Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Radheshyam Bhattarai

11 Factors Associated with Contraceptive Use and Nonuse, among Currently Married Young (15-24 Years) Women in Nepal

Authors: Bishnu Prasad Dulal, Sushil Chandra Baral, Radheshyam Bhattarai, Meera Tandan


Background: Non-use of contraceptives is a leading cause of unintended pregnancy. This study was done to explore the potential predictors of contraceptive used by young women, and the findings can inform policy makers to design the program to reduce unintended pregnancy for younger women who have a longer time of fecundity. Methodology: A nationally representative cross-sectional household survey was conducted by Health Research and Social Development Forum in 2012. Total 2259 currently married young women (15-24 years) were selected for the analysis out of 8578 women of reproductive age interviewed from the total 10260 households using systematic sampling. Binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the use of modern contraceptive methods. Findings: The prevalence of modern contraceptive methods among young women was 25.2 %. Use of contraceptives was significantly associated with age at first marriage <15 year of age (OR:1.95) and ever delivered (OR: 1.8). Muslim women were significantly less likely to use contraceptives. Development region, wealth quintile, and awareness of abortion site were also statistically associated factors to use of contraceptives. Conclusion: The prevalence of contraceptives uses among young married women (25.2%) was lower than national prevalence (43%) of contraceptives use among married women of reproductive age. Our analysis focused on examining the association between women’s characteristics-related factors and use and nonuse of modern contraceptives. Awareness of safe abortion site is significantly associated while level of education was not. It is an interesting finding but difficult to interpret which needs further analysis on the basis of education. Maybe due to the underlying socio-religious practice of Muslim people, they had lower use of contraceptives. Programmers and policy makers could better help young women by increasing intervention activities to have a regular use of contraceptive-covering poor, Dalit and Muslim, and low aged women in order to reduce unintended pregnancy.

Keywords: unintended pregnancy, contraceptive, young women, Nepal

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10 Development of Real Time System for Human Detection and Localization from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Optical and Thermal Sensor and Visualization on Geographic Information Systems Platform

Authors: Nemi Bhattarai


In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAVs) in search and rescue (SAR) operations, disaster management, and many more areas where information about the location of human beings are important. This research will primarily focus on the use of optical and thermal camera via UAV platform in real-time detection, localization, and visualization of human beings on GIS. This research will be beneficial in disaster management search of lost humans in wilderness or difficult terrain, detecting abnormal human behaviors in border or security tight areas, studying distribution of people at night, counting people density in crowd, manage people flow during evacuation, planning provisions in areas with high human density and many more.

Keywords: UAV, human detection, real-time, localization, visualization, haar-like, GIS, thermal sensor

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9 Study on Status of Child Labour in Metal Fabrication Industries of Kathmandu Valley

Authors: Bikas Chandra Bhattarai


Child labour is the serious issue all over the world. In Nepal, many children are working in different structured and unstructured sector. Metal fabrication is one of the sectors where many children are involved. The present study is carried out to focus on the overall socio-economic condition, psychological aspect, working environment condition and welfare of the child labour. Metal fabrication factories from Kirtipur, Chovar Area, Gongabu, Sitapaila and Sankhamul area of Kathmandu municipality were selected for the study. The structured questionnaire was prepared, and overall 55 children under age 16 were interviewed. Working in metal fabrication factory is risky job for children. The main reason behind child labour is poverty. The working environment in the metal fabrication factory was not found satisfactory. Children are exposed to various types of physical and chemical hazards. Factories are not paying proper attention to safety condition at the workplace. Large number of children is attracted towards smoking and drinking alcohol leading to unnecessary expense of their income. There should be the provision of regular health check up and insurance to the working children. Monitoring from the government level should be implemented for the betterment of working children.

Keywords: child labour, Kathmandu, Nepal, metal fabrication

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8 Role of Community Forestry to Address Climate Change in Nepal

Authors: Laxmi Prasad Bhattarai


Climate change is regarded as one of the most fundamental threats to sustainable livelihood and global development. There is a growing global concern in linking community-managed forests as potential climate change mitigation projects. This study was conducted to explore local people’s perception on climate change and the role of community forestry (CF) to combat climate change impacts. Two active community forest user groups (CFUGs) from Kaski and Syangja Districts in Nepal were selected as study sites, and various participatory tools were applied to collect primary data. Although most of the respondents were unaware about the words “Climate Change” in study sites, they were quite familiar with the irregularities in rainfall season and other weather extremities. 60% of the respondents had the idea that, due to increase in precipitation, there is a frequent occurrence of erosion, floods, and landslide. Around 85% of the people agreed that community forests help in stabilizing soil, reducing the natural hazards like erosion, landslide. Biogas as an alternative source of cooking energy, and changes in crops and their varieties are the common adaptation measures that local people start practicing in both CFUGs in Nepal.

Keywords: community forestry, climate change, global warming, adaptation, Nepal

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7 Synergistic Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Enhance Wheat Grain Yield, Biofortification and Soil Health: A Field Study

Authors: Radheshyam Yadav, Ramakrishna Wusirika


Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi are ubiquitous in soil and often very critical for crop yield and agriculture sustainability, and this has motivated the agricultural practices to support and promote PGPB and AM Fungi in agriculture. PGPB can be involved in a range of processes that affect Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) transformations in soil and thus influence nutrient availability and uptake to the plants. A field study with two wheat cultivars, HD-3086, and HD-2967 was performed in Malwa region, Bathinda of Punjab, India, to evaluate the effect of native and non-native PGPB alone and in combination with AM fungi as an inoculant on wheat grain yield, nutrient uptake and soil health parameters (dehydrogenase, urease, β‐glucosidase). Our results showed that despite an early insignificant increase in shoot length, plants treated with PGPB (Bacillus sp.) and AM Fungi led to a significant increase in shoot growth at maturity, aboveground biomass, nitrogen (45% - 40%) and phosphorus (40% - 34%) content in wheat grains relative to untreated control plants. Similarly, enhanced grain yield and nutrients uptake i.e. copper (27.15% - 36.25%) iron (43% - 53%) and zinc (44% - 47%) was recorded in PGPB and AM Fungi treated plants relative to untreated control. Overall, inoculation with native PGPB alone and in combination with AM Fungi provided benefits to enhance grain yield, wheat biofortification, and improved soil fertility, despite this effect varied depending on different PGPB isolates and wheat cultivars. These field study results provide evidence of the benefits of agricultural practices involving native PGPB and AM Fungi to the plants. These native strains and AM Fungi increased accumulations of copper, iron, and zinc in wheat grains, enhanced grain yield, and soil fertility.

Keywords: AM Fungi, biofortification, PGPB, soil microbial enzymes

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6 Early Detection of Neuropathy in Leprosy-Comparing Clinical Tests with Nerve Conduction Study

Authors: Suchana Marahatta, Sabina Bhattarai, Bishnu Hari Paudel, Dilip Thakur


Background: Every year thousands of patients develop nerve damage and disabilities as a result of leprosy which can be prevented by early detection and treatment. So, early detection and treatment of nerve function impairment is of paramount importance in leprosy. Objectives: To assess the electrophysiological pattern of the peripheral nerves in leprosy patients and to compare it with clinical assessment tools. Materials and Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, 74 newly diagnosed leprosy patients without reaction were enrolled. They underwent thorough evaluation for peripheral nerve function impairment using clinical tests [i.e. nerve palpation (NP), monofilament (MF) testing, voluntary muscle testing (VMT)] and nerve conduction study (NCS). Clinical findings were compared with that of NCS using SPSS version 11.5. Results: NCS was impaired in 43.24% of leprosy patient at the baseline. Among them, sensory NCS was impaired in more patients (32.4%) in comparison to motor NCS (20.3%). NP, MF, and VMT were impaired in 58.1%, 25.7%, and 9.4% of the patients, respectively. Maximum concordance of monofilament testing and sensory NCS was found for sural nerve (14.7%). Likewise, the concordance of motor NP and motor NCS was the maximum for ulnar nerve (14.9%). When individual parameters of the NCS were considered, amplitude was found to be the most frequently affected parameter for both sensory and motor NCS. It was impaired in 100% of cases with abnormal NCS findings. Conclusion: Since there was no acceptable concordance between NCS findings and clinical findings, we should consider NCS whenever feasible for early detection of neuropathy in leprosy. The amplitude of both sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) and compound nerve action potential (CAMP) could be important determinants of the abnormal NCS if supported by further studies.

Keywords: leprosy, nerve function impairment, neuropathy, nerve conduction study

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5 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci: Phenotypic Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern

Authors: Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal


Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the normal commensal of human skin and mucous membranes. The study was carried out to study the prevalence of CoNS among clinical isolates, to characterize them up to species level and to compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation. Objectives: to characterize the clinically significant coagulase-negative staphylococci up to species level, to compare the three phenotypic methods for the detection of biofilm formation and to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Methods: CoNS isolates were obtained from various clinical samples during the period of 1 year. Characterization up to species level was done using biochemical test and study of biofilm formation was done by tube adherence, congo red agar, and tissue culture plate method. Results: Among 71 CoNS isolates, seven species were identified. S. epidermidis was the most common species followed by S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CoNS documented resistance of 90% to ampicillin. Resistance to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone was observed in 55% of the isolates. We detected biofilm formation in 71.8% of isolates. The sensitivity of tube adherence method was 82% while that of congo red agar method was 78%. Conclusion: Among 71 CoNS isolated, S. epidermidis was the most common isolates followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. Biofilm formation was detected in 71.8% of the isolates. All of the methods were effective at detecting biofilm-producing CoNS strains. Biofilm former strains are more resistant to antibiotics as compared to biofilm non-formers.

Keywords: CoNS, congo red agar, bloodstream infections, foreign body-related infections, tissue culture plate

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4 Design, Development and Analysis of Combined Darrieus and Savonius Wind Turbine

Authors: Ashish Bhattarai, Bishnu Bhatta, Hem Raj Joshi, Nabin Neupane, Pankaj Yadav


This report concerns the design, development, and analysis of the combined Darrieus and Savonius wind turbine. Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT's) are of two type's viz. Darrieus (lift type) and Savonius (drag type). The problem associated with Darrieus is the lack of self-starting while Savonius has low efficiency. There are 3 straight Darrieus blades having the cross-section of NACA(National Advisory Committee of Aeronautics) 0018 placed circumferentially and a helically twisted Savonius blade to get even torque distribution. This unique design allows the use of Savonius as a method of self-starting the wind turbine, which the Darrieus cannot achieve on its own. All the parts of the wind turbine are designed in CAD software, and simulation data were obtained via CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) approach. Also, the design was imported to FlashForge Finder to 3D print the wind turbine profile and finally, testing was carried out. The plastic material used for Savonius was ABS(Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) and that for Darrieus was PLA(Polylactic Acid). From the data obtained experimentally, the hybrid VAWT so fabricated has been found to operate at the low cut-in speed of 3 m/s and maximum power output has been found to be 7.5537 watts at the wind speed of 6 m/s. The maximum rpm of the rotor blade is recorded to be 431 rpm(rotation per minute) at the wind velocity of 6 m/s, signifying its potentiality of wind power production. Besides, the data so obtained from both the process when analyzed through graph plots has shown the similar nature slope wise. Also, the difference between the experimental and theoretical data obtained has shown mechanical losses. The objective is to eliminate the need for external motors for self-starting purposes and study the performance of the model. The testing of the model was carried out for different wind velocities.

Keywords: VAWT, Darrieus, Savonius, helical blades, CFD, flash forge finder, ABS, PLA

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3 Energy Storage Modelling for Power System Reliability and Environmental Compliance

Authors: Rajesh Karki, Safal Bhattarai, Saket Adhikari


Reliable and economic operation of power systems are becoming extremely challenging with large scale integration of renewable energy sources due to the intermittency and uncertainty associated with renewable power generation. It is, therefore, important to make a quantitative risk assessment and explore the potential resources to mitigate such risks. Probabilistic models for different energy storage systems (ESS), such as the flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and the compressed air energy storage (CAES) incorporating specific charge/discharge performance and failure characteristics suitable for probabilistic risk assessment in power system operation and planning are presented in this paper. The proposed methodology used in FESS modelling offers flexibility to accommodate different configurations of plant topology. It is perceived that CAES has a high potential for grid-scale application, and a hybrid approach is proposed, which embeds a Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) method in an analytical technique to develop a suitable reliability model of the CAES. The proposed ESS models are applied to a test system to investigate the economic and reliability benefits of the energy storage technologies in system operation and planning, as well as to assess their contributions in facilitating wind integration during different operating scenarios. A comparative study considering various storage system topologies are also presented. The impacts of failure rates of the critical components of ESS on the expected state of charge (SOC) and the performance of the different types of ESS during operation are illustrated with selected studies on the test system. The paper also applies the proposed models on the test system to investigate the economic and reliability benefits of the different ESS technologies and to evaluate their contributions in facilitating wind integration during different operating scenarios and system configurations. The conclusions drawn from the study results provide valuable information to help policymakers, system planners, and operators in arriving at effective and efficient policies, investment decisions, and operating strategies for planning and operation of power systems with large penetrations of renewable energy sources.

Keywords: flywheel energy storage, compressed air energy storage, power system reliability, renewable energy, system planning, system operation

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2 Effects of a Dwarfing Gene sd1-d (Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen Dwarf) on Yield and Related Traits in Rice: Preliminary Report

Authors: M. Bhattarai, B. B. Rana, M. Kamimukai, I. Takamure, T. Kawano, M. Murai


The sd1-d allele at the sd1 locus on chromosome 1, originating from Taiwanese variety Dee-geo-woo-gen, has been playing important role for developing short-culm and lodging-resistant indica varieties such as IR36 in rice. The dominant allele SD1 for long culm at the locus is differentiated into SD1-in and SD1-ja which are harbored in indica and japonica subspecies’s, respectively. The sd1-d of an indica variety IR36 was substituted with SD1-in or SD1-ja by recurrent backcrosses of 17 times with IR36, and two isogenic tall lines regarding the respective dominant alleles were developed by using an indica variety IR5867 and a japonica one ‘Koshihikari’ as donors, which were denoted by '5867-36' and 'Koshi-36', respectively. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of sd1-d on yield and related traits as compared with SD1-in and SD1-ja, by using the two isogenic tall lines. Seedlings of IR36 and the two isogenic lines were transplanted on an experimental field of Kochi University, by the planting distance of 30 cm × 15 cm with two seedlings per hill, on May 3, 2017. Chemical fertilizers were supplied by basal application and top-dressing at a rate of 8.00, 6.57 and 7.52 g/m², respectively, for N, P₂O₅ and K₂O in total. Yield, yield components, and other traits were measured. Culm length (cm) was in the order of 5867-36 (101.9) > Koshi-36 (80.1) > IR36 (60.0), where '>' indicates statistically significant difference at the 5% level. Accordingly, sd1-d reduced culm by 41.9 and 20.1 cm, compared with SD1-in and SD1-ja, respectively, and the effect of elongating culm was higher in the former allele than in the latter one. Total brown rice yield (g/m²), including unripened grains, was in the order of IR36 (611) ≧ 5867-36 (586) ≧ Koshi-36 (572), indicating non-significant differences among them. Yield-1.5mm sieve (g/m²) was in the order of IR36 (596) ≧ 5867-36 (575) ≧ Koshi-36 (558). Spikelet number per panicle was in the order of 5867-36 (89.2) ≧ IR36 (84.7) ≧ Koshi-36 (79.8), and 5867-36 > Koshi-36. Panicle number per m² was in the order of IR36 (428) ≧ Koshi-36 (403) ≧ 5867-36 (353), and IR36 > 5867-36, suggesting that sd1-d increased number of panicles compared with SD1-in. Ripened-grain percentage-1.5mm sieve was in the order of Koshi-36 (86.0) ≧ 5867-36 (85.0) ≧ IR36 (82.7), and Koshi-36 > IR36. Thousand brown-rice-grain weight-1.5mm sieve (g) was in the order of 5867-36 (21.5) > Koshi-36 (20.2) ≧ IR36 (19.9). Total dry weight at maturity (g/m²) was in the order of 5867-36 (1404 ) ≧ IR36 (1310) ≧ Kosihi-36 (1290). Harvest index of total brown rice (%) was in the order of IR36 (39.6) > Koshi-36 (37.7) > 5867-36 (35.5). Hence, sd1-d did not exert significant effect on yield in indica genetic background. However, lodging was observed from the late stage of maturity in 5867-36 and Koshi-36, particularly in the former, which was principally due to their long culms. Consequently, sd1-d enables higher yield with higher fertilizer application, by enhancing lodging resistance, particularly in indica subspecies.

Keywords: rice, dwarfing gene, sd1-d, SD1-in, SD1-ja, yield

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1 A High Amylose-Content and High-Yielding Elite Line Is Favorable to Cook 'Nanhan' (Semi-Soft Rice) for Nursing Care Food Particularly for Serving Aged Persons

Authors: M. Kamimukai, M. Bhattarai, B. B. Rana, K. Maeda, H. B. Kc, T. Kawano, M. Murai


Most of the aged people older than 70 have difficulty in chewing and swallowing more or less. According to magnitude of this difficulty, gruel, “nanhan” (semi-soft rice) and ordinary cooked rice are served in general, particularly in sanatoriums and homes for old people in Japan. Nanhan is the name of a cooked rice used in Japan, having softness intermediate between gruel and ordinary cooked rice, which is boiled with intermediate amount of water between those of the latter two kinds of cooked rice. In the present study, nanhan was made in the rate of 240g of water to 100g of milled rice with an electric rice cooker. Murai developed a high amylose-content and high-yielding elite line ‘Murai 79’. Sensory eating-quality test was performed for nanhan and ordinary cooked rice of Murai 79 and the standard variety ‘Hinohikari’ which is a high eating-quality variety representative in southern Japan. Panelists (6 to 14 persons) scored each cooked rice in six items viz. taste, stickiness, hardness, flavor, external appearance and overall evaluation. Grading (-3 ~ +3) in each trait was performed, regarding the value of the standard variety Hinohikari as 0. Paddy rice produced in a farmer’s field in 2013 and 2014 and in an experimental field of Kochi University in 2015 and 2016 were used for the sensory test. According to results of the sensory eating-quality test for nanhan, Murai 79 is higher in overall evaluation than Hinohikari in the four years. The former was less sticky than the latter in the four years, but the former was statistically significantly harder than the latter throughout the four years. In external appearance, the former was significantly higher than the latter in the four years. In the taste, the former was significantly higher than the latter in 2014, but significant difference was not noticed between them in the other three years. There were no significant differences throughout the four years in flavor. Regarding amylose content, Murai 79 is higher by 3.7 and 5.7% than Hinohikari in 2015 and 2016, respectively. As for protein content, Murai 79 was higher than Hinohikari in 2015, but the former was lower than the latter in 2016. Consequently, the nanhan of Murai 79 was harder and less sticky, keeping the shape of grains as compared with that of Hinohikari, which may be due to its higher amylose content. Hence, the nanhan of Murai 79 may be recognized as grains more easily in a human mouth, which could make easier the continuous performance of mastication and deglutition particularly in aged persons. Regarding ordinary cooked rice, Murai 79 was similar to or higher in both overall evaluation and external appearance as compared with Hinohikari, despite its higher hardness and lower stickiness. Additionally, Murai 79 had brown-rice yield of 1.55 times as compared with Hinohikari, suggesting that it would enable to supply inexpensive rice for making nanhan with high quality particularly for aged people in Japan.

Keywords: high-amylose content, high-yielding rice line, nanhan, nursing care food, sensory eating quality test

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