Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 64

Search results for: Mor Jack Ng

64 Effects of Intercropping Maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack Beans (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at Different Spacing and Weeding Regimes on Crops Productivity

Authors: Oluseun S. Oyelakin, Olalekan W. Olaniyi

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Ido town in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo state, Nigeria to determine the effects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at different spacing and weeding regimes on crops productivity. The treatments were 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement involving two spatial crop arrangements. Spacing of 75 cm x 50 cm and 90 cm x 42 cm (41.667 cm) with two plants per stand resulted in plant population of approximately 53,000 plants/hectare. Also, Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two cropping patterns (sole and intercrop), three weeding regimes (weedy check, weeds once, and weed twice) with three replicates was used. Data were analyzed with SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and statistical means separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) (P ≤ 0.05). Intercropping and crop spacing did not have significant influence on the growth parameters and yield parameters. The maize grain yield of 1.11 t/ha obtained under sole maize was comparable to 1.05 t/ha from maize/jack beans. Weeding regime significantly influenced growth and yields of maize in intercropping with Jack beans. Weeding twice resulted in significantly higher growth than that of the other weeding regimes. Plant height at 6 Weeks After Sowing (WAS) under weeding twice regime (3 and 6 WAS) was 83.9 cm which was significantly different from 67.75 cm and 53.47 cm for weeding once (3 WAS) and no weeding regimes respectively. Moreover, maize grain yield of 1.3 t/ha obtained from plots weeded twice was comparable to that of 1.23 t/ha from single weeding and both were significantly higher than 0.71 t/ha maize grain yield obtained from the no weeding control. The dry matter production of Jack beans reduced at some growth stages due to intercropping of maize with Jack beans though with no significance effect on the other growth parameters of the crop. There was no effect on the growth parameters of Jack beans in maize/jack beans intercrop based on cropping spacing while comparable growth and dry matter production in Jack beans were produced in maize/Jack beans mixture with single weeding.

Keywords: crop spacing, intercropping, growth parameter, weeding regime, sole cropping, WAS, week after sowing

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
63 Response of Six Organic Soil Media on the Germination, Seedling Vigor Performance of Jack Fruit Seeds in Chitwan Nepal

Authors: Birendra Kumar Bhattachan

Abstract:

Organic soil media plays an important role for seed germination, growing, and producing organic jack fruits as the source of food such as vitamin A, C, and others for human health. An experiment was conducted to find out the appropriate organic soil medias to induce germination and seedling vigor of jack fruit seeds at the farm of Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU) Chitwan Nepal during June 2022 to October 2022. The organic soil medias used as treatments were as 1. soil collected under the Molingia tree; 2. soil, FYM and RH (2:1;1); 3. soil, FYM (1:1); 4. sand, FYM and RH (2:1:1), 5, sand, soil, FYM and RH (1:1:1:1) and 6. sand, soil and RH (1:2:1) under Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. Significantly highest germination of 88% was induced by soil media, followed by media of soil and FYM (!:1) i.e. 63% and the media of soil, FYM and RH (2:1;1) and the least media was sand, soil, FYM and RH (1:1:1:) to induce germination of 28%. Significantly highest seedling length of 73 cm was produced by soil media followed by the media soil, sand, and RH (1:2:1), i.e. 72 cm and the media soil, sand, FYM, and RH (1:1:1:1) and the least media was soil, FYM and RH (2:1:1) to produce 62 cm seedling length, Similarly, significantly highest seedling vigor of 6257 was produced by soil media followed by the media soil and FYM (1:1) i.e. 4253 and the least was the media sand, soil, FYM and RH (1:1:1:1) to produce seedling vigor of1916. Based on this experiment, it was concluded that soil media collected under the Moringia tree could induce the highest germinating capacity of jack fruit seeds and then seedling vigor.

Keywords: jack fruit seed, soil media, farm yard manure, sand media, rice husk

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
62 A Caged Bird Set Free: The Women Saviors in Fae Myenne Ng's Steer Toward Rock

Authors: Hei Yuen Pak

Abstract:

Steer Toward Rock, Fae Myenne Ng’s second novel after the National Bestseller Bone, is superficially concluded as a story of pessimism, which underestimates the sophistication of Ng’s portrayal. It is often summarized as a “heartbreaking novel of unrequited love” or “a story of timeless and tragic”; yet, Ng’s novel conveys more than a mere sense of tragedy and heartbreak, but rather an overflowing warmth and optimism. Ng is complimented of “illuminating a part of U.S. history few are aware of”—the false identity established on the paper relationships. Nevertheless, toward the end of the novel, this falsity enlightens the male protagonist, Jack Moon Szeto, of the ultimate realization of the “truthfulness” to himself, with the escort of the female characters. This paper intends to investigate how Ng’s depiction subverts the traditional sex/gender system and also the patriarchal savior stereotype. This paper mainly examines the characterization of and the relations among the four major characters: Jack Moon Szeto, Joice Qwan, Veda Qwan, and Ilin Cheung. By deploying Kate Millett’s, Marilyn French’s, Mary Daly’s feminist theories, the first half of the essay elucidates the power relations between Jack and the three females Joice, Veda, and Ilin in terms of gender and sexuality. After analyzing the relations, Jack, this male caged bird, is set free by the epiphany derived from the three female characters, which is the pivot of the second half. In reference to Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir’s existentialist perspectives, I argue how Jack is transformed from, in Satre’s term, being-for-others to being-for-itself. Hence, the caged bird is free by the women saviors.

Keywords: Fae Myenne Ng, gender and sexuality, feminism, power relations

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61 Shape Optimization of a Hole for Water Jetting in a Spudcan for a Jack-Up Rig

Authors: Han Ik Park, Jeong Hyeon Seong, Dong Seop Han, Su-Chul Shin, Young Chul Park

Abstract:

A Spudcan is mounted on the lower leg of the jack-up rig, a device for preventing a rollover of a structure and to support the structure in a stable sea floor. At the time of inserting the surface of the spud can to penetrate when the sand layer is stable and smoothly pulled to the clay layer, and at that time of recovery when uploading the spud can is equipped with a water injection device. In this study, it is significant to optimize the shape of pipelines holes for water injection device and it was set in two kinds of shape, the oval and round. Interpretation of the subject into the site of Gulf of Mexico offshore Wind Turbine Installation Vessels (WTIV)was chosen as a target platform. Using the ANSYS Workbench commercial programs, optimal design was conducted. The results of this study can be applied to the hole-shaped design of various marine structures.

Keywords: kriging method, jack-up rig, shape optimization, spudcan

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60 Parallelism between COVID-19 Pandemic and Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague

Authors: Tiziana Lentini

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the pandemic question as part of a phenomenon rooted in that set of imagined ideas, practices, orientations, values, and so on that binds a society together, better known as social imaginary. Through the analysis of one of Jack London’s masterpieces, The Scarlet Plague, it would be possible to draw a clear outline of the characteristic elements related to the perception of contamination-related phenomena. Mary Douglas, in her work ‘Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo’ sustains that the fear of contamination tends to be amplified in a stressed social context, and this is what actually happened to the contemporary society during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through the study of The Scarlet Plague, which offers a detailed analysis of this phenomenon, it will be possible to better understand the dynamics behind this mass hysteria and its implication with the topic of contamination. The aesthetic dimension, typical of the literary field, finds its specificity within an overall theory of knowledge based on the internalization of reality. Jack London’s prediction about the contemporary civilization’s future seems to be not so far from nowadays reality; the parallelism between the recent COVID-19 pandemic and The Scarlet Plague will help us to understand better the dynamics behind the social crisis and the real risk of the disintegration of the moral community.

Keywords: pandemic, contamination, moral community, literature

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59 Applicability of Soybean as Bio-Catalyst in Calcite Precipitated Method for Soil Improvement

Authors: Heriansyah Putra, Erizal Erizal, Sutoyo Sutoyo, Hideaki Yasuhara

Abstract:

This paper discusses the possibility of organic waste material, i.e., soybean, as the bio-catalyst agent on the calcite precipitation method. Several combinations of soybean powder and jack bean extract are used as the bio-catalyst and mixed with the reagent composed of calcium chloride and urea. Its productivity in promoting calcite crystal is evaluated through a transparent test-tube experiment. The morphological and mineralogical aspects of precipitated calcite are also investigated using scanning electromagnetic (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The applicability of this material to improve the engineering properties of soil are examined using the direct shear and unconfined compressive test. The result of this study shows that the utilization of soybean powder brings about a significant effect on soil strength. In addition, the use of soybean powder as a substitution material of urease enzyme also increases the efficacy of calcite crystal as the binder materials. The low calcite content promotes the high strength of the soil. The strength of 300 kPa is obtained in the presence of 2% of calcite content within the soil. The result of this study elucidated that substitution of soybean to jack bean extract is the potential and valuable alternative to improve the applicability of calcite precipitation method as soil improvement technique.

Keywords: calcite precipitation, jack bean, soil improvement, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
58 “Waving High the Delicate Mistress”: on Feminist Geography and American Identity in the Valley of the Moon

Authors: Yangyang Zhang

Abstract:

In The Valley of the Moon, Jack London implicitly presents the connection between the city and the male, the country and the female, constructing a gender space where the city and the countryside are opposed. But meanwhile, London is constantly dismantling the gender space through the reversed travel map so as to highlight the fluidity and productivity of female space. Under such circumstance, the original gender space has to be reorganized. Through the construction of gendered urban and rural spaces, Jack London presents the national crisis in the process of urbanization of the American West in the late 19th century, while the female-led reversed travel map reproduces the original contribution of the American West to the construction of nationality. In the end, the reorganized neutral space “valley of the moon” reflects the “garden” motif in American national imagination and plays an important role in rebuilding national identity. This research studies the feminist geography and cartography in Jack London's novel The Valley of the Moon and analyzes the gender-politics attribution in the literary geography writing in London's novel on this basis. The research returns to the American historical context at the end of the 19th century, focusing on how London’s feminist geography embodies his sense of nationality and investigating how female-dominated literary cartography reconstructs American identity. This paper takes Literary Cartography, and feminist geography as the ideological guide combines with the discourse of gender politics. comprehensively uses various literary criticism methods such as deconstructionist literary criticism, and new historicism literary criticism, etc., Through the study of Jack London's work, the paper aims to analyse how London constructs a national image by literary geography.

Keywords: American identity, American west, feminist geography, garden motif, the valley of the moon

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57 Protoplast Cultures of Murraya paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Precocious Flowering

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack.) were cultured in MT (Murashige and Tucker, 1969) basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with kinetin, malt extract (ME) and 0.6 M sorbitol. About 85% of the surviving protoplasts formed a cell wall within 6 d of culture and the first cell division was observed 7 days after isolation. The highest plating effi¬ciency was obtained on MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 kinetin 600 mg 1-1 ME, MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 Indole-acetic-acid (IAA) was found to be a medium suitable for the development somatic embryos into heart-shaped somatic embryos. The highest percentage of shoot formation was obtained using 0.1 mg 1-1 Indole-acitic-acid (IAA) 0..1 mg 1-1 gibberellic acid (GA3). In this investigation 40 plants were survived and grew normally in the soil. After two months maitained in the soil plants formed flower and flower developed into fruits on the soil treated with BA.

Keywords: gibberellic-acid, indole-acetic-acid, protoplast, precocious-flowering, somatic-embryo

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56 Cratoxy Formosum (Jack) Dyer Leaf Extract-Induced Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cells Death

Authors: Benjaporn Buranrat, Nootchanat Mairuae

Abstract:

Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer (CF) has been used for the traditional medicines in South East Asian and Thailand. Normally, northeast Thai vegetables have proven cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying CF-induced cancer cell death and apoptosis on breast and liver cancer cells. The cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects of CF on the human breast MCF-7 and liver HepG2 cancer cell lines were evaluated using sulforhodamine B assay and colony formation assay. Cell migration assay was measured using wound healing assay. The apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated through reactive oxygen species formation, caspase 3 activity, and JC-1 activity. Gene expression by real-time PCR and apoptosis related protein levels by Western blot analysis. CF induced MCF-7 and HepG2 cell death by time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CF had the greater cytotoxic potency on MCF-7 more than HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 85.70+4.52 μM and 219.03±9.96 μM respectively, at 24 h. Treatment with CF also caused a dose-dependent decrease in colony forming ability and cell migration, especially on MCF-7 cells. CF induced ROS formation, increased caspase 3 activities, and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and causing apoptotic body production and DNA fragmentation. CF significantly decreased expression of the cell cycle regulatory protein RAC1 and downstream proteins, cdk6. Additionally, CF enhanced p21 and reduced cyclin D1 protein levels. CF leaf extract induced cell death, apoptosis, antimigration in both of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. CF could be useful for developing to anticancer drug candidate for breast and liver cancer therapy.

Keywords: cratoxylum formosum (jack) dyer, breast cancer, liver cancer, cell death

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
55 Symbiotic Functioning, Photosynthetic Induction and Characterisation of Rhizobia Associated with Groundnut, Jack Bean and Soybean from Eswatini

Authors: Zanele D. Ngwenya, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora

Abstract:

Legumes are a major source of biological nitrogen, and therefore play a crucial role in maintaining soil productivity in smallholder agriculture in southern Africa. Through their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in root nodules, legumes are a better option for sustainable nitrogen supply in cropping systems than chemical fertilisers. For decades, farmers have been highly receptive to the use of rhizobial inoculants as a source of nitrogen due mainly to the availability of elite rhizobial strains at a much lower compared to chemical fertilisers. To improve the efficiency of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis in African soils would require the use of highly effective rhizobia capable of nodulating a wide range of host plants. This study assessed the morphogenetic diversity, photosynthetic functioning and relative symbiotic effectiveness (RSE) of groundnut, jack bean and soybean microsymbionts in Eswatini soils as a first step to identifying superior isolates for inoculant production. According to the manufacturer's instructions, rhizobial isolates were cultured in yeast-mannitol (YM) broth until the late log phase and the bacterial genomic DNA was extracted using GenElute bacterial genomic DNA kit. The extracted DNA was subjected to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) and a dendrogram constructed from the band patterns to assess rhizobial diversity. To assess the N2-fixing efficiency of the authenticated rhizobia, photosynthetic rates (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rates (E) were measured at flowering for plants inoculated with the test isolates. The plants were then harvested for nodulation assessment and measurement of plant growth as shoot biomass. The results of ERIC-PCR fingerprinting revealed the presence of high genetic diversity among the microsymbionts nodulating each of the three test legumes, with many of them showing less than 70% ERIC-PCR relatedness. The dendrogram generated from ERIC-PCR profiles grouped the groundnut isolates into 5 major clusters, while the jack bean and soybean isolates were grouped into 6 and 7 major clusters, respectively. Furthermore, the isolates also elicited variable nodule number per plant, nodule dry matter, shoot biomass and photosynthetic rates in their respective host plants under glasshouse conditions. Of the groundnut isolates tested, 38% recorded high relative symbiotic effectiveness (RSE >80), while 55% of the jack bean isolates and 93% of the soybean isolates recorded high RSE (>80) compared to the commercial Bradyrhizobium strains. About 13%, 27% and 83% of the top N₂-fixing groundnut, jack bean and soybean isolates, respectively, elicited much higher relative symbiotic efficiency (RSE) than the commercial strain, suggesting their potential for use in inoculant production after field testing. There was a tendency for both low and high N₂-fixing isolates to group together in the dendrogram from ERIC-PCR profiles, which suggests that RSE can differ significantly among closely related microsymbionts.

Keywords: genetic diversity, relative symbiotic effectiveness, inoculant, N₂-fixing

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54 Development and Characterization of Biscuits Incorporated with Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Seeds and Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

Authors: Elina Brahma Hazarika, Jeuti Basumatary, Deepanka Saikia, Jaydeep Das, Micky Moni D'mary, Fungkha Basumatary

Abstract:

This study includes development of two varieties of biscuits incorporated with: the seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), which post-consumption of it’s pulp, is discarded as a waste, and Cassava (Manihot esculenta) tubers.The jack fruit seeds and cassava were first ground into flour and its proximate and physiochemical properties were studied. The biscuits that were developed incorporating them had 50% wheat flour and 50% jackfruit seed flour and 50% cassava flours as the major composition, apart from the other general ingredients use in making biscuits. Various trials of compositions were made for baking to get the overall desirable acceptability in biscuits through sensory evaluation. Finally, the best composition of ingredients was selected to make the biscuits, and hence studies were done accordingly to compare it with the properties of their respective raw flours. The results showed that the proximate composition of the biscuits fared better than that of their respective flours: There was a decrease in the Moisture content of both Jackfruit Seed Biscuits and Cassava Biscuits to 4.5% and 6.7% than that of their respective raw flours (8 and 12%). Post-baking, there is increase in the percentages of ash, protein, and fibre contents in both Jackfruit Seed Biscuits and Cassava Biscuits; the values being 3% and 3.8%, 13.2% and 3.3%, and 3.2 and 4.1% respectively. Also the total carbohydrate content in Jackfruit Seed Biscuits and Cassava Biscuits were 66.7% and 71.7% respectively. Their sensory evaluation and texture study also yielded a clear review that they have an overall good acceptability.

Keywords: baking, proximate, sensory, texture

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53 Single Protoplast of Murraya paniculata L. Jack Regenerated Into Plantlets

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin, Danil Endriand Basri

Abstract:

Isolated protoplast from embryogenic callus of orange Jessamine (Murraya paniculata L. (Jack) cultured and maintained under growth chamber at the temperature +25oC. The parameter observed are the plating efficiency, the number of spherical embryos, heard-shaped embryos-like structure, shoot formation, and plantlets obtained. Treatment was arranged with 0.0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 mg 1-1 Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 0, 300, 500 mg 1/l malt extract (ME) and 0.M sorbitol in the medium with 2.5 % sucrose. Interaction between 0.001 mg/l NAA and 500 mg/l was observed the higher percentage of planting efficiency. For embryo development from callus, the media was added to 0.0 mg/l, 0.001 mg/l, 0.01 ,mg/l, 0.1 mg/l, 1.0 mg/l NAA, and 1.0 %, 2.0 %, 3.0 %, 4.0 % sucrose. Media supplemented with 0.01mg/l NAA, and 1.0% sucrose was found to be a suitable medium for the development of spherical somatic embryos. A combination of 0.1 mg/ indole acetic acid (IAA) and 0.1 mg/l zeatin constituted the spherical somatic embryo became heart-shaped embryos-like structure. A combination between GA3 0.1 mg 1/l GA3 and 0.1 mg 1-1 zeatin is looking high, growing the heart-shaped embryos-like structure to form a shoot. Cells were developed into spherical embryos and grew into heart-shaped embryos, and then spherical somatic embryos developed into shoot formation. Sequence from single protoplast to plantlets was obtained by using a low concentration of plant growth regulator and sucrose; This recovery of single protoplast to be completed plantlets is a new technology in plant cell culture, and this could be used in genetic engineering in citrus.

Keywords: heart-shaped-embryos-like-structure, Muraya-paniculata, plant-growth-regulator, spherical- somatic-embryo, single protoplast, glucose

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52 On Space Narrative and American Dream in Martin Eden

Authors: Yangyang Zhang

Abstract:

Martin Eden tells about the tragedy of the protagonist Martin Eden’s suicide after his disillusion about American dream. The author Jack London presents various spatial routines of Martin Eden and reveals the involvement of space in realizing American dream: on the one hand, the Berkeley and Oakland cities contribute to Martin’s material success, making his American dream practical, and on the other hand, the two cities involve in the oppression of bourgeoisie ideology to Martin, promoting the domestic imperialization of bourgeoisie ideology represented by American dream. Molded by bourgeoisie ideology in the city, Martin constructed the oriental South Sea, revealing the oversea imperialization of bourgeoisie ideology behind American dream. By exploring the social, historical and political aspects of space, Martin Eden tries to demonstrate the mere material success and imperialism represented by American dream, revealing the fact of the involvement of American dreamin ideological oppression. When Jack London wrote Martin Eden, he had become a famous writer and realized his personal "American dream". He integrated his struggle experience into the protagonist Martin Eden, and also put his critique of the nature of "American dream" in the novel. The concept of the "American Dream" made the United States the land of dreams, and it also made many Americans believe that through personal struggle, they could climb the social ladder. Under the context of rapid growth in economy in the late 19 th century, American dream was reduced to the satisfaction on a material level. When material wealth was fulfilled, many people felt shattered for a variety of reasons, and such a phenomenon was reflected in the literature of disillusionment in 19th-century America.Martin Eden is such a work about disillusion, in which the geographical space becomes the witness of the realization and disillusionment of the protagonist Martin's "American dream". By analyzing the spatial narrative in Martin Eden, this paper reveals that the "American dream" only represents material success for individuals and the imperialization of capitalist ideology, and exposes the ideological nature of the "American Dream".

Keywords: Martin Eden, space, American dream, ideology of imperialism

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51 Vehicles Analysis, Assessment and Redesign Related to Ergonomics and Human Factors

Authors: Susana Aragoneses Garrido

Abstract:

Every day, the roads are scenery of numerous accidents involving vehicles, producing thousands of deaths and serious injuries all over the world. Investigations have revealed that Human Factors (HF) are one of the main causes of road accidents in modern societies. Distracted driving (including external or internal aspects of the vehicle), which is considered as a human factor, is a serious and emergent risk to road safety. Consequently, a further analysis regarding this issue is essential due to its transcendence on today’s society. The objectives of this investigation are the detection and assessment of the HF in order to provide solutions (including a better vehicle design), which might mitigate road accidents. The methodology of the project is divided in different phases. First, a statistical analysis of public databases is provided between Spain and The UK. Second, data is classified in order to analyse the major causes involved in road accidents. Third, a simulation between different paths and vehicles is presented. The causes related to the HF are assessed by Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Fourth, different car models are evaluated using the Rapid Upper Body Assessment (RULA). Additionally, the JACK SIEMENS PLM tool is used with the intention of evaluating the Human Factor causes and providing the redesign of the vehicles. Finally, improvements in the car design are proposed with the intention of reducing the implication of HF in traffic accidents. The results from the statistical analysis, the simulations and the evaluations confirm that accidents are an important issue in today’s society, especially the accidents caused by HF resembling distractions. The results explore the reduction of external and internal HF through the global analysis risk of vehicle accidents. Moreover, the evaluation of the different car models using RULA method and the JACK SIEMENS PLM prove the importance of having a good regulation of the driver’s seat in order to avoid harmful postures and therefore distractions. For this reason, a car redesign is proposed for the driver to acquire the optimum position and consequently reducing the human factors in road accidents.

Keywords: analysis vehicles, asssesment, ergonomics, car redesign

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50 A Comparison Between the Internal Combustion Engine and Electric Motor in the Automobile

Authors: Jack Mason, Ahmad Pourmovhed

Abstract:

This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the internal combustion engine when compared to different types of electric vehicles. The Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)'s overall cost, environmental impact, and usability will all be compared to different types of Electric Vehicles (EVs) including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). Also, the ways to solve the issues of the problems each vehicle presents will be discussed.

Keywords: interal combustion engine, battery electric vehicle, fuel cell electric vehicle, emissions

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49 Finite Element Analysis of the Drive Shaft and Jacking Frame Interaction in Micro-Tunneling Method: Case Study of Tehran Sewerage

Authors: B. Mohammadi, A. Riazati, P. Soltan Sanjari, S. Azimbeik

Abstract:

The ever-increasing development of civic demands on one hand; and the urban constrains for newly establish of infrastructures, on the other hand, perforce the engineering committees to apply non-conflicting methods in order to optimize the results. One of these optimized procedures to establish the main sewerage networks is the pipe jacking and micro-tunneling method. The raw information and researches are based on the experiments of the slurry micro-tunneling project of the Tehran main sewerage network that it has executed by the KAYSON co. The 4985 meters route of the mentioned project that is located nearby the Azadi square and the most vital arteries of Tehran is faced to 45% physical progress nowadays. The boring machine is made by the Herrenknecht and the diameter of the using concrete-polymer pipes are 1600 and 1800 millimeters. Placing and excavating several shafts on the ground and direct Tunnel boring between the axes of issued shafts is one of the requirements of the micro-tunneling. Considering the stream of the ground located shafts should care the hydraulic circumstances, civic conditions, site geography, traffic cautions and etc. The profile length has to convert to many shortened segment lines so the generated angle between the segments will be based in the manhole centers. Each segment line between two continues drive and receive the shaft, displays the jack location, driving angle and the path straight, thus, the diversity of issued angle causes the variety of jack positioning in the shaft. The jacking frame fixing conditions and it's associated dynamic load direction produces various patterns of Stress and Strain distribution and creating fatigues in the shaft wall and the soil surrounded the shaft. This pattern diversification makes the shaft wall transformed, unbalanced subsidence and alteration in the pipe jacking Stress Contour. This research is based on experiments of the Tehran's west sewerage plan and the numerical analysis the interaction of the soil around the shaft, shaft walls and the Jacking frame direction and finally, the suitable or unsuitable location of the pipe jacking shaft will be determined.

Keywords: underground structure, micro-tunneling, fatigue analysis, dynamic-soil–structure interaction, underground water, finite element analysis

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48 Comparison of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Algorithms for Automatic Classification of 80 Different Pollen Species

Authors: Endrick Barnacin, Jean-Luc Henry, Jimmy Nagau, Jack Molinie

Abstract:

Palynology is a field of interest in many disciplines due to its multiple applications: chronological dating, climatology, allergy treatment, and honey characterization. Unfortunately, the analysis of a pollen slide is a complicated and time consuming task that requires the intervention of experts in the field, which are becoming increasingly rare due to economic and social conditions. That is why the need for automation of this task is urgent. A lot of studies have investigated the subject using different standard image processing descriptors and sometimes hand-crafted ones.In this work, we make a comparative study between classical feature extraction methods (Shape, GLCM, LBP, and others) and Deep Learning (CNN, Autoencoders, Transfer Learning) to perform a recognition task over 80 regional pollen species. It has been found that the use of Transfer Learning seems to be more precise than the other approaches

Keywords: pollens identification, features extraction, pollens classification, automated palynology

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47 All for One, or One for All: A Comparative Evaluation of the Role of Social Relations in Explaining Individual versus Group Participation in the Radicalization and Terrorism Process amongst Far-Right Actors in the United States

Authors: Jack Wippell

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This paper explores the role of social relations in explaining far-right actors' decisions over whether to travel down the process of radicalization and terrorism alone or in a group. To this end, a joint comparative method of difference and agreement is applied to four case studies across key temporal points on the radicalization and terrorism pathway to generate a theory of why individuals decide to radicalize and/or act alone or within a group. While social relations are identified as playing some moderate role in explaining why certain individuals radicalize alone versus within a group, this paper argues they play a significant role in affecting decisions over whether to act alone versus in a group. These findings suggest new avenues of distinction and understanding of far-right actors' processes of radicalization and terrorism, in turn, offering potential new avenues for counter-terrorism policy and important areas for future research.

Keywords: far-right, lone-actor, terrorism, United States, radicalization

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46 Efficacy and Safety by Baseline A1c with Once-Weekly Dulaglutide in the AWARD Program

Authors: Alaa Mostafa, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Vivian Thieu, Maria Yu, Nan Zhang, Dara Schuster, Luis-Emilio Garcia-Perez

Abstract:

Dulaglutide (DU), a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, was studied in the AWARD clinical trial program in adult patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and demonstrated significant hemoglobin A1c (A1c) reduction and potential for weight loss. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DU 1.5 mg and DU 0.75 mg in patients with T2D by baseline A1c <8.5% or ≥8.5%, a post-hoc analysis was conducted on AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 at 6 months. Across 7 studies, 55% to 82% of the DU-treated patients had a baseline A1c <8.5%, and 18% to 45% had a baseline A1c ≥8.5%. The ranges of A1c reductions with baseline A1c <8.5% and ≥8.5%, respectively, were: DU 1.5 mg: -0.67% to -1.25% and -1.22% to -2.37%; DU 0.75 mg: -0.53% to -1.07% and -1.37% to -2.19%. The A1c reduction from the pooled analysis was greater in patients with baseline A1c ≥8.5% than patients with baseline A1c <8.5%, respectively: DU 1.5 mg: -1.86% and -1.02%; DU 0.75 mg: -1.75% and -0.83%. DU treatments were well tolerated among baseline A1c subgroups. Across the AWARD program, DU 1.5 mg and DU 0.75 mg demonstrated significant A1c reduction in both subgroups with an acceptable safety profile. Compared to patients with baseline A1c <8.5%, patients with baseline A1c ≥8.5% had greater A1c reduction. Disclosures: This study was supported and conducted by Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Keywords: A1c reduction, dulaglutide, type 2 diabetes, weight loss

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45 Low Cost Real Time Robust Identification of Impulsive Signals

Authors: R. Biondi, G. Dys, G. Ferone, T. Renard, M. Zysman

Abstract:

This paper describes an automated implementable system for impulsive signals detection and recognition. The system uses a Digital Signal Processing device for the detection and identification process. Here the system analyses the signals in real time in order to produce a particular response if needed. The system analyses the signals in real time in order to produce a specific output if needed. Detection is achieved through normalizing the inputs and comparing the read signals to a dynamic threshold and thus avoiding detections linked to loud or fluctuating environing noise. Identification is done through neuronal network algorithms. As a setup our system can receive signals to “learn” certain patterns. Through “learning” the system can recognize signals faster, inducing flexibility to new patterns similar to those known. Sound is captured through a simple jack input, and could be changed for an enhanced recording surface such as a wide-area recorder. Furthermore a communication module can be added to the apparatus to send alerts to another interface if needed.

Keywords: sound detection, impulsive signal, background noise, neural network

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44 How Supply Chains Can Benefit from Open Innovation: Inspiration from Toyota Production System

Authors: Sam Solaimani, Jack A. A. van der Veen, Mehdi Latifi

Abstract:

Considering the increasingly VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, Ambiguous) business market, innovation is the name of the game in contemporary business. Innovation is not solely created within the organization itself; its 'network environment' appears to be equally important for innovation. There are, at least, two streams of literature that emphasize the idea of using the extended organization to foster innovation capability, namely, Supply Chain Collaboration (SCC) (also rooted in the Lean philosophy) and Open Innovation (OI). Remarkably, these two concepts are still considered as being totally different in the sense that these appear in different streams of literature and applying different concepts in pursuing the same purposes. This paper explores the commonalities between the two concepts in order to conceptually further our understanding of how OI can effectively be applied in Supply Chain networks. Drawing on available literature in OI, SCC and Lean, the paper concludes with five principles that help firms to contextualize the implementation of OI to the peculiar setting of SC. Theoretically, the present paper aims at contributing to the relatively under-researched theme of Supply Chain Innovation. More in practical terms, the paper provides OI and SCC communities with a workable know-how to seize on and sustain OI initiatives.

Keywords: lean philosophy, open innovation, supply chain collaboration, supply chain management

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43 Experimental Stress Analysis on Pipeline in Condition of Frost Heave and Thaw Settlement

Authors: Zhiqiang Cheng, Qingliang He, Lu Li, Jie Ren

Abstract:

The safety of pipelines in the condition of frost heave or thaw settlement is necessarily evaluated. A full-scale experiment pipe with the typical structure configuration in station pipeline is constructed, the residual stress is tested with X-ray residual stress device, and the residual stress field of pipe is analyzed. The evolution of pipe strain with pressure in the scope of maximum allowable operation pressure (MAOP) is investigated by both strain gauge and X-ray methods. Load caused by frost heave or thaw settlement is simulated by two ways of lifting jack. The relation of maximum stress of pipe and clearances between supporter and pipe is studied in case of frost heave. The relation of maximum stress of pipe and maximum deformation of pipe on the ground is studied in case of thaw settlement. The study methods and results are valuable for safety assessment of station pipeline according to clearances or deformation in the condition of frost heave or thaw settlement.

Keywords: frost heave, pipeline, stress analysis, thaw settlement

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42 Deflection Behaviour of Retaining Wall with Pile for Pipeline on Slope of Soft Soil

Authors: Mutadi

Abstract:

Pipes laying on an unstable slope of soft soil are prone to movement. Pipelines that are buried in unstable slope areas will move due to lateral loads from soil movement, which can cause damage to the pipeline. A small-scale laboratory model of the reinforcement system of piles supported by retaining walls was conducted to investigate the effect of lateral load on the reinforcement. In this experiment, the lateral forces of 0.3 kN, 0.35 kN, and 0.4 kN and vertical force of 0.05 kN, 0.1 kN, and 0.15 kN were used. Lateral load from the electric jack is equipped with load cell and vertical load using the cement-steel box. To validate the experimental result, a finite element program named 2-D Plaxis was used. The experimental results showed that with an increase in lateral loading, the displacement of the reinforcement system increased. For a Vertical Load, 0.1 kN and versus a lateral load of 0.3 kN causes a horizontal displacement of 0.35 mm and an increase of 2.94% for loading of 0.35 kN and an increase of 8.82% for loading 0.4 kN. The pattern is the same in the finite element method analysis, where there was a 6.52% increase for 0.35 kN loading and an increase to 23.91 % for 0.4 kN loading. In the same Load, the Reinforcement System is reliable, as shown in Safety Factor on dry conditions were 3.3, 2.824 and 2.474, and on wet conditions were 2.98, 2.522 and 2.235.

Keywords: soft soil, deflection, wall, pipeline

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41 Antioxidant Activity of Nanoparticle of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm Flower Extract on Liver and Kidney of Rats

Authors: Tita Nofianti, Tresna Lestari, Ade Y. Aprillia, Lilis Tuslinah, Ruswanto Ruswanto

Abstract:

Nanoparticle technology gives a chance for drugs, especially natural based product, to give better activities than in its macromolecule form. The ginger torch is known to have activities as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, etc. In this research, ginger torch flower extract was nanoparticlized using poloxamer 1, 3, and 5%. Nanoparticle was charaterized for its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and morphological form by SEM (scanning electron microscope). The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index is less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential is -41.0 to (-24.3) mV, and entrapment efficiency is 89.93 to 97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.

Keywords: superoxide dismutase, ginger torch flower, nanoparticle, poloxamer

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40 Logistic Model Tree and Expectation-Maximization for Pollen Recognition and Grouping

Authors: Endrick Barnacin, Jean-Luc Henry, Jack Molinié, Jimmy Nagau, Hélène Delatte, Gérard Lebreton

Abstract:

Palynology is a field of interest for many disciplines. It has multiple applications such as chronological dating, climatology, allergy treatment, and even honey characterization. Unfortunately, the analysis of a pollen slide is a complicated and time-consuming task that requires the intervention of experts in the field, which is becoming increasingly rare due to economic and social conditions. So, the automation of this task is a necessity. Pollen slides analysis is mainly a visual process as it is carried out with the naked eye. That is the reason why a primary method to automate palynology is the use of digital image processing. This method presents the lowest cost and has relatively good accuracy in pollen retrieval. In this work, we propose a system combining recognition and grouping of pollen. It consists of using a Logistic Model Tree to classify pollen already known by the proposed system while detecting any unknown species. Then, the unknown pollen species are divided using a cluster-based approach. Success rates for the recognition of known species have been achieved, and automated clustering seems to be a promising approach.

Keywords: pollen recognition, logistic model tree, expectation-maximization, local binary pattern

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39 Segmentation Using Multi-Thresholded Sobel Images: Application to the Separation of Stuck Pollen Grains

Authors: Endrick Barnacin, Jean-Luc Henry, Jimmy Nagau, Jack Molinie

Abstract:

Being able to identify biological particles such as spores, viruses, or pollens is important for health care professionals, as it allows for appropriate therapeutic management of patients. Optical microscopy is a technology widely used for the analysis of these types of microorganisms, because, compared to other types of microscopy, it is not expensive. The analysis of an optical microscope slide is a tedious and time-consuming task when done manually. However, using machine learning and computer vision, this process can be automated. The first step of an automated microscope slide image analysis process is segmentation. During this step, the biological particles are localized and extracted. Very often, the use of an automatic thresholding method is sufficient to locate and extract the particles. However, in some cases, the particles are not extracted individually because they are stuck to other biological elements. In this paper, we propose a stuck particles separation method based on the use of the Sobel operator and thresholding. We illustrate it by applying it to the separation of 813 images of adjacent pollen grains. The method correctly separated 95.4% of these images.

Keywords: image segmentation, stuck particles separation, Sobel operator, thresholding

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38 Somatic Embryogenesis Derived from Protoplast of Murraya Paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Flowering in vitro

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

The in vitro flowering of orange jessamine plantlets derived from protoplast was affected by the manipulation of plant growth regulators, sugar and light conditions. MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.001 mg 1-1 indole-acetic-acid was found to be a suitable medium for development of globular somatic embryos derived from protoplasts to form heart-shaped somatic embryos with cotyledon-like structures. The highest percentage (85 %) of flowering was achieved with plantlet on half-strength MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and 0.001 mg1-1 indole-acetic-acid in light. Exposure to darkness for more than 3 weeks followed by re-exposure to light reduced flowering. Flowering required a 10-day exposure to indole-acetic-acid. Photoperiod with 18 h and 79.4 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity promoted in vitro flowering in high frequencies. The sucrose treatment affected the flower bud size distribution. Flower buds originating from plantlet derived from protoplasts developed into normal flowers.

Keywords: indole-acetc-acid, light-intensity, Murraya-paniculata, photoperiod, plantlet, Zeatin

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37 Raising Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) Scores through Purpose-Driven Vocabulary Acquisition

Authors: Edward Sarich, Jack Ryan

Abstract:

In contrast to learning new vocabulary incidentally in one’s first language, foreign language vocabulary is often acquired purposefully, because a lack of natural exposure requires it to be studied in an artificial environment. It follows then that foreign language vocabulary may be more efficiently acquired if it is purpose-driven, or linked to a clear and desirable outcome. The research described in this paper relates to the early stages of what is seen as a long-term effort to measure the effectiveness of a methodology for purpose-driven foreign language vocabulary instruction, specifically by analyzing whether directed studying from high-frequency vocabulary lists leads to an improvement in Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) scores. The research was carried out in two sections of a first-year university English composition class at a small university in Japan. The results seem to indicate that purposeful study from relevant high-frequency vocabulary lists can contribute to raising TOEIC scores and that the test preparation methodology used in this study was thought by students to be beneficial in helping them to prepare to take this high-stakes test.

Keywords: corpus vocabulary, language asssessment, second language vocabulary acquisition, TOEIC test preparation

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36 An Evidence Map of Cost-Utility Studies in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Cassandra Springate, Alexandra Furber, Jack E. Hines

Abstract:

Objectives: To create an evidence map of the cost-utility studies available with non-small cell lung cancer patients, and identify the geographical settings and interventions used. Methods: Using the Disease, Study Type, and Model Type filters in heoro.com we identified all cost-utility studies published between 1960 and 2017 with patients with non-small cell lung cancer. These papers were then indexed according to pre-specified categories. Results: Heoro.com identified 89 independent publications, published between 1995 and 2017. Of the 89 papers, 74 were published since 2010, 28 were from the USA, and 35 were from Europe, 16 of which were from the UK. Other publications were from China and Japan (13), Canada (9), Australia and New Zealand (4), and other countries (8). Fifty-nine studies included a chemotherapy intervention, of which 23 included erlotinib or gefitinib, 21 included pemetrexed or docetaxel, others included nivolumab (3), pembrolizumab (2), crizotinib (2), denosumab (2), necitumumab (1), and bevacizumab (1). Also, 19 studies modeled screening, staging, or surveillance strategies. Conclusions: The cost-utility studies found for NSCLC most commonly looked at the effectiveness of different chemotherapy treatments, with some also evaluating the addition of screening strategies. Most were also conducted with patient data from the USA and Europe.

Keywords: cancer, cost-utility, economic model, non-small cell lung cancer

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35 Plasma Lipid Profiles and Atherogenic Indices of Rats Fed Raw and Processed Jack Fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Seeds Diets at Different Concentrations

Authors: O. E. Okafor, L. U. S. Ezeanyika, C. G. Nkwonta, C. J. Okonkwo

Abstract:

The effect of processing on plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed Artocarpus heterophyllus seed diets at different concentrations were investigated. Fifty five rats were used for this study, they were divided into eleven groups of five rats each (one control group and ten test groups), the test groups were fed raw, boiled, roasted, fermented, and soaked diets at 10 % and 40% concentrations. The study lasted for thirty five days. The diets led to significant decrease (p < 0.05) in plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol of rats fed 10% and 40% concentrations of the diets, and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 40% concentrations of the test diets. The diets also produced decrease in low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), cardiac risk ratio (CRR), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and atherogenic coefficient (AC) at 40% concentrations except the soaked group that showed slight elevation of LDL, CRR, AC and AIP at 40% concentration. Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds could be beneficial to health because of its ability to increase plasma HDL and reduce plasma LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic indices at higher diet concentration.

Keywords: artocarpus heterophyllus, atherogenic indices, concentrations, lipid profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 225