Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14559

Search results for: density effect

14559 Effect of Current Density, Temperature and Pressure on Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyser Stack

Authors: Na Li, Samuel Simon Araya, Søren Knudsen Kær


This study investigates the effects of operating parameters of different current density, temperature and pressure on the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis stack. A 7-cell PEM water electrolysis stack was assembled and tested under different operation modules. The voltage change and polarization curves under different test conditions, namely current density, temperature and pressure, were recorded. Results show that higher temperature has positive effect on overall stack performance, where temperature of 80 ℃ improved the cell performance greatly. However, the cathode pressure and current density has little effect on stack performance.

Keywords: PEM electrolysis stack, current density, temperature, pressure

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14558 Effect of Pulp Density on Biodesulfurization of Mongolian Lignite Coal

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Byoung-Gon Kim


Biological processes based on oxidation of sulfur compounds by chemolithotrophic microorganisms are emerging as an efficient and eco-friendly technique for removal of sulfur from the coal. In the present article, study was carried out to investigate the potential of biodesulfurization process in removing the sulfur from lignite coal sample collected from a Mongolian coal mine. The batch biodesulfurization experiments were conducted in 2.5 L borosilicate baffle type reactors at 35 ºC using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The effect of pulp density on efficiency of biodesulfurization was investigated at different solids concentration (1-10%) of coal. The results of the present study suggested that the rate of desulfurization was retarded at higher coal pulp density. The optimum pulp density found 5% at which about 48% of the total sulfur was removed from the coal.

Keywords: biodesulfurization, bioreactor, coal, pyrite

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14557 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau


Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

Keywords: The photon-drag effect, the constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential

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14556 Correlation of Building Density toward Land Surface Temperature 2018 in Medan City

Authors: Andi Syahputra, R. H. Jatmiko, D. R. Hizbaron


Land surface temperature (LST) in an area is influenced by conditions of vegetation density, building density, and the number of inhabitants who live in the area. Medan City is one of the largest cities in Indonesia, with a high rate of change from vegetation to developed land. This study aims to identify the relationship between the percentage of building density and land surface temperature in Medan City. Pixel image analysis method is carried out to obtain the value of building density in pixel images of Landsat 8 images with the help of WorldView-2 satellite imagery. The results showed the highest land surface temperature in 2018 of 35, 4°C was found in Medan Perjuangan District, and the lowest was 22.5°C in Medan Belawan District. Building density samples with a density level of 889.17 m were also found in Medan Perjuangan District, while the lowest building density sample was found in Medan Timur District. Linear regression analysis of the effect of building density with land surface temperature obtained a correlation (R) was 0.64, and a coefficient of determination (R²) was 0.411 and modeling of building density based on the LST has a correlation (R), and a coefficient of determination (R²) was 0.72 with The RMSE obtained 0.853.

Keywords: land surface temperature, Landsat, imagery, building density, vegetation, density

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14555 Effect of Varying Stocking Densities and Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Supplementation on Growth Performance of Japanese Quails

Authors: T. S. Olugbemi, T. S. Friday, O. O. Olusola


This experiment was carried out to assess the effect of different stocking densities and vitamin C supplementation on the performance of Japanese quails. Five hundred and twenty (520) unsexed quail birds of two (2) weeks of age were allotted randomly into nine (9) groups with 3 replicates each in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (3 stocking density levels and 3 graded vitamin C levels) with densities of 150, 120, 90 cm2/bird(11, 16, 21 birds). During the five weeks growing trial (2- 6 weeks), results showed that stocking density had significant effects on final weight (131.59g compared to 111.10g for the lowest), total and daily weight gain. No significance difference was observed for feed conversion ratio, age at first lay and first egg weight. Observations on haematological parameters (packed cell volume (PCV), total protein (TP), haemoglobin, red blood cell (RBC), lymphocyte, heterophil) on stocking density showed no significant differences. Vitamin C supplementation at 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg did not have any significant effect on the growth performance parameters of growing quails. Stocking density at 150cm2/bird had a better performance with or without vitamin C supplementation hence it is recommended that stocking rates of quails between the ages of 2 – 6 weeks should not be below 150cm2/bird.

Keywords: anti-oxidants, performance, stress, stocking density

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14554 Effect of Substrate Concentration and Pulp Density on Bioleaching of Metals from as Received Spent Refinery Catalyst

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Ashish Pathak, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee


The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent refinery catalyst (as received) using At. thiooxidans. The effect of substrate concentration and pulp density was studied. XPS analysis concluded that the metals in spent catalyst were present as both sulfide and oxides. The dissolution behavior of metals during bioleaching was different. During bioleaching, higher dissolution of Ni and lower dissolution of Mo, V and Al was observed. An increase in pulp density from 1% to 10% led to a decrease in leaching yields of all the metals. This was due to the substantial increase in medium pH at higher pulp densities. The maximum negative impact of pulp density was observed on the leaching yield of V. An increase in sulfur concentration from 0.5% to 2.5% didn’t bring positive impact on metal leaching yield. 0.5% sulfur was found to be the optimum above which no significant increase in leaching yields of metals was observed.

Keywords: At. thiooxidans, pulp density, spent catalyst, bioleaching

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14553 The Effect of Ingredients Mixing Sequence in Rubber Compounding on the Formation of Bound Rubber and Cross-Link Density of Natural Rubber

Authors: Abu Hasan, Rochmadi, Hary Sulistyo, Suharto Honggokusumo


This research purpose is to study the effect of Ingredients mixing sequence in rubber compounding onto the formation of bound rubber and cross link density of natural rubber and also the relationship of bound rubber and cross link density. Analysis of bound rubber formation of rubber compound and cross link density of rubber vulcanizates were carried out on a natural rubber formula having masticated and mixing, followed by curing. There were four methods of mixing and each mixing process was followed by four mixing sequence methods of carbon black into the rubber. In the first method of mixing sequence, rubber was masticated for 5 min and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were added simultaneously. In the second one, rubber was masticated for 1 min and followed by addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 simultaneously using the different method of mixing then the first one. In the third one, carbon black N 660 was used for the same mixing procedure of the second one, and in the last one, rubber was masticated for 3 min, carbon black N 330 and rubber chemicals were added subsequently. The addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black into masticated rubber was distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. Carbon black was added into two stages. In the first stage, 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In the second one to the fourth one, the addition of carbon black in the first and the second stage was added in the phr ratio 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The results showed that the ingredients mixing process influenced bound rubber formation and cross link density. In the three methods of mixing, the bound rubber formation was proportional with crosslink density. In contrast in the fourth one, bound rubber formation and cross link density had contradictive relation. Regardless of the mixing method operated, bound rubber had non linear relationship with cross link density. The high cross link density was formed when low bound rubber formation. The cross link density became constant at high bound rubber content.

Keywords: bound-rubber, cross-link density, natural rubber, rubber mixing process

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14552 Particle Dust Layer Density and the Optical Wavelength Absorption Relationship in Photovoltaic Module

Authors: M. Mesrouk, A. Hadj Arab


This work allows highlight the effect of dust on the absorption of the optical spectrum on the photovoltaic module, the effect of the particles dust presence on the photovoltaic modules have been a microscopic scale studied with COMSOL Multi-physic software simulation. In this paper, we have supposed the dust layer as a diffraction network repetitive optical structure characterized by the spacing between particle which represented by 'd' and the simulated structure (air-dust particle-glass). In this study we can observe the relationship between the wavelength and the particle spacing, the simulation shows us that the maximum wavelength transmission value corresponding, λ0 = 400nm, which represent the spacing value between the particles dust, d = 400 nm. In fact, we can observe that while increase dust layer density the wavelength transmission value decrease, there is a relationship between the density and wavelength value which can be absorbed in a dusty photovoltaic panel.

Keywords: dust effect, photovoltaic module, spectral absorption, wavelength transmission

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14551 The Effect of Irgafos 168 in the Thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Mahdi Almaky


The thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is realized through the action of primary antioxidant such as phenolic antioxidants and secondary antioxidants as aryl phosphates. The efficiency of two secondary antioxidants, commercially named Irgafos 168 and Weston 399, was investigated using different physical, mechanical, spectroscopic, and calorimetric methods. The effect of both antioxidants on the processing stability and long term stability of HDPE produced in Ras Lanuf oil and gas processing Company were measured and compared. The combination of Irgafos 168 with Irganox 1010, as used in smaller concentration, results in a synergetic effect against thermo-oxidation and protect better than the combination of Weston 399 with Irganox 1010 against the colour change at processing temperature and during long term oxidation process.

Keywords: thermostabilization, high density polyethylene, primary antioxidant, phenolic antioxidant, Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, Weston 399

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14550 Seam Slippage of Light Woven Fabrics with Regards to Sewing Parameters

Authors: Mona Shawky, Khaled M. Elsheikh, Heba M. Darwish, Eman Abd El Elsamea


Seams are the basic component in the structure of any apparel. The seam quality of the garment is a term that indicates both the aesthetic and functional performance of the garment. Seam slippage is one of the important properties that determine garment performance. Lightweight fabrics are preferred for their aesthetic properties. Since seam slippage is one of the most occurable faults for woven garments, in this study, a design of experiment of the following sewing parameters (three levels of needle size, three levels of stitch density, three levels of the seam allowance, two levels of sewing thread count, and two fabric types) was used to obtain the effect of the interaction between different sewing parameters on-seam slippage force. Two lightweight polyester woven fabrics with different constructions were used with lock stitch 301 to perform this study. Regression equations which can predict seam slippage force in both warp and weft directions were concluded. It was found that fabric type has a significant positive effect on seam slippage force in the warp direction, while it has a significant negative effect on seam slippage force on weft direction. Also, the interaction between needle size and stitch density has a significant positive effect on seam slippage force on warp direction, while the interaction between stitch density and seam allowance has a negative effect on seam slippage force in the weft direction.

Keywords: needle size, regression equation, seam allowance, seam slippage, stitch density

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14549 Effect of Density on the Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Saturated Sand in Small Strain

Authors: M. Kakavand, S. A. Naeini


Dynamic properties of soil in small strains, especially for geotechnical engineers, are important for describing the behavior of soil and estimation of the earth structure deformations and structures, especially significant structures. This paper presents the effect of density on the shear modulus and damping ratio of saturated clean sand at various isotropic confining pressures. For this purpose, the specimens were compared with two different relative densities, loose Dr = 30% and dense Dr = 70%. Dynamic parameters were attained from a series of consolidated undrained fixed – free type torsional resonant column tests in small strain. Sand No. 161 is selected for this paper. The experiments show that by increasing sand density and confining pressure, the shear modulus increases and the damping ratio decreases.

Keywords: dynamic properties, shear modulus, damping ratio, clean sand, density, confining pressure, resonant column/torsional simple shear, TSS

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14548 Asymmetric of the Segregation-Enhanced Brazil Nut Effect

Authors: Panupat Chaiworn, Soraya lama


We study the motion of particles in cylinders which are subjected to a sinusoidal vertical vibration. We measure the rising time of a large intruder from the bottom of the container to free surface of the bed particles and find that the rising time as a function of intruder density increases to a maximum and then decreases monotonically. The result is qualitatively accord to the previous findings in experiments using relative humidity of the bed particles and found speed convection of the bed particles containers it moving slowly, and the rising time of the intruder where a minimal instead of maximal rising time in the small density region was found. Our experimental results suggest that the topology of the container plays an important role in the Brazil nut effect.

Keywords: granular particles, Brazil nut effect, cylinder container, vertical vibration, convection

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14547 Effects of the Ambient Temperature and the Defect Density on the Performance the Solar Cell (HIT)

Authors: Bouzaki Mohammed Moustafa, Benyoucef Boumediene, Benouaz Tayeb, Benhamou Amina


The ambient temperature and the defects density in the Hetero-junction with Intrinsic Thin layers solar cells (HIT) strongly influence their performances. In first part, we presented the bands diagram on the front/back simulated solar cell based on a-Si: H / c-Si (p)/a-Si:h. In another part, we modeled the following layers structure: ZnO/a-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p)/a-Si:H(p)/Ag where we studied the effect of the ambient temperature and the defects density in the gap of the crystalline silicon layer on the performance of the heterojunction solar cell with intrinsic layer (HIT).

Keywords: heterojunction solar cell, solar cell performance, bands diagram, ambient temperature, defect density

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14546 Thermal Radiation Effect on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Plate with Varying Density and Volumetric Expansion Coefficient

Authors: Sadia Siddiqa, Z. Khan, M. A. Hossain


In this article, the effect of thermal radiation on mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid along a highly heated vertical flat plate is considered with varying density and volumetric expansion coefficient. The density of the fluid is assumed to vary exponentially with temperature, however; volumetric expansion coefficient depends linearly on temperature. Boundary layer equations are transformed into convenient form by introducing primitive variable formulations. Solutions of transformed system of equations are obtained numerically through implicit finite difference method along with Gaussian elimination technique. Results are discussed in view of various parameters, like thermal radiation parameter, volumetric expansion parameter and density variation parameter on the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate. It is concluded from the present investigation that increase in volumetric expansion parameter decreases wall shear stress and enhances heat transfer rate.

Keywords: thermal radiation, mixed convection, variable density, variable volumetric expansion coefficient

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14545 3D Estimation of Synaptic Vesicle Distributions in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy

Authors: Mahdieh Khanmohammadi, Sune Darkner, Nicoletta Nava, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Jon Sporring


We study the effect of stress on nervous system and we use two experimental groups of rats: sham rats and rats subjected to acute foot-shock stress. We investigate the synaptic vesicles density as a function of distance to the active zone in serial section transmission electron microscope images in 2 and 3 dimensions. By estimating the density in 2D and 3D we compare two groups of rats.

Keywords: stress, 3-dimensional synaptic vesicle density, image registration, bioinformatics

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14544 The Effect of a Saturated Kink on the Dynamics of Tungsten Impurities in the Plasma Core

Authors: H. E. Ferrari, R. Farengo, C. F. Clauser


Tungsten (W) will be used in ITER as one of the plasma facing components (PFCs). The W could migrate to the plasma center. This could have a potentially deleterious effect on plasma confinement. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) can be used to prevent W accumulation. We simulated a series of H mode discharges in ASDEX U with PFC containing W, where central ECRH was used to prevent W accumulation in the plasma center. The experiments showed that the W density profiles were flat after a sawtooth crash, and become hollow in between sawtooth crashes when ECRH has been applied. It was also observed that a saturated kink mode was active in these conditions. We studied the effect of saturated kink like instabilities on the redistribution of W impurities. The kink was modeled as the sum of a simple analytical equilibrium (large aspect ratio, circular cross section) plus the perturbation produced by the kink. A numerical code that follows the exact trajectories of the impurity ions in the total fields and includes collisions was employed. The code is written in Cuda C and runs in Graphical Processing Units (GPUs), allowing simulations with a large number of particles with modest resources. Our simulations show that when the W ions have a thermal velocity distribution, the kink has no effect on the W density. When we consider the plasma rotation, the kink can affect the W density. When the average passing frequency of the W particles is similar to the frequency of the kink mode, the expulsion of W ions from the plasma core is maximum, and the W density shows a hollow structure. This could have implications for the mitigation of W accumulation.

Keywords: impurity transport, kink instability, tungsten accumulation, tungsten dynamics

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14543 The Light-Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential for the Case of Electrons: Optical Phonon Scattering

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Vu Nhan, Nguyen Quang Bau


The light-effect in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons, optical phonon scattering, is studied based on the quantum kinetic equation. The density of the direct current in a cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field, and an intense laser field is calculated. Analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are studied as a function of the frequency of the laser radiation field, the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the temperature of system, and the size of quantum wire. The density of the direct current in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons – optical phonon scattering is nonlinearly dependent on the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The analytic expressions are numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wire, GaAs/GaAsAl.

Keywords: the light–effect, cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential, the density of the direct current, electrons-optical phonon scattering

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14542 The Effect of Different Composition of Dairy Cattle Feces Briquette on Moisture and Briquette Density

Authors: Dita Aviana Dewi, Heri Muji, Dian Nur Amalia, Nanung Agus Fitriyanto


Utilization of cow feces as a source of alternative energy can be done with turn it as briquettes. Cow feces generate heat around 4000 Cal/g and the methane gas (CH4) are quite high. Methane gas is one of the essential elements in briquettes which serve as the ignition, so that is resulting briquettes combustible. This study aims to know the difference of the composition of the constituents of briquette moisture content and density. Dairy cattle feces used as the main ingredient with additional material from the waste of the agricultural industry in the form of husk. This study was conducted with three treatments, namely T0= feces 1: husk 1, T1= feces 2: husk 1, and T2= feces 3: husk 1. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experimental design used was Complete Random Design Pattern in line with testing of Dunnet. The observed variables are moisture content and density of the briquettes. Results of this study showed an average moisture content of T0 is 31,17%, T1 is 28,14%, and T2 is 49.95%. The average density of briquettes at T0 is 1,0787 g/cm3, T1 is 1,1448 g/cm3, and T2 is 1,1133 g/cm3. Summary of the study is to take the difference of the composition of the feces and the husk do not have significant effects on moisture content and density of briquettes (p < 0.05).

Keywords: dairy cattle feces, briquette, moisture, density

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14541 The Contribution of Density Fluctuations in Ultrasound Scattering in Cancellous Bone

Authors: A. Elsariti, T. Evans


An understanding of the interaction between acoustic waves and cancellous bone is needed in order to realize the full clinical potential of ultrasonic bone measurements. Scattering is likely to be of central importance but has received little attention to date. Few theoretical approaches have been described to explain scattering of ultrasound from bone. In this study, a scattering model based on velocity and density fluctuations in a binary mixture (marrow fat and cortical matrix) was used to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in cancellous bone as a function of volume fraction. Predicted attenuation and backscatter coefficient were obtained for a range of porosities and scatterer size. At 600 kHZ and for different scatterer size the effect of velocity and density fluctuations in the predicted attenuation was approximately 60% higher than velocity fluctuations.

Keywords: ultrasound scattering, sound speed, density fluctuations, attenuation coefficient

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14540 The Effect of Hydrogen on the Magnetic Properties of ZnO: A Density Functional Tight Binding Study

Authors: M. A. Lahmer, K. Guergouri


The ferromagnetic properties of carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO) and hydrogenated carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO+H) are investigated using the density functional tight binding (DFTB) method. Our results reveal that CO-doped ZnO is a ferromagnetic material with a magnetic moment of 1.3 μB per carbon atom. The presence of hydrogen in the material in the form of CO-H complex decreases the total magnetism of the material without suppressing ferromagnetism. However, the system in this case becomes quickly antiferromagnetic when the C-C separation distance was increased.

Keywords: ZnO, carbon, hydrogen, ferromagnetism, density functional tight binding

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14539 Effect of Processing Parameters on the Physical Properties of Pineapple Pomace Based Aquafeed

Authors: Oluwafemi Babatunde Oduntan, Isaac A. Bamgboye


The solid waste disposal and its management from pineapple juice processing constitute environmental contamination affecting public health. The use of this by-product called pomace has potentials to reduce cost of aquafeed. Pineapple pomace collected after juice extraction was dried and milled. The interactive effects of feeding rate (1.28, 1.44 and 1.60kg/min), screw speed (305, 355 and 405rpm), moisture content (16, 19 and 22%), temperatures (60, 80, 100 and 120°C), cutting speed (1300, 1400 and 1500rpm), pomace inclusion ratio (5, 10, 15, 20%) and open surface die (50, 75 and 100%) on the extrudate physical properties (bulk density, unit density, expansion ratio, durability and floatability) were investigated using optimal custom design (OCD) matrix and response surface methodology. The predicted values were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values for, expansion ratio, durability and floatability (R2 = 0.7970; 0.9264; 0.9098 respectively) with the exceptions of unit density and bulk density (R2 = 0.1639; 0.2768 respectively). All the extrudates showed relatively high floatability, durability. The inclusion of pineapple pomace produced less expanded and more compact textured extrudates. Results indicated that increased in the value of pineapple pomace, screw speed, feeding rate decreased unit density, bulk density, expansion ratio, durability and floatability of the extrudate. However, increasing moisture content of feed mash resulted in increase unit density and bulk density. Addition of extrusion temperature and cutting speed increased the floatability and durability of extrudate. The proportion of pineapple pomace in aquafeed extruded product was observed to have significantly lower effect on the selected responses.

Keywords: aquafeed, extrusion, physical properties, pineapple pomace, waste

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14538 Surface Induced Alteration of Nanosized Amorphous Alumina

Authors: A. Katsman, L. Bloch, Y. Etinger, Y. Kauffmann, B. Pokroy


Various nanosized amorphous alumina thin films in the range of (2.4 - 63.1) nm were deposited onto amorphous carbon and amorphous Si3N4 membrane grids. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to probe the size effect on the short range order and the amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature. It was found that the short-range order changes as a function of size: the fraction of tetrahedral Al sites is greater in thinner amorphous films. This result correlates with the change of amorphous alumina density with the film thickness demonstrated by the reflectivity experiments: the thinner amorphous films have the less density. These effects are discussed in terms of surface reconstruction of the amorphous alumina films. The average atomic binding energy in the thin film layer decreases with decease of the thickness, while the average O-Al interatomic distance increases. The reconstruction of amorphous alumina is induced by the surface reconstruction, and the short range order changes being dependent on the density. Decrease of the surface energy during reconstruction is the driving force of the alumina reconstruction (density change) followed by relaxation process (short range order change). The amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature measured by DSC rises with the decrease in thickness from 997.6°C for 13.9 nm to 1020.4 °C for 2.7 nm thick. This effect was attributed to the different film densities: formation of nanovoids preceding and accompanying crystallization process influences the crystallization rate, and by these means, the temperature of crystallization peak.

Keywords: amorphous alumina, density, short range order, size effect

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14537 Effect of Compaction and Degree of Saturation on the Unconsolidated Undrained Shear Strength of Sandy Clay

Authors: Fatima Mehmood, Khalid Farooq, Rabeea Bakhtawer


For geotechnical engineers, one of the most important properties of soil to consider in various stability analyses is its shear strength which is governed by a number of factors. The objective of this research is to ascertain the effect of compaction and degree of saturation on the shear strength of fine-grained soil. For this purpose, three different dry densities such as in-situ, maximum standard proctor, and maximum modified proctor, were determined for the sandy clay soil. The soil samples were then prepared to keep dry density constant and varying degrees of saturation. These samples were tested for (UU) unconsolidated undrained shear strength in triaxial compression tests. The decrease in shear strength was observed with the decrease in density and increase in the saturation. The values of the angle of internal friction followed the same trend. However, the change in cohesion with the increase in saturation showed a different behavior, analogous to the compaction curve.

Keywords: compaction, degree of saturation, dry density, geotechnical investigation, laboratory testing, shear strength

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14536 A Generalisation of Pearson's Curve System and Explicit Representation of the Associated Density Function

Authors: S. B. Provost, Hossein Zareamoghaddam


A univariate density approximation technique whereby the derivative of the logarithm of a density function is assumed to be expressible as a rational function is introduced. This approach which extends Pearson’s curve system is solely based on the moments of a distribution up to a determinable order. Upon solving a system of linear equations, the coefficients of the polynomial ratio can readily be identified. An explicit solution to the integral representation of the resulting density approximant is then obtained. It will be explained that when utilised in conjunction with sample moments, this methodology lends itself to the modelling of ‘big data’. Applications to sets of univariate and bivariate observations will be presented.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, moments, Pearson's curve system

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14535 The Effect of Linear Low-Density Polyethylene Cross-Contamination by Other Plastic Types on Bitumen Modification

Authors: Nioushasadat Haji Seyed Javadi, Ailar Hajimohammadi, Nasser Khalili


Currently, the recycling of plastic wastes has been the subject of much research attention, especially in pavement constructions, where virgin polymers can be replaced by recycled plastics for asphalt binder modification. Among the plastic types, recycled linear low-density polyethylene (RLLDPE) has been one of the common and largely available plastics for bitumen modification. However, it is important to note that during the recycling process, LLDPE can easily be contaminated with other plastic types, especially with low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and polypropylene (PP). The cross-contamination of LLDPE with other plastics lowers its quality and, consequently, can affect the asphalt modification process. This study aims to assess the effect of LLDPE cross-contamination on bitumen modification. To do so, samples of bitumen modified with LLDPE and blends of LLDPE with LDPE, HDPE, and PP were prepared and compared through physical and rheological evaluations. The experimental tests, including softening point, penetration, viscosity at 135 °C, and dynamic shear rheometer, were conducted. The results indicated that the effect of cross-contamination on softening point and rutting resistance was negligible. On the other side, penetration and viscosity were highly impacted. The results also showed that among contamination of LLDPE with the other plastic types, PP had the highest influence in comparison with HDPE and LDPE on changing the properties of the LLDPE- modified bitumen.

Keywords: recycled polyethylene, polymer cross-contamination, waste plastic, bitumen, rutting resistance

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14534 Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of an Oscillating Electron Density around a Nanoparticle

Authors: Nilay K. Doshi


A theoretical probe describing the excited energy states of the electron density surrounding a nanoparticle (NP) is presented. An electromagnetic (EM) wave interacts with a NP much smaller than the incident wavelength. The plasmon that oscillates locally around the NP comprises of excited conduction electrons. The system is based on the Jellium model of a cluster of metal atoms. Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) equations and the variational Kohn-Sham (SK) scheme have been used to obtain the NP electron density in the ground state. Furthermore, a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) theory is used to treat the excited states in a density functional theory (DFT) framework. The non-interacting fermionic kinetic energy is shown to be a functional of the electron density. The time dependent potential is written as the sum of the nucleic potential and the incoming EM field. This view of the quantum oscillation of the electron density is a part of the localized surface plasmon resonance.

Keywords: electron density, energy, electromagnetic, DFT, TDDFT, plasmon, resonance

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14533 A Computational Diagnostics for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

Authors: Zainab D. Abd Ali, Thamir H. Khalaf


In this paper, the characteristics of electric discharge in gap between two (parallel-plate) dielectric plates are studies, the gap filled with Argon gas in atm pressure at ambient temperature, the thickness of gap typically less than 1 mm and dielectric may be up 10 cm in diameter. One of dielectric plates a sinusoidal voltage is applied with Rf frequency, the other plates is electrically grounded. The simulation in this work depending on Boltzmann equation solver in first few moments, fluid model and plasma chemistry, in one dimensional modeling. This modeling have insight into characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge through studying properties of breakdown of gas, electric field, electric potential, and calculating electron density, mean electron energy, electron current density ,ion current density, total plasma current density. The investigation also include: 1. The influence of change in thickness of gap between two plates if we doubled or reduced gap to half. 2. The effect of thickness of dielectric plates. 3. The influence of change in type and properties of dielectric material (gass, silicon, Teflon).

Keywords: computational diagnostics, Boltzmann equation, electric discharge, electron density

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14532 Measurement of Liquid Film Thickness in a Vertical Annular Two Phase Flow Changing the Gas-Liquid Density Ratio

Authors: Shoji Mori, Kunito Okuyama


Annular two phase flow is encountered in many industrial equipments, including flow near nuclear fuel rods in boiling water reactor (BWR). Especially, disturbance waves play important roles in the pressure drop, the generation of entrainments, and the dryout of the liquid film. Therefore, it is important to clarify the behavior of disturbance waves and base film. However, most of the previous studies have been performed under atmospheric pressure conditions that provides the properties of liquid and gas which are significantly different from those of a BWR. Therefore, the effect of properties in gas and liquid on liquid film characteristics should be clarified. In this paper we focus on the effect of gas-liquid density ratio on liquid film thickness characteristics. The experiments have been conducted at four density ratio conditions (ρL/ρG =763, 451, 231, and 31). As a result, it is found that and interfacial shear stress collapse not only tF ave but also tF max and tF min successfully under the same liquid mass flow rate conditions irrespective of ρL/ρG, and moreover a non-dimensional parameter tends to collapse tF max,tF ave,and tF min in the wide range of experimental conditions (ρL/ρG:31~763,We:10~1800,ReL:500 ~ 2200).

Keywords: two phase flow, liquid film, annular flow, disturbance wave

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14531 Flexible Polyaniline-Based Composite Films for High-Performance Super Capacitors

Authors: A. Khosrozadeh, M. A. Darabi, M. Xing, Q. Wang


Fabrication of a high-performance supercapacitor (SC) using a flexible cellulose-based composite film of polyaniline (PANI), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and silver nanowires (AgNWs) is reported. The flexibility, high capacitive behaviour, and cyclic stability of the entire device make it a good candidate for wearable SCs. The results show that a capacitance as high as 73.4 F/g (1.6 F/cm2) at a discharge rate of 1.1 A/g is achieved by the device. In addition, the SC demonstrates a power density up to 468.8 W/kg and an energy density up to 5.1 wh/kg. The flexibility of the composite film is attributed to the binding effect of cellulose fibers as well as reinforcing effect of AgNWs. The excellent electrochemical performance of the device is found to be owing to the synergistic effect between PANI/RGO/AgNWs ternary in a cushiony cellulose matrix and porous structure of the composite.

Keywords: cellulose, polyaniline, reduced graphene oxide, silver, super capacitor

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14530 A Comparative Study on Optimized Bias Current Density Performance of Cubic ZnB-GaN with Hexagonal 4H-SiC Based Impatts

Authors: Arnab Majumdar, Srimani Sen


In this paper, a vivid simulated study has been made on 35 GHz Ka-band window frequency in order to judge and compare the DC and high frequency properties of cubic ZnB-GaN with the existing hexagonal 4H-SiC. A flat profile p+pnn+ DDR structure of impatt is chosen and is optimized at a particular bias current density with respect to efficiency and output power taking into consideration the effect of mobile space charge also. The simulated results obtained reveals the strong potentiality of impatts based on both cubic ZnB-GaN and hexagonal 4H-SiC. The DC-to-millimeter wave conversion efficiency for cubic ZnB-GaN impatt obtained is 50% with an estimated output power of 2.83 W at an optimized bias current density of 2.5×108 A/m2. The conversion efficiency and estimated output power in case of hexagonal 4H-SiC impatt obtained is 22.34% and 40 W respectively at an optimum bias current density of 0.06×108 A/m2.

Keywords: cubic ZnB-GaN, hexagonal 4H-SiC, double drift impatt diode, millimetre wave, optimised bias current density, wide band gap semiconductor

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