Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14993

Search results for: sensory eating quality test

14993 A High Amylose-Content and High-Yielding Elite Line Is Favorable to Cook 'Nanhan' (Semi-Soft Rice) for Nursing Care Food Particularly for Serving Aged Persons

Authors: M. Kamimukai, M. Bhattarai, B. B. Rana, K. Maeda, H. B. Kc, T. Kawano, M. Murai

Abstract:

Most of the aged people older than 70 have difficulty in chewing and swallowing more or less. According to magnitude of this difficulty, gruel, “nanhan” (semi-soft rice) and ordinary cooked rice are served in general, particularly in sanatoriums and homes for old people in Japan. Nanhan is the name of a cooked rice used in Japan, having softness intermediate between gruel and ordinary cooked rice, which is boiled with intermediate amount of water between those of the latter two kinds of cooked rice. In the present study, nanhan was made in the rate of 240g of water to 100g of milled rice with an electric rice cooker. Murai developed a high amylose-content and high-yielding elite line ‘Murai 79’. Sensory eating-quality test was performed for nanhan and ordinary cooked rice of Murai 79 and the standard variety ‘Hinohikari’ which is a high eating-quality variety representative in southern Japan. Panelists (6 to 14 persons) scored each cooked rice in six items viz. taste, stickiness, hardness, flavor, external appearance and overall evaluation. Grading (-3 ~ +3) in each trait was performed, regarding the value of the standard variety Hinohikari as 0. Paddy rice produced in a farmer’s field in 2013 and 2014 and in an experimental field of Kochi University in 2015 and 2016 were used for the sensory test. According to results of the sensory eating-quality test for nanhan, Murai 79 is higher in overall evaluation than Hinohikari in the four years. The former was less sticky than the latter in the four years, but the former was statistically significantly harder than the latter throughout the four years. In external appearance, the former was significantly higher than the latter in the four years. In the taste, the former was significantly higher than the latter in 2014, but significant difference was not noticed between them in the other three years. There were no significant differences throughout the four years in flavor. Regarding amylose content, Murai 79 is higher by 3.7 and 5.7% than Hinohikari in 2015 and 2016, respectively. As for protein content, Murai 79 was higher than Hinohikari in 2015, but the former was lower than the latter in 2016. Consequently, the nanhan of Murai 79 was harder and less sticky, keeping the shape of grains as compared with that of Hinohikari, which may be due to its higher amylose content. Hence, the nanhan of Murai 79 may be recognized as grains more easily in a human mouth, which could make easier the continuous performance of mastication and deglutition particularly in aged persons. Regarding ordinary cooked rice, Murai 79 was similar to or higher in both overall evaluation and external appearance as compared with Hinohikari, despite its higher hardness and lower stickiness. Additionally, Murai 79 had brown-rice yield of 1.55 times as compared with Hinohikari, suggesting that it would enable to supply inexpensive rice for making nanhan with high quality particularly for aged people in Japan.

Keywords: high-amylose content, high-yielding rice line, nanhan, nursing care food, sensory eating quality test

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14992 A Systematic Review of Quality of Life in Older Adults with Sensory Impairments

Authors: Ya-Chuan Tseng, Hsin-Yi Liu, Meei-Fang Lou, Guey-Shiun Huang

Abstract:

Purpose: Sensory impairments are common in older adults. Hearing and visual impairments affect their physical and mental health and quality of life (QOL) adversely. However, systematic reviews of the relationship between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life are scarce. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life. Methods: Searches of EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Airiti Library were conducted between January 2006 and December 2017 using the keywords ‘quality of life,’ ‘life satisfaction,’ ‘well-being,’ ‘hearing impairment’ and ‘visual impairment’ Two authors independently assessed methodologic quality using a modified Downs and Black tool. Data were extracted by the first author and then cross-checked by the second author. Results: Twenty-three studies consisting mostly of community-dwelling older adults were included in our review. Sensory impairment was found to be in significant association with quality of life, with an increase in hearing impairment or visual impairment severity resulting in a lower quality of life. Quality of life for dual sensory impairment was worse than for hearing impairment or visual impairment individually. Conclusions: A significant association was confirmed between hearing impairment, visual impairment, dual sensory impairment and quality of life. Our review can be used to enhance health care personnel’s understanding of sensory impairment in older adults and enable healthcare personnel to actively assess older adults’ sensory functions so that they can help alleviate the negative impact of sensory impairments on QOL in older adults.

Keywords: nursing, older adults, quality of life, systematic review, hearing impairment, visual impairment

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
14991 Eating Behaviours in Islam and Mental Health: A Preventative Approach

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Lamae Zulfiqar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

Abstract:

A growing number of research focuses on healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors and their impact on health. It was intended to study the Islamic point of view on eating behavior, its impact on mental health and preventative strategies in the light of the Quran and Sunnah. Different articles and Islamic sayings related to eating behaviors and mental health were reviewed in detail. It was also revealed scientifically and through Islamic point of view that appropriate quantity, quality and timings of food have positive effects on mental health. Therefore, a 3Rs model of eating behaviors has been proposed.

Keywords: food intake, mental health, quality of food, quantity of food

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14990 The Effect of Addition of White Mulberry Fruit on the Sensory Quality of the New Developed Bioactive Bread

Authors: Kmiecik Dominik, Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Marcinkowska Agata, Korczak Józef

Abstract:

The relationship between the choice of a proper diet, a diet, lifestyle man and his health has been known for a long time. Because of the increase in public awareness of food ingredients and their influence on health status, measures have been taken towards the production of food, which is designed to not only eat, but also to protect against the incidence of lifestyle diseases. For this purpose, the bio active products with healthy properties was developed. Mulberry have a very high nutritional value, rich in chemical composition and many properties used in the prevention of lifestyle diseases. In addition to basic chemical components, nutrients, mulberry fruit contain compounds having a physiological effect. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of white mulberry fruit on the sensory quality of bread to be healthy diet of people suffering from anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Sensory analysis was carried out by the profile method. Intra-operative differentiators color, aroma, taste, texture, and overall assessment. Sensory analysis showed that all test trials were characterized by a uniform and concise consistency, similar in color from dark to light beige. The taste and smell of herbal characteristic was designed in an attempt to prevention of diabetes, while the other samples were characterized by a typical taste and smell of bread grain. There were no foreign taste and odor in the test bread. It was found that the addition of white mulberry fruit does not affect the sensory quality of the newly developed bioactive bread.

Keywords: mulberry, bread, bioactive, sensory analysis

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14989 The Influence of the Types of Smoke Powder and Storage Duration on Sensory Quality of Balinese Beef and Buffalo Meatballs

Authors: E. Abustam, M. I. Said, M. Yusuf, H. M. Ali

Abstract:

This study aims to examine the sensory quality of meatballs made from Balinese beef and buffalo meat after the addition of smoke powder prior to storage at the temperatures of 2-5°C for 7 days. This study used meat from Longissimus dorsi muscle of male Balinese cattle aged 3 years and of male buffalo aged 5 years as the main raw materials, and smoke powder as a binder and preservative in making meatballs. The study was based on completely randomized design (CRD) of factorial pattern of 2 x 3 x 2 where factors 1, 2 and 3 included the types of meat (cattle and buffalo), types of smoke powder (oven dried, freeze dried and spray dried) with a level of 2% of the weight of the meat (b/b), and storage duration (0 and 7 days) with three replications respectively. The parameters measured were the meatball sensory quality (scores of tenderness, firmness, chewing residue, and intensity of flavor). The results of this study show that each type of meat has produced different sensory characteristics. The meatballs made from buffalo meat have higher tenderness and elasticity scores than the Balinese beef. Meanwhile, the buffalo meatballs have a lower residue mastication score than the Balinese beef. Each type of smoke powders has produced a relatively similar sensory quality of meatballs. It can be concluded that the smoke powder of 2% of the weight of the meat (w/w) could maintain the sensory quality of the meatballs for 7 days of storage.

Keywords: Balinese beef meatballs, buffalo meatballs, sensory quality, smoke powder

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14988 Association of Sensory Processing and Cognitive Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders – Pioneer Study in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rana Zeina

Abstract:

Objective: The association between Sensory problems and cognitive abilities has been studied in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). In this study, we used a neuropsychological test to evaluate memory and attention in ASDs children with sensory problems compared to the ASDs children without sensory problems. Methods: Four visual memory tests of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) including Big/Little Circle (BLC), Simple Reaction Time (SRT), Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED), Spatial Recognition Memory (SRM), were administered to 14 ASDs children with sensory problems compared to 13 ASDs without sensory problems aged 3 to 12 with IQ of above 70. Results: ASDs Individuals with sensory problems performed worse than the ASDs group without sensory problems on comprehension, learning, reversal and simple reaction time tasks, and no significant difference between the two groups was recorded in terms of the visual memory and visual comprehension tasks. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that ASDs children with sensory problems are facing deficits in learning, comprehension, reversal, and speed of response to stimuli.

Keywords: visual memory, attention, autism spectrum disorders, CANTAB eclipse

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14987 Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy

Authors: Udomporn Yingpaisuk, Premwadee Karuhadej

Abstract:

The purposed of this research was to study the eating habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically significant level of 0.001.

Keywords: teenage pregnancy, knowledge of eating, eating behavior, alcohol, caffeine

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
14986 Eating Constitutes Human Dignity: A Metaphysical Anthropology Perspective

Authors: Sri Poedjiastoeti

Abstract:

One of the traits of living beings is eating. As the living beings, people must provide their life by taking material. They must assimilate for themselves with substances. They grow and develop themselves by changing what they eat and digest into their own substance. This happened in the so-called eating. This article aims to analyze distinction between human beings and other infrahumans when facing and eating food. It uses the analytical description with metaphysical anthropology approach. As a result, to give the expression that eating is not simply to put food in mouth, chew and swallow it. Eating constitutes a sacred ceremonial if it is done in accordance with human dignity. They face food with distance and moderation as well as civilize or make their behaviour better for it. Accordingly, they are being to be human.

Keywords: human beings, behaviour, eating, dignity

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
14985 The Effect of Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy on Eating Disorder Symptom and Fear of Negative Evaluation of Lorestan University Female Students

Authors: S. Gholamrezaei, M. Mehrabizade Honarmand, Y. Zargar

Abstract:

Introduction: This research was designed to assess the effect of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy on eating disorder symptom and fear of negative evaluation of Lorestan University female students. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 641 female students were randomly selected from various faculties of Lorestan University. Eating disorders symptoms and fear of negative evaluation were assessed by the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Leary (FNES-B). Data were analyzed by SPSS software (multivariate analyze tests were used). Results: Interpersonal Psychotherapy can improve the eating disorder symptoms and reduce the fear of negative evaluation in girl students of group control in compare with control group. Conclusion: Interpersonal psychotherapy can be effective for eating disorder symptoms, and fear of negative evaluation among female students. Thus, it is suggested that this kind of psychotherapy was used for other psychological disease.

Keywords: interpersonal psychotherapy, eating disorder, fear of negative evaluation, students

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14984 Eating Behaviour and the Nature of Food Consumption in a Malaysian Adults Sample

Authors: Madihah Shukri

Abstract:

Research examining whether eating behaviour is related to unhealthy or healthy eating pattern is required to explain the mechanisms underlying obesity, and to inform health intervention aim to prevent and treat obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviours and nature of food consumption. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 588 adults (males = 231 and females = 357). The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to measure restrained, emotional and external eating. Nature of food consumption was assessed by self-reported consumption of fruit and vegetables, sweet food, junk food and snacking. Results: Results revealed that emotional eating was found to be the principal predictor of the consumption of less healthy food (sweet food, junk food and snacking), while external eating predicted sweet food intake. Intake of fruit and vegetable was associated with restrained eating. In light of the significant associations between eating behaviour and nature of food consumption, acknowledging individuals eating styles can have implications for tailoring effective nutritional programs in the context of obesity and chronic disease epidemic.

Keywords: eating behaviour, food consumption, adult, Malaysia

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14983 Quality of Life and Willingness to Take Treatment and the Importance of the Disease in the Lives of Patients with Eating Disorders

Authors: Marzena Trojanczyk, Mariusz Jaworski, Ewa Dmoch Gajzlerska

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between the level of quality of life and willingness to take treatment in patients with eating disorders as anorexia, bulimia and compulsive bingeing. Material and methods: The subjects consisted of 99 women with eating disorders: anorexia, n = 33; bulimia, n = 35; compulsive overeating, n = 31 and 35 women in the control group. The study used an original questionnaire to assess the overall quality of life, as well as selected areas of the physical, mental, social and spiritual satisfaction. The subjects were also asked about the level of motivation for treatment, and the importance of the disease in the lives of patients. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical program SPSS 18.0. Results: Women with eating disorders in particular groups did not differ with respect to each other in the aspect of overall quality of life, satisfaction with the development of the spiritual, social functioning and mental health. The severity level of the disease in the lives of patients showed a negative correlation with social functioning in women with anorexia nervosa. In the case of patients with compulsive bingeing a positive relationship between the level of importance of the disease and the satisfaction of spiritual development is reported. Conclusions: Concerning the inferior quality of life, there is no relationship between a willingness to take treatment and the importance of the disease in the lives of patients with anorexia, bulimia and compulsive bingeing.

Keywords: anorexia, bulimia, compulsive overeating, quality of life

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14982 Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

Authors: Loke Mun Sei

Abstract:

Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, Robot Framework, and Jenkins.

Keywords: test automation tools, test case, test execution, test reporting

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14981 Improved Postprandial Response and Feeling of Satiety After Consumption of Sour Cherry Pomace Enriched Muffins

Authors: Joanna Bajerska, Sylwia Mildner-Szkudlarz, Pawel Górnas, Dalija Segliņac

Abstract:

Sour cherry pomace (CP) by-products obtained during fruit processing, was used to replace the wheat flour in muffin formula on the levels 20% (CP20) and 30% (CP30). The sensory profile of this muffins were characterized, and their impact on glycemic response and appetite sensation were studied. Randomized crossover study where test subjects were given either plain muffin (PM) or CP20 or CP30 during 2 different occasions. In the first study test muffins with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate were consumed. Blood glucose was measured before and up to 120 min after consuming the test muffins. To study satiety response in the second trial of the test muffins (portion 1700 kJ per serve) were ingested. Sensory analysis was performed earlier by a sensory panel consisting of 10 well-trained individuals. It is acceptable to incorporate CP into a muffin formula at concentrations up to 30%. With the CP muffins treatment, the glucose responses were significantly lower at 30, 45 and 60 min of the intervals also the incremental peak glucose was 0.40 mmol/L and 0.60 mmol/L lower than for PM. CP20 and CP30 also improved satiety as compared to PM. CP can be a good functional ingredient of functional bakery products to assist in managing glucose levels and satiety in healthy individuals.

Keywords: muffins, postprandial glucose, sensory analysis, satiety sour cherry pomace

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14980 Rheological Properties of Dough and Sensory Quality of Crackers with Dietary Fibers

Authors: Ljubica Dokić, Ivana Nikolić, Dragana Šoronja–Simović, Zita Šereš, Biljana Pajin, Nils Juul, Nikola Maravić

Abstract:

The possibility of application the dietary fibers in production of crackers was observed in this work, as well as their influence on rheological and textural properties on the dough for crackers and influence on sensory properties of obtained crackers. Three different dietary fibers, oat, potato and pea fibers, replaced 10% of wheat flour. Long fermentation process and baking test method were used for crackers production. The changes of dough for crackers were observed by rheological methods of determination the viscoelastic dough properties and by textural measurements. Sensory quality of obtained crackers was described using quantity descriptive method (QDA) by trained members of descriptive panel. Additional analysis of crackers surface was performed by videometer. Based on rheological determination, viscoelastic properties of dough for crackers were reduced by application of dietary fibers. Manipulation of dough with 10% of potato fiber was disabled, thus the recipe modification included increase in water content at 35%. Dough compliance to constant stress for samples with dietary fibers decreased, due to more rigid and stiffer dough consistency compared to control sample. Also, hardness of dough for these samples increased and dough extensibility decreased. Sensory properties of final products, crackers, were reduced compared to control sample. Application of dietary fibers affected mostly hardness, structure and crispness of the crackers. Observed crackers were low marked for flavor and taste, due to influence of fibers specific aroma. The sample with 10% of potato fibers and increased water content was the most adaptable to applied stresses and to production process. Also this sample was close to control sample without dietary fibers by evaluation of sensory properties and by results of videometer method.

Keywords: crackers, dietary fibers, rheology, sensory properties

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14979 Physical, Textural and Sensory Properties of Noodles Supplemented with Tilapia Bone Flour (Tilapia nilotica)

Authors: Supatchalee Sirichokworrakit

Abstract:

Fishbone of Nile tilapia (Tilapia nilotica), waste from the frozen Nile tilapia fillet factory, is one of calcium sources. In order to increase fish bone powder value, this study aimed to investigate the effect of tilapia bone flour (TBF) addition (5, 10, 15% by flour weight) on cooking quality, texture and sensory attributes of noodles. The results indicated that tensile strength, color value (a*) and water absorption of noodles significantly decreased (p≤0.05) as the levels of TBF increased from 0-15%. While cooking loss, cooking time and color values (L* and b*) of noodles significantly increased (p≤0.05). Sensory evaluation indicated that noodles with 5% TBF received the highest overall acceptability score.

Keywords: tilapia bone flour, noodles, cooking quality, calcium

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14978 Chemical and Sensory Properties of Chardonnay Wines Produced in Different Oak Barrels

Authors: Valentina Obradović, Josip Mesić, Maja Ergović Ravančić, Kamila Mijowska, Brankica Svitlica

Abstract:

French oak and American oak barrels are most famous all over the world, but barrels of different origin can also be used for obtaining high quality wines. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of different Slavonian (Croatian) and French oak barrels on the quality of Chardonnay wine. Grapes were grown in Croatian wine growing region of Kutjevo in 2015. Chardonnay wines were tested for basic oenological parameters (alcohol, extract, reducing sugar, SO2, acidity), total polyphenols content (Folin-Ciocalteu method), antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH method) and color density. Sensory evaluation was performed by students of viticulture/oenology. Samples produced by classical fermentation and ageing in French oak barrels, had better results for polyphenols and sensory evaluation (especially low toasting level) than samples in Slavonian barrels. All tested samples were scored as a “quality” or “premium quality” wines. Sur lie method of fermentation and ageing in Slavonian oak barrel had very good extraction of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity with the usage of authentic yeasts, while commercial yeast strain resulted in worse chemical and sensory parameters.

Keywords: chardonnay, French oak, Slavonian oak, sur lie

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14977 Associations between Sleep Problems and Disordered Eating in Japanese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Takaharu Hirai, Yuta Mitobe, Hiromi Hirai

Abstract:

Introduction: Eating disorders (ED) are serious psychiatric disorders that affect individuals, especially adolescents. It has been suggested that nonclinical ED-like characteristics are related to sleep problems. However, studies exploring the association between potential ED and sleep disorders have primarily been conducted in Europe and the United States. We conducted a survey of Japanese adolescents to investigate this claim. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 398 school-aged adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, matched for gender ratio, responded to a self-administered questionnaire survey. We used the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) to measure potential ED and sleep problems, respectively. In this study, participants with an EAT-26 total score of 0–19 points were classified as non-ED, while those with scores of 20 points or higher were classified as potential ED. Result: Of the 398 participants, 17 (4.3%) had an EAT-26 total score of 20 or higher. Among boys, the rate was 6 of 199 participants (3%), and among girls, the rate was 11 of 182 participants (6%). There were 89 participants (22.4%) with an AIS score of 6 points or higher, of which 36 (17.6%) were boys, and 53 (27.5%) were girls. Adolescents with potential ED had significantly higher rates of daytime sleep problems than those without ED. Further, while examining the types of sleep problems, adolescents with potential ED had greater problems with a sense of well-being and physical and mental functioning during the day. In contrast, no significant associations were found between potential ED and sleep initiation, awakenings during the night, early morning awakening, total sleep duration, or overall quality of sleep. Finally, nocturnal and daytime sleep scores were significantly associated with dieting, bulimia, and oral control EAT-26 sub-scores. Discussion: While Japanese adolescents with possible ED do not experience nighttime sleep problems, they do experience problems related to well-being and mental and physical functioning, which are indicators of daytime sleep problems. This may assist with early detection of disordered eating in adolescents. The study suggested that professionals working towards adolescent mental health issues need an approach that comprehensively integrates both sleep problems and potential ED.

Keywords: adolescents, potential eating disorders, sleep problems, eating attitudes test-26

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14976 Effect of Sensory Manipulations on Human Joint Stiffness Strategy and Its Adaptation for Human Dynamic Stability

Authors: Aizreena Azaman, Mai Ishibashi, Masanori Ishizawa, Shin-Ichiroh Yamamoto

Abstract:

Sensory input plays an important role to human posture control system to initiate strategy in order to counterpart any unbalance condition and thus, prevent fall. In previous study, joint stiffness was observed able to describe certain issues regarding to movement performance. But, correlation between balance ability and joint stiffness is still remains unknown. In this study, joint stiffening strategy at ankle and hip were observed under different sensory manipulations and its correlation with conventional clinical test (Functional Reach Test) for balance ability was investigated. In order to create unstable condition, two different surface perturbations (tilt up-tilt (TT) down and forward-backward (FB)) at four different frequencies (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Hz) were introduced. Furthermore, four different sensory manipulation conditions (include vision and vestibular system) were applied to the subject and they were asked to maintain their position as possible. The results suggested that joint stiffness were high during difficult balance situation. Less balance people generated high average joint stiffness compared to balance people. Besides, adaptation of posture control system under repetitive external perturbation also suggested less during sensory limited condition. Overall, analysis of joint stiffening response possible to predict unbalance situation faced by human.

Keywords: balance ability, joint stiffness, sensory, adaptation, dynamic

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14975 Food Losses Reducing by Extending the Minimum Durability Date of Thermally Processed Products

Authors: Dorota Zielińska, Monika Trząskowska, Anna Łepecka, Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska, Beata Bilska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska

Abstract:

Minimum durability date (MDD) labeled food is known to have a long shelf life. A properly stored or transported food retains its physical, chemical, microbiological, and sensory properties up to MDD. The aim of the study was to assess the sensory quality and microbiological safety of selected thermally processed products,i.e., mayonnaise, jam, and canned tuna within and after MDD. The scope of the study was to determine the markers of microbiological quality, i.e., the total viable count (TVC), the Enterobacteriaceae count and the total yeast and mold (TYMC) count on the last day of MDD and after 1 and 3 months of storage, after the MDD expired. In addition, the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes was examined on the last day of MDD. The sensory quality of products was assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), the intensity of differentiators (quality features), and overall quality were defined and determined. It was found that during three months storage of tested food products, after the MDD expired, the microbiological quality slightly decreased, however, regardless of the tested sample, TVC was at the level of <3 log cfu/g, similarly, the Enterobacretiaceae, what indicates the good microbiological quality of the tested foods. The TYMC increased during storage but did not exceed 2 logs cfu/g of product. Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were not found in any of the tested food samples. The sensory quality of mayonnaise negatively changed during storage. After three months from the expiry of MDD, a decrease in the "fat" and "egg" taste and aroma intensity, as well as the "density" were found. The "sour" taste intensity of blueberry jam after three months of storage was slightly higher, compared to the jam tested on the last day of MDD, without affecting the overall quality. In the case of tuna samples, an increase in the "fishy" taste and aroma intensity was observed during storage, and the overall quality did not change. Tested thermally processed products (mayonnaise, jam, and canned tuna) were characterized by good microbiological and sensory quality on the last day of MDD, as well as after three months of storage under conditions recommended by the producer. These findings indicate the possibility of reducing food losses by extending or completely abolishing the MDD of selected thermal processed food products.

Keywords: food wastes, food quality and safety, mayonnaise, jam, tuna

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14974 Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Sorority Women

Authors: Andrea J. Kirk-Jenkins

Abstract:

Women in late adolescence and young adulthood are particularly vulnerable to disordered eating, and prior research indicates that those within the college and sorority communities may be especially susceptible. Research has primarily involved comparing eating disorder symptoms between sorority women and non-sorority members using formal eating disorder assessments. This phenomenological study examined sorority members’ (N = 10) perceptions of and lived experiences with various disordered eating behaviors within the sorority culture. Data from individual interviews and photographs indicated two structural themes and 11 textural themes related to factors associated with disordered eating behaviors. These findings point to the existence of both positive and negative aspects of sorority culture, normalization of disordered eating behaviors, and pressure to attain or maintain an ideal body image. Implications for university stakeholders, including college counselors, health center staff, and extracurricular program leaders, are discussed. Further research on the identified textural themes as well as a longitudinal study exploring how perceptions change from rush to alumnae status is suggested.

Keywords: eating disorders, disorder eating behaviors, sorority women, sorority culture, college women

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14973 Eating Disorders and Eating Behaviors in Morbid Obese Women with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Azadeh Mottaghi, Zeynab Shakeri

Abstract:

Background: Eating disorders (ED) are group of psychological disorders that significantly impair physical health and psychosocial function. EDconsists wide range of morbidity such as loss of eating control, binge eating disorder(BED), night eating syndrome (NES), and bulimia nervosa. Eating behavior is a wide range term that includes food choices, eating patterns, eating problems. In this study, current knowledge will be discussed aboutcomparison of eating disorders and eating behaviors in morbid obese women with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods: 231 womenwith morbid obesity were included in the study.Loss of eating control, Binge eating disorder and Bulimia nervosa, Night eating syndrome, and eating behaviors and psychosocial factorswere assessed. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was a significant difference between women with and without diabetes in case of binge eating disorder (76.3% vs. 47.3%, p=0.001). Women with the least Interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) scores had a higher risk of eating disorders, and it is more common among diabetics (29.31% vs. 30.45%, p= 0.050). There was no significant difference between depression level and BDI score among women with or without diabetes. Although 38.5% (n=56) of women with diabetes and 50% (n=71) of women without diabetes had minimal depression. The logistic regression model has shown that women without diabetes had lower odds of exhibiting BED (OR=0.28, 95% CI 0.142-0.552).Women with and without diabetes with high school degree (OR=5.54, 95% CI 2.46-9.45, P= 0.0001 & OR=6.52, 95% CI 3.15-10.56, respectively) and moderate depression level (OR=2.03, 95% CI 0.98-3.95 & OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.12-4.56, P= 0.0001) had higher odds of BED. Conclusion: The result of the present study shows that the odds of BED was lower in non-diabetic women with morbid obesity. Women with morbid obesity who had high school degree and moderate depression level had more odds for BED.

Keywords: eating disorders binge eating disorder, night eating syndrome, bulimia nervosa, morbid obesity

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14972 Relation between Sensory Processing Patterns and Working Memory in Autistic Children

Authors: Abbas Nesayan

Abstract:

Background: In recent years, autism has been under consideration in public and research area. Autistic children have dysfunction in communication, socialization, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. In addition, they clinically suffer from difficulty in attention, challenge with familiar behaviors and sensory processing problems. Several variables are linked to sensory processing problems in autism, one of these variables is working memory. Working memory is part of the executive function which provides the necessary ability to completing multiple stages tasks. Method: This study has categorized in correlational research methods. After determining of entry criteria, according to purposive sampling method, 50 children were selected. Dunn’s sensory profile school companion was used for assessment of sensory processing patterns; behavioral rating inventory of executive functions was used (BRIEF) for assessment of working memory. Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression were used for data analyzing. Results: The results showed the significant relationship between sensory processing patterns (low registration, sensory seeking, sensory sensitivity and sensory avoiding) with working memory in autistic children. Conclusion: According to the findings, there is the significant relationship between the patterns of sensory processing and working memory. So, in order to improve the working memory could be used some interventions based on the sensory processing.

Keywords: sensory processing patterns, working memory, autism, autistic children

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14971 Jamun Juice Extraction Using Commercial Enzymes and Optimization of the Treatment with the Help of Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties

Authors: Payel Ghosh, Rama Chandra Pradhan, Sabyasachi Mishra

Abstract:

Jamun (Syzygium cuminii L.) is one of the important indigenous minor fruit with high medicinal value. The jamun cultivation is unorganized and there is huge loss of this fruit every year. The perishable nature of the fruit makes its postharvest management further difficult. Due to the strong cell wall structure of pectin-protein bonds and hard seeds, extraction of juice becomes difficult. Enzymatic treatment has been commercially used for improvement of juice quality with high yield. The objective of the study was to optimize the best treatment method for juice extraction. Enzymes (Pectinase and Tannase) from different stains had been used and for each enzyme, best result obtained by using response surface methodology. Optimization had been done on the basis of physicochemical property, nutritional property, sensory quality and cost estimation. According to quality aspect, cost analysis and sensory evaluation, the optimizing enzymatic treatment was obtained by Pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus strain. The optimum condition for the treatment was 44 oC with 80 minute with a concentration of 0.05% (w/w). At these conditions, 75% of yield with turbidity of 32.21NTU, clarity of 74.39%T, polyphenol content of 115.31 mg GAE/g, protein content of 102.43 mg/g have been obtained with a significant difference in overall acceptability.

Keywords: enzymatic treatment, Jamun, optimization, physicochemical property, sensory analysis

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14970 Stress and Dysfunctional Eating Behavior in COVID-19 Pandemic: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Vanshika Chutani, Priya Bhatnagar

Abstract:

The pandemic has brought us to a standpoint where stress as a physical, cognitive, and behavioral construct is inevitable. The current research provides an overview of the relationship between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior during the challenging time of the COVID-19 pandemic. The present paper also aims to highlight the gender-specific differences in perception of stress and its correlation with dysfunctional eating behavior in the COVID-19 pandemic. Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) and Adult Eating Behavior questionnaire (AEBQ) were used on a heterogeneous sample between 20-40 years. The research was conducted on 50 participants, 25 male, and 25 female. Quantitative analysis was done with SPSS 22.0. The results of the investigation revealed a significant difference in stress level, t(48)=2.01, p<0.01, with women (M=22.24. SD=5.23) having a higher stress level than men (M=19.04, SD=4.89). There was no significant difference in dysfunctional eating behavior between males and females. There was a significant positive correlation between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior in females, whereas, in males, there was no significant positive correlation between stress and dysfunctional eating behavior. The research extrapolates that the pandemic led to elevated stress levels in both genders and gender differences existed, and males & females responded differently on dysfunctional eating behavior. The research has also outlined intervention to help individuals cope with stress and dysfunctional eating behavior. The findings of the research propose the execution of different intervention programs and psychological first aid to help individuals who are predisposed to develop eating disorders.

Keywords: stress, dysfunctional eating behavior, gender-specific differences, COVID-19

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14969 Complex Decision Rules in Quality Assurance Processes for Quick Service Restaurant Industry: Human Factors Determining Acceptability

Authors: Brandon Takahashi, Marielle Hanley, Gerry Hanley

Abstract:

The large-scale quick-service restaurant industry is a complex business to manage optimally. With over 40 suppliers providing different ingredients for food preparation and thousands of restaurants serving over 50 unique food offerings across a wide range of regions, the company must implement a quality assurance process. Businesses want to deliver quality food efficiently, reliably, and successfully at a low cost that the public wants to buy. They also want to make sure that their food offerings are never unsafe to eat or of poor quality. A good reputation (and profitable business) developed over the years can be gone in an instant if customers fall ill eating your food. Poor quality also results in food waste, and the cost of corrective actions is compounded by the reduction in revenue. Product compliance evaluation assesses if the supplier’s ingredients are within compliance with the specifications of several attributes (physical, chemical, organoleptic) that a company will test to ensure that a quality, safe to eat food is given to the consumer and will deliver the same eating experience in all parts of the country. The technical component of the evaluation includes the chemical and physical tests that produce numerical results that relate to shelf-life, food safety, and organoleptic qualities. The psychological component of the evaluation includes organoleptic, which is acting on or involving the use of the sense organs. The rubric for product compliance evaluation has four levels: (1) Ideal: Meeting or exceeding all technical (physical and chemical), organoleptic, & psychological specifications. (2) Deviation from ideal but no impact on quality: Not meeting or exceeding some technical and organoleptic/psychological specifications without impact on consumer quality and meeting all food safety requirements (3) Acceptable: Not meeting or exceeding some technical and organoleptic/psychological specifications resulting in reduction of consumer quality but not enough to lessen demand and meeting all food safety requirements (4) Unacceptable: Not meeting food safety requirements, independent of meeting technical and organoleptic specifications or meeting all food safety requirements but product quality results in consumer rejection of food offering. Sampling of products and consumer tastings within the distribution network is a second critical element of the quality assurance process and are the data sources for the statistical analyses. Each finding is not independently assessed with the rubric. For example, the chemical data will be used to back up/support any inferences on the sensory profiles of the ingredients. Certain flavor profiles may not be as apparent when mixed with other ingredients, which leads to weighing specifications differentially in the acceptability decision. Quality assurance processes are essential to achieve that balance of quality and profitability by making sure the food is safe and tastes good but identifying and remediating product quality issues before they hit the stores. Comprehensive quality assurance procedures implement human factors methodologies, and this report provides recommendations for systemic application of quality assurance processes for quick service restaurant services. This case study will review the complex decision rubric and evaluate processes to ensure the right balance of cost, quality, and safety is achieved.

Keywords: decision making, food safety, organoleptics, product compliance, quality assurance

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14968 Diversity and Quality of Food Consumption Compared to Nutritional Status in Ages 15–17 Years Old in Jakarta

Authors: Andra Vidyarini

Abstract:

Adolescence is a transition period in which various changes occur, both biologically, intellectually and psychosocially. Changes in adolescents, one of which is a change in food consumption patterns that make adolescents vulnerable to nutritional problems that can affect their growth and health in the future. Nutritional problems in adolescents have increased from year to year and one of the causes is the low diversity and quality of consumption. The diversity and quality of consumption can be seen through the Individual Dietary Diversity Score and the Healthy Eating Index. Currently, in Indonesia, data on the diversity and quality of food consumption, especially among adolescents, are still scarce. In general, the purpose of this study is to describe the diversity and quality of adolescent food consumption and the relationship between the diversity and quality of food consumption with nutritional status. This study is a cross-sectional study by looking at the diversity and quality of consumption of adolescents aged 15-17 years. The total number of subjects in this study amounted to 70 teenagers. This research was conducted online via a google form. Data analysis in this study was univariate and bivariate. The results showed that the diversity of the subject's food consumption was in the diverse and very diverse category with an average of 6. However, the quality was still not good, whereas it was still in the bad and moderate categories with an average of 12.93. The nutritional status of the majority of the subjects was in the normal category and overweight to obese. The implementation of blended learning where there are still limited face-to-face meetings at school can be the reason why teenagers' food consumption is more diverse than when they are face-to-face schools. In addition, changes in people's diet during the pandemic also influenced the results of the study. The change in pattern is a change in eating habits to three times a day with menu choices ranging from rice, meat, fish, bean and vegetables. Analysis of the relationship between the diversity and quality of food consumption shows that the diversity of consumption has a significant relationship with the quality of food consumption with a p-value of 0.002 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the diversity and quality of food consumption have no significant relationship with nutritional status, with p values 0.777 and 0.251 (>0.05), respectively. This shows that the diversity of food consumption is directly proportional to the quality of consumption, where if you have a variety of food consumption, the quality or in terms of portions and weight are also sufficient in accordance with the recommendations of PGRS.

Keywords: healthy eating index (HEI), food diversity, quality of consumption, adolescent

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14967 Effect of Provitamin a Biofortified Maize Inclusion Diet on Consumers' Acceptability of Ovambo Chicken Meat

Authors: Feyisayo Odunitan-Wayas, Unathi Kolanisi, Micheal Chimonyo, Muthulisi Siwela

Abstract:

Consumers’ surveys have indicated low acceptability of provitamin A biofortified maize (PABM), a high vitamin A (HVA) maize in Southern Africa to curb vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Indigenous chickens are reared and consumed by almost all rural households which are the major VAD prone areas in southern Africa. The objective of this study was to determine if HVA diet fed to the Ovambo indigenous chicken breed will influence consumers’ acceptability of the meat. The leg (thigh and drumstick) of the male birds (21 weeks old) were used for the sensory characteristics. 52 consumer panellists evaluated the sensory characteristics on based on a 5-point hedonic scale and preference test. There was no significant difference (P<0.05) in the preference test between the two diets. There were no significant differences (P<0.05) between the diets based on all sensory characteristics. Age and gender of the consumers and their interactions had no effect (P<0.05) on the acceptability and sensory characteristic ratings. It was concluded that indigenous chickens fed provitamin A biofortified maize can be a possible tool for curbing VAD in southern Africa regions where there is low acceptability of the human consumption of provitamin A biofortified maize. It was concluded that PABM diet fed to indigenous chickens will not influence the acceptability of the chicken meat by VAD vulnerable consumers.

Keywords: biofortified pro-vitamin a maize, ovambo, chicken meat, sensory characteristics, gender, age

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14966 Effects of Particle Sizes of Maize Flour on the Quality of Traditional Maize Snack, Kokoro

Authors: Adebola Ajayi, Olakunle M. Makanjuola

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The effects of particle sizes of maize flour on the quality of traditional maize snack (Kokoro) were investigated. Maize flour of different sieve mesh sizes of 1.00mm, 1.9 mm, 1.4 mm, 1.68 mm and 2.0 mm was used to produce Kokoro. The samples were analysed for protein, fat, moisture content, crude fibre, ash and sensory evaluation. The various mixture obtained were separately processed into snacks following essential traditional method of production. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that Kokoro of sample 546 using 1.0mm mesh sieve size was the most preferred and sample 513 using 2.00 was least preferred. The result revealed that the more the maize was well blended the more acceptable the product is to the consumer.

Keywords: particle sizes, maize flour, quality, Kokoro

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14965 Risk of Disrupted Eating Attitudes in Disabled Athletes

Authors: Zehra Buyuktuncer, Aylin H. Büyükkaragöz, Tuğçe N. Balcı, Nevin Ergun

Abstract:

Background: Undergoing rigid dietary habits for enhancing athletic performance could lead to eating disorders. High prevalence of eating disorders among female athletes has been already reported. However, the risk of disordered eating among disabled athletes is not known. A better knowledge of the different eating behaviors and their prevalence in disabled athletes would be helpful to understand interactions between eating and health. This study aimed to examine the cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating behaviors in a disabled athlete population. Method: A total of 70 disabled Turkish national athletes (33 female, 37 male) from 5 sport branches (soccer, weight lifting, shooting, table tennis and basketball) were involved in the study. The cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating behaviors were assessed using the revised version of Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-R18). The questionnaires were conducted by dietitian during the preparation camps of athletes. Body weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured; and body composition was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis method. Results: The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 13.9±4.2, uncontrolled eating score of 17.7±5.8 and emotional eating score of 4.9±2.5. The mean score of total TFEQ-R18 was 36.5±8.62. Neither total TFEQ-R18 score nor subscale scores differed significantly by gender or sport branches (p>0.05, for each). The scores were also similar in BMI groups (n=63; p>0.05). Total TFEQ, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores were significantly higher among the athletes with congenital disabilities compared to the scores of the athletes with acquired disabilities (p<0.05, for each). Moreover, the cognitive dietary restraint score was significantly high in athletes who would like to lose weight (p=0.009). Conclusion: Disabled athletes might have a risk of disordered eating. The different eating behaviors among disabled athletes should be assessed using validated tools to develop personalized nutritional strategies for those athletes.

Keywords: disabled athletes, eating behaviour, three-factor eating questionnaire-r18, body composition

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14964 Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Storage Temperatures on Quality of Shelled Raw Walnuts

Authors: M. Javanmard

Abstract:

This study was aimed at analyzing the effects of packaging (MAP) and preservation conditions on the packaged fresh walnut kernel quality. The central composite plan was used for evaluating the effect of oxygen (0–10%), carbon dioxide (0-10%), and temperature (4-26 °C) on qualitative characteristics of walnut kernels. Also, the response level technique was used to find the optimal conditions for interactive effects of factors, as well as estimating the best conditions of process using least amount of testing. Measured qualitative parameters were: peroxide index, color, decreased weight, mould and yeast counting test, and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the defined model for peroxide index, color, weight loss, and sensory evaluation is significant (p < 0.001), so that increase of temperature causes the peroxide value, color variation, and weight loss to increase and it reduces the overall acceptability of walnut kernels. An increase in oxygen percentage caused the color variation level and peroxide value to increase and resulted in lower overall acceptability of the walnuts. An increase in CO2 percentage caused the peroxide value to decrease, but did not significantly affect other indices (p ≥ 0.05). Mould and yeast were not found in any samples. Optimal packaging conditions to achieve maximum quality of walnuts include: 1.46% oxygen, 10% carbon dioxide, and temperature of 4 °C.

Keywords: shelled walnut, MAP, quality, storage temperature

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