Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Givi Gavardashvili

8 The Research of Water Levels in the Zhinvali Water Reservoir and Results of Field Research on the Debris Flow Tributaries of the River Tetri Aragvi Flowing in It

Authors: Givi Gavardashvili, Eduard Kukhalashvili, Tamriko Supatashvili, Giorgi Natroshvili, Konstantine Bziava, Irma Qufarashvili


In the article to research water levels in the Zhinvali water reservoirs by field and theoretical research and using GPS and GIS technologies has been established dynamic of water reservoirs changes in the suitable coordinates and has been made water reservoir maps and is lined in the 3D format. By using of GPS coordinates and digital maps has been established water horizons of Zhinvali water reservoir in the absolute marks and has been calculated water levels volume. To forecast the filling of the Zhinvali water reservoir by solid sediment in 2018 conducted field experimental researches in the catchment basin of river Tetri (White) Aragvi. It has been established main hydrological and hydraulic parameters of the active erosion-debris flow tributaries of river Tetri Aragvi. It has been calculated erosion coefficient considering the degradation of the slope. By calculation is determined, that in the river Tetri Aragvi catchment basin the value of 1% maximum discharge changes Q1% = 70,0 – 550,0 m3/sec, and erosion coefficient - E = 0,73 - 1,62, with suitable fifth class of erosion and intensity 50-100 tone/hectare in the year.

Keywords: Zhinvali soil dam, water reservoirs, water levels, erosion, debris flow

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7 A Numerical Study of the Tidal Currents in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Sharifi, A. A. Bidokhti, M. Ezam, F. Ahmadi Givi


This study focuses on the tidal oscillation and its speed to create a general pattern in seas. The purpose of the analysis is to find out the amplitude and phase for several important tidal components. Therefore, Regional Ocean Models (ROMS) was rendered to consider the correlation and accuracy of this pattern. Finding tidal harmonic components allows us to predict tide at this region. Better prediction of these tides, making standard platform, making suitable wave breakers, helping coastal building, navigation, fisheries, port management and tsunami research. Result shows a fair accuracy in the SSH. It reveals tidal currents are highest in Hormuz Strait and the narrow and shallow region between Kish Island. To investigate flow patterns of the region, the results of limited size model of FVCOM were utilized. Many features of the present day view of ocean circulation have some precedent in tidal and long- wave studies. Tidal waves are categorized to be among the long waves. So that tidal currents studies have indeed effects in subsequent studies of sea and ocean circulations.

Keywords: barotropic tide, FVCOM, numerical model, OTPS, ROMS

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6 Compromising Relevance for Elegance: A Danger of Dominant Growth Models for Backward Economies

Authors: Givi Kupatadze


Backward economies are facing a challenge of achieving sustainable high economic growth rate. Dominant growth models represent a roadmap in framing economic development strategy. This paper examines a relevance of the dominant growth models for backward economies. Cobb-Douglas production function, the Harrod-Domar model of economic growth, the Solow growth model and general formula of gross domestic product are examined to undertake a comprehensive study of the dominant growth models. Deductive research method allows to uncover major weaknesses of the dominant growth models and to come up with practical implications for economic development strategy. The key finding of the paper shows, contrary to what used to be taught by textbooks of economics, that constant returns to scale property of the dominant growth models are a mere coincidence and its generalization over space and time can be regarded as one of the most unfortunate mistakes in the whole field of political economy. The major suggestion of the paper for backward economies is that understanding and considering taxonomy of economic activities based on increasing and diminishing returns to scale represent a cornerstone of successful economic development strategy.

Keywords: backward economies, constant returns to scale, dominant growth models, taxonomy of economic activities

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5 The Role of QX-314 and Capsaicin in Producing Long-Lasting Local Anesthesia in the Animal Model of Trigeminal Neuralgia

Authors: Ezzati Givi M., Ezzatigivi N., Eimani H.


Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) consists of painful attacks often triggered with general activities, which cause impairment and disability. The first line of treatment consists of pharmacotherapy. However, the occurrence of many side-effects limits its application. Acute pain relief is crucial for titrating oral drugs and making time for neurosurgical intervention. This study aimed to examine the long-term anesthetic effect of QX-314 and capsaicin in trigeminal neuralgia using an animal model. TN was stimulated by surgical constriction of the infraorbital nerve in rats. After seven days, anesthesia infiltration was done, and the duration of mechanical allodynia was compared. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups as follows: control (normal saline); lidocaine (2%); QX314 (30 mM); lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (15 mM); lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (22 mM); lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (30 mM); and lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (30 mM) +capsaicin (1μg). QX314 in combination with lidocaine significantly increased the duration of anesthesia, which was dose-dependent. The combination of lidocaine+QX314+capsaicin could significantly increase the duration of anesthesia in trigeminal neuralgia. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combination of QX-314 with lidocaine and capsaicin produced a long-lasting, reversible local anesthesia and was superior to lidocaine alone in the fields of the duration of trigeminal neuropathic pain blockage.

Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, capsaicin, lidocaine, long-lasting

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4 Results of the Field-and-Scientific Study in the Water Area of the Estuaries of the Major Rivers of the Black Sea and Sea Ports on the Territory of Georgia

Authors: Ana Gavardashvili


The field-and-scientific studies to evaluate the modern ecological state in the water area of the estuaries of the major water-abundant rivers in the coastal line of the Black Sea (Chorokhi, Kintrishi, Natanebi, Supsa, Khobistskali, Rioni and Enguri) and sea ports (Batumi, Poti) and sea terminals of the oil pipeline (Baku-Tbilisi-Supsa, Kulevi) were accomplished in the months of June and July of 2015. GPS coordinates and GIS programs were used to fix the areas of the estuaries of the above-listed rivers on a digital map, with their values varying within the limits of 0,861 and 20,390 km2. Water samples from the Black Sea were taken from the river estuaries and sea ports during the field works, with their statistical series of 125 points. The temperatures of air (t2) and water in the Black Sea (t1) were measured locally, and their relative value is (t1 /t2 ) = 0,69 – 0,92. 125 water samples taken from the study object in the Black Sea coastal line were subject to laboratory analysis, and it was established that the Black Sea acidity (pH) changes within the limits of 7,71 – 8,22 in the river estuaries and within 8,42 - 8,65 in the port water areas and at oil terminals. As for the Sea water salinity index (TDS), it changes within the limits of 6,15 – 12,67 in the river estuaries, and (TDS) = 11,80 – 13,67 in the port water areas and at oil terminals. By taking the gained data and climatic changes into account, by using the theories of reliability and risk at the following stage, the nature of the changes of the function of the Black Sea ecological parameters will be established.

Keywords: acidity, estuary, salinity, sea

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3 Analysis and Evaluation of the Water Catch Basins of the Erosive-Mudflow Rivers of Georgia on the Example of the River Vere

Authors: Natia Gavardashvili


On June 13-14 of 2015, a landslide in village Akhaldaba was formed as a result of the intense rains in the water catch basin of the river Vere. As a result of the landslide movement, freshets and mudflows originated, and unfortunately, there were victims: zoo animals and birds were drawn in the flood and 12 people died due to the flooded motor road. The goal of the study is to give the analysis of the results of the field and scientific research held in 2015-2017 and to generalize them to the water catch basins of the erosive-mudflow rivers of other mountain landscapes of Georgia. By considering the field and scientific works, the main geographic, geological, climatic, hydrological and hydraulic properties of the erosive-mudflow tributaries of the water catch basin of the river Vere were evaluated and the probabilities of mudflow formation by considering relevant risk-factors were identified. The typology of the water catch basins of erosive-mudflow rivers of Georgia was identified on the example of the river Vere based on the field and scientific study, and their genesis, frequency of mudflow formation and volume of the drift material was identified. By using the empirical and theoretical dependencies, the amount of solid admixtures in the mudflow formed in the gorge of the river Jokhona, the right tributary of the river Vere was identified by considering the shape of the stones.

Keywords: water catchment basin, erosion, mudflow, typology

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2 Field Studies of 2017 in the Water Catch Basin in the River Vere to Safeguard the Population of Tbilisi against the Erosive-Mudflow Processes and Its Evaluation

Authors: Natia Gavardashvili


From April through June of 2017, the field-scientific studies to ensure the safety of the population of Tbilisi were accomplished in the water catch basin of the river Vere, in the water catch basin of the river Jakhana dry gully. 5 sensitive sites were identified, and areas, 20x20 m each, were marked around them, with their locations fixed with GPS coordinates. The gained areas were plotted on a digital map, and the state of the surface was explored by considering the evaluation of erosive processes. Aiming at evaluating the soils and grounds of the sensitive areas, the ground samples were taken, and average diameter was identified, with its value changing to D0 = 4,67-15,48 mm, and integral curves of the grain size were drafted. By using the obtained data, the transporting capability of mudflow can be identified at the next stage to use to calculate mudflow peak discharges of different provisions in developing the new designs of mudflow-protection structures with the goal of ensuring the safety of Tbilisi population. The studies were accomplished under the financing of Young Scientists’ Grant of Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation 'The study of erosive-mudflow processes in the water catch basin in the river Vere to ensure the safety of the population of Tbilisi and their consideration in developing new environmental protection plans' (YS15_2.1.5_8)

Keywords: water catch basin, mudflow-protection structures, erosive-mudflow processes, safety

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1 Effect of a Synthetic Platinum-Based Complex on Autophagy Induction in Leydig TM3 Cells

Authors: Ezzati Givi M., Hoveizi E., Nezhad Marani N.


Platinum-based anticancer therapeutics are the most widely used drugs in clinical chemotherapy but have major limitations and various side effects in clinical applications. Gonadotoxicity and sterility is one of the most common complications for cancer survivors, which seem to be drug-specific and dose-related. Therefore, many efforts have been dedicated to discovering a new structure of platinum-based anticancer agents with improved therapeutic index, fewer side effects. In this regard, new Pt(II)-phosphane complexes containing heterocyclic thionate ligands (PCTL) have been synthesized, which show more potent antitumor activities in comparison to cisplatin. Cisplatin, the best leading metal-based antitumor drug in the field, induces testicular toxicity on Leydig and Sertoli cells leading to serious side effects such as azoospermia and infertility. Therefore in the present study, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity effect of PCTL on mice TM4 Sertoli cells with particular emphasis on the role of autophagy in comparison to cisplatin. In this study, an MTT assay was performed to evaluate the IC50 of PCTL and to analyze the TM3 Leydig cell's viability. Cells morphology was evaluated via invert microscope and Changing in morphology for nuclei swelling or autophagic vacuoles formation were assessed by DAPI and MDC staining. Testosterone production in the culture medium was measured using an ELISA kit. Finally, the expression of Autophagy-related genes, Atg5, Beclin1 and p62, were analyzed by qPCR. Based on the obtained results by MTT, the IC50 value of PCTL was 50 μM in TM3 cells and cytotoxic effects was in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cells morphological changes investigated by inverted microscopy, DAPI, and MDC staining which showed the cytotoxic concentrations of PCTL was significantly higher than cisplatin in the treated TM3 Leydig cells. The results of PCR showed a lack of expression of the p62, Atg5 and Beclin1 gene in TM3 cells treated with PCTL in comparison to cisplatin and control groups. It should be noted that the effects of 25 μM PCTL concentration on TM3 cells have been associated with increased testosterone production and secretion, which requires further study to explain the possible causes and involved molecular mechanisms. The results of the study showed that the PCTL had less-lethal effects on TM3 cells in comparison to cisplatin and probably did not induce autophagy in TM3 cells.

Keywords: platinum-based anticancer agents, cisplatin, Leydig TM3 cells, autophagy

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