Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Teguh Sugiarto

15 Short-Long Term between Gross Domestic Product and Consumption in Indonesia

Authors: Teguh Sugiarto, Ahmad Subagyo, Ludiro Madu, Amir Mohammadian Amiri

Abstract:

Recently, the significant fluctuations accosiated with Indonesian economy justifies the need for paying more attention to this issue. In this regard, the main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between two issues related to the macro Indonesia economy called consumption and GDP during the period of 1967 to 2014. This research method exploits short term and long term relationships using Granger and subsequently, models them by the causality method . However, using analysis of Granger with Johansen shows that there is not only a long term, but also a short-long relationship between GDP and consumption using lags the interval 5.

Keywords: cointegration, Granger causality, GDP, consumption

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14 First Digit Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford Number in Financial Statement

Authors: Teguh Sugiarto, Amir Mohamadian Amiri

Abstract:

Background: This study aims to explore if there is fraud in the company's financial report distribution using the number first digit Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford. Research methods: In this study, the author uses a number model contained in the first digit of the model Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford, to make a distinction between implementation by using the scale above and below 5%, the rate of occurrence of a difference against the digit number contained on Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford. If there is a significant difference above and below 5%, then the process of follow-up and detection of occurrence of fraud against the financial statements can be made. Findings: From research that has been done can be concluded that the number of frequency levels contained in the financial statements of PT Bank BRI Tbk in a year in the same conscientious results for model Lucas, Fibonacci and Benford.

Keywords: Lucas, Fibonacci, Benford, first digit

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13 Application All Digits Number Benford Law in Financial Statement

Authors: Teguh Sugiarto

Abstract:

Background: The research aims to explore if there is fraud in a financial statement, use the Act stated that Benford's distribution all digits must compare the number will follow the trend of lower number. Research methods: This research uses all the analysis number being in Benford's law. After receiving the results of the analysis of all the digits, the author makes a distinction between implementation using the scale above and below 5%, the rate of occurrence of difference. With the number which have differences in the range of 5%, then can do the follow-up and the detection of the onset of fraud against the financial statements. The findings: From the research that has been done can be drawn the conclusion that the average of all numbers appear in the financial statements, and compare the rates of occurrence of numbers according to the characteristics of Benford's law. About the existence of errors and fraud in the financial statements of PT medco Energy Tbk did not occur. Conclusions: The study concludes that Benford's law can serve as indicator tool in detecting the possibility of in financial statements to case studies of PT Medco Energy Tbk for the fiscal year 2000-2010.

Keywords: Benford law, first digits, all digits number Benford law, financial statement

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12 Application First and Second Digits Number in the Benford Law

Authors: Teguh Sugiarto

Abstract:

Background: This study aims to explore the fraud that occurred in the financial statements using the Benford distribution law of 1st and 2nd case study of PT AKR Corporindo Tbk. Research Methods: In this study the authors use the first digit of the analysis and the analysis of the second digit of Bedford’s law. Having obtained the results of the analysis of the first and second digits, authors will make the difference between implementations using the scale above and below 5%. The number that has the level of difference in the range of 5% above or below, then a financial report in may, to analyse in the followup to the direction of the audit investigation, and authors assume happens a confusion in the financial statements. Findings: From research done, we found that there was a difference in the results of the appearance of the first digit of the number with the proper use of Benford's law, according to PT AKR Corporindo financial reports Tbk for the fiscal year 2006-2010, above and below the level the difference in set 5%. Conclusions: From the research that has been done, it can be concluded that on PT AKR Corporindo financial report 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, there is a level difference of appearance of numbers according to Benford's law is significant, as presented in the table analysis.

Keywords: Benford law, first digits, second digits, Indonesian company

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11 Pre-Processing of Ultrasonography Image Quality Improvement in Cases of Cervical Cancer Using Image Enhancement

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Teguh Budiono, Yogi Ramadhani, Haris B. Widodo, Arwita Mulyawati

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of mortality in cancer-related diseases. In this diagnosis doctors usually perform several tests to determine the presence of cervical cancer in a patient. However, these checks require support equipment to get the results in more detail. One is by using ultrasonography. However, for the developing countries most of the existing ultrasonography has a low resolution. The goal of this research is to obtain abnormalities on low-resolution ultrasound images especially for cervical cancer case. In this paper, we emphasize our work to use Image Enhancement for pre-processing image quality improvement. The result shows that pre-processing stage is promising to support further analysis.

Keywords: cervical cancer, mortality, low-resolution, image enhancement.

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10 Analysis of Efficiency Production of Grass Black Jelly (Mesona palustris) in Double Scale

Authors: Irvan Adhin Cholilie, Susinggih Wijana, Yusron Sugiarto

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to compare the results of black grass jelly produced using laboratory scale and double scale. In this research, the production from the laboratory scale is using ingredients of 1 kg black grass jelly added with 5 liters of water, while the double scale is using 5 kg black grass jelly and 75 liters of water. The results of organoleptic tests performed by 30 panelists (general) to the sample gels of grass black powder produced from both of laboratory and double scale are not different significantly in color, odor, flavor, and texture. Proximate test results conducted in both of grass black jelly powder produced in laboratory scale and double scale also have no significant differences in all parameters. Grass black jelly powder from double scale contains water, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and yield in the amount of 12,25 %; 43,7 %; 5,89 %; and 16,28 % respectively. The results of the energy efficiency analysis by boiling, draining, evaporation, drying, and milling processes are 85,11 %; 76,97 %; 99,64 %; 99,99% and 99,39% respectively. The utility needs including water needs for each batch amounted 0.1 m3 and cost Rp 220,5 per batch, the electricity needs for each batch is 20.01 kWh and cost Rp 18569.28 per batch, and LPG needs for each batch is 30 kg costed Rp 234,000.00 so that the total cost spent for the process is Rp 252,789.78 .

Keywords: black grass jelly, powder, mass balance, energy balance, cost

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9 The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in Strengthening Goat Farm Competitiveness in Banjarnegara District, Indonesia

Authors: Mochamad Sugiarto, Yusmi Nw

Abstract:

Goat farming became an important alternative in eradicating poverty in Banjarnegara District. The success of goat farming in delivering products through efficient business management will improve business competitiveness. Entrepreneurship based farming has been able to survive in an ever-changing and increasingly complex global economy. Entrepreneurial farmers characterized by the ability to provide products of goats by applying the principles of efficient business. To achieve, this requires an understanding and a positive outlook related to entrepreneurship involving the values of courage to take risks, creativity and innovation as well as management's ability to find and read the opportunities. Entrepreneurial orientation owned by farmers is an important spirit of farmers to make decision for developing the goat farming. Entrepreneurial orientation is the view of farmers against the values of confidence, result-oriented, future-oriented, and creativity/innovation in goat farming. This study aims to (1) identify the entrepreneurial orientation of goat farmers in Banjarnegara District (2) analyze business competitiveness (cost efficiency) of goat farming in the Banjarnegara District and (3) analyze the relationship between the entrepreneurial perception and cost efficiency of goat farming in the Banjarnegara District. 178 respondents (goat farmers) were taken using stratified random sampling based on altitude. Banjarnegara district with heterogeneous topography grouped into areas of high ( > 1500m), moderate (500m-1000m) and low ( < 500m). The goat farmers in Banjarnegara District has a moderate entrepreneurial orientation. The manage their goat farming efficiently by having R/C = 2.58. Strengthening the entrepreneurial orientation will significantly increase the cost efficiency, which has an impact on strengthening the competitiveness of goat farming in Banjarnegara District.

Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation, cost efficiency, farm competitiveness, goat farming

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8 The Experience of Head Nurse: Phenomenological Research of Implementing Islamic Leadership Style in Syarif Hidayatullah Hospital

Authors: Jamaludin Tarkim, Yoga Teguh Guntara, Maftuhah

Abstract:

Islamic leadership style is model of leadership style applied by the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Islamic leadership style is applied, namely Syura (deliberation), ‘Adl bil qisth (justice, with equality), and Hurriyyah al-kalam (freedom of expression) and along with the values of Islam in the Islamic leadership style. This research aims to gain an overview of the experience of Head Nurse in the implementation of Islamic leadership style. This research is a qualitative one with descriptive phenomenology design through in-depth interviews. Participants were occupied as Head Nurse at the Hospital room Syarif Hidayatullah, set directly (purposive) with the principle of suitability (appropriateness) and sufficiency (adequacy). Retrieval of data and research conducted during the month of June 2014. Data collected in the form of recording in-depth interviews and analysis with Collazi method. This research identified four themes Syura (deliberation);‘Adl bil qisth (justice, with equality); Hurriyyah al-kalam (freedom of expression) and along with the values of Islam in the Islamic leadership style. The results of this research can provide a review of the Head Room experience in the application of Islamic leadership style at Syarif Hidayatullah Hospital already skilled leadership during the process, but the application is still not maximized. Required further research on in-depth exploration of how to get more comprehensive results from room Head Nurse experience in the application of Islamic leadership style, as well as subsequent researchers can choose a wider scope and complex so get more complete data.

Keywords: experience, Islamic leadership style, head nurse, nursing management

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7 The Integrated Methodological Development of Reliability, Risk and Condition-Based Maintenance in the Improvement of the Thermal Power Plant Availability

Authors: Henry Pariaman, Iwa Garniwa, Isti Surjandari, Bambang Sugiarto

Abstract:

Availability of a complex system of thermal power plant is strongly influenced by the reliability of spare parts and maintenance management policies. A reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) technique is an established method of analysis and is the main reference for maintenance planning. This method considers the consequences of failure in its implementation, but does not deal with further risk of down time that associated with failures, loss of production or high maintenance costs. Risk-based maintenance (RBM) technique provides support strategies to minimize the risks posed by the failure to obtain maintenance task considering cost effectiveness. Meanwhile, condition-based maintenance (CBM) focuses on monitoring the application of the conditions that allow the planning and scheduling of maintenance or other action should be taken to avoid the risk of failure prior to the time-based maintenance. Implementation of RCM, RBM, CBM alone or combined RCM and RBM or RCM and CBM is a maintenance technique used in thermal power plants. Implementation of these three techniques in an integrated maintenance will increase the availability of thermal power plants compared to the use of maintenance techniques individually or in combination of two techniques. This study uses the reliability, risks and conditions-based maintenance in an integrated manner to increase the availability of thermal power plants. The method generates MPI (Priority Maintenance Index) is RPN (Risk Priority Number) are multiplied by RI (Risk Index) and FDT (Failure Defense Task) which can generate the task of monitoring and assessment of conditions other than maintenance tasks. Both MPI and FDT obtained from development of functional tree, failure mode effects analysis, fault-tree analysis, and risk analysis (risk assessment and risk evaluation) were then used to develop and implement a plan and schedule maintenance, monitoring and assessment of the condition and ultimately perform availability analysis. The results of this study indicate that the reliability, risks and conditions-based maintenance methods, in an integrated manner can increase the availability of thermal power plants.

Keywords: integrated maintenance techniques, availability, thermal power plant, MPI, FDT

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6 The Comparison of Safety Factor in Dry and Rainy Condition at Coal Bearing Formation. Case Study: Lahat Area South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

Authors: Teguh Nurhidayat, Nurhamid, Dicky Muslim, Zufialdi Zakaria, Irvan Sophian

Abstract:

This paper presents the role of climate change as the factor that induces landslide. Case study is located at Lahat Regency, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. Study area has high economic value of coal reserves (mostly subbituminous – bituminous), which is developable for open pit coal mining in the future. Seams are found in Muara Enim Formation. This formation is at south Sumatera basin which is formed at Tertiary as a result of collision between the indian plate and eurasian plate. South Sumatera basin which is a basin located in back arc basin. This study aims to unravel the relationship between slope stability with different season condition in tropical climate. Undisturbed soil samples were obtained in the field along with other geological data. Laboratory works were carried out to obtain physical and mechanical properties of soils. Methodology to analyze slope stability is bishop method. Bishop methods are used to identify safety factor of slope. Result shows that slopes in rainy season conditions are more prone to landslides than in dry season. In the dry seasons with moisture content is 22.65%, safety factor is 1.28 the slope in stable condition. If rain is approaching with moisture content increasing to 97.8%, the slope began to be critical. On wet condition groundwater levels is increased, followed by γ (unit weight), c (cohesion), and φ (angle of friction) at 18.04, 5,88 kN/m2, and 28,04°, respectively, which ultimately determines the security factor FS to be 1.01 (slope in unstable conditions).

Keywords: rainfall, moisture content, slope analysis, landslide prone

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5 Rapid Degradation of High-Concentration Methylene Blue in the Combined System of Plasma-Enhanced Photocatalysis Using TiO₂-Carbon

Authors: Teguh Endah Saraswati, Kusumandari Kusumandari, Candra Purnawan, Annisa Dinan Ghaisani, Aufara Mahayum

Abstract:

The present study aims to investigate the degradation of methylene blue (MB) using TiO₂-carbon (TiO₂-C) photocatalyst combined with dielectric discharge (DBD) plasma. The carbon materials used in the photocatalyst were activated carbon and graphite. The thin layer of TiO₂-C photocatalyst was prepared by ball milling method which was then deposited on the plastic sheet. The characteristic of TiO₂-C thin layer was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. The XRD diffractogram patterns of TiO₂-G thin layer in various weight compositions of 50:1, 50:3, and 50:5 show the 2θ peaks found around 25° and 27° are the main characteristic of TiO₂ and carbon. SEM analysis shows spherical and regular morphology of the photocatalyst. Analysis using UV-Vis diffuse reflectance shows TiO₂-C has narrower band gap energy. The DBD plasma reactor was generated using two electrodes of Cu tape connected with stainless steel mesh and Fe wire separated by a glass dielectric insulator, supplied by a high voltage 5 kV with an air flow rate of 1 L/min. The optimization of the weight composition of TiO₂-C thin layer was studied based on the highest reduction of the MB concentration achieved, examined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The changes in pH values and color of MB indicated the success of MB degradation. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of MB was also studied in various higher concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300 ppm treated for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 min. The degradation efficiency of MB treated in combination system of photocatalysis and DBD plasma reached more than 99% in 6 min, in which the greater concentration of methylene blue dye, the lower degradation rate of methylene blue dye would be achieved.

Keywords: activated carbon, DBD plasma, graphite, methylene blue, photocatalysis

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4 Community-Based Settlement Environment in Malalayang Coastal Area, Manado City

Authors: Teguh R. Hakim, Frenny F. F. Kairupan, Alberta M. Mantiri

Abstract:

The face of the coastal city is generally the same as other cities face showing the dualistic, traditional and modern, rural and urbanity, planned and unplanned, slum and high quality. Manado city is located on the northern coastal areas of the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Manado city is located on the northern coastal areas of the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Urban environmental problems ever occurred in this city, which is the impact of dualistic urban. Overcrowding, inadequate infrastructure, and limited human resources become the main cause of untidiness the coastal settlements in Malalayang. This has an impact on the activities of social, economic, public health level in the environment of coastal City of Manado, Malalayang. This is becoming a serious problem which must be tackled jointly by the government, private parties, and the community. Community-based settlement environment setup, into one solution to realize the city's coastal settlements livable. As for this research aims to analyze the involvement of local communities in arrangements of the settlement. The participatory approach of the model used in this study. Its application is mainly at macro and meso-scale (region, city, and environment) or community architecture. Model participatory approach leads more operational research approach to find a solution/answer to the problems of settlement. The participatory approach is a model for research that involves researchers and society as an object at the same time the subject of research, which in the process in addition to researching also developed other forms of participation in the design and build together. The expected results of this study were able to provide education to the community about environmental and set up a livable settlement for the sake of improving the quality of life. The study also becomes inputs to the government in applying the pattern of development that will be implemented in the future.

Keywords: arrangements the coastal environment, community participation, urban environmental problems, livable settlement

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3 Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation towards Length of Stay and IL-6 Level on Community-Acquired Pneumonia Patients

Authors: Santony Santony, Teguh Rahayu Sartono, Iin Noor Chozin

Abstract:

Introduction: Pneumonia is acute inflammation on lung parenchyma which is caused by bacteria, virus, fungi, or parasite. In Indonesia, Pneumonia is among the ten inpatient cases. Length of stay is related to the increased morbidity rate, nosocomial infection, and costs. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on the difference in length of stay and the level of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) as an inflammation biomarker for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients in non-intensive rooms. Therefore, pulmonary rehabilitation as adjunctive therapy can be routinely exercised in order to shorten the length of stay, along with the decrease in IL-6 level. Methods: This study was conducted from May to October 2019 at Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Malang. 40 community-acquired pneumonia patients in non-intensive rooms were divided into two groups. 20 patients in the treatment group and 20 patients in the control group, all of them were selected through both inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study used simple consecutive random sampling. In the treatment group, pulmonary rehabilitation performed was composed of breathing exercise, effective coughing technique, clapping (percussion), postural drainage, as well as respiratory muscle training using incentive spirometry device. Pulmonary rehabilitation was conducted twice over five days with a minimum duration of 15 minutes. Blood samples were taken both on the first and the fifth day of the treatment to measure IL-6 level as an inflammation biomarker. Result: For the treatment group, the length of stay was 5.35 days whereas the control group 7.6 days. It can be seen that the treatment group had a shorter length of stay by 2.25 days (P<0,001). The IL-6 level on the first day for the treatment group was 36.27 pg/ml, whereas on the fifth day was 34.36 pg/ml. There was a decrease in IL-6 level on the fifth day of treatment even though it was not statistically significant (P=0.628). IL-6 level on the control group for the first day was 67.76 pg/ml, and after the fifth day, the level decreased to 54.43 pg/ml. There seemed to be a decrease in the IL-6, but it was not statistically significant (P=0.502). On the fifth day, the treatment group showed an average IL-6 level of 34.36 pg/ml. This value was lower than that of the control group which did not receive pulmonary rehabilitation having an IL-6 level of 54.43 pg/ml, even though it was not statistically significant (p=0.221). Conclusion: This study concluded that pulmonary rehabilitation as an adjunctive therapy shortened length of stay by 2.25 days for community-acquired pneumonia patients in a non-intensive room. Both groups experienced a decrease in IL-6 level on the fifth day in comparison with the first day even though it was not statistically significant P>0,05. IL-6 level as an inflammation biomarker decreased on the fifth day of treatment which was in accordance with improvement on pneumonia patients.

Keywords: community-acquired pneumonia, interleukin-6, length of stay, pulmonary rehabilitation

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2 The Effect of Seated Distance on Muscle Activation and Joint Kinematics during Seated Strengthening in Patients with Stroke with Extensor Synergy Pattern in the Lower Limbs

Authors: Y. H. Chen, P. Y. Chiang, T. Sugiarto, I. Karsuna, Y. J. Lin, C. C. Chang, W. C. Hsu

Abstract:

Task-specific training with intense practice of functional tasks has been emphasized for the approaches in motor rehabilitation in patients with hemiplegic strokes. Although reciprocal actions which may increase demands on motor control during seated stepping exercise, motor control is not explicitly trained with emphasis and instruction focused on traditional strengthening. Apart from cycling and treadmill, various forms of seated exerciser are becoming available for the lower extremity exercise. The benefit of seated exerciser has been focused on the effect on the cardiopulmonary system. Thus, the aim of current study is to investigate the effect of seated distance on muscle activation during seated strengthening in patients with stroke with extensor synergy pattern in the lower extremities. Electrodes were placed on the surface of lower limbs muscles, including rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GT) of both sides. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the muscles were obtained to normalize the EMG amplitude obtained during dynamic trials with analog raw data digitized with a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz, fully rectified and the linear enveloped. Movement cycle was separated into two phases by pushing (PP) and Return (RP). Integral EMG (iEMG) is then used to quantify level of activation during each of the phases. Subjects performed strengthening with moderate resistance with speed of 60 rpm in two different distances (D1, short) and (D2, long). The results showed greater iEMG in RF and smaller iEMG in VL and BF with obvious increase range of motion of hip flexion in D1 condition. On the contrary, no significant involvement of RF while greater level of muscular activation in VL and BF during RP was found during PP in D2 condition. In addition, greater hip internal rotation was observed in D2 condition. In patients with stroke with abnormal tone revealed by extensor synergy in the lower extremities, shorter seated distance is suggested to facilitate hip flexor muscle activation while avoid inducing hyper extensor tone which may prevent a smooth repetitive motion. Repetitive muscular contraction exercise of hip flexor may be helpful for further gait training as it may assist hip flexion during swing phase of the walking.

Keywords: seated strengthening, patients with stroke, electromyography, synergy pattern

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1 Profile of Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Expression and PD-L1 Gene Amplification in Indonesian Colorectal Cancer Patients

Authors: Akterono Budiyati, Gita Kusumo, Teguh Putra, Fritzie Rexana, Antonius Kurniawan, Aru Sudoyo, Ahmad Utomo, Andi Utama

Abstract:

The presence of the programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) has been used in multiple clinical trials and approved as biomarker for selecting patients more likely to respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, the expression of PD-L1 is regulated in different ways, which leads to a different significance of its presence. Positive PD-L1 within tumors may result from two mechanisms, induced PD-L1 expression by T-cell presence or genetic mechanism that lead to constitutive PD-L1 expression. Amplification of PD-L1 genes was found as one of genetic mechanism which causes an increase in PD-L1 expression. In case of colorectal cancer (CRC), targeting immune checkpoint inhibitor has been recommended for patients with microsatellite instable (MSI). Although the correlation between PD-L1 expression and MSI status has been widely studied, so far the precise mechanism of PD-L1 gene activation in CRC patients, particularly in MSI population have yet to be clarified. In this present study we have profiled 61 archived formalin fixed paraffin embedded CRC specimens of patients from Medistra Hospital, Jakarta admitted in 2010 - 2016. Immunohistochemistry was performed to measure expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells as well as MSI status using antibodies against PD-L1 and MMR (MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and MSH6), respectively. PD-L1 expression was measured on tumor cells with cut off of 1% whereas loss of nuclear MMR protein expressions in tumor cells but not in normal or stromal cells indicated presence of MSI. Subset of PD-L1 positive patients was then assessed for copy number variations (CNVs) using single Tube TaqMan Copy Number Assays Gene CD247PD-L1. We also observed KRAS mutation to profile possible genetic mechanism leading to the presence or absence of PD-L1 expression. Analysis of 61 CRC patients revealed 15 patients (24%) expressed PD-L1 on their tumor cell membranes. The prevalence of surface membrane PD-L1 was significantly higher in patients with MSI (87%; 7/8) compared to patients with microsatellite stable (MSS) (15%; 8/53) (P=0.001). Although amplification of PD-L1 gene was not found among PD-L1 positive patients, low-level amplification of PD-L1 gene was commonly observed in MSS patients (75%; 6/8) than in MSI patients (43%; 3/7). Additionally, we found 26% of CRC patients harbored KRAS mutations (16/61), so far the distribution of KRAS status did not correlate with PD-L1 expression. Our data suggest genetic mechanism through amplification of PD-L1 seems not to be the mechanism underlying upregulation of PD-L1 expression in CRC patients. However, further studies are warranted to confirm the results.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, gene amplification, microsatellite instable, programmed death ligand-1

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