Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 143

Search results for: Taylor’s law

143 Reconsidering Taylor’s Law with Chaotic Population Dynamical Systems

Authors: Yuzuru Mitsui, Takashi Ikegami

Abstract:

The exponents of Taylor’s law in deterministic chaotic systems are computed, and their meanings are intensively discussed. Taylor’s law is the scaling relationship between the mean and variance (in both space and time) of population abundance, and this law is known to hold in a variety of ecological time series. The exponents found in the temporal Taylor’s law are different from those of the spatial Taylor’s law. The temporal Taylor’s law is calculated on the time series from the same locations (or the same initial states) of different temporal phases. However, with the spatial Taylor’s law, the mean and variance are calculated from the same temporal phase sampled from different places. Most previous studies were done with stochastic models, but we computed the temporal and spatial Taylor’s law in deterministic systems. The temporal Taylor’s law evaluated using the same initial state, and the spatial Taylor’s law was evaluated using the ensemble average and variance. There were two main discoveries from this work. First, it is often stated that deterministic systems tend to have the value two for Taylor’s exponent. However, most of the calculated exponents here were not two. Second, we investigated the relationships between chaotic features measured by the Lyapunov exponent, the correlation dimension, and other indexes with Taylor’s exponents. No strong correlations were found; however, there is some relationship in the same model, but with different parameter values, and we will discuss the meaning of those results at the end of this paper.

Keywords: chaos, density effect, population dynamics, Taylor’s law

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142 Experimental Investigations of a Modified Taylor-Couette Flow

Authors: Ahmed Esmael, Ali El Shrif

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In this study the instability problem of a modified Taylor-Couette flow between two vertical coaxial cylinders of radius R1, R2 is considered. The modification is based on the wavy shape of the inner cylinder surface, where inner cylinders with different surface amplitude and wavelength are used. The study aims to discover the effect of the inner surface geometry on the instability phenomenon that undergoes Taylor-Couette flow. The study reveals that the transition processes depends strongly on the amplitude and wavelength of the inner cylinder surface and resulting in flow instabilities that are strongly different from that encountered in the case of the classical Taylor-Couette flow.

Keywords: hydrodynamic instability, Modified Taylor-Couette Flow, turbulence, Taylor vortices

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141 Interest Rate Prediction with Taylor Rule

Authors: T. Bouchabchoub, A. Bendahmane, A. Haouriqui, N. Attou

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This paper presents simulation results of Forex predicting model equations in order to give approximately a prevision of interest rates. First, Hall-Taylor (HT) equations have been used with Taylor rule (TR) to adapt them to European and American Forex Markets. Indeed, initial Taylor Rule equation is conceived for all Forex transactions in every States: It includes only one equation and six parameters. Here, the model has been used with Hall-Taylor equations, initially including twelve equations which have been reduced to only three equations. Analysis has been developed on the following base macroeconomic variables: Real change rate, investment wages, anticipated inflation, realized inflation, real production, interest rates, gap production and potential production. This model has been used to specifically study the impact of an inflation shock on macroeconomic director interest rates.

Keywords: interest rate, Forex, Taylor rule, production, European Central Bank (ECB), Federal Reserve System (FED).

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140 Unveiling Special Policy Regime, Judgment, and Taylor Rules in Tunisia

Authors: Yosra Baaziz, Moez Labidi

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Given limited research on monetary policy rules in revolutionary countries, this paper challenges the suitability of the Taylor rule in characterizing the monetary policy behavior of the Tunisian Central Bank (BCT), especially in turbulent times. More specifically, we investigate the possibility that the Taylor rule should be formulated as a threshold process and examine the validity of such nonlinear Taylor rule as a robust rule for conducting monetary policy in Tunisia. Using quarterly data from 1998:Q4 to 2013:Q4 to analyze the movement of nominal short-term interest rate of the BCT, we find that the nonlinear Taylor rule improves its performance with the advent of special events providing thus a better description of the Tunisian interest rate setting. In particular, our results show that the adoption of an appropriate nonlinear approach leads to a reduction in the errors of 150 basis points in 1999 and 2009, and 60 basis points in 2011, relative to the linear approach.

Keywords: policy rule, central bank, exchange rate, taylor rule, nonlinearity

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139 Chaotic Behavior in Monetary Systems: Comparison among Different Types of Taylor Rule

Authors: Reza Moosavi Mohseni, Wenjun Zhang, Jiling Cao

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The aim of the present study is to detect the chaotic behavior in monetary economic relevant dynamical system. The study employs three different forms of Taylor rules: current, forward, and backward looking. The result suggests the existence of the chaotic behavior in all three systems. In addition, the results strongly represent that using expectations especially rational expectation hypothesis can increase complexity of the system and leads to more chaotic behavior.

Keywords: taylor rule, monetary system, chaos theory, lyapunov exponent, GMM estimator

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138 The Bernstein Expansion for Exponentials in Taylor Functions: Approximation of Fixed Points

Authors: Tareq Hamadneh, Jochen Merker, Hassan Al-Zoubi

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Bernstein's expansion for exponentials in Taylor functions provides lower and upper optimization values for the range of its original function. these values converge to the original functions if the degree is elevated or the domain subdivided. Taylor polynomial can be applied so that the exponential is a polynomial of finite degree over a given domain. Bernstein's basis has two main properties: its sum equals 1, and positive for all x 2 (0; 1). In this work, we prove the existence of fixed points for exponential functions in a given domain using the optimization values of Bernstein. The Bernstein basis of finite degree T over a domain D is defined non-negatively. Any polynomial p of degree t can be expanded into the Bernstein form of maximum degree t ≤ T, where we only need to compute the coefficients of Bernstein in order to optimize the original polynomial. The main property is that p(x) is approximated by the minimum and maximum Bernstein coefficients (Bernstein bound). If the bound is contained in the given domain, then we say that p(x) has fixed points in the same domain.

Keywords: Bernstein polynomials, Stability of control functions, numerical optimization, Taylor function

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137 Taylor’s Law and Relationship between Life Expectancy at Birth and Variance in Age at Death in Period Life Table

Authors: David A. Swanson, Lucky M. Tedrow

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Taylor’s Law is a widely observed empirical pattern that relates variances to means in sets of non-negative measurements via an approximate power function, which has found application to human mortality. This study adds to this research by showing that Taylor’s Law leads to a model that reasonably describes the relationship between life expectancy at birth (e0, which also is equal to mean age at death in a life table) and variance at age of death in seven World Bank regional life tables measured at two points in time, 1970 and 2000. Using as a benchmark a non-random sample of four Japanese female life tables covering the period from 1950 to 2004, the study finds that the simple linear model provides reasonably accurate estimates of variance in age at death in a life table from e0, where the latter range from 60.9 to 85.59 years. Employing 2017 life tables from the Human Mortality Database, the simple linear model is used to provide estimates of variance at age in death for six countries, three of which have high e0 values and three of which have lower e0 values. The paper provides a substantive interpretation of Taylor’s Law relative to e0 and concludes by arguing that reasonably accurate estimates of variance in age at death in a period life table can be calculated using this approach, which also can be used where e0 itself is estimated rather than generated through the construction of a life table, a useful feature of the model.

Keywords: empirical pattern, mean age at death in a life table, mean age of a stationary population, stationary population

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136 Retail Strategy to Reduce Waste Keeping High Profit Utilizing Taylor's Law in Point-of-Sales Data

Authors: Gen Sakoda, Hideki Takayasu, Misako Takayasu

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Waste reduction is a fundamental problem for sustainability. Methods for waste reduction with point-of-sales (POS) data are proposed, utilizing the knowledge of a recent econophysics study on a statistical property of POS data. Concretely, the non-stationary time series analysis method based on the Particle Filter is developed, which considers abnormal fluctuation scaling known as Taylor's law. This method is extended for handling incomplete sales data because of stock-outs by introducing maximum likelihood estimation for censored data. The way for optimal stock determination with pricing the cost of waste reduction is also proposed. This study focuses on the examination of the methods for large sales numbers where Taylor's law is obvious. Numerical analysis using aggregated POS data shows the effectiveness of the methods to reduce food waste maintaining a high profit for large sales numbers. Moreover, the way of pricing the cost of waste reduction reveals that a small profit loss realizes substantial waste reduction, especially in the case that the proportionality constant  of Taylor’s law is small. Specifically, around 1% profit loss realizes half disposal at =0.12, which is the actual  value of processed food items used in this research. The methods provide practical and effective solutions for waste reduction keeping a high profit, especially with large sales numbers.

Keywords: food waste reduction, particle filter, point-of-sales, sustainable development goals, Taylor's law, time series analysis

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135 Comparing Numerical Accuracy of Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) Using Taylor's Series Method, Euler's Method and Runge-Kutta (RK) Method

Authors: Palwinder Singh, Munish Sandhir, Tejinder Singh

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The ordinary differential equations (ODE) represent a natural framework for mathematical modeling of many real-life situations in the field of engineering, control systems, physics, chemistry and astronomy etc. Such type of differential equations can be solved by analytical methods or by numerical methods. If the solution is calculated using analytical methods, it is done through calculus theories, and thus requires a longer time to solve. In this paper, we compare the numerical accuracy of the solutions given by the three main types of one-step initial value solvers: Taylor’s Series Method, Euler’s Method and Runge-Kutta Fourth Order Method (RK4). The comparison of accuracy is obtained through comparing the solutions of ordinary differential equation given by these three methods. Furthermore, to verify the accuracy; we compare these numerical solutions with the exact solutions.

Keywords: Ordinary differential equations (ODE), Taylor’s Series Method, Euler’s Method, Runge-Kutta Fourth Order Method

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134 Hydromagnetic Linear Instability Analysis of Giesekus Fluids in Taylor-Couette Flow

Authors: K. Godazandeh, K. Sadeghy

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In the present study, the effect of magnetic field on the hydrodynamic instability of Taylor-Couette flow between two concentric rotating cylinders has been numerically investigated. At the beginning the basic flow has been solved using continuity, Cauchy equations (with regards to Lorentz force) and the constitutive equations of a viscoelastic model called "Giesekus" model. Small perturbations, considered to be normal mode, have been superimposed to the basic flow and the unsteady perturbation equations have been derived consequently. Neglecting non-linear terms, the general eigenvalue problem obtained has been solved using pseudo spectral method (combination of Chebyshev polynomials). The objective of the calculations is to study the effect of magnetic fields on the onset of first mode of instability (axisymmetric mode) for different dimensionless parameters of the flow. The results show that the stability picture is highly influenced by the magnetic field. When magnetic field increases, it first has a destabilization effect which changes to stabilization effect due to more increase of magnetic fields. Therefor there is a critical magnetic number (Hartmann number) for instability of Taylor-Couette flow. Also, the effect of magnetic field is more dominant in large gaps. Also based on the results obtained, magnetic field shows a more considerable effect on the stability at higher Weissenberg numbers (at higher elasticity), while the "mobility factor" changes show no dominant role on the intense of suction and injection effect on the flow's instability.

Keywords: magnetic field, Taylor-Couette flow, Giesekus model, pseudo spectral method, Chebyshev polynomials, Hartmann number, Weissenberg number, mobility factor

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133 Epistemic Uncertainty Analysis of Queue with Vacations

Authors: Baya Takhedmit, Karim Abbas, Sofiane Ouazine

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The vacations queues are often employed to model many real situations such as computer systems, communication networks, manufacturing and production systems, transportation systems and so forth. These queueing models are solved at fixed parameters values. However, the parameter values themselves are determined from a finite number of observations and hence have uncertainty associated with them (epistemic uncertainty). In this paper, we consider the M/G/1/N queue with server vacation and exhaustive discipline where we assume that the vacation parameter values have uncertainty. We use the Taylor series expansions approach to estimate the expectation and variance of model output, due to epistemic uncertainties in the model input parameters.

Keywords: epistemic uncertainty, M/G/1/N queue with vacations, non-parametric sensitivity analysis, Taylor series expansion

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132 A New Floating Point Implementation of Base 2 Logarithm

Authors: Ahmed M. Mansour, Ali M. El-Sawy, Ahmed T. Sayed

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Logarithms reduce products to sums and powers to products; they play an important role in signal processing, communication and information theory. They are primarily used for hardware calculations, handling multiplications, divisions, powers, and roots effectively. There are three commonly used bases for logarithms; the logarithm with base-10 is called the common logarithm, the natural logarithm with base-e and the binary logarithm with base-2. This paper demonstrates different methods of calculation for log2 showing the complexity of each and finds out the most accurate and efficient besides giving in- sights to their hardware design. We present a new method called Floor Shift for fast calculation of log2, and then we combine this algorithm with Taylor series to improve the accuracy of the output, we illustrate that by using two examples. We finally compare the algorithms and conclude with our remarks.

Keywords: logarithms, log2, floor, iterative, CORDIC, Taylor series

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131 Emerging Technologies in Distance Education

Authors: Eunice H. Li

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This paper discusses and analyses a small portion of the literature that has been reviewed for research work in Distance Education (DE) pedagogies that I am currently undertaking. It begins by presenting a brief overview of Taylor's (2001) five-generation models of Distance Education. The focus of the discussion will be on the 5th generation, Intelligent Flexible Learning Model. For this generation, educational and other institutions make portal access and interactive multi-media (IMM) an integral part of their operations. The paper then takes a brief look at current trends in technologies – for example smart-watch wearable technology such as Apple Watch. The emergent trends in technologies carry many new features. These are compared to former DE generational features. Also compared is the time span that has elapsed between the generations that are referred to in Taylor's model. This paper is a work in progress. The paper therefore welcome new insights, comparisons and critique of the issues discussed.

Keywords: distance education, e-learning technologies, pedagogy, generational models

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130 Subclasses of Bi-Univalent Functions Associated with Hohlov Operator

Authors: Rashidah Omar, Suzeini Abdul Halim, Aini Janteng

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The coefficients estimate problem for Taylor-Maclaurin series is still an open problem especially for a function in the subclass of bi-univalent functions. A function f ϵ A is said to be bi-univalent in the open unit disk D if both f and f-1 are univalent in D. The symbol A denotes the class of all analytic functions f in D and it is normalized by the conditions f(0) = f’(0) – 1=0. The class of bi-univalent is denoted by  The subordination concept is used in determining second and third Taylor-Maclaurin coefficients. The upper bound for second and third coefficients is estimated for functions in the subclasses of bi-univalent functions which are subordinated to the function φ. An analytic function f is subordinate to an analytic function g if there is an analytic function w defined on D with w(0) = 0 and |w(z)| < 1 satisfying f(z) = g[w(z)]. In this paper, two subclasses of bi-univalent functions associated with Hohlov operator are introduced. The bound for second and third coefficients of functions in these subclasses is determined using subordination. The findings would generalize the previous related works of several earlier authors.

Keywords: analytic functions, bi-univalent functions, Hohlov operator, subordination

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129 A Hybrid Adomian Decomposition Method in the Solution of Logistic Abelian Ordinary Differential and Its Comparism with Some Standard Numerical Scheme

Authors: F. J. Adeyeye, D. Eni, K. M. Okedoye

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In this paper we present a Hybrid of Adomian decomposition method (ADM). This is the substitution of a One-step method of Taylor’s series approximation of orders I and II, into the nonlinear part of Adomian decomposition method resulting in a convergent series scheme. This scheme is applied to solve some Logistic problems represented as Abelian differential equation and the results are compared with the actual solution and Runge-kutta of order IV in order to ascertain the accuracy and efficiency of the scheme. The findings shows that the scheme is efficient enough to solve logistic problems considered in this paper.

Keywords: Adomian decomposition method, nonlinear part, one-step method, Taylor series approximation, hybrid of Adomian polynomial, logistic problem, Malthusian parameter, Verhulst Model

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128 Analysis of Exponential Nonuniform Transmission Line Parameters

Authors: Mounir Belattar

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In this paper the Analysis of voltage waves that propagate along a lossless exponential nonuniform line is presented. For this analysis the parameters of this line are assumed to be varying function of the distance x along the line from the source end. The approach is based on the tow-port networks cascading presentation to derive the ABDC parameters of transmission using Picard-Carson Method which is a powerful method in getting a power series solution for distributed network because it is easy to calculate poles and zeros and solves differential equations such as telegrapher equations by an iterative sequence. So the impedance, admittance voltage and current along the line are expanded as a Taylor series in x/l where l is the total length of the line to obtain at the end, the main transmission line parameters such as voltage response and transmission and reflexion coefficients represented by scattering parameters in frequency domain.

Keywords: ABCD parameters, characteristic impedance exponential nonuniform transmission line, Picard-Carson's method, S parameters, Taylor's series

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127 Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the Torque in a Small Gap Taylor-Couette Flow with Smooth and Grooved Surface

Authors: L. Joseph, B. Farid, F. Ravelet

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Fundamental studies were performed on bifurcation, instabilities and turbulence in Taylor-Couette flow and applied to many engineering applications like astrophysics models in the accretion disks, shrouded fans, and electric motors. Such rotating machinery performances need to have a better understanding of the fluid flow distribution to quantify the power losses and the heat transfer distribution. The present investigation is focused on high gap ratio of Taylor-Couette flow with high rotational speeds, for smooth and grooved surfaces. So far, few works has been done in a very narrow gap and with very high rotation rates and, to the best of our knowledge, not with this combination with grooved surface. We study numerically the turbulent flow between two coaxial cylinders where R1 and R2 are the inner and outer radii respectively, where only the inner is rotating. The gap between the rotor and the stator varies between 0.5 and 2 mm, which corresponds to a radius ratio η = R1/R2 between 0.96 and 0.99 and an aspect ratio Γ= L/d between 50 and 200, where L is the length of the rotor and d being the gap between the two cylinders. The scaling of the torque with the Reynolds number is determined at different gaps for different smooth and grooved surfaces (and also with different number of grooves). The fluid in the gap is air. Re varies between 8000 and 30000. Another dimensionless parameter that plays an important role in the distinction of the regime of the flow is the Taylor number that corresponds to the ratio between the centrifugal forces and the viscous forces (from 6.7 X 105 to 4.2 X 107). The torque will be first evaluated with RANS and U-RANS models, and compared to empirical models and experimental results. A mesh convergence study has been done for each rotor-stator combination. The results of the torque are compared to different meshes in 2D dimensions. For the smooth surfaces, the models used overestimate the torque compared to the empirical equations that exist in the bibliography. The closest models to the empirical models are those solving the equations near to the wall. The greatest torque achieved with grooved surface. The tangential velocity in the gap was always higher in between the rotor and the stator and not on the wall of rotor. Also the greater one was in the groove in the recirculation zones. In order to avoid endwall effects, long cylinders are used in our setup (100 mm), torque is measured by a co-rotating torquemeter. The rotor is driven by an air turbine of an automotive turbo-compressor for high angular velocities. The results of the experimental measurements are at rotational speed of up to 50 000 rpm. The first experimental results are in agreement with numerical ones. Currently, quantitative study is performed on grooved surface, to determine the effect of number of grooves on the torque, experimentally and numerically.

Keywords: Taylor-Couette flow, high gap ratio, grooved surface, high speed

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126 Indigenous Influences on American Osteopathy

Authors: Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Josephine Conte, Barbara Mainguy

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We explore the historical connection of Andrew Taylor Still with the aboriginal nations placed in Missouri, notably the Shawnee, Pawnee, Kickapoo, Cherokee, and the Pottowattomy. Still was fluent in Shawnee and himself was part Native American (Lumbee). These nations had well-developed forms of hands-on healing as well as practicing lightning bone setting. They were more sophisticated than their European-derived neighbors in treating fractures and discolocations. We trace Still’s writings as evidence for his connectedness with these people and respect for their traditions. We explore the traditional hands-on therapies of these nations and discover that they are quite similar to osteopathy. We propose that Still was a translator of traditional manual medicine of the nations into the mainstream of American society. While, surely, he made his own personal contributions to manual medicine, he did not invent osteopathy de novo but relied on methods that were well-developed across centuries for his inspiration.

Keywords: indigenous healing, indigenous bodywork, American osteopathy, Andrew Taylor Still, Cherokee, Shawnee

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125 Derivation of Fractional Black-Scholes Equations Driven by Fractional G-Brownian Motion and Their Application in European Option Pricing

Authors: Changhong Guo, Shaomei Fang, Yong He

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In this paper, fractional Black-Scholes models for the European option pricing were established based on the fractional G-Brownian motion (fGBm), which generalizes the concepts of the classical Brownian motion, fractional Brownian motion and the G-Brownian motion, and that can be used to be a tool for considering the long range dependence and uncertain volatility for the financial markets simultaneously. A generalized fractional Black-Scholes equation (FBSE) was derived by using the Taylor’s series of fractional order and the theory of absence of arbitrage. Finally, some explicit option pricing formulas for the European call option and put option under the FBSE were also solved, which extended the classical option pricing formulas given by F. Black and M. Scholes.

Keywords: European option pricing, fractional Black-Scholes equations, fractional g-Brownian motion, Taylor's series of fractional order, uncertain volatility

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124 A Modelling Analysis of Monetary Policy Rule

Authors: Wael Bakhit, Salma Bakhit

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This paper employs a quarterly time series to determine the timing of structural breaks for interest rates in USA over the last 60 years. The Chow test is used for investigating the non-stationary, where the date of the potential break is assumed to be known. Moreover, an empirical examination of the financial sector was made to check if it is positively related to deviations from an assumed interest rate as given in a standard Taylor rule. The empirical analysis is strengthened by analysing the rule from a historical perspective and a look at the effect of setting the interest rate by the central bank on financial imbalances. The empirical evidence indicates that deviation in monetary policy has a potential causal factor in the build-up of financial imbalances and the subsequent crisis where macro prudential intervention could have beneficial effect. Thus, our findings tend to support the view which states that the probable existence of central banks has been a source of global financial crisis since the past decade.

Keywords: Taylor rule, financial imbalances, central banks, econometrics

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123 Establishment of the Regression Uncertainty of the Critical Heat Flux Power Correlation for an Advanced Fuel Bundle

Authors: L. Q. Yuan, J. Yang, A. Siddiqui

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A new regression uncertainty analysis methodology was applied to determine the uncertainties of the critical heat flux (CHF) power correlation for an advanced 43-element bundle design, which was developed by Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) to achieve improved economics, resource utilization and energy sustainability. The new methodology is considered more appropriate than the traditional methodology in the assessment of the experimental uncertainty associated with regressions. The methodology was first assessed using both the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) and the Taylor Series Method (TSM) for a simple linear regression model, and then extended successfully to a non-linear CHF power regression model (CHF power as a function of inlet temperature, outlet pressure and mass flow rate). The regression uncertainty assessed by MCM agrees well with that by TSM. An equation to evaluate the CHF power regression uncertainty was developed and expressed as a function of independent variables that determine the CHF power.

Keywords: CHF experiment, CHF correlation, regression uncertainty, Monte Carlo Method, Taylor Series Method

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122 Analyzing Damage of the Cutting Tools out of Carbide Metallic during the Turning of a Soaked and Not Hardened Steel XC38

Authors: Mohamed Seghouani, Ahmed Tafraoui, Soltane Lebaili

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The purpose of this study widened knowledge on the use of the cutting tools out of metal carbide and to define it the influence of the elements of the mode of cut on the behavior of these tools during the machining of treated steel XC38 and untreated. This work aims at evolution determined in experiments of the wear of a cutting tool out of metal carbide with plate reported of P30 nuance for an operation of slide-lathing in turning on soaked and not hardened steel XC38 test-tubes. This research is based on the model of Taylor to determine the life span of the cutting tool according to the various parameters of cut, like the cutting speed Vc, the advance of cut a, the depth of cutting P. In order to express the operational limits of the tool for slide-lathing in a preventive way. The model makes it possible to determine the time of change of the tool and to regard it as a constraint for the respect of the roughness of the workpiece during a work of series in conventional machining.

Keywords: machining, wear, lifespan, model of Taylor, cutting tool, carburize metal

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121 Influence of a Pulsatile Electroosmotic Flow on the Dispersivity of a Non-Reactive Solute through a Microcapillary

Authors: Jaime Muñoz, José Arcos, Oscar Bautista Federico Méndez

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The influence of a pulsatile electroosmotic flow (PEOF) at the rate of spread, or dispersivity, for a non-reactive solute released in a microcapillary with slippage at the boundary wall (modeled by the Navier-slip condition) is theoretically analyzed. Based on the flow velocity field developed under such conditions, the present study implements an analytical scheme of scaling known as the Theory of Homogenization, in order to obtain a mathematical expression for the dispersivity, valid at a large time scale where the initial transients have vanished and the solute spreads under the Taylor dispersion influence. Our results show the dispersivity is a function of a slip coefficient, the amplitude of the imposed electric field, the Debye length and the angular Reynolds number, highlighting the importance of the latter as an enhancement/detrimental factor on the dispersivity, which allows to promote the PEOF as a strong candidate for chemical species separation at lab-on-a-chip devices.

Keywords: dispersivity, microcapillary, Navier-slip condition, pulsatile electroosmotic flow, Taylor dispersion, Theory of Homogenization

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120 Implementation of a Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density Ratios

Authors: Norjan Jumaa, David Graham

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We present a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for multiphase flows with high viscosity and density ratios. The motion of the interface between fluids is modelled by solving the Cahn-Hilliard (CH) equation with LBM. Incompressibility of the velocity fields in each phase is imposed by using a pressure correction scheme. We use a unified LBM approach with separate formulations for the phase field, the pressure less Naiver-Stokes (NS) equations and the pressure Poisson equation required for correction of the velocity field. The implementation has been verified for various test case. Here, we present results for some complex flow problems including two dimensional single and multiple mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability and we obtain good results when comparing with those in the literature. The main focus of our work is related to interactions between aerated or non-aerated waves and structures so we also present results for both high viscosity and low viscosity waves.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, multiphase flows, Rayleigh-Taylor instability, waves

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119 Heat and Mass Transfer of Triple Diffusive Convection in a Rotating Couple Stress Liquid Using Ginzburg-Landau Model

Authors: Sameena Tarannum, S. Pranesh

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A nonlinear study of triple diffusive convection in a rotating couple stress liquid has been analysed. It is performed to study the effect of heat and mass transfer by deriving Ginzburg-Landau equation. Heat and mass transfer are quantified in terms of Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers, which are obtained as a function of thermal and solute Rayleigh numbers. The obtained Ginzburg-Landau equation is Bernoulli equation, and it has been elucidated numerically by using Mathematica. The effects of couple stress parameter, solute Rayleigh numbers, and Taylor number on the onset of convection and heat and mass transfer have been examined. It is found that the effects of couple stress parameter and Taylor number are to stabilize the system and to increase the heat and mass transfer.

Keywords: couple stress liquid, Ginzburg-Landau model, rotation, triple diffusive convection

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118 Experimental Investigations on the Mechanism of Stratified Liquid Mixing in a Cylinder

Authors: Chai Mingming, Li Lei, Lu Xiaoxia

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In this paper, the mechanism of stratified liquids’ mixing in a cylinder is investigated. It is focused on the effects of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) and rotation of the cylinder on liquid interface mixing. For miscible liquids, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique is applied to record the concentration field for one liquid. Intensity of Segregation (IOS) is used to describe the mixing status. For immiscible liquids, High Speed Camera is adopted to record the development of the interface. The experiment of RTI indicates that it plays a great role in the mixing process, and meanwhile the large-scale mixing is triggered, and subsequently the span of the stripes decreases, showing that the mesoscale mixing is coming into being. The rotation experiments show that the spin-down process has a great role in liquid mixing, during which the upper liquid falls down rapidly along the wall and crashes into the lower liquid. During this process, a lot of interface instabilities are excited. Liquids mix rapidly in the spin-down process. It can be concluded that no matter what ways have been adopted to speed up liquid mixing, the fundamental reason is the interface instabilities which increase the area of the interface between liquids and increase the relative velocity of the two liquids.

Keywords: interface instability, liquid mixing, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, spin-down process, spin-up process

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117 Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor Convection of Newtonian Nanoliquid

Authors: P. G. Siddheshwar, T. N. Sakshath

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In the paper we make linear and non-linear stability analyses of Rayleigh-Bénard convection of a Newtonian nanoliquid in a rotating medium (called as Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor convection). Rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries are considered for investigation. Khanafer-Vafai-Lightstone single phase model is used for studying instabilities in nanoliquids. Various thermophysical properties of nanoliquid are obtained using phenomenological laws and mixture theory. The eigen boundary value problem is solved for the Rayleigh number using an analytical method by considering trigonometric eigen functions. We observe that the critical nanoliquid Rayleigh number is less than that of the base liquid. Thus the onset of convection is advanced due to the addition of nanoparticles. So, increase in volume fraction leads to advanced onset and thereby increase in heat transport. The amplitudes of convective modes required for estimating the heat transport are determined analytically. The tri-modal standard Lorenz model is derived for the steady state assuming small scale convective motions. The effect of rotation on the onset of convection and on heat transport is investigated and depicted graphically. It is observed that the onset of convection is delayed due to rotation and hence leads to decrease in heat transport. Hence, rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system. This is due to the fact that the energy of the system is used to create the component V. We observe that the amount of heat transport is less in the case of rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries compared to free-free isothermal boundaries.

Keywords: nanoliquid, rigid-rigid, rotation, single phase

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116 Numerical Investigation of the Transverse Instability in Radiation Pressure Acceleration

Authors: F. Q. Shao, W. Q. Wang, Y. Yin, T. P. Yu, D. B. Zou, J. M. Ouyang

Abstract:

The Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) mechanism is very promising in laser-driven ion acceleration because of high laser-ion energy conversion efficiency. Although some experiments have shown the characteristics of RPA, the energy of ions is quite limited. The ion energy obtained in experiments is only several MeV/u, which is much lower than theoretical prediction. One possible limiting factor is the transverse instability incited in the RPA process. The transverse instability is basically considered as the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, which is a kind of interfacial instability and occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. Multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that the onset of transverse instability will destroy the acceleration process and broaden the energy spectrum of fast ions during the RPA dominant ion acceleration processes. The evidence of the RT instability driven by radiation pressure has been observed in a laser-foil interaction experiment in a typical RPA regime, and the dominant scale of RT instability is close to the laser wavelength. The development of transverse instability in the radiation-pressure-acceleration dominant laser-foil interaction is numerically examined by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When a laser interacts with a foil with modulated surface, the internal instability is quickly incited and it develops. The linear growth and saturation of the transverse instability are observed, and the growth rate is numerically diagnosed. In order to optimize interaction parameters, a method of information entropy is put forward to describe the chaotic degree of the transverse instability. With moderate modulation, the transverse instability shows a low chaotic degree and a quasi-monoenergetic proton beam is produced.

Keywords: information entropy, radiation pressure acceleration, Rayleigh-Taylor instability, transverse instability

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115 Crop Leaf Area Index (LAI) Inversion and Scale Effect Analysis from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-Based Hyperspectral Data

Authors: Xiaohua Zhu, Lingling Ma, Yongguang Zhao

Abstract:

Leaf Area Index (LAI) is a key structural characteristic of crops and plays a significant role in precision agricultural management and farmland ecosystem modeling. However, LAI retrieved from different resolution data contain a scaling bias due to the spatial heterogeneity and model non-linearity, that is, there is scale effect during multi-scale LAI estimate. In this article, a typical farmland in semi-arid regions of Chinese Inner Mongolia is taken as the study area, based on the combination of PROSPECT model and SAIL model, a multiple dimensional Look-Up-Table (LUT) is generated for multiple crops LAI estimation from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral data. Based on Taylor expansion method and computational geometry model, a scale transfer model considering both difference between inter- and intra-class is constructed for scale effect analysis of LAI inversion over inhomogeneous surface. The results indicate that, (1) the LUT method based on classification and parameter sensitive analysis is useful for LAI retrieval of corn, potato, sunflower and melon on the typical farmland, with correlation coefficient R2 of 0.82 and root mean square error RMSE of 0.43m2/m-2. (2) The scale effect of LAI is becoming obvious with the decrease of image resolution, and maximum scale bias is more than 45%. (3) The scale effect of inter-classes is higher than that of intra-class, which can be corrected efficiently by the scale transfer model established based Taylor expansion and Computational geometry. After corrected, the maximum scale bias can be reduced to 1.2%.

Keywords: leaf area index (LAI), scale effect, UAV-based hyperspectral data, look-up-table (LUT), remote sensing

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114 Mindfulness in a Secular Age: Framing and Contextualising the Conversation in the Irish Context

Authors: Thomas P. Carroll

Abstract:

The phenomenon of mindfulness has become ever more popular in an increasingly pluralist Western society. Mindfulness practice has penetrated secular contexts that would otherwise be closed to religious influence, including state schools, hospitals, and commerce. The contemporary understanding of mindfulness has its origins in Buddhist meditation. However, since Jon Kabat-Zinn’s pioneering work in Mindfulness-Based Interventions, the concept has developed and sometimes mutated into various forms of practice which are disembedded from their original spiritual philosophy. This project will explore the spiritual climate within which mindfulness is currently flourishing through dialogue with three interlocutors. The first interlocutor is the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor whose seminal work, ‘A Secular Age’, outlines three distinct modes of secularity. Taylor examines how the conditions of belief have changed and how the self seeks meaning in an age where belief in the divine is no longer axiomatic. The next interlocutor is Czech theologian and psychotherapist Tomáš Halík who offers a unique perspective of a Catholic who belongs to a section of society outnumbered by secular counterparts, with a theological hermeneutic best described as 'Den Fremden verstehen- understanding the stranger'. Finally, Irish theologian Michael Paul Gallagher offers a theological perspective on how the Christian faith can be translated into dialogue with Irish secular culture, as well as addressing the crisis of imagination and culture rather than the crisis of faith in Ireland. These interlocutors will illustrate that there are sometimes striking differences in how to interpret the religious signs of the times. However, these approaches also reveal significant similarities in how they address and explore the meaning of religious belief and experience today. In this way, themes will emerge that will help to frame the conversation about mindfulness in the West. These themes will include; the failure of the secularization thesis to pass, the growth of a diverse marketplace of religions and beliefs and the growth of a demographic who identify as spiritual but not religious. Such research is paramount in enabling a richer dialogue between Christian faith and mindfulness in a fragmented, postmodern Western context.

Keywords: culture, mindfulness, secularism, spirituality

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