap, abundant, non-edible fruit pulp of Cassia fistula L. The Cassia fistula L. fruit pulp aqueous extract (CFAE) was utilized as a growth medium for cultivation of microalga Chlorella minutissima (C. minutissima). This microalga accumulated a high amount of lipids when cultivated with CFAE as a source of nutrition in comparison to BG-11 medium. Different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) of CFAE diluted with distilled water were used to cultivate microalga. Effects of light intensity and photoperiod were also observed on biomass and lipid yield of microalga. Light intensity of 8000 lux with a photoperiod of 18 h resulted in maximum biomass and lipid yield of 1.28 ± 0.03 and 0.3968 ± 0.05 g/L, respectively when cultivated with 40% CFAE. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile of bio-diesel obtained shown the presence of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), and gondoic acid (C20:1), as major fatty acids. These facts reflect that the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula L. can be used for cultivation of C. minutissima.

Keywords: biomass, bio-diesel, Cassia fistula L., C. minutissima, GC-MS, lipid

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15 Reduction in Hot Metal Silicon through Statistical Analysis at G-Blast Furnace, Tata Steel Jamshedpur

Authors: Shoumodip Roy, Ankit Singhania, Santanu Mallick, Abhiram Jha, M. K. Agarwal, R. V. Ramna, Uttam Singh

Abstract:

The quality of hot metal at any blast furnace is judged by the silicon content in it. Lower hot metal silicon not only enhances process efficiency at steel melting shops but also reduces hot metal costs. The Hot metal produced at G-Blast furnace Tata Steel Jamshedpur has a significantly higher Si content than Benchmark Blast furnaces. The higher content of hot metal Si is mainly due to inferior raw material quality than those used in benchmark blast furnaces. With minimum control over raw material quality, the only option left to control hot metal Si is via optimizing the furnace parameters. Therefore, in order to identify the levers to reduce hot metal Si, Data mining was carried out, and multiple regression models were developed. The statistical analysis revealed that Slag B3{(CaO+MgO)/SiO2}, Slag Alumina and Hot metal temperature are key controllable parameters affecting hot metal silicon. Contour Plots were used to determine the optimum range of levels identified through statistical analysis. A trial plan was formulated to operate relevant parameters, at G blast furnace, in the identified range to reduce hot metal silicon. This paper details out the process followed and subsequent reduction in hot metal silicon by 15% at G blast furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, optimization, silicon, statistical tools

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14 Significant Reduction in Specific CO₂ Emission through Process Optimization at G Blast Furnace, Tata Steel Jamshedpur

Authors: Shoumodip Roy, Ankit Singhania, M. K. G. Choudhury, Santanu Mallick, M. K. Agarwal, R. V. Ramna, Uttam Singh

Abstract:

One of the key corporate goals of Tata Steel company is to demonstrate Environment Leadership. Decreasing specific CO₂ emission is one of the key steps to achieve the stated corporate goal. At any Blast Furnace, specific CO₂ emission is directly proportional to fuel intake. To reduce the fuel intake at G Blast Furnace, an initial benchmarking exercise was carried out with international and domestic Blast Furnaces to determine the potential for improvement. The gap identified during the exercise revealed that the benchmark Blast Furnaces operated with superior raw material quality than that in G Blast Furnace. However, since the raw materials to G Blast Furnace are sourced from the captive mines, improvement in the raw material quality was out of scope. Therefore, trials were taken with different operating regimes, to identify the key process parameters, which on optimization could significantly reduce the fuel intake in G Blast Furnace. The key process parameters identified from the trial were the Stoichiometric Oxygen Ratio, Melting Capacity ratio and the burden distribution inside the furnace. These identified process parameters were optimized to bridge the gap in fuel intake at G Blast Furnace, thereby reducing specific CO₂ emission to benchmark levels. This paradigm shift enabled to lower the fuel intake by 70kg per ton of liquid iron produced, thereby reducing the specific CO₂ emission by 15 percent.

Keywords: benchmark, blast furnace, CO₂ emission, fuel rate

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13 Buffer Zone a Means of Reduction of Deforestation on Protected Area: A Case Study of Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Dhruba Khatri, Uttam Ghimire, Nabin Kumar Thapalia

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Protected area management in Indonesia is based on MAB program and ICDPs have become Indonesia’s main approach to biodiversity conservation since the early 1990s. However, very few ICDPs have realized the importance of biodiversity conservation in Indonesia and significantly enhanced as a result of currently planned project activities. Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan was damaged illegal logging after decentralization. It made clear through the field survey: (1) Agroforestry did not make reduce to deforestation on regional level and (2) local people who engaging illegal logging activities have two characteristics that for their life and for vent of surplus labor in village. From these results, it became clear that a local resident had a bilateral character as an actor of conservation and the deforestation and also it confirmed that a market also was working on both of the conservation and deforestation. Therefore, surplus labor can be the key actors for future program design and at the same time it is necessary corroborative system which central government, local government, and local people are concerned with the process of policy making under the situation that management body of national park and buffer zone was separated.

Keywords: buffer zone, decentralization, Gunung Palung National Park, illegal logging, Indonesia

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12 Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Selecting the Most Effective Soil Erosion Zone in Gomati River Basin

Authors: Rajesh Chakraborty, Dibyendu Das, Rabindra Nath Barman, Uttam Kumar Mandal

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In the present study, the objective is to find out the most effective zone causing soil erosion in the Gumati river basin located in the state of Tripura, a north eastern state of India using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA).The watershed is segmented into 20 zones based on Area. The watershed is considered by pointing the maximum elevation from sea lever from Google earth. The soil erosion is determined using the universal soil loss equation. The different independent variables of soil loss equation bear different weightage for different soil zones. And therefore, to find the weightage factor for all the variables of soil loss equation like rainfall runoff erosivity index, soil erodibility factor etc, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used. And thereafter, multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) approach is used to select the most effective zone causing soil erosion. The MCDM technique concludes that the maximum soil erosion is occurring in the zone 14.

Keywords: soil erosion, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), multi criteria decision making (MCDM), universal soil loss equation (USLE), multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA)

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11 Role of Non-Timber Forest Products in Local Livelihood and Household Economies in Resource-Rich vs. Resource Poor Forest Area of Mizoram

Authors: Uttam Kumar Sahoo, K. Lalhmingsangi, J. H. Lalremruati

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Non-timber forest resources particularly the high-value, low volume NTFPs has drawn interest as an activity all over the world during the past three decades that could raise standards of living for the rural folks while being compatible with forest conservation. This is particularly true for the people living in and around or fringes of protected areas. However, the economics that plays between resources’ stock and its utilization by the humans is yet to be validated and evaluated logistically. A study was therefore designed to understand the linkages between resource (especially NTFPs) availability and their utilization, existing threats to this biodiversity conservation and the role of NTFPs within the livelihood systems of those households that are most directly involved in creating conservation threats. About 25% of the households were sampled from the two sites ‘resource-rich’ and ‘resource poor’ area of Dampa Tiger Reserve (Western boundary). Our preliminary findings suggest that the collection of relatively high-volume and low value NTFPs such as fuelwood, fodder has caused degradation of forest resources while the low-volume and high-value NTFPs such as wild edible mushrooms, vegetables, other specialty food products, inputs to crafts, medicinal plants have resulted into species promotion/conservation through their domestication in traditional agroforestry systems including home gardens and/or collateral protection of the Tiger Reserve. It is thus suggested that proper assessment of these biodiversities, their direct and indirect valuation, market and non-market profits etc be carried out in greater details which would result in prescribing effective management plans around the park.

Keywords: household economy, livelihood strategies, non-timber forest products, species conservation

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10 Molecular Detection of Tuberculosis in Dogs in the Three North-Eastern States Assam, Mizoram and Nagaland of India

Authors: A. G. Barua, Uttam Rajkhowa, Pranjal Moni Nath, Nur Abdul Kadir

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most closely-related intracellular bacterial pathogens, grouped as the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC). MTB, the primary agent of human tuberculosis (TB), can develop clinical TB in animals as 75 percent of canine mycobacterial infection is caused by close contact with an infected human being. In the present study, molecular detection of TB in dogs in three North-eastern states of India, Assam Mizoram, and Nagaland was carried out. So far, there has been a lack of systematic study in these regions, hampered by slow diagnostic methods and poor infrastructure. In an attempt to rectify this situation, molecular epidemiology was carried out for nine months to detect canine TB in a sample of 340 dogs. Isolation of DNA was done with swabs (throat/nasal), nodules of lungs and fluids from 100 suspected dogs and the molecular study were carried out with the help of conventional and real-time PCR. Post-mortem study was also carried out. Our results showed that the prevalence of clinical TB in dogs from a high-risk setting was 1 percent. However, the prevalence of immunological sensitization to M. tuberculosis antigen in dogs living in contact with sputum smeared positive TB cases was almost 50 percent. The latter setting had the maximum impact in terms of TB transmission. During the study period, a survey with a standard questionnaire was carried out in the TB hospitals to study reverse zoonosis. It was observed that an infected human being was one of the major risk factors for dogs to contract the infection. This observation was drawn by examining the probable airborne transmission from humans to their pets or strays. The present study helped to discover the nuances of TB transmission more clearly and systematically as compared to other sporadic tests to detect MTB in canine.

Keywords: Assam and Nagaland, canine TB, India, molecular detection, tuberculosis

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9 Improvement in Blast Furnace Performance Using Softening - Melting Zone Profile Prediction Model at G Blast Furnace, Tata Steel Jamshedpur

Authors: Shoumodip Roy, Ankit Singhania, K. R. K. Rao, Ravi Shankar, M. K. Agarwal, R. V. Ramna, Uttam Singh

Abstract:

The productivity of a blast furnace and the quality of the hot metal produced are significantly dependent on the smoothness and stability of furnace operation. The permeability of the furnace bed, as well as the gas flow pattern, influences the steady control of process parameters. The softening – melting zone that is formed inside the furnace contributes largely in distribution of the gas flow and the bed permeability. A better shape of softening-melting zone enhances the performance of blast furnace, thereby reducing the fuel rates and improving furnace life. Therefore, predictive model of the softening- melting zone profile can be utilized to control and improve the furnace operation. The shape of softening-melting zone depends upon the physical and chemical properties of the agglomerates and iron ore charged in the furnace. The variations in the agglomerate proportion in the burden at G Blast furnace disturbed the furnace stability. During such circumstances, it was analyzed that a w-shape softening-melting zone profile was formed inside the furnace. The formation of w-shape zone resulted in poor bed permeability and non-uniform gas flow. There was a significant increase in the heat loss at the lower zone of the furnace. The fuel demand increased, and the huge production loss was incurred. Therefore, visibility of softening-melting zone profile was necessary in order to pro-actively optimize the process parameters and thereby to operate the furnace smoothly. Using stave temperatures, a model was developed that predicted the shape of the softening-melting zone inside the furnace. It was observed that furnace operated smoothly during inverse V-shape of the zone and vice-versa during w-shape. This model helped to control the heat loss, optimize the burden distribution and lower the fuel rate at G Blast Furnace, TSL Jamshedpur. As a result of furnace stabilization productivity increased by 10% and fuel rate reduced by 80 kg/thm. Details of the process have been discussed in this paper.

Keywords: agglomerate, blast furnace, permeability, softening-melting

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8 Achieving Process Stability through Automation and Process Optimization at H Blast Furnace Tata Steel, Jamshedpur

Authors: Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Subhashis Kundu, Mayank Tiwari, Sameeran Pani, Padmapal, Uttam Singh

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Blast Furnace is a counter current process where burden descends from top and hot gases ascend from bottom and chemically reduce iron oxides into liquid hot metal. One of the major problems of blast furnace operation is the erratic burden descent inside furnace. Sometimes this problem is so acute that burden descent stops resulting in Hanging and instability of the furnace. This problem is very frequent in blast furnaces worldwide and results in huge production losses. This situation becomes more adverse when blast furnaces are operated at low coke rate and high coal injection rate with adverse raw materials like high alumina ore and high coke ash. For last three years, H-Blast Furnace Tata Steel was able to reduce coke rate from 450 kg/thm to 350 kg/thm with an increase in coal injection to 200 kg/thm which are close to world benchmarks and expand profitability. To sustain this regime, elimination of irregularities of blast furnace like hanging, channeling, and scaffolding is very essential. In this paper, sustaining of zero hanging spell for consecutive three years with low coke rate operation by improvement in burden characteristics, burden distribution, changes in slag regime, casting practices and adequate automation of the furnace operation has been illustrated. Models have been created to comprehend and upgrade the blast furnace process understanding. A model has been developed to predict the process of maintaining slag viscosity in desired range to attain proper burden permeability. A channeling prediction model has also been developed to understand channeling symptoms so that early actions can be initiated. The models have helped to a great extent in standardizing the control decisions of operators at H-Blast Furnace of Tata Steel, Jamshedpur and thus achieving process stability for last three years.

Keywords: hanging, channelling, blast furnace, coke

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7 Heat Loss Control in Stave Cooled Blast Furnace by Optimizing Gas Flow Pattern through Burden Distribution

Authors: Basant Kumar Singh, S. Subhachandhar, Vineet Ranjan Tripathi, Amit Kumar Singh, Uttam Singh, Santosh Kumar Lal

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Productivity of Blast Furnace is largely impacted by fuel efficiency and controlling heat loss is one of the enabling parameters for achieving lower fuel rate. 'I' Blast Furnace is the latest and largest Blast Furnace of Tata Steel Jamshedpur with working volume of 3230 m³ and with rated capacity of 3.055 million tons per annum. Optimizing heat losses in Belly and Bosh zone remained major challenge for blast furnace operators after its commissioning. 'I' Blast has installed Cast Iron & Copper Staves cooling members where copper staves are installed in Belly, Bosh & Lower Stack whereas cast iron staves are installed in upper stack area. Stave cooled Blast Furnaces are prone to higher heat losses in Belly and Bosh region with an increase in coal injection rate as Bosh gas volume increases. Under these conditions, managing gas flow pattern through proper burden distribution, casting techniques & by maintaining desired raw material qualities are of utmost importance for sustaining high injection rates. This study details, the burden distribution control by Ore & Coke ratio adjustment at wall and center of Blast Furnace as the coal injection rates increased from 140 kg/thm to 210 kg/thm. Control of blowing parameters, casting philosophy, specification for raw materials & devising operational practice for controlling heat losses is also elaborated with the model that is used to visualize heat loss pattern in different zones of Blast Furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, staves, gas flow pattern, belly/bosh heat losses, ore/coke ratio, blowing parameters, casting, operation practice

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6 Copper Phthalocyanine Nanostructures: A Potential Material for Field Emission Display

Authors: Uttam Kumar Ghorai, Madhupriya Samanta, Subhajit Saha, Swati Das, Nilesh Mazumder, Kalyan Kumar Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Organic semiconductors have gained potential interest in the last few decades for their significant contributions in the various fields such as solar cell, non-volatile memory devices, field effect transistors and light emitting diodes etc. The most important advantages of using organic materials are mechanically flexible, light weight and low temperature depositing techniques. Recently with the advancement of nanoscience and technology, one dimensional organic and inorganic nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes have gained tremendous interests due to their very high aspect ratio and large surface area for electron transport etc. Among them, self-assembled organic nanostructures like Copper, Zinc Phthalocyanine have shown good transport property and thermal stability due to their π conjugated bonds and π-π stacking respectively. Field emission properties of inorganic and carbon based nanostructures are reported in literatures mostly. But there are few reports in case of cold cathode emission characteristics of organic semiconductor nanostructures. In this work, the authors report the field emission characteristics of chemically and physically synthesized Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanostructures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanotips. The as prepared samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Ultra Violet Visible Spectrometer (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The field emission characteristics were measured in our home designed field emission set up. The registered turn-on field and local field enhancement factor are found to be less than 5 V/μm and greater than 1000 respectively. The field emission behaviour is also stable for 200 minute. The experimental results are further verified by theoretically using by a finite displacement method as implemented in ANSYS Maxwell simulation package. The obtained results strongly indicate CuPc nanostructures to be the potential candidate as an electron emitter for field emission based display device applications.

Keywords: organic semiconductor, phthalocyanine, nanowires, nanotubes, field emission

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5 Liraglutide Augments Extra Body Weight Loss after Sleeve Gastrectomy without Change in Intrahepatic and Intra-Pancreatic Fat in Obese Individuals: Randomized, Controlled Study

Authors: Ashu Rastogi, Uttam Thakur, Jimmy Pathak, Rajesh Gupta, Anil Bhansali

Abstract:

Introduction: Liraglutide is known to induce weight loss and metabolic benefits in obese individuals. However, its effect after sleeve gastrectomy are not known. Methods: People with obesity (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) underwent LSG. Subsequently, participants were randomized to receive either 0.6mg liraglutide subcutaneously daily from 6 week post to be continued till 24 week (L-L group) or placebo (L-P group). Patients were assessed before surgery (baseline) and 6 weeks, 12weeks, 18weeks and 24weeks after surgery for height, weight, waist and hip circumference, BMI, body fat percentage, HbA1c, fasting C-peptide, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, GLP-1 levels (after standard OGTT). MRI abdomen was performed prior to surgery and at 24weeks post operatively for the estimation of intrapancreatic and intrahepatic fat content. Outcome measures: Primary outcomes were changes in metabolic variables of fasting and stimulated GLP-1 levels, insulin, c-peptide, plasma glucose levels. Secondary variables were indices of insulin resistance HOMA-IR, Matsuda index; and pancreatic and hepatic steatosis. Results: Thirty-eight patients undergoing LSG were screened and 29 participants were enrolled. Two patients withdrew consent and one patient died of acute coronary event. 26 patients were randomized and data analysed. Median BMI was 40.73±3.66 and 46.25±6.51; EBW of 49.225±11.14 and 651.48±4.85 in the L-P and L-L group, respectively. Baseline FPG was 132±51.48, 125±39.68; fasting insulin 21.5±13.99, 13.15±9.20, fasting GLP-1 2.4± .37, 2.4± .32, AUC GLP-1 340.78± 44 and 332.32 ± 44.1, HOMA-IR 7.0±4.2 and 4.42±4.5 in the L-P and L-L group, respectively. EBW loss was 47± 13.20 and 65.59± 24.20 (p<0.05) in the placebo versus liraglutide group. However, we did not observe inter-group difference in metabolic parameters between the groups in spite of significant intra-group changes after 6 months of LSG. Intra-pancreatic fat prior to surgery was 3.21±1.7 and 2.2±0.9 (p=0.38) that decreased to 2.14±1.8 and 1.06±0.8 (p=0.25) at 6 months in L-P and L-L group, respectively. Similarly, intra-pancreatic fat was 1.97±0.27 and 1.88±0.36 (p=0.361) at baseline that decreased to 1.14±0.44 and 1.36±0.47 (p=0.465) at 6 months in L-P and L-L group, respectively. Conclusion: Liraglutide augments extra body weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy. A decrease in intra-pancreatic and intra-hepatic fat is noticed after bariatric surgery without additive benefit of liraglutide administration.

Keywords: sleeve gastrectomy, liraglutide, intra-pancreatic fat, insulin

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4 A Dynamic Cardiac Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography Using Conventional Gamma Camera to Estimate Coronary Flow Reserve

Authors: Maria Sciammarella, Uttam M. Shrestha, Youngho Seo, Grant T. Gullberg, Elias H. Botvinick

Abstract:

Background: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually assessed for perfusion defects based on the relative intensity distribution. Dynamic cardiac SPECT, on the other hand, is a new imaging technique that is based on time varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF). In this abstract, we report a progress and current status of dynamic cardiac SPECT using conventional gamma camera (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) for estimation of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve. Methods: A group of patients who had high risk of coronary artery disease was enrolled to evaluate our methodology. A low-dose/high-dose rest/pharmacologic-induced-stress protocol was implemented. A standard rest and a standard stress radionuclide dose of ⁹⁹ᵐTc-tetrofosmin (140 keV) was administered. The dynamic SPECT data for each patient were reconstructed using the standard 4-dimensional maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. Acquired data were used to estimate the myocardial blood flow (MBF). The correspondence between flow values in the main coronary vasculature with myocardial segments defined by the standardized myocardial segmentation and nomenclature were derived. The coronary flow reserve, CFR, was defined as the ratio of stress to rest MBF values. CFR values estimated with SPECT were also validated with dynamic PET. Results: The range of territorial MBF in LAD, RCA, and LCX was 0.44 ml/min/g to 3.81 ml/min/g. The MBF between estimated with PET and SPECT in the group of independent cohort of 7 patients showed statistically significant correlation, r = 0.71 (p < 0.001). But the corresponding CFR correlation was moderate r = 0.39 yet statistically significant (p = 0.037). The mean stress MBF value was significantly lower for angiographically abnormal than that for the normal (Normal Mean MBF = 2.49 ± 0.61, Abnormal Mean MBF = 1.43 ± 0. 0.62, P < .001). Conclusions: The visually assessed image findings in clinical SPECT are subjective, and may not reflect direct physiologic measures of coronary lesion. The MBF and CFR measured with dynamic SPECT are fully objective and available only with the data generated from the dynamic SPECT method. A quantitative approach such as measuring CFR using dynamic SPECT imaging is a better mode of diagnosing CAD than visual assessment of stress and rest images from static SPECT images Coronary Flow Reserve.

Keywords: dynamic SPECT, clinical SPECT/CT, selective coronary angiograph, ⁹⁹ᵐTc-Tetrofosmin

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3 Generating Biogas from Municipal Kitchen Waste: An Experience from Gaibandha, Bangladesh

Authors: Taif Rocky, Uttam Saha, Mahobul Islam

Abstract:

With a rapid urbanisation in Bangladesh, waste management remains one of the core challenges. Turning municipal waste into biogas for mass usage is a solution that Bangladesh needs to adopt urgently. Practical Action with its commitment to challenging poverty with technological justice has piloted such idea in Gaibandha. The initiative received immense success and drew the attention of policy makers and practitioners. We believe, biogas from waste can highly contribute to meet the growing demand for energy in the country at present and in the future. Practical Action has field based experience in promoting small scale and innovative technologies. We have proven track record in integrated solid waste management. We further utilized this experience to promote waste to biogas at end users’ level. In 2011, we have piloted a project on waste to biogas in Gaibandha, a northern secondary town of Bangladesh. With resource and support from UNICEF and with our own innovative funds we have established a complete chain of utilizing waste to the renewable energy source and organic fertilizer. Biogas is produced from municipal solid waste, which is properly collected, transported and segregated by private entrepreneurs. The project has two major focuses, diversification of biogas end use and establishing a public-private partnership business model. The project benefits include Recycling of Wastes, Improved institutional (municipal) capacity, Livelihood from improved services and Direct Income from the project. Project risks include Change of municipal leadership, Traditional mindset, Access to decision making, Land availability. We have observed several outcomes from the initiative. Up scaling such an initiative will certainly contribute for sustainable cleaner and healthier urban environment and urban poverty reduction. - It reduces the unsafe disposal of wastes which improve the cleanliness and environment of the town. -Make drainage system effective reducing the adverse impact of water logging or flooding. -Improve public health from better management of wastes. -Promotes usage of biogas replacing the use of firewood/coal which creates smoke and indoor air pollution in kitchens which have long term impact on health of women and children. -Reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the anaerobic recycling of wastes and contributes to sustainable urban environment. -Promote the concept of agroecology from the uses of bio slurry/compost which contributes to food security. -Creates green jobs from waste value chain which impacts on poverty alleviation of urban extreme poor. -Improve municipal governance from inclusive waste services and functional partnership with private sectors. -Contribute to the implementation of 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) Strategy and Employment Creation of extreme poor to achieve the target set in Vision 2021 by Government of Bangladesh.

Keywords: kitchen waste, secondary town, biogas, segregation

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2 Development of Knowledge Discovery Based Interactive Decision Support System on Web Platform for Maternal and Child Health System Strengthening

Authors: Partha Saha, Uttam Kumar Banerjee

Abstract:

Maternal and Child Healthcare (MCH) has always been regarded as one of the important issues globally. Reduction of maternal and child mortality rates and increase of healthcare service coverage were declared as one of the targets in Millennium Development Goals till 2015 and thereafter as an important component of the Sustainable Development Goals. Over the last decade, worldwide MCH indicators have improved but could not match the expected levels. Progress of both maternal and child mortality rates have been monitored by several researchers. Each of the studies has stated that only less than 26% of low-income and middle income countries (LMICs) were on track to achieve targets as prescribed by MDG4. Average worldwide annual rate of reduction of under-five mortality rate and maternal mortality rate were 2.2% and 1.9% as on 2011 respectively whereas rates should be minimum 4.4% and 5.5% annually to achieve targets. In spite of having proven healthcare interventions for both mothers and children, those could not be scaled up to the required volume due to fragmented health systems, especially in the developing and under-developed countries. In this research, a knowledge discovery based interactive Decision Support System (DSS) has been developed on web platform which would assist healthcare policy makers to develop evidence-based policies. To achieve desirable results in MCH, efficient resource planning is very much required. In maximum LMICs, resources are big constraint. Knowledge, generated through this system, would help healthcare managers to develop strategic resource planning for combatting with issues like huge inequity and less coverage in MCH. This system would help healthcare managers to accomplish following four tasks. Those are a) comprehending region wise conditions of variables related with MCH, b) identifying relationships within variables, c) segmenting regions based on variables status, and d) finding out segment wise key influential variables which have major impact on healthcare indicators. Whole system development process has been divided into three phases. Those were i) identifying contemporary issues related with MCH services and policy making; ii) development of the system; and iii) verification and validation of the system. More than 90 variables under three categories, such as a) educational, social, and economic parameters; b) MCH interventions; and c) health system building blocks have been included into this web-based DSS and five separate modules have been developed under the system. First module has been designed for analysing current healthcare scenario. Second module would help healthcare managers to understand correlations among variables. Third module would reveal frequently-occurring incidents along with different MCH interventions. Fourth module would segment regions based on previously mentioned three categories and in fifth module, segment-wise key influential interventions will be identified. India has been considered as case study area in this research. Data of 601 districts of India has been used for inspecting effectiveness of those developed modules. This system has been developed by importing different statistical and data mining techniques on Web platform. Policy makers would be able to generate different scenarios from the system before drawing any inference, aided by its interactive capability.

Keywords: maternal and child heathcare, decision support systems, data mining techniques, low and middle income countries

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1 Urban Dynamics Modelling of Mixed Land Use for Sustainable Urban Development in Indian Context

Authors: Rewati Raman, Uttam K. Roy

Abstract:

One of the main adversaries of city planning in present times is the ever-expanding problem of urbanization and the antagonistic issues accompanying it. The prevalent challenges in urbanization such as population growth, urban sprawl, poverty, inequality, pollution, congestion, etc. call for reforms in the urban fabric as well as in planning theory and practice. One of the various paradigms of city planning, land use planning, has been the major instruments for spatial planning of cities and regions in India. Zoning regulation based land use planning in the form of land use and development control plans (LUDCP) and development control regulations (DCR) have been considered mainstream guiding principles in land use planning for decades. In spite of many advantages of such zoning based regulations, over a period of time, it has been critiqued by scholars for its own limitations of isolation and lack of vitality, inconvenience in business in terms of proximity to residence and low operating cost, unsuitable environment for small investments, higher travel distance for facilities, amenities and thereby higher expenditure, safety issues etc. Mixed land use has been advocated as a tool to avoid such limitations in city planning by researchers. In addition, mixed land use can offer many advantages like housing variety and density, the creation of an economic blend of compatible land use, compact development, stronger neighborhood character, walkability, and generation of jobs, etc. Alternatively, the mixed land use beyond a suitable balance of use can also bring disadvantages like traffic congestion, encroachments, very high-density housing leading to a slum like condition, parking spill out, non-residential uses operating on residential premises paying less tax, chaos hampering residential privacy, pressure on existing infrastructure facilities, etc. This research aims at studying and outlining the various challenges and potentials of mixed land use zoning, through modeling tools, as a competent instrument for city planning in lieu of the present urban scenario. The methodology of research adopted in this paper involves the study of a mixed land use neighborhood in India, identification of indicators and parameters related to its extent and spatial pattern and the subsequent use of system dynamics as a modeling tool for simulation. The findings from this analysis helped in identifying the various advantages and challenges associated with the dynamic nature of a mixed use urban settlement. The results also confirmed the hypothesis that mixed use neighborhoods are catalysts for employment generation, socioeconomic gains while improving vibrancy, health, safety, and security. It is also seen that certain challenges related to chaos, lack of privacy and pollution prevail in mixed use neighborhoods, which can be mitigated by varying the percentage of mixing as per need, ensuring compatibility of adjoining use, institutional interventions in the form of policies, neighborhood micro-climatic interventions, etc. Therefore this paper gives a consolidated and holistic framework and quantified outcome pertaining to the extent and spatial pattern of mixed land use that should be adopted to ensure sustainable urban planning.

Keywords: mixed land use, sustainable development, system dynamics analysis, urban dynamics modelling

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