Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: M. Murai

5 A High Amylose-Content and High-Yielding Elite Line Is Favorable to Cook 'Nanhan' (Semi-Soft Rice) for Nursing Care Food Particularly for Serving Aged Persons

Authors: M. Kamimukai, M. Bhattarai, B. B. Rana, K. Maeda, H. B. Kc, T. Kawano, M. Murai


Most of the aged people older than 70 have difficulty in chewing and swallowing more or less. According to magnitude of this difficulty, gruel, “nanhan” (semi-soft rice) and ordinary cooked rice are served in general, particularly in sanatoriums and homes for old people in Japan. Nanhan is the name of a cooked rice used in Japan, having softness intermediate between gruel and ordinary cooked rice, which is boiled with intermediate amount of water between those of the latter two kinds of cooked rice. In the present study, nanhan was made in the rate of 240g of water to 100g of milled rice with an electric rice cooker. Murai developed a high amylose-content and high-yielding elite line ‘Murai 79’. Sensory eating-quality test was performed for nanhan and ordinary cooked rice of Murai 79 and the standard variety ‘Hinohikari’ which is a high eating-quality variety representative in southern Japan. Panelists (6 to 14 persons) scored each cooked rice in six items viz. taste, stickiness, hardness, flavor, external appearance and overall evaluation. Grading (-3 ~ +3) in each trait was performed, regarding the value of the standard variety Hinohikari as 0. Paddy rice produced in a farmer’s field in 2013 and 2014 and in an experimental field of Kochi University in 2015 and 2016 were used for the sensory test. According to results of the sensory eating-quality test for nanhan, Murai 79 is higher in overall evaluation than Hinohikari in the four years. The former was less sticky than the latter in the four years, but the former was statistically significantly harder than the latter throughout the four years. In external appearance, the former was significantly higher than the latter in the four years. In the taste, the former was significantly higher than the latter in 2014, but significant difference was not noticed between them in the other three years. There were no significant differences throughout the four years in flavor. Regarding amylose content, Murai 79 is higher by 3.7 and 5.7% than Hinohikari in 2015 and 2016, respectively. As for protein content, Murai 79 was higher than Hinohikari in 2015, but the former was lower than the latter in 2016. Consequently, the nanhan of Murai 79 was harder and less sticky, keeping the shape of grains as compared with that of Hinohikari, which may be due to its higher amylose content. Hence, the nanhan of Murai 79 may be recognized as grains more easily in a human mouth, which could make easier the continuous performance of mastication and deglutition particularly in aged persons. Regarding ordinary cooked rice, Murai 79 was similar to or higher in both overall evaluation and external appearance as compared with Hinohikari, despite its higher hardness and lower stickiness. Additionally, Murai 79 had brown-rice yield of 1.55 times as compared with Hinohikari, suggesting that it would enable to supply inexpensive rice for making nanhan with high quality particularly for aged people in Japan.

Keywords: high-amylose content, high-yielding rice line, nanhan, nursing care food, sensory eating quality test

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4 Chemometric Estimation of Phytochemicals Affecting the Antioxidant Potential of Lettuce

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Aleksandra Tepic-Horecki, Zdravko Sumic


In this paper, the influence of six different phytochemical content (phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a + b and vitamin C) on antioxidant potential of Murai and Levistro lettuce varieties was evaluated. Variable selection was made by generalized pair correlation method (GPCM) as a novel ranking method. This method is used for the discrimination between two variables that almost equal correlate to a dependent variable. Fisher’s conditional exact and McNemar’s test were carried out. Established multiple linear (MLR) models were statistically evaluated. As the best phytochemicals for the antioxidant potential prediction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a + b and total carotenoids content stand out. This was confirmed through both GPCM and MLR, predictive ability of obtained MLR can be used for antioxidant potential estimation for similar lettuce samples. This article is based upon work from the project of the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina (No. 114-451-347/2015-02).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, generalized pair correlation method, lettuce, regression analysis

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3 Sol-Gel Coated Fabric for Controlled Release of Mosquito Repellent

Authors: Bhaskar M. Murai, Neeraj Banchor, Ishveen Chabbra, Madhusudhan Nadgir, S. Vidhya


Sol-gel technology combined with electronics and biochemistry helps to overcome the problems caused by mosquitoes by developing a portable, low-cost device which enables controlled release of trapped compound inside it. It is a wet-chemical technique which is used primarily for fabrication of silicate gel which is usually allowed to dry as per requirement. The outcome is solid rock hard material which is porous and has lots of applications in different fields. Taking porosity as a key factor, allethrin a naturally occurring synthetic compound with molecular mass 302.40 was entrapped inside the sol-gel matrix as a dopant. Allethrin is commonly used as an insecticide and is a key ingredient in commercially available mosquitoes repellent in Asian and subtropical countries. It has low toxicity for humans and birds, and are used in many household insecticides such as RAID as well as mosquito coils. They are however highly toxic to fish and bees. Insects subject to its exposure become paralyzed (nervous system effect) before dying. They are also used as an ultra-low volume spray for outdoor mosquito control. Therefore, there is a need for controlled release of allethrin in the environment. For controlled release of allethrin from sol-gel matrix, its (allethrin) we utilized temperature based controlled evaporation through porous sol-gel. Different types of fabric like cotton, Terri-cotton, polyester, surgical cap, knee-cap etc are studied and the best with maximum absorption capacity is selected to hold the sol-gel matrix with maximum quantity. For sol-gel coating 2 x 2cm cloth pieces are dipped in sol-gel solution for 10 minutes and by calculating the weight difference we concluded that Terri cotton is best suitable for our project. An electronic circuit with heating plate is developed in to test the controlled release of compound. An oscillatory circuit is used to produce the required heat.

Keywords: sol-gel, allethrin, TEOS, biochemistry

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2 Effects of Lateness Gene on Yield and Related Traits in Indica Rice

Authors: B. B. Rana, M. Yokota, Y. Shimizu, Y. Koide, I. Takamure, T. Kawano, M. Murai


Various genes which control or affect heading time have been found in rice. Out of them, Se1 and E1 loci play important roles in determining heading time by controlling photosensitivity. An isogenic-line pair of late and early lines were developed from progenies of the F1 from Suweon 258 × 36U. A lateness gene tentatively designated as “Ex” was found to control the difference in heading time between the early and late lines mentioned above. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of Ex on yield and related traits. Indica-type variety Suweon 258 was crossed with 36U, which is an Ur1 (Undulate rachis-1) isogenic line of IR36. In the F2 population, comparatively early-heading, late-heading and intermediate-heading plants were segregated. Segregation similar to that by the three types of heading was observed in the F3 and later generations. A late-heading plant and an early-heading plant were selected in the F8 population from an intermediate-heading F7 plant, for developing L and E of the isogenic-line pair, respectively. Experiments for L and E were conducted by randomized block design with three replications. Transplanting was conducted on May 3 at a planting distance of 30 cm × 15 cm with two seedlings per hill to an experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University. Chemical fertilizers containing N, P2O5 and K2O were applied at the nitrogen levels of 4 g/m2, 9 g/m2 and 18 g/m2 in total being denoted by "N4", "N9" and "N18", respectively. Yield, yield components and other traits were measured. Ex delayed 80%-heading by 17 or 18 days in L as compared with E. In total brown rice yield (g/m2), L was 635, 606 and 590, and E was 577, 548 and 501, respectively, at N18, N9 and N4, indicating that Ex increased this trait by 10% to 18%. Ex increased yield-1.5 mm sieve (g/m2) b 9% to 15% at the three fertilizer levels. Ex increased the spikelet number per panicle by 16% to 22%. As a result, the spikelet number per m2 was increased by 11% to 18% at the three fertilizer levels. Ex decreased 1000-grain weight (g) by 2 to 4%. L was not significantly different from E in ripened-grain percentage, fertilized-spikelet percentage and percentage of ripened grains to fertilized spikelets. Hence, it is inferred that Ex increased yield by increasing spikelet number per panicle. Hence, Ex could be utilized to develop high yielding varieties for warmer districts.

Keywords: heading time, lateness gene, photosensitivity, yield, yield components

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1 Effects of a Dwarfing Gene sd1-d (Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen Dwarf) on Yield and Related Traits in Rice: Preliminary Report

Authors: M. Bhattarai, B. B. Rana, M. Kamimukai, I. Takamure, T. Kawano, M. Murai


The sd1-d allele at the sd1 locus on chromosome 1, originating from Taiwanese variety Dee-geo-woo-gen, has been playing important role for developing short-culm and lodging-resistant indica varieties such as IR36 in rice. The dominant allele SD1 for long culm at the locus is differentiated into SD1-in and SD1-ja which are harbored in indica and japonica subspecies’s, respectively. The sd1-d of an indica variety IR36 was substituted with SD1-in or SD1-ja by recurrent backcrosses of 17 times with IR36, and two isogenic tall lines regarding the respective dominant alleles were developed by using an indica variety IR5867 and a japonica one ‘Koshihikari’ as donors, which were denoted by '5867-36' and 'Koshi-36', respectively. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of sd1-d on yield and related traits as compared with SD1-in and SD1-ja, by using the two isogenic tall lines. Seedlings of IR36 and the two isogenic lines were transplanted on an experimental field of Kochi University, by the planting distance of 30 cm × 15 cm with two seedlings per hill, on May 3, 2017. Chemical fertilizers were supplied by basal application and top-dressing at a rate of 8.00, 6.57 and 7.52 g/m², respectively, for N, P₂O₅ and K₂O in total. Yield, yield components, and other traits were measured. Culm length (cm) was in the order of 5867-36 (101.9) > Koshi-36 (80.1) > IR36 (60.0), where '>' indicates statistically significant difference at the 5% level. Accordingly, sd1-d reduced culm by 41.9 and 20.1 cm, compared with SD1-in and SD1-ja, respectively, and the effect of elongating culm was higher in the former allele than in the latter one. Total brown rice yield (g/m²), including unripened grains, was in the order of IR36 (611) ≧ 5867-36 (586) ≧ Koshi-36 (572), indicating non-significant differences among them. Yield-1.5mm sieve (g/m²) was in the order of IR36 (596) ≧ 5867-36 (575) ≧ Koshi-36 (558). Spikelet number per panicle was in the order of 5867-36 (89.2) ≧ IR36 (84.7) ≧ Koshi-36 (79.8), and 5867-36 > Koshi-36. Panicle number per m² was in the order of IR36 (428) ≧ Koshi-36 (403) ≧ 5867-36 (353), and IR36 > 5867-36, suggesting that sd1-d increased number of panicles compared with SD1-in. Ripened-grain percentage-1.5mm sieve was in the order of Koshi-36 (86.0) ≧ 5867-36 (85.0) ≧ IR36 (82.7), and Koshi-36 > IR36. Thousand brown-rice-grain weight-1.5mm sieve (g) was in the order of 5867-36 (21.5) > Koshi-36 (20.2) ≧ IR36 (19.9). Total dry weight at maturity (g/m²) was in the order of 5867-36 (1404 ) ≧ IR36 (1310) ≧ Kosihi-36 (1290). Harvest index of total brown rice (%) was in the order of IR36 (39.6) > Koshi-36 (37.7) > 5867-36 (35.5). Hence, sd1-d did not exert significant effect on yield in indica genetic background. However, lodging was observed from the late stage of maturity in 5867-36 and Koshi-36, particularly in the former, which was principally due to their long culms. Consequently, sd1-d enables higher yield with higher fertilizer application, by enhancing lodging resistance, particularly in indica subspecies.

Keywords: rice, dwarfing gene, sd1-d, SD1-in, SD1-ja, yield

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