Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3561

Search results for: mixed land use

3561 Land Equivalent Ration of Chickpea - Barley as Affected by Mixed Cropping System and Vermicompost in Water Stress Condition

Authors: Masoud Rafiee

Abstract:

Study of the effect of vermin compost on yield, and Land equivalent ration (LER) of chickpea-barley mixed cropping under normal dry land condition can be useful in order to increase qualitative and quantitative performance. In this case, two factors include fertilizer (vermicompost biological fertilizer, ammonium phosphate chemical fertilizer, vermicompost + %75 chemical fertilizer) and chickpea + barley mixed cropping (sole chickpea, %75 chickpea: %25 barley, %50 chickpea: %50 barley, %25 chickpea: %75 barley, and sole barley) in RCBD in three replications in two experiments include normal and dry land conditions were studied. Result showed that total LER base on dry matter was affected by environment and mixed cropping interaction and was more than 1 in all mixed cropping treatments. In different mixed cropping rates, wet forage yield decreased by decreasing chickpea ratio as well as increasing barley ratio. Total LER mean in base on forage dry matter in mixed-, chemical-, and vermicompost fertilizer treatments were 1.12, 1.05 and 1.10 in normal condition and 1.15, 1.08 and 1.14 in dry land condition, respectively, represented the important of biological fertilizer in mixed cropping systems.

Keywords: land equivalent ration, biological fertilizer, mixed cropping systems, water stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
3560 Minimizing Vehicular Traffic via Integrated Land Use Development: A Heuristic Optimization Approach

Authors: Babu Veeregowda, Rongfang Liu

Abstract:

The current traffic impact assessment methodology and environmental quality review process for approval of land development project are conventional, stagnant, and one-dimensional. The environmental review policy and procedure lacks in providing the direction to regulate or seek alternative land uses and sizes that exploits the existing or surrounding elements of built environment (‘4 D’s’ of development – Density, Diversity, Design, and Distance to Transit) or smart growth principles which influence the travel behavior and have a significant effect in reducing vehicular traffic. Additionally, environmental review policy does not give directions on how to incorporate urban planning into the development in ways such as incorporating non-motorized roadway elements such as sidewalks, bus shelters, and access to community facilities. This research developed a methodology to optimize the mix of land uses and sizes using the heuristic optimization process to minimize the auto dependency development and to meet the interests of key stakeholders. A case study of Willets Point Mixed Use Development in Queens, New York, was used to assess the benefits of the methodology. The approved Willets Point Mixed Use project was based on maximum envelop of size and land use type allowed by current conventional urban renewal plans. This paper will also evaluate the parking accumulation for various land uses to explore the potential for shared parking to further optimize the mix of land uses and sizes. This research is very timely and useful to many stakeholders interested in understanding the benefits of integrated land uses and its development.

Keywords: traffic impact, mixed use, optimization, trip generation

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3559 Urban Dynamics Modelling of Mixed Land Use for Sustainable Urban Development in Indian Context

Authors: Rewati Raman, Uttam K. Roy

Abstract:

One of the main adversaries of city planning in present times is the ever-expanding problem of urbanization and the antagonistic issues accompanying it. The prevalent challenges in urbanization such as population growth, urban sprawl, poverty, inequality, pollution, congestion, etc. call for reforms in the urban fabric as well as in planning theory and practice. One of the various paradigms of city planning, land use planning, has been the major instruments for spatial planning of cities and regions in India. Zoning regulation based land use planning in the form of land use and development control plans (LUDCP) and development control regulations (DCR) have been considered mainstream guiding principles in land use planning for decades. In spite of many advantages of such zoning based regulations, over a period of time, it has been critiqued by scholars for its own limitations of isolation and lack of vitality, inconvenience in business in terms of proximity to residence and low operating cost, unsuitable environment for small investments, higher travel distance for facilities, amenities and thereby higher expenditure, safety issues etc. Mixed land use has been advocated as a tool to avoid such limitations in city planning by researchers. In addition, mixed land use can offer many advantages like housing variety and density, the creation of an economic blend of compatible land use, compact development, stronger neighborhood character, walkability, and generation of jobs, etc. Alternatively, the mixed land use beyond a suitable balance of use can also bring disadvantages like traffic congestion, encroachments, very high-density housing leading to a slum like condition, parking spill out, non-residential uses operating on residential premises paying less tax, chaos hampering residential privacy, pressure on existing infrastructure facilities, etc. This research aims at studying and outlining the various challenges and potentials of mixed land use zoning, through modeling tools, as a competent instrument for city planning in lieu of the present urban scenario. The methodology of research adopted in this paper involves the study of a mixed land use neighborhood in India, identification of indicators and parameters related to its extent and spatial pattern and the subsequent use of system dynamics as a modeling tool for simulation. The findings from this analysis helped in identifying the various advantages and challenges associated with the dynamic nature of a mixed use urban settlement. The results also confirmed the hypothesis that mixed use neighborhoods are catalysts for employment generation, socioeconomic gains while improving vibrancy, health, safety, and security. It is also seen that certain challenges related to chaos, lack of privacy and pollution prevail in mixed use neighborhoods, which can be mitigated by varying the percentage of mixing as per need, ensuring compatibility of adjoining use, institutional interventions in the form of policies, neighborhood micro-climatic interventions, etc. Therefore this paper gives a consolidated and holistic framework and quantified outcome pertaining to the extent and spatial pattern of mixed land use that should be adopted to ensure sustainable urban planning.

Keywords: mixed land use, sustainable development, system dynamics analysis, urban dynamics modelling

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3558 Urban Land Expansion Impact Assessment on Agriculture Land in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

Kabul city is experiencing urban land expansion in an unprecedented scale, especially since the last decade. With massive population expansion and fast economic development, urban land has increasingly expanded and encroached upon agriculture land during the urbanization history of the city. This paper evaluates the integrated urban land expansion impact on agriculture land in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the city between 1962-1964. The paper studies the temporal and spatial characteristic of agriculture land and agriculture land loss in Kabul city using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing till 2008. Many temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imageries were interpreted to detect the temporal and spatial characteristics of agriculture land loss. Different interval study periods, however, had vast difference in the agriculture land loss which is due to the urban land expansion trends in the city. the high number of Agriculture land adjacent to the city center and urban fringe have been converted into urban land during the study period in the city, as the agriculture land is highly correlated with the urban land.

Keywords: agriculture land, agriculture land loss, Kabul city, urban land expansion, urbanization

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3557 The Threats of Deforestation, Forest Fire and CO2 Emission toward Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve in Riau, Indonesia

Authors: Siti Badriyah Rushayati, Resti Meilani, Rachmad Hermawan

Abstract:

A biosphere reserve is developed to create harmony amongst economic development, community development, and environmental protection, through partnership between human and nature. Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR) in Riau Province, Indonesia, is unique in that it has peat soil dominating the area, many springs essential for human livelihood, high biodiversity. Furthermore, it is the only biosphere reserve covering privately managed production forest areas. The annual occurrences of deforestation and forest fire pose a threat toward such unique biosphere reserve. Forest fire produced smokes that along with mass airflow reached neighboring countries, particularly Singapore and Malaysia. In this research, we aimed at analyzing the threat of deforestation and forest fire, and the potential of CO2 emission at GSKBB BR. We used Landsat image, arcView software, and ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5 Software to conduct spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes, calculated CO2 emission based on emission potential from each land cover and land use type, and exercised simple linear regression to demonstrate the relation between CO2 emission potential and deforestation. The result showed that, beside in the buffer zone and transition area, deforestation also occurred in the core area. Spatial analysis of land cover and land use changes from years 2010, 2012, and 2014 revealed that there were changes of land cover and land use from natural forest and industrial plantation forest to other land use types, such as garden, mixed garden, settlement, paddy fields, burnt areas, and dry agricultural land. Deforestation in core area, particularly at the Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve and Bukit Batu Wildlife Reserve, occurred in the form of changes from natural forest in to garden, mixed garden, shrubs, swamp shrubs, dry agricultural land, open area, and burnt area. In the buffer zone and transition area, changes also happened, what once swamp forest changed into garden, mixed garden, open area, shrubs, swamp shrubs, and dry agricultural land. Spatial analysis on land cover and land use changes indicated that deforestation rate in the biosphere reserve from 2010 to 2014 had reached 16 119 ha/year. Beside deforestation, threat toward the biosphere reserve area also came from forest fire. The occurrence of forest fire in 2014 had burned 101 723 ha of the area, in which 9 355 ha of core area, and 92 368 ha of buffer zone and transition area. Deforestation and forest fire had increased CO2 emission as much as 24 903 855 ton/year.

Keywords: biosphere reserve, CO2 emission, deforestation, forest fire

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3556 Pollutant Loads of Urban Runoff from a Mixed Residential-Commercial Catchment

Authors: Carrie Ho, Tan Yee Yong

Abstract:

Urban runoff quality for a mixed residential-commercial land use catchment in Miri, Sarawak was investigated for three storm events in 2011. Samples from the three storm events were tested for five water quality parameters, Namely, TSS, COD, BOD5, TP, and Pb. Concentration of the pollutants were found to vary significantly between storms, but were generally influenced by the length of antecedent dry period and the strength of rainfall intensities. Runoff from the study site showed a significant level of pollution for all the parameters investigated. Based on the National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQS), stormwater quality from the study site was polluted and exceeded class III water for TSS and BOD5 with maximum EMCs of 177 and 24 mg/L, respectively. Design pollutant load based on a design storm of 3-month average recurrence interval (ARI) for TSS, COD, BOD5, TP, and Pb were estimated to be 40, 9.4, 5.4, 1.7, and 0.06 kg/ha, respectively. The design pollutant load for the pollutants can be used to estimate loadings from similar catchments within Miri City.

Keywords: mixed land-use, urban runoff, pollutant load, national water quality

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3555 Reformed Land: Extent of Use and Contribution to Livelihoods in the Waterberg District

Authors: A. J. Netshipale, M. L. Mashiloane, S. J. Oosting, I. J. M. De Boer, E. N. Raidimi

Abstract:

Three tier land reform programme (land restitution, land redistribution and land tenure reform) had been implemented for the past two decades in South Africa with an aim of redressing the unjust land ownership patterns of the past. Land restitution and redistribution seeked to make land available for beneficiaries’ ownership based on policy guidelines. Attention given to the two sub-programmes was mostly land reform focused with the quantity of land that exchanged ownership being used as a measure of success with disregard for how the land is used by the beneficiaries for their livelihoods. In few cases that the land use assessment was done for the two sub-programmes it was assessed on a case basis or few selected cases. The current study intended to shed light on a broader scope. This study investigated the extent to which land reform farms were used and contribution made by farms to the livelihoods of active beneficiaries. Seventy six farms that represented restitution (16 farms) and redistribution (60) programmes were selected for land use investigation. Land use data were collected from farm representatives by means of semi-structured questionnaire. A stratified sample of 87 households (38 for restitution and 49 for redistribution) were selected for livelihood investigations. Data on income generating activities and passive income sources were collected from household heads using semi-structured questionnaire. Additional data were collected through focus group discussions and from stakeholders through key-informants interviews. Livestock production used more land per farm on average (45%) in relation to the amount of average total land used per farm of 77% under land redistribution programme. Land restitution transformed crop farms into mixed farming and unused farms to be under use while land redistribution converted conservation land into agricultural land and also unused farms to be used. Livestock production contributed on average 25% to the livelihoods of 48% of the households whereas crop production contributed 31% on average to the livelihoods of 67% of the households. Government grants had the highest contribution of 54% on average and contributed to most households (72%). Agriculture was the sole source of livelihoods to only three per cent of the households. Most households (40%) had a mix of three livelihoods sources as their livelihood strategy. It could be concluded that the use of reformed land would be mainly influenced by the agro-ecological conditions of the area and agriculture could not be the main source of livelihoods for households that benefited from land reform. Land reform policies which accommodate diverse livelihoods activities could contribute to sustainable livelihoods.

Keywords: active beneficiaries, households, land reform, land use, livelihoods

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3554 Mixed Number Algebra and Its Application

Authors: Md. Shah Alam

Abstract:

Mushfiq Ahmad has defined a Mixed Number, which is the sum of a scalar and a Cartesian vector. He has also defined the elementary group operations of Mixed numbers i.e. the norm of Mixed numbers, the product of two Mixed numbers, the identity element and the inverse. It has been observed that Mixed Number is consistent with Pauli matrix algebra and a handy tool to work with Dirac electron theory. Its use as a mathematical method in Physics has been studied. (1) We have applied Mixed number in Quantum Mechanics: Mixed Number version of Displacement operator, Vector differential operator, and Angular momentum operator has been developed. Mixed Number method has also been applied to Klein-Gordon equation. (2) We have applied Mixed number in Electrodynamics: Mixed Number version of Maxwell’s equation, the Electric and Magnetic field quantities and Lorentz Force has been found. (3) An associative transformation of Mixed Number numbers fulfilling Lorentz invariance requirement is developed. (4) We have applied Mixed number algebra as an extension of Complex number. Mixed numbers and the Quaternions have isomorphic correspondence, but they are different in algebraic details. The multiplication of unit Mixed number and the multiplication of unit Quaternions are different. Since Mixed Number has properties similar to those of Pauli matrix algebra, Mixed Number algebra is a more convenient tool to deal with Dirac equation.

Keywords: mixed number, special relativity, quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, pauli matrix

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3553 Securing Land Rights for Food Security in Africa: An Appraisal of Links Between Smallholders’ Land Rights and the Right to Adequate Food in Ethiopia

Authors: Husen Ahmed Tura

Abstract:

There are strong links between secure land rights and food security in Africa. However, as land is owned by governments, land users do not have adequate legislative protection. This article explores normative and implementation gaps in relation to small-scale farmers’ land rights under the Ethiopia’s law. It finds that the law facilitates eviction of small-scale farmers and indigenous peoples from their land without adequate alternative means of livelihood. It argues that as access to land and other natural resources is strongly linked to the right to adequate food, Ethiopia should reform its land laws in the light of its legal obligations under international human rights law to respect, protect and fulfill the right to adequate food and ensure freedom from hunger.

Keywords: smallholder, secure land rights , food security, right to food, land grabbing, forced evictions

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3552 Remote Sensing and GIS for Land Use Change Assessment: Case Study of Oued Bou Hamed Watershed, Southern Tunisia

Authors: Ouerchefani Dalel, Mahdhaoui Basma

Abstract:

Land use change is one of the important factors needed to evaluate later on the impact of human actions on land degradation. This work present the application of a methodology based on remote sensing for evaluation land use change in an arid region of Tunisia. This methodology uses Landsat TM and ETM+ images to produce land use maps by supervised classification based on ground truth region of interests. This study showed that it was possible to rely on radiometric values of the pixels to define each land use class in the field. It was also possible to generate 3 land use classes of the same study area between 1988 and 2011.

Keywords: land use, change, remote sensing, GIS

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3551 Count Regression Modelling on Number of Migrants in Households

Authors: Tsedeke Lambore Gemecho, Ayele Taye Goshu

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to identify the determinants of the number of international migrants in a household and to compare regression models for count response. This study is done by collecting data from total of 2288 household heads of 16 randomly sampled districts in Hadiya and Kembata-Tembaro zones of Southern Ethiopia. The Poisson mixed models, as special cases of the generalized linear mixed model, is explored to determine effects of the predictors: age of household head, farm land size, and household size. Two ethnicities Hadiya and Kembata are included in the final model as dummy variables. Stepwise variable selection has indentified four predictors: age of head, farm land size, family size and dummy variable ethnic2 (0=other, 1=Kembata). These predictors are significant at 5% significance level with count response number of migrant. The Poisson mixed model consisting of the four predictors with random effects districts. Area specific random effects are significant with the variance of about 0.5105 and standard deviation of 0.7145. The results show that the number of migrant increases with heads age, family size, and farm land size. In conclusion, there is a significantly high number of international migration per household in the area. Age of household head, family size, and farm land size are determinants that increase the number of international migrant in households. Community-based intervention is needed so as to monitor and regulate the international migration for the benefits of the society.

Keywords: Poisson regression, GLM, number of migrant, Hadiya and Kembata Tembaro zones

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3550 Analysis of Changes in Land Uses Planning for Bangalore City as per Master Plans

Authors: Minakshi Goswami, M. V. Khire

Abstract:

The urban land use is an outcome of geographical and socio economic factors over the decades. Hence, spatial information on land use and possibilities of alternate use is essential for the selection, planning and implementation to meet the increasing demands of human needs and welfare of the urban area. This information assists in monitoring the land use resulting out of charging demands of increasing urban population over the decades. So in this paper, a detailed work on urban land use pattern, with a special reference to build up land in Bangalore city is analyzed in view of the various master plans from 1975to 2011. An attempt has been made to study the status of urban land use of Bangalore city during this period to detect the changes on land utilization rate that has taken place in each master plan period, particularly in the built-up land. The set of measures taken by the city corporation to contain the problems regarding the extremely bothering existing land use in Bangalore city is analyzed.

Keywords: built up land, land use changes, master plan, population

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
3549 Spectral Mixture Model Applied to Cannabis Parcel Determination

Authors: Levent Basayigit, Sinan Demir, Yusuf Ucar, Burhan Kara

Abstract:

Many research projects require accurate delineation of the different land cover type of the agricultural area. Especially it is critically important for the definition of specific plants like cannabis. However, the complexity of vegetation stands structure, abundant vegetation species, and the smooth transition between different seconder section stages make vegetation classification difficult when using traditional approaches such as the maximum likelihood classifier. Most of the time, classification distinguishes only between trees/annual or grain. It has been difficult to accurately determine the cannabis mixed with other plants. In this paper, a mixed distribution models approach is applied to classify pure and mix cannabis parcels using Worldview-2 imagery in the Lakes region of Turkey. Five different land use types (i.e. sunflower, maize, bare soil, and cannabis) were identified in the image. A constrained Gaussian mixture discriminant analysis (GMDA) was used to unmix the image. In the study, 255 reflectance ratios derived from spectral signatures of seven bands (Blue-Green-Yellow-Red-Rededge-NIR1-NIR2) were randomly arranged as 80% for training and 20% for test data. Gaussian mixed distribution model approach is proved to be an effective and convenient way to combine very high spatial resolution imagery for distinguishing cannabis vegetation. Based on the overall accuracies of the classification, the Gaussian mixed distribution model was found to be very successful to achieve image classification tasks. This approach is sensitive to capture the illegal cannabis planting areas in the large plain. This approach can also be used for monitoring and determination with spectral reflections in illegal cannabis planting areas.

Keywords: Gaussian mixture discriminant analysis, spectral mixture model, Worldview-2, land parcels

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3548 Government Intervention in Land Market

Authors: Waqar Ahmad Bajwa

Abstract:

In the land market, there are two kinds of government intervention. First one is the control of development and second is the supply of land. In the both intervention Government has a lot of benefits. In development control the government designation of conservation areas and the effects of growth controls which may increase the price of land. On other hand Government also apply charge fee on land. The second type of intervention is to increase the supply of land, either by direct action or indirect action, as in the Pakistan, by obligatory purchase or important domain.

Keywords: supply of control, control of development, charge fee, land control

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
3547 A Preliminary Study for Design of Automatic Block Reallocation Algorithm with Genetic Algorithm Method in the Land Consolidation Projects

Authors: Tayfun Çay, Yasar İnceyol, Abdurrahman Özbeyaz

Abstract:

Land reallocation is one of the most important steps in land consolidation projects. Many different models were proposed for land reallocation in the literature such as Fuzzy Logic, block priority based land reallocation and Spatial Decision Support Systems. A model including four parts is considered for automatic block reallocation with genetic algorithm method in land consolidation projects. These stages are preparing data tables for a project land, determining conditions and constraints of land reallocation, designing command steps and logical flow chart of reallocation algorithm and finally writing program codes of Genetic Algorithm respectively. In this study, we designed the first three steps of the considered model comprising four steps.

Keywords: land consolidation, landholding, land reallocation, optimization, genetic algorithm

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3546 Reliability Prediction of Tires Using Linear Mixed-Effects Model

Authors: Myung Hwan Na, Ho- Chun Song, EunHee Hong

Abstract:

We widely use normal linear mixed-effects model to analysis data in repeated measurement. In case of detecting heteroscedasticity and the non-normality of the population distribution at the same time, normal linear mixed-effects model can give improper result of analysis. To achieve more robust estimation, we use heavy tailed linear mixed-effects model which gives more exact and reliable analysis conclusion than standard normal linear mixed-effects model.

Keywords: reliability, tires, field data, linear mixed-effects model

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3545 The Optimal Utilization of Centrally Located Land: The Case of the Bloemfontein Show Grounds

Authors: D. F. Coetzee, M. M. Campbell

Abstract:

The urban environment is constantly expanding and the optimal use of centrally located land is important in terms of sustainable development. Bloemfontein has expanded and this affects land-use functions. The purpose of the study is to examine the possible shift in location of the Bloemfontein show grounds to utilize the space of the grounds more effectively in context of spatial planning. The research method used is qualitative case study research with the case study on the Bloemfontein show grounds. The purposive sample consisted of planners who work or consult in the Bloemfontein area and who are registered with the South African Council for Planners (SACPLAN). Interviews consisting of qualitative open-ended questionnaires were used. When considering relocation the social and economic aspects need to be considered. The findings also indicated a majority consensus that the property can be utilized more effectively in terms of mixed land use. The showground development trust compiled a master plan to ensure that the property is used to its full potential without the relocation of the showground function itself. This Master Plan can be seen as the next logical step for the showground property itself, and it is indeed an attempt to better utilize the land parcel without relocating the show function. The question arises whether the proposed Master Plan is a permanent solution or whether it is merely delaying the relocation of the core showground function to another location. For now, it is a sound solution, making the best out of the situation at hand and utilizing the property more effectively. If the show grounds were to be relocated the researcher proposed a recommendation of mixed-use development, in terms an expansion on the commercial business/retail, together with a sport and recreation function. The show grounds in Bloemfontein are well positioned to capitalize on and to meet the needs of the changing economy, while complimenting the future economic growth strategies of the city if the right plans are in place.

Keywords: centrally located land, spatial planning, show grounds, central business district

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3544 Modeling the Impacts of Road Construction on Lands Values

Authors: Maha Almumaiz, Harry Evdorides

Abstract:

Change in land value typically occurs when a new interurban road construction causes an increase in accessibility; this change in the adjacent lands values differs according to land characteristics such as geographic location, land use type, land area and sale time (appraisal time). A multiple regression model is obtained to predict the percent change in land value (CLV) based on four independent variables namely land distance from the constructed road, area of land, nature of land use and time from the works completion of the road. The random values of percent change in land value were generated using Microsoft Excel with a range of up to 35%. The trend of change in land value with the four independent variables was determined from the literature references. The statistical analysis and model building process has been made by using the IBM SPSS V23 software. The Regression model suggests, for lands that are located within 3 miles as the straight distance from the road, the percent CLV is between (0-35%) which is depending on many factors including distance from the constructed road, land use, land area and time from works completion of the new road.

Keywords: interurban road, land use types, new road construction, percent CLV, regression model

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3543 Corrosion of Fe-(9~37) Wt%Cr Alloys at 700-800 °C in N₂-H₂O-H₂S Mixed Gas

Authors: Min Jung Kim

Abstract:

Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 °C for 70 h under 1 atm of N₂, 1 atm of N₂/3.2%H₂O-mixed gas, and 1 atm of N₂/3.1%H₂O/2.42%H₂S-mixed gas. The corrosion rate of Fe-9Cr alloy increased with the addition of H₂O and increased further with the addition of H₂S in N₂/H₂O gas. Fe-9Cr alloy was non-protective in all gas types. In contrast, Fe-(19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys were protective in N₂ and N₂/H₂O-mixed gas because of the formation of the Cr₂O₃ layer. They were, however, non-protective in N₂/H₂O/H₂S-mixed gas because sulfidation dominated, forming the outer FeS layer and the inner Cr₂S₃ layer containing some FeCr₂S₄.

Keywords: Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys, corrosion, sulfidation, FeS

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3542 Determination and Evaluation of the Need of Land Consolidation for Nationalization Purpose with the Survey Results

Authors: Turgut Ayten, Tayfun Çay, Demet Ayten

Abstract:

In this research, nationalization method for obtaining land on the destination of Ankara-Konya High Speed Train in Turkey; Land consolidation for nationalization purpose as an alternative solution on obtaining land; a survey prepared for land owners whose lands were nationalized and institution officials who carries out the nationalization and land consolidation was applied, were investigated and the need for land consolidation for nationalization purpose is tried to be put forth. Study area is located in the Konya city- Kadınhanı district-Kolukısa and Sarikaya neighbourhood in Turkey and land consolidation results of the selected field which is on the destination of the high-speed train route were obtained. The data obtained was shared with the landowners in the research area, their choice between the nationalization method and land consolidation for nationalization method was questioned. In addition, the organization and institution officials who are accepted to used primarily by the state for obtaining land that are needed for the investments of state, and institution officials who make land consolidation were investigated on the issues of the efficiency of the methods they used and if they tried different methods.

Keywords: nationalization, land consolidation, land consolidation for nationalization

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3541 Land Use Changes in Two Mediterranean Coastal Regions: Do Urban Areas Matter?

Authors: L. Salvati, D. Smiraglia, S. Bajocco, M. Munafò

Abstract:

This paper focuses on Land Use and Land Cover Changes (LULCC) occurred in the urban coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin in the last thirty years. LULCC were assessed diachronically (1975-2006) in two urban areas, Rome (Italy) and Athens (Greece), by using CORINE land cover maps. In strictly coastal territories a persistent growth of built-up areas at the expenses of both agricultural and forest land uses was found. On the contrary, a different pattern was observed in the surrounding inland areas, where a high conversion rate of the agricultural land uses to both urban and forest land uses was recorded. The impact of city growth on the complex pattern of coastal LULCC is finally discussed.

Keywords: land use changes, coastal region, Rome prefecture, Attica, southern Europe

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3540 Classify Land Use/Cover Change and Its Impact on Soil Erosion Using GIS from 2005 to 2015 in Nzhelele Valley Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Blessing Mavhuru, Nthaduleni Nethengwe, Hector Chikoore, Onyango Beneah Daniel Odhiambo

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to classify land use/cover and how it has changed in Nzhelele Valley Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study aimed to identify and analyse the types of land use/cover in the years 2005, 2010, and 2015 with a view to assess the impact on soil erosion over time. Using GIS, the changes within land use/cover were assessed through the classification of satellite images. The study area was classified into four major land cover/use classes, which are vegetation, gravel road, built up land and agricultural fields. Over the period 2005-2015 the resultant land use/cover demonstrated (i) a significant increase (12%) for vegetation cover, (ii) a significant decrease in agriculture (16%) land use/cover, (iii) increase in built-up land (1%), as well as (iv) an increase in gravel roads (3%). This study envisages assisting policy makers in decision making on land use management for Nzhelele Valley.

Keywords: land use, land cover, change, soil erosion

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3539 Sustainable Land Use Policy and Monitoring Urban Land Expansion in Kabul: A Case Study of Rapid Urbanization

Authors: Osama Hidayat, Yoshitaka Kajiat

Abstract:

Kabul is a city that is highly representative of Afghanistan’s rapid urbanization process. As the city rapidly expands, there are enormous challenges to the sustainable use of land resources. This paper evaluates land use change and urban spatial expansion, from 1950 to 2016, in Kabul the capital of Afghanistan, using satellite images, field observation, and socio-economic data. The discussion covers the reduction in rural-to-urban land conversion, the delineation of urban growth boundaries, arable land reclamation and the establishment of farmland protection areas, urban upgrading, and the investigation and prosecution of illegal construction. This paper considers the aspects of urbanization and land management systems in Afghanistan. Efficient frames are outlined in Kabul for the following elements: governmental self-restraint and policy modification. The paper concludes that Kabul’s sustainable land use practices can provide a reference for other cities in Afghanistan.

Keywords: urban land expansion, urbanization, land use policy, sustainable development

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3538 An Evaluation of the Trends in Land Values around Institutions of Higher Learning in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Ben Nwokenkwo, Michael M. Eze, Felix Ike

Abstract:

The need to study trends in land values around institutions of higher learning cannot be overemphasized. Numerous studies in Nigeria have investigated the economic, and social influence of the sitting of institutions of higher learning at the micro, meso and macro levels. However, very few studies have evaluated the temporal extent at which such institution influences local land values. Since institutions greatly influence both the physical and environmental aspects of their immediate vicinity, attention must be taken to understand the influence of such changes on land values. This study examines the trend in land values using the Mann-Kendall analysis in order to determine if, between its beginning and end, a monotonic increase, decrease or stability exist in the land values across six institutions of higher learning for the period between 2004 and 2014. Specifically, The analysis was applied to the time series of the price(or value) of the land .The results of this study revealed that land values has either been increasing or remained stabled across all the institution sampled. The study finally recommends measures that can be put in place as counter magnets for land values estimation across institutions of higher learning.

Keywords: influence, land, trend, value

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3537 Impact of Private Oil Palm Expansion on Indonesia Tropical Forest Deforestation Rate: Case Study in the Province of Riau

Authors: Arzyana Sunkar, Yanto Santosa, Intan Purnamasari, Yohanna Dalimunthe

Abstract:

A variety of negative allegations have criticized the Indonesian oil palm plantations as being environmentally unfriendly. One of the important allegations thus must be verified is that expansion of Indonesian oil palm plantation has increased the deforestation rate of primary tropical forest. In relation to this, a research was conducted to study the origin or history of the status and land use of 8 private oil palm plantations (with a total of 46,372.38 ha) located in Riau Province. Several methods were employed: (1) conducting analysis of overlay maps between oil palm plantation studied with the 1986 Forest Map Governance Agreement (TGHK) and the 1994 and 2014 Riau Provincial Spatial Plans(RTRWP); (2) studying the Cultivation Right on Land (HGU) documents including the Forestry Ministerial Decree on the release of forest area and (3) interpretation of lands at imagery of bands 542, covering 3 years before and after the oil palm industries operated. In addition, field cross-checked, and interviews were conducted with National Land Agency, Plantation and Forestry Office and community figures. The results indicated that as much as 1.95% of the oil palm plantations under study were converted from production forest, 30.34% from limited production forest and 67.70% from area for other usage /conversion production forest. One year prior to the establishment of the plantations, the land cover types comprised of rubber plantations (49.96%), secondary forest (35.99%), bare land (10.17%), shrubs (3.03%) and mixed dryland farming-shrubs (0.84%), whereas the land use types comprised of 35.99% forest concession areas, 14.04% migrants dryland farms, and 49.96% Cultivation Right on Land of other companies. These results indicated that most of the private oil palm plantations under study, resulted from the conversion of production forests and the previous land use were not primary forest but rubber plantations and secondary forests.

Keywords: land cover types, land use history, primary forest, private oil palm plantations

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3536 Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatment for Sewage Wastewater

Authors: E. Marei, A. Hammad, S. Ismail, A. El-Gindy

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the ability of different formula of mixed bacteria as a biological treatments of wastewater after primary treatment as a bio-treatment and bio-removal and bio-adsorbent of different heavy metals in natural circumstances. The wastewater was collected from Sarpium forest site-Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. These treatments were mixture of free cells and mixture of immobilized cells of different bacteria. These different formulas of mixed bacteria were prepared under Lab. condition. The obtained data indicated that, as a result of wastewater bio-treatment, the removal rate was found to be 76.92 and 76.70% for biological oxygen demand, 79.78 and 71.07% for chemical oxygen demand, 32.45 and 36.84 % for ammonia nitrogen as well as 91.67 and 50.0% for phosphate after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. Moreover, the bio-removals of different heavy metals were found to reach 90.0 and 50. 0% for Cu ion, 98.0 and 98.5% for Fe ion, 97.0 and 99.3% for Mn ion, 90.0 and 90.0% Pb, 80.0% and 75.0% for Zn ion after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. The results indicated that 13.86 and 17.43% of removal efficiency and reduction of total dissolved solids were achieved after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively.

Keywords: wastewater bio-treatment , bio-sorption heavy metals, biological desalination, immobilized bacteria, free cell bacteria

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3535 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Mixed Convection within a Complex Geometry

Authors: Y. Lasbet, A. L. Boukhalkhal, K. Loubar

Abstract:

The study of mixed convection is, usually, focused on the straight channels in which the onset of the mixed convection is well defined as function of the ratio between Grashof number and Reynolds number, Gr/Re. This is not the case for a complex channel wherein the mixed convection is not sufficiently examined in the literature. Our paper focuses on the study of the mixed convection in a complex geometry in which our main contribution reveals that the critical value of the ratio Gr/Re for the onset of the mixed convection increases highly in the type of geometry contrary to the straight channel. Furthermore, the accentuated secondary flow in this geometry prevents the thermal stratification in the flow and consequently the buoyancy driven becomes negligible. To perform these objectives, a numerical study in complex geometry for several values of the ratio Gr/Re with prescribed wall heat flux (H2), was realized by using the CFD code.

Keywords: complex geometry, heat transfer, laminar flow, mixed convection, Nusselt number

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3534 A GIS Based Composite Land Degradation Assessment and Mapping of Tarkwa Mining Area

Authors: Bernard Kumi-Boateng, Kofi Bonsu

Abstract:

The clearing of vegetation in the Tarkwa Mining Area (TMA) for the purposes of mining, lumbering and development of settlement for the increasing population has caused a large scale denudation of the forest cover and erosion of the top soil thereby degrading the agriculture land. It is, therefore, essential to know the current status of land degradation in TMA so as to facilitate land conservation policy-making. The types of degradation, the extents of the degradations and their various degrees were combined to develop a composite land degradation index to assess the current status of land degradation in TMA using GIS based techniques. The assessment revealed that the most significant types of degradation in TMA were open pit and quarry mining; urbanisation and other construction projects; and surface scraping during land clearing. It was found that 21.62 % of the total area of TMA (353.07 km2) had high degradation index rating. It is recommended that decision makers use this assessment as a reference point for future initiatives that will be taken in order to develop land conservation policy.

Keywords: degradation, GIS, land, mining

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3533 Study of Land Use Land Cover Change of Bhimbetka with Temporal Satellite Data and Information Systems

Authors: Pranita Shivankar, Devashree Hardas, Prabodhachandra Deshmukh, Arun Suryavanshi

Abstract:

Bhimbetka Rock Shelters is the UNESCO World Heritage Site located about 45 kilometers south of Bhopal in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Rapid changes in land use land cover (LULC) adversely affect the environment. In recent past, significant changes are found in the cultural landscape over a period of time. The objective of the paper was to study the changes in land use land cover (LULC) of Bhimbetka and its peripheral region. For this purpose, the supervised classification was carried out by using satellite images of Landsat and IRS LISS III for the year 2000 and 2013. Use of remote sensing in combination with geographic information system is one of the effective information technology tools to generate land use land cover (LULC) change information.

Keywords: IRS LISS III, Landsat, LULC, UNESCO, World Heritage Site

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3532 Women Right to Land Entitlement for Gender Equality: Critical Review

Authors: A. Yousuf, M. Iqbal, A. Mir, S. Aziz

Abstract:

This study deals with the women’s right to land for gender equality. Economic Transformation Initiative, Gilgit-Baltistan (ETI-GB), an ambitious program supported by International Fund for Agricultural Development United Nation (IFAD, UN), aims to strengthen land reforms process in disputed area of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) Pakistan, that is taking place first time in the history. This project is a brick to build the foundation of land reforms and land policies in GB. The ETI-GB provides substantive support to government of GB in developing policy measures and initiatives to promote women’s right to have and to own land is kind of unconventional step in a very traditional society. It would be interesting to have discussion and document the people’s response regarding this project. The study has used mixed method for data collection. For qualitative data, content analysis is used to have a thorough understanding of different types of land reforms across the globe particularly in South Asia. Theoretical understanding of the literature is essential which provides the basis why land reforms are important and how far it plays an important role when it comes to eliminating inequality. Focused group discussion was carried out for verification and triangulation of data. For quantitative, survey was conducted to take responses from the people of the region and analyzed. The program is implemented in Ghizer district of GB. 2340 households were identified as beneficiaries of newly developed land. Among them, 2285 were men households, and 55 were women households. There is a significant difference between men and women households. In spite of great difference, it is a great achievement of the donor that in history of GB, first time women are going to be entitled to land ownership. GB is a patriarchal society, many social factors like cultural, religious play role for gender inequality. In developing countries, such as Pakistan, the awareness of land property rights has not been given proper attention to gender equality development frameworks. It is argued that land property rights of women have not been taken into mainstream policymaking in the development of nation building process. Consequently, this has generated deprivation of women’s property rights, low income level, lack of education and poor health. This paper emphasises that there should have proper land property right of women in Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan, provided that the gender empowerment could be increased in terms of women’s property rights.

Keywords: gender equality, women right to land ownership, property rights, women empowerment

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