Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: Mars geodesy

52 Variation in Orbital Elements of Mars and Jupiter Due to the Sun Oblateness by Using Secular Theory

Authors: Avaneesh Vaishwar, Badam Singh Kushvah, Devi Prasad Mishra

Abstract:

We studied the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter for a time span of 200 thousand years by using secular theory. Here we took Sun oblateness into account and considered the first two zonal gravity constants (J2 and J4) for showing the effect of Sun oblateness on the orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter. We found that in both cases (with and without Sun oblateness) the variation in orbital elements of Mars and Jupiter is periodic moreover in case of the Sun oblateness, the period of variation in orbital elements is decreasing for both the planets.

Keywords: lagrange's planetary equation, orbital elements, planetary system, secular theory

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51 Research on ARQ Transmission Technique in Mars Detection Telecommunications System

Authors: Zhongfei Cai, Hui He, Changsheng Li

Abstract:

This paper studied in the automatic repeat request (ARQ) transmission technique in Mars detection telecommunications system. An ARQ method applied to proximity-1 space link protocol was proposed by this paper. In order to ensure the efficiency of data reliable transmission, this ARQ method combined these different ARQ maneuvers characteristics. Considering the Mars detection communication environments, this paper analyzed the characteristics of the saturation throughput rate, packet dropping probability, average delay and energy efficiency with different ARQ algorithms. Combined thus results with the theories of ARQ transmission technique, an ARQ transmission project in Mars detection telecommunications system was established. The simulation results showed that this algorithm had excellent saturation throughput rate and energy efficiency with low complexity.

Keywords: ARQ, mars, CCSDS, proximity-1, deepspace

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50 Aerodynamic Prediction and Performance Analysis for Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

Authors: Tang Wei, Yang Xiaofeng, Gui Yewei, Du Yanxia

Abstract:

Complex lifting entry was selected for precise landing performance during the Mars Science Laboratory entry. This study aims to develop the three-dimensional numerical method for precise computation and the surface panel method for rapid engineering prediction. Detailed flow field analysis for Mars exploration mission was performed by carrying on a series of fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computations. The static aerodynamic performance was then discussed, including the surface pressure, lift and drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio with the numerical and engineering method. Computation results shown that the shock layer is thin because of lower effective specific heat ratio, and that calculated results from both methods agree well with each other, and is consistent with the reference data. Aerodynamic performance analysis shows that CG location determines trim characteristics and pitch stability, and certain radially and axially shift of the CG location can alter the capsule lifting entry performance, which is of vital significance for the aerodynamic configuration des0ign and inner instrument layout of the Mars entry capsule.

Keywords: Mars entry capsule, static aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, hypersonic

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49 Next-Generation Lunar and Martian Laser Retro-Reflectors

Authors: Simone Dell'Agnello

Abstract:

There are laser retroreflectors on the Moon and no laser retroreflectors on Mars. Here we describe the design, construction, qualification and imminent deployment of next-generation, optimized laser retroreflectors on the Moon and on Mars (where they will be the first ones). These instruments are positioned by time-of-flight measurements of short laser pulses, the so-called 'laser ranging' technique. Data analysis is carried out with PEP, the Planetary Ephemeris Program of CfA (Center for Astrophysics). Since 1969 Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to Apollo/Lunokhod laser retro-reflector (CCR) arrays supplied accurate tests of General Relativity (GR) and new gravitational physics: possible changes of the gravitational constant Gdot/G, weak and strong equivalence principle, gravitational self-energy (Parametrized Post Newtonian parameter beta), geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law; it can also constraint gravitomagnetism. Some of these measurements also allowed for testing extensions of GR, including spacetime torsion, non-minimally coupled gravity. LLR has also provides significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon. In fact, LLR first provided evidence of the existence of a fluid component of the deep lunar interior. In 1969 CCR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the LLR error budget. Since laser station range accuracy improved by more than a factor 100, now, because of lunar librations, current array dominate the error due to their multi-CCR geometry. We developed a next-generation, single, large CCR, MoonLIGHT (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity high-accuracy test) unaffected by librations that supports an improvement of the space segment of the LLR accuracy up to a factor 100. INFN also developed INRRI (INstrument for landing-Roving laser Retro-reflector Investigations), a microreflector to be laser-ranged by orbiters. Their performance is characterized at the SCF_Lab (Satellite/lunar laser ranging Characterization Facilities Lab, INFN-LNF, Frascati, Italy) for their deployment on the lunar surface or the cislunar space. They will be used to accurately position landers, rovers, hoppers, orbiters of Google Lunar X Prize and space agency missions, thanks to LLR observations from station of the International Laser Ranging Service in the USA, in France and in Italy. INRRI was launched in 2016 with the ESA mission ExoMars (Exobiology on Mars) EDM (Entry, descent and landing Demonstration Module), deployed on the Schiaparelli lander and is proposed for the ExoMars 2020 Rover. Based on an agreement between NASA and ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana), another microreflector, LaRRI (Laser Retro-Reflector for InSight), was delivered to JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and integrated on NASA’s InSight Mars Lander in August 2017 (launch scheduled in May 2018). Another microreflector, LaRA (Laser Retro-reflector Array) will be delivered to JPL for deployment on the NASA Mars 2020 Rover. The first lunar landing opportunities will be from early 2018 (with TeamIndus) to late 2018 with commercial missions, followed by opportunities with space agency missions, including the proposed deployment of MoonLIGHT and INRRI on NASA’s Resource Prospectors and its evolutions. In conclusion, we will extend significantly the CCR Lunar Geophysical Network and populate the Mars Geophysical Network. These networks will enable very significantly improved tests of GR.

Keywords: general relativity, laser retroreflectors, lunar laser ranging, Mars geodesy

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48 Establishing the Legality of Terraforming under the Outer Space Treaty

Authors: Bholenath

Abstract:

Ever since Elon Musk revealed his plan to terraform Mars on national television in 2015, the debate regarding the legality of such an activity under the current Outer Space Treaty regime is gaining momentum. Terraforming means to alter or transform the atmosphere of another planet to have the characteristics of landscapes on Earth. Musk’s plan is to alter the entire environment of Mars so as to make it habitable for humans. He has long been an advocate of colonizing Mars, and in order to make humans an interplanetary species; he wants to detonate thermonuclear devices over the poles of Mars. For a common man, it seems to be a fascinating endeavor, but for space lawyers, it poses new and fascinating legal questions. Some of the questions which arise are whether the use of nuclear weapons on celestial bodies is permitted under the Outer Space Treaty? Whether such an alteration of the celestial environment would fall within the scope of the term 'harmful contamination' under Article IX of the treaty? Whether such an activity which would put an entire planet under the control of a private company can be permitted under the treaty? Whether such terraforming of Mars would amount to its appropriation? Whether such an activity would be in the 'benefit and interests of all countries'? This paper will be attempt to examine and elucidate upon these legal questions. Space is one such domain where the law should precede man. The paper follows the approach that the de lege lata is not capable of prohibiting the terraforming of Mars. Outer Space Treaty provides the freedoms of space and prescribes certain restrictions on those freedoms as well. The author shall examine the provisions such as Article I, II, IV, and IX of the Outer Space Treaty in order to establish the legality of terraforming activity. The author shall establish how such activity is peaceful use of the celestial body, is in the benefit and interests of all countries, and does neither qualify as national appropriation of the celestial body nor as its harmful contamination. The author shall divide the paper into three chapters. The first chapter would be about the general introduction of the problem, the analysis of Elon Musk’s plan to terraform Mars, and the need to study terraforming from the lens of the Outer Space Treaty. In the second chapter, the author shall attempt to establish the legality of the terraforming activity under the provisions of the Outer Space Treaty. In this vein, the author shall put forth the counter interpretations and the arguments which may be formulated against the lawfulness of terraforming. The author shall show as to why the counter interpretations establishing the unlawfulness of terraforming should not be accepted, and in doing so, the author shall provide the interpretations that should prevail and ultimately establishes the legality of terraforming activity under the treaty. In the third chapter, the author shall draw relevant conclusions and give suggestions.

Keywords: appropriation, harmful contamination, peaceful, terraforming

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47 Entry, Descent and Landing System Design and Analysis of a Small Platform in Mars Environment

Authors: Daniele Calvi, Loris Franchi, Sabrina Corpino

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Thanks to the latest Mars mission, the planetary exploration has made enormous strides over the past ten years increasing the interest of the scientific community and beyond. These missions aim to fulfill many complex operations which are of paramount importance to mission success. Among these, a special mention goes to the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) functions which require a dedicated system to overcome all the obstacles of these critical phases. The general objective of the system is to safely bring the spacecraft from orbital conditions to rest on the planet surface, following the designed mission profile. For this reason, this work aims to develop a simulation tool integrating the re-entry trajectory algorithm in order to support the EDL design during the preliminary phase of the mission. This tool was used on a reference unmanned mission, whose objective is finding bio-evidence and bio-hazards on Martian (sub)surface in order to support the future manned mission. Regarding the concept of operations (CONOPS) of the mission, it concerns the use of Space Penetrator Systems (SPS) that will descend on Mars surface following a ballistic fall and will penetrate the ground after the impact with the surface (around 50 and 300 cm of depth). Each SPS shall contain all the instrumentation required to sample and make the required analyses. Respecting the low-cost and low-mass requirements, as result of the tool, an Entry Descent and Impact (EDI) system based on inflatable structure has been designed. Hence, a solution could be the one chosen by Finnish Meteorological Institute in the Mars Met-Net mission, using an inflatable Thermal Protection System (TPS) called Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) and an additional inflatable decelerator. Consequently, there are three configurations during the EDI: at altitude of 125 km the IBU is inflated at speed 5.5 km/s; at altitude of 16 km the IBU is jettisoned and an Additional Inflatable Braking Unit (AIBU) is inflated; Lastly at about 13 km, the SPS is ejected from AIBU and it impacts on the Martian surface. Since all parameters are evaluated, it is possible to confirm that the chosen EDI system and strategy verify the requirements of the mission.

Keywords: EDL, Mars, mission, SPS, TPS

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46 Calculation of Orbital Elements for Sending Interplanetary Probes

Authors: Jorge Lus Nisperuza Toledo, Juan Pablo Rubio Ospina, Daniel Santiago Umana, Hector Alejandro Alvarez

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This work develops and implements computational codes to calculate the optimal launch trajectories for sending a probe from the earth to different planets of the Solar system, making use of trajectories of the Hohmann and No-Hohmann type and gravitational assistance in intermediate steps. Specifically, the orbital elements, the graphs and the dynamic simulations of the trajectories for sending a probe from the Earth towards the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are obtained. A detailed study was made of the state vectors of the position and orbital velocity of the considered planets in order to determine the optimal trajectories of the probe. For this purpose, computer codes were developed and implemented to obtain the orbital elements of the Mariner 10 (Mercury), Magellan (Venus), Mars Global Surveyor (Mars) and Voyager 1 (Jupiter and Saturn) missions, as an exercise in corroborating the algorithms. This exercise gives validity to computational codes, allowing to find the orbital elements and the simulations of trajectories of three future interplanetary missions with specific launch windows.

Keywords: gravitational assistance, Hohmann’s trajectories, interplanetary mission, orbital elements

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45 Design and Analysis of Solar Powered Plane

Authors: Malarvizhi, Venkatesan

Abstract:

This paper summarizes about the design and optimization of solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle. The purpose of this research is to increase the range and endurance. It can be used for environmental research, aerial photography, search and rescue mission and surveillance in other planets. The ultimate aim of this research is to design and analyze the solar powered plane in order to detect lift, drag and other parameters by using cfd analysis. Similarly the numerical investigation has been done to compare the results of earth’s atmosphere to the mars atmosphere. This is the approach made to check whether the solar powered plane is possible to glide in the planet mars by using renewable energy (i.e., solar energy).

Keywords: optimization, range, endurance, surveillance, lift and drag parameters

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44 Mobility-Aware Relay Selection in Two Hop Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Network

Authors: Tayyaba Hussain, Sobia Jangsher, Saqib Ali, Saqib Ejaz

Abstract:

Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAV’s) have gained great popularity due to their remoteness, ease of deployment and high maneuverability in different applications like real-time surveillance, image capturing, weather atmospheric studies, disaster site monitoring and mapping. These applications can involve a real-time communication with the ground station. However, altitude and mobility possess a few challenges for the communication. UAV’s at high altitude usually require more transmit power. One possible solution can be with the use of multi hops (UAV’s acting as relays) and exploiting the mobility pattern of the UAV’s. In this paper, we studied a relay (UAV’s acting as relays) selection for a reliable transmission to a destination UAV. We exploit the mobility information of the UAV’s to propose a Mobility-Aware Relay Selection (MARS) algorithm with the objective of giving improved data rates. The results are compared with Non Mobility-Aware relay selection scheme and optimal values. Numerical results show that our proposed MARS algorithm gives 6% better achievable data rates for the mobile UAV’s as compared with Non MobilityAware relay selection scheme. On average a decrease of 20.2% in data rate is achieved with MARS as compared with SDP solver in Yalmip.

Keywords: mobility aware, relay selection, time division multiple acess, unmanned aerial vehicle

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43 Dynamic Stall Characterization of Low Reynolds Airfoil in Mars and Titan’s Atmosphere

Authors: Vatasta Koul, Vaibhav Sharma, Ayush Gupta, Rajesh Yadav

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Exploratory missions to Mars and Titan have increased recently with various endeavors to find an alternate home to humankind. The use of surface rovers has its limitations due to rugged and uneven surfaces of these planetary bodies. The use of aerial robots requires the complete aerodynamic characterization of these vehicles in the atmospheric conditions of these planetary bodies. The dynamic stall phenomenon is extremely important for rotary wings performance under low Reynolds number that can be encountered in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere. The current research focuses on the aerodynamic characterization and exploration of the dynamic stall phenomenon of two different airfoils viz. E387 and Selig-Donovan7003 in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere at low Reynolds numbers of 10000 and 50000. The two-dimensional numerical simulations are conducted using commercially available finite volume solver with multi-species non-reacting mixture of gases as the working fluid. The k-epsilon (k-ε) turbulence model is used to capture the unsteady flow separation and the effect of turbulence. The dynamic characteristics are studied at a fixed different constant rotational extreme of angles of attack. This study of airfoils at different low Reynolds number and atmospheric conditions on Mars and Titan will be resulting in defining the aerodynamic characteristics of these airfoils for unmanned aerial missions for outer space exploration.

Keywords: aerodynamics, dynamic stall, E387, SD7003

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42 The Evaluation of Gravity Anomalies Based on Global Models by Land Gravity Data

Authors: M. Yilmaz, I. Yilmaz, M. Uysal

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The Earth system generates different phenomena that are observable at the surface of the Earth such as mass deformations and displacements leading to plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanism. The dynamic processes associated with the interior, surface, and atmosphere of the Earth affect the three pillars of geodesy: shape of the Earth, its gravity field, and its rotation. Geodesy establishes a characteristic structure in order to define, monitor, and predict of the whole Earth system. The traditional and new instruments, observables, and techniques in geodesy are related to the gravity field. Therefore, the geodesy monitors the gravity field and its temporal variability in order to transform the geodetic observations made on the physical surface of the Earth into the geometrical surface in which positions are mathematically defined. In this paper, the main components of the gravity field modeling, (Free-air and Bouguer) gravity anomalies are calculated via recent global models (EGM2008, EIGEN6C4, and GECO) over a selected study area. The model-based gravity anomalies are compared with the corresponding terrestrial gravity data in terms of standard deviation (SD) and root mean square error (RMSE) for determining the best fit global model in the study area at a regional scale in Turkey. The least SD (13.63 mGal) and RMSE (15.71 mGal) were obtained by EGM2008 for the Free-air gravity anomaly residuals. For the Bouguer gravity anomaly residuals, EIGEN6C4 provides the least SD (8.05 mGal) and RMSE (8.12 mGal). The results indicated that EIGEN6C4 can be a useful tool for modeling the gravity field of the Earth over the study area.

Keywords: free-air gravity anomaly, Bouguer gravity anomaly, global model, land gravity

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41 Study of Interplanetary Transfer Trajectories via Vicinity of Libration Points

Authors: Zhe Xu, Jian Li, Lvping Li, Zezheng Dong

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This work is to study an optimized transfer strategy of connecting Earth and Mars via the vicinity of libration points, which have been playing an increasingly important role in trajectory designing on a deep space mission, and can be used as an effective alternative solution for Earth-Mars direct transfer mission in some unusual cases. The use of vicinity of libration points of the sun-planet body system is becoming potential gateways for future interplanetary transfer missions. By adding fuel to cargo spaceships located in spaceports, the interplanetary round-trip exploration shuttle mission of such a system facility can also be a reusable transportation system. In addition, in some cases, when the S/C cruising through invariant manifolds, it can also save a large amount of fuel. Therefore, it is necessary to make an effort on looking for efficient transfer strategies using variant manifold about libration points. It was found that Earth L1/L2 Halo/Lyapunov orbits and Mars L2/L1 Halo/Lyapunov orbits could be connected with reasonable fuel consumption and flight duration with appropriate design. In the paper, the halo hopping method and coplanar circular method are briefly introduced. The former used differential corrections to systematically generate low ΔV transfer trajectories between interplanetary manifolds, while the latter discussed escape and capture trajectories to and from Halo orbits by using impulsive maneuvers at periapsis of the manifolds about libration points. In the following, designs of transfer strategies of the two methods are shown here. A comparative performance analysis of interplanetary transfer strategies of the two methods is carried out accordingly. Comparison of strategies is based on two main criteria: the total fuel consumption required to perform the transfer and the time of flight, as mentioned above. The numeric results showed that the coplanar circular method procedure has certain advantages in cost or duration. Finally, optimized transfer strategy with engineering constraints is searched out and examined to be an effective alternative solution for a given direct transfer mission. This paper investigated main methods and gave out an optimized solution in interplanetary transfer via the vicinity of libration points. Although most of Earth-Mars mission planners prefer to build up a direct transfer strategy for the mission due to its advantage in relatively short time of flight, the strategies given in the paper could still be regard as effective alternative solutions since the advantages mentioned above and longer departure window than direct transfer.

Keywords: circular restricted three-body problem, halo/Lyapunov orbit, invariant manifolds, libration points

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40 Vibratinal Spectroscopic Identification of Beta-Carotene in Usnic Acid and PAHs as a Potential Martian Analogue

Authors: A. I. Alajtal, H. G. M. Edwards, M. A. Elbagermi

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Raman spectroscopy is currently a part of the instrumentation suite of the ESA ExoMars mission for the remote detection of life signatures in the Martian surface and subsurface. Terrestrial analogues of Martian sites have been identified and the biogeological modifications incurred as a result of extremophilic activity have been studied. Analytical instrumentation protocols for the unequivocal detection of biomarkers in suitable geological matrices are critical for future unmanned explorations, including the forthcoming ESA ExoMars mission to search for life on Mars scheduled for 2018 and Raman spectroscopy is currently a part of the Pasteur instrumentation suite of this mission. Here, Raman spectroscopy using 785nm excitation was evaluated for determining various concentrations of beta-carotene in admixture with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and usnic acid have been investigated by Raman microspectrometry to determine the lowest levels detectable in simulation of their potential identification remotely in geobiological conditions in Martian scenarios. Information from this study will be important for the development of a miniaturized Raman instrument for targetting Martian sites where the biosignatures of relict or extant life could remain in the geological record.

Keywords: raman spectroscopy, mars-analog, beta-carotene, PAHs

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39 Hypersonic Flow of CO2-N2 Mixture around a Spacecraft during the Atmospheric Reentry

Authors: Zineddine Bouyahiaoui, Rabah Haoui

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The aim of this work is to analyze a flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the chemical and vibrational nonequilibrium flow. This work concerns the entry of spacecraft in the atmosphere of the planet Mars. Since the equations involved are non-linear partial derivatives, the volume method is the only way to solve this problem. The choice of the mesh and the CFL is a condition for the convergence to have the stationary solution.

Keywords: blunt body, finite volume, hypersonic flow, viscous flow

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38 Investigation of Shear Strength, and Dilative Behavior of Coarse-grained Samples Using Laboratory Test and Machine Learning Technique

Authors: Ehsan Mehryaar, Seyed Armin Motahari Tabari

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Coarse-grained soils are known and commonly used in a wide range of geotechnical projects, including high earth dams or embankments for their high shear strength. The most important engineering property of these soils is friction angle which represents the interlocking between soil particles and can be applied widely in designing and constructing these earth structures. Friction angle and dilative behavior of coarse-grained soils can be estimated from empirical correlations with in-situ testing and physical properties of the soil or measured directly in the laboratory performing direct shear or triaxial tests. Unfortunately, large-scale testing is difficult, challenging, and expensive and is not possible in most soil mechanic laboratories. So, it is common to remove the large particles and do the tests, which cannot be counted as an exact estimation of the parameters and behavior of the original soil. This paper describes a new methodology to simulate particles grading distribution of a well-graded gravel sample to a smaller scale sample as it can be tested in an ordinary direct shear apparatus to estimate the stress-strain behavior, friction angle, and dilative behavior of the original coarse-grained soil considering its confining pressure, and relative density using a machine learning method. A total number of 72 direct shear tests are performed in 6 different sizes, 3 different confining pressures, and 4 different relative densities. Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) technique was used to develop an equation in order to predict shear strength and dilative behavior based on the size distribution of coarse-grained soil particles. Also, an uncertainty analysis was performed in order to examine the reliability of the proposed equation.

Keywords: MARS, coarse-grained soil, shear strength, uncertainty analysis

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37 Comparison of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines and Random Forest Regression in Predicting Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second

Authors: P. V. Pramila , V. Mahesh

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Pulmonary Function Tests are important non-invasive diagnostic tests to assess respiratory impairments and provides quantifiable measures of lung function. Spirometry is the most frequently used measure of lung function and plays an essential role in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary diseases. However, the test requires considerable patient effort and cooperation, markedly related to the age of patients esulting in incomplete data sets. This paper presents, a nonlinear model built using Multivariate adaptive regression splines and Random forest regression model to predict the missing spirometric features. Random forest based feature selection is used to enhance both the generalization capability and the model interpretability. In the present study, flow-volume data are recorded for N= 198 subjects. The ranked order of feature importance index calculated by the random forests model shows that the spirometric features FVC, FEF 25, PEF,FEF 25-75, FEF50, and the demographic parameter height are the important descriptors. A comparison of performance assessment of both models prove that, the prediction ability of MARS with the `top two ranked features namely the FVC and FEF 25 is higher, yielding a model fit of R2= 0.96 and R2= 0.99 for normal and abnormal subjects. The Root Mean Square Error analysis of the RF model and the MARS model also shows that the latter is capable of predicting the missing values of FEV1 with a notably lower error value of 0.0191 (normal subjects) and 0.0106 (abnormal subjects). It is concluded that combining feature selection with a prediction model provides a minimum subset of predominant features to train the model, yielding better prediction performance. This analysis can assist clinicians with a intelligence support system in the medical diagnosis and improvement of clinical care.

Keywords: FEV, multivariate adaptive regression splines pulmonary function test, random forest

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36 Teaching the Binary System via Beautiful Facts from the Real Life

Authors: Salem Ben Said

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In recent times the decimal number system to which we are accustomed has received serious competition from the binary number system. In this note, an approach is suggested to teaching and learning the binary number system using examples from the real world. More precisely, we will demonstrate the utility of the binary system in describing the optimal strategy to win the Chinese Nim game, and in telegraphy by decoding the hidden message on Perseverance’s Mars parachute written in the language of binary system. Finally, we will answer the question, “why do modern computers prefer the ternary number system instead of the binary system?”. All materials are provided in a format that is conductive to classroom presentation and discussion.

Keywords: binary number system, Nim game, telegraphy, computers prefer the ternary system

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35 A Green Optically Active Hydrogen and Oxygen Generation System Employing Terrestrial and Extra-Terrestrial Ultraviolet Solar Irradiance

Authors: H. Shahid

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Due to Ozone layer depletion on earth, the incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation is recorded at its high index levels such as 25 in South Peru (13.5° S, 3360 m a.s.l.) Also, the planning of human inhabitation on Mars is under discussion where UV radiations are quite high. The exposure to UV is health hazardous and is avoided by UV filters. On the other hand, artificial UV sources are in use for water thermolysis to generate Hydrogen and Oxygen, which are later used as fuels. This paper presents the utility of employing UVA (315-400nm) and UVB (280-315nm) electromagnetic radiation from the solar spectrum to design and implement an optically active, Hydrogen and Oxygen generation system via thermolysis of desalinated seawater. The proposed system finds its utility on earth and can be deployed in the future on Mars (UVB). In this system, by using Fresnel lens arrays as an optical filter and via active tracking, the ultraviolet light from the sun is concentrated and then allowed to fall on two sub-systems of the proposed system. The first sub-system generates electrical energy by using UV based tandem photovoltaic cells such as GaAs/GaInP/GaInAs/GaInAsP and the second elevates temperature of water to lower the electric potential required to electrolyze the water. An empirical analysis is performed at 30 atm and an electrical potential is observed to be the main controlling factor for the rate of production of Hydrogen and Oxygen and hence the operating point (Q-Point) of the proposed system. The hydrogen production rate in the case of the commercial system in static mode (650ᵒC, 0.6V) is taken as a reference. The silicon oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) is used in the proposed (UV) system for the Hydrogen and Oxygen production. To achieve the same amount of Hydrogen as in the case of the reference system, with minimum chamber operating temperature of 850ᵒC in static mode, the corresponding required electrical potential is calculated as 0.3V. However, practically, the Hydrogen production rate is observed to be low in comparison to the reference system at 850ᵒC at 0.3V. However, it has been shown empirically that the Hydrogen production can be enhanced and by raising the electrical potential to 0.45V. It increases the production rate to the same level as is of the reference system. Therefore, 850ᵒC and 0.45V are assigned as the Q-point of the proposed system which is actively stabilized via proportional integral derivative controllers which adjust the axial position of the lens arrays for both subsystems. The functionality of the controllers is based on maintaining the chamber fixed at 850ᵒC (minimum operating temperature) and 0.45V; Q-Point to realize the same Hydrogen production rate as-is for the reference system.

Keywords: hydrogen, oxygen, thermolysis, ultraviolet

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34 Effect of Modeling of Hydraulic Form Loss Coefficient to Break on Emergency Core Coolant Bypass

Authors: Young S. Bang, Dong H. Yoon, Seung H. Yoo

Abstract:

Emergency Core Coolant Bypass (ECC Bypass) has been regarded as an important phenomenon to peak cladding temperature of large-break loss-of-coolant-accidents (LBLOCA) in nuclear power plants (NPP). A modeling scheme to address the ECC Bypass phenomena and the calculation of LBLOCA using that scheme are discussed in the present paper. A hydraulic form loss coefficient (HFLC) from the reactor vessel downcomer to the broken cold leg is predicted by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code with a variation of the void fraction incoming from the downcomer. The maximum, mean, and minimum values of FLC are derived from the CFD results and are incorporated into the LBLOCA calculation using a system thermal-hydraulic code, MARS-KS. As a relevant parameter addressing the ECC Bypass phenomena, the FLC to the break and its range are proposed.

Keywords: CFD analysis, ECC bypass, hydraulic form loss coefficient, system thermal-hydraulic code

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33 Bag of Local Features for Person Re-Identification on Large-Scale Datasets

Authors: Yixiu Liu, Yunzhou Zhang, Jianning Chi, Hao Chu, Rui Zheng, Libo Sun, Guanghao Chen, Fangtong Zhou

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In the last few years, large-scale person re-identification has attracted a lot of attention from video surveillance since it has a potential application prospect in public safety management. However, it is still a challenging job considering the variation in human pose, the changing illumination conditions and the lack of paired samples. Although the accuracy has been significantly improved, the data dependence of the sample training is serious. To tackle this problem, a new strategy is proposed based on bag of visual words (BoVW) model of designing the feature representation which has been widely used in the field of image retrieval. The local features are extracted, and more discriminative feature representation is obtained by cross-view dictionary learning (CDL), then the assignment map is obtained through k-means clustering. Finally, the BoVW histograms are formed which encodes the images with the statistics of the feature classes in the assignment map. Experiments conducted on the CUHK03, Market1501 and MARS datasets show that the proposed method performs favorably against existing approaches.

Keywords: bag of visual words, cross-view dictionary learning, person re-identification, reranking

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32 Solar and Galactic Cosmic Ray Impacts on Ambient Dose Equivalent Considering a Flight Path Statistic Representative to World-Traffic

Authors: G. Hubert, S. Aubry

Abstract:

The earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays that can be of either galactic or solar origin. Thus, humans are exposed to high levels of galactic radiation due to altitude aircraft. The typical total ambient dose equivalent for a transatlantic flight is about 50 μSv during quiet solar activity. On the contrary, estimations differ by one order of magnitude for the contribution induced by certain solar particle events. Indeed, during Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) event, the Sun can emit particles of sufficient energy and intensity to raise radiation levels on Earth's surface. Analyses of GLE characteristics occurring since 1942 showed that for the worst of them, the dose level is of the order of 1 mSv and more. The largest of these events was observed on February 1956 for which the ambient dose equivalent rate is in the orders of 10 mSv/hr. The extra dose at aircraft altitudes for a flight during this event might have been about 20 mSv, i.e. comparable with the annual limit for aircrew. The most recent GLE, occurred on September 2017 resulting from an X-class solar flare, and it was measured on the surface of both the Earth and Mars using the Radiation Assessment Detector on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover. Recently, Hubert et al. proposed a GLE model included in a particle transport platform (named ATMORAD) describing the extensive air shower characteristics and allowing to assess the ambient dose equivalent. In this approach, the GCR is based on the Force-Field approximation model. The physical description of the Solar Cosmic Ray (i.e. SCR) considers the primary differential rigidity spectrum and the distribution of primary particles at the top of the atmosphere. ATMORAD allows to determine the spectral fluence rate of secondary particles induced by extensive showers, considering altitude range from ground to 45 km. Ambient dose equivalent can be determined using fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. The objective of this paper is to analyze the GCR and SCR impacts on ambient dose equivalent considering a high number statistic of world-flight paths. Flight trajectories are based on the Eurocontrol Demand Data Repository (DDR) and consider realistic flight plan with and without regulations or updated with Radar Data from CFMU (Central Flow Management Unit). The final paper will present exhaustive analyses implying solar impacts on ambient dose equivalent level and will propose detailed analyses considering route and airplane characteristics (departure, arrival, continent, airplane type etc.), and the phasing of the solar event. Preliminary results show an important impact of the flight path, particularly the latitude which drives the cutoff rigidity variations. Moreover, dose values vary drastically during GLE events, on the one hand with the route path (latitude, longitude altitude), on the other hand with the phasing of the solar event. Considering the GLE occurred on 23 February 1956, the average ambient dose equivalent evaluated for a flight Paris - New York is around 1.6 mSv, which is relevant to previous works This point highlights the importance of monitoring these solar events and of developing semi-empirical and particle transport method to obtain a reliable calculation of dose levels.

Keywords: cosmic ray, human dose, solar flare, aviation

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31 Rheology Study of Polyurethane (COAPUR 6050) For Composite Materials Usage

Authors: Sabrina Boutaleb, Kouider Halim Benrahou, François Schosseler, Abdelouahed Tounsi, El Abbas Adda Bedia

Abstract:

The use of polyurethane in different areas becomes more frequent. This is due to significant advantages they have including their lightness and resistance. However, their use requires a mastery of their mechanical performance. We will present in this work, a COAPUR 6050 which can be used to develop composite materials. COAPUR 6050 is an associative polyurethane thickener allowing fine rheological adjustment of flat or semi-gloss paints. COAPUR 6050 is characterised by its thickening efficiency at low shear rate. It is a solvent-free liquid product. It promotes good paint pick up, while maintaining a low yield point after shearing, and consequently a good levelling. We will then determine its rheological behaviour experimentally using different annular gaps. The rheological properties of COAPUR 6050 were researched by rotational rheometer (Rheometer-Mars III) using different annular gaps. There is the influence of the size of the annular gap on the behaviour as well as on the rheological parameters of the COAPUR 6050. The rheological properties data of COAPUR 6050 were regressed by nonlinear regression method and their rheological models were established, are characterized by yield pseudoplastic model. In this case, it is essential to make a viscometric correction. The latter was developed and presented in the experimental results.

Keywords: COAPUR 6050, flow’s couette, polyurethane, rheological behaviours

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30 Minimum-Fuel Optimal Trajectory for Reusable First-Stage Rocket Landing Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Kevin Spencer G. Anglim, Zhenyu Zhang, Qingbin Gao

Abstract:

Reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) present a more environmentally-friendly approach to accessing space when compared to traditional launch vehicles that are discarded after each flight. This paper studies the recyclable nature of RLVs by presenting a solution method for determining minimum-fuel optimal trajectories using principles from optimal control theory and particle swarm optimization (PSO). This problem is formulated as a minimum-landing error powered descent problem where it is desired to move the RLV from a fixed set of initial conditions to three different sets of terminal conditions. However, unlike other powered descent studies, this paper considers the highly nonlinear effects caused by atmospheric drag, which are often ignored for studies on the Moon or on Mars. Rather than optimizing the controls directly, the throttle control is assumed to be bang-off-bang with a predetermined thrust direction for each phase of flight. The PSO method is verified in a one-dimensional comparison study, and it is then applied to the two-dimensional cases, the results of which are illustrated.

Keywords: minimum-fuel optimal trajectory, particle swarm optimization, reusable rocket, SpaceX

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29 The Development of a Miniaturized Raman Instrument Optimized for the Detection of Biosignatures on Europa

Authors: Aria Vitkova, Hanna Sykulska-Lawrence

Abstract:

In recent years, Europa has been one of the major focus points in astrobiology due to its high potential of harbouring life in the vast ocean underneath its icy crust. However, the detection of life on Europa faces many challenges due to the harsh environmental conditions and mission constraints. Raman spectroscopy is a highly capable and versatile in-situ characterisation technique that does not require any sample preparation. It has only been used on Earth to date; however, recent advances in optical and laser technology have also allowed it to be considered for extraterrestrial exploration. So far, most efforts have been focused on the exploration of Mars, the most imminent planetary target. However, as an emerging technology with high miniaturization potential, Raman spectroscopy also represents a promising tool for the exploration of Europa. In this study, the capabilities of Raman technology in terms of life detection on Europa are explored and assessed. Spectra of biosignatures identified as high priority molecular targets for life detection on Europa were acquired at various excitation wavelengths and conditions analogous to Europa. The effects of extremely low temperatures and low concentrations in water ice were explored and evaluated in terms of the effectiveness of various configurations of Raman instruments. Based on the findings, a design of a miniaturized Raman instrument optimized for in-situ detection of life on Europa is proposed.

Keywords: astrobiology, biosignatures, Europa, life detection, Raman Spectroscopy

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28 Configuration Design and Optimization of the Movable Leg-Foot Lunar Soft-Landing Device

Authors: Shan Jia, Jinbao Chen, Jinhua Zhou, Jiacheng Qian

Abstract:

Lunar exploration is a necessary foundation for deep-space exploration. For the functional limitations of the fixed landers which are widely used currently and are to expand the detection range by the use of wheeled rovers with unavoidable path-repeatability, a movable lunar soft-landing device based on cantilever type buffer mechanism and leg-foot type walking mechanism is presented. Firstly, a 20 DoFs quadruped configuration based on pushrod is proposed. The configuration is of the bionic characteristics such as hip, knee and ankle joints, and can make the kinematics of the whole mechanism unchanged before and after buffering. Secondly, the multi-function main/auxiliary buffers based on crumple-energy absorption and screw-nut mechanism, as well as the telescopic device which could be used to protect the plantar force sensors during the buffer process are designed. Finally, the kinematic model of the whole mechanism is established, and the configuration optimization of the whole mechanism is completed based on the performance requirements of slope adaptation and obstacle crossing. This research can provide a technical solution integrating soft-landing, large-scale inspection and material-transfer for future lunar exploration and even mars exploration, and can also serve as the technical basis for developing the reusable landers.

Keywords: configuration design, lunar soft-landing device, movable, optimization

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27 Autonomic Sonar Sensor Fault Manager for Mobile Robots

Authors: Martin Doran, Roy Sterritt, George Wilkie

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NASA, ESA, and NSSC space agencies have plans to put planetary rovers on Mars in 2020. For these future planetary rovers to succeed, they will heavily depend on sensors to detect obstacles. This will also become of vital importance in the future, if rovers become less dependent on commands received from earth-based control and more dependent on self-configuration and self-decision making. These planetary rovers will face harsh environments and the possibility of hardware failure is high, as seen in missions from the past. In this paper, we focus on using Autonomic principles where self-healing, self-optimization, and self-adaption are explored using the MAPE-K model and expanding this model to encapsulate the attributes such as Awareness, Analysis, and Adjustment (AAA-3). In the experimentation, a Pioneer P3-DX research robot is used to simulate a planetary rover. The sonar sensors on the P3-DX robot are used to simulate the sensors on a planetary rover (even though in reality, sonar sensors cannot operate in a vacuum). Experiments using the P3-DX robot focus on how our software system can be adapted with the loss of sonar sensor functionality. The autonomic manager system is responsible for the decision making on how to make use of remaining ‘enabled’ sonars sensors to compensate for those sonar sensors that are ‘disabled’. The key to this research is that the robot can still detect objects even with reduced sonar sensor capability.

Keywords: autonomic, self-adaption, self-healing, self-optimization

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26 Effect of Different Salts on Pseudomonas taetrolens’ Ability to Lactobionic Acid Production

Authors: I. Sarenkova, I. Ciprovica, I. Cinkmanis

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Lactobionic acid is a disaccharide formed from gluconic acid and galactose, and produced by oxidation of lactose. Productivity of lactobionic acid by microbial synthesis can be affected by various factors, and one of them is a presence of potassium, magnesium and manganese ions. In order to extend lactobionic acid production efficiency, it is necessary to increase the yield of lactobionic acid by optimising the fermentation conditions and available substrates for Pseudomonas taetrolens growth. The object of the research was to determinate the application of K2HPO4, MnSO4, MgSO4 × 7H2O salts in different concentration for effective lactose oxidation to lactobionic acid by Pseudomonas taetrolens. Pseudomonas taetrolens NCIB 9396 (NCTC, England) and Pseudomonas taetrolens DSM 21104 (DSMZ, Germany) were used for the study. The acid whey was used as the study object. The content of lactose in whey samples was determined using MilcoScanTM Mars (Foss, Denmark) and high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC 20 Prominence, Japan). The content of lactobionic acid in whey samples was determined using the high performance liquid chromatography. The impact of studied salts differs, Mn2+ and Mg2+ ions enhanced fermentation instead of K+ ions. Results approved that Mn2+ and Mg2+ ions are necessary for Pseudomonas taetrolens growth. The study results will help to improve the effectiveness of lactobionic acid production with Pseudomonas taetrolens NCIB 9396 and DSM 21104.

Keywords: lactobionic acid, lactose oxidation, Pseudomonas taetrolens, whey

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25 Reversibility of Photosynthetic Activity and Pigment-protein Complexes Expression During Seed Development of Soybean and Black Soybean

Authors: Tzan-Chain Lee

Abstract:

Seeds are non-leaves green tissues. Photosynthesis begins with light absorption by chlorophyll and then the energy transfer between two pigment-protein complexes (PPC). Most studies of photosynthesis and PPC expression were focused on leaves; however, during seeds’ development were rare. Developed seeds from beginning pod (stage R3) to dried seed (stage R8), and the dried seed after sowing for 1-4 day, were analyzed for their chlorophyll contents. Thornber and MARS gel systems analysis compositions of PPC. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used to detect maximal photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm). During soybean and black soybean seeds development (stages R3-R6), Fv/Fm up to 0.8, and then down-regulated after full seed (stage R7). In dried seed (stage R8), the two plant seeds lost photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm=0), but chlorophyll degradation only occurred in soybean after full seed. After seeds sowing for 4 days, chlorophyll drastically increased in soybean seeds, and Fv/Fm recovered to 0.8 in the two seeds. In PPC, the two soybean seeds contained all PPC during seeds development (stages R3-R6), including CPI, CPII, A1, AB1, AB2, and AB3. However, many proteins A1, AB1, AB2, and CPI were totally missing in the two dried seeds (stage R8). The deficiency of these proteins in dried seeds might be caused by the incomplete photosynthetic activity. After seeds germination and seedling exposed to light for 4 days, all PPC were recovered, suggesting that completed PPC took place in the two soybean seeds. This study showed the reversibility of photosynthetic activity and pigment-protein complexes during soybean and black soybean seeds development.

Keywords: light-harvesting complex, pigment–protein complexes, soybean cotyledon, grana development

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24 Effect of Wavy Leading-Edges on Wings in Different Planetary Atmospheres

Authors: Vatasta Koul, Ayush Gupta, Vaibhav Sharma, Rajesh Yadav

Abstract:

Today we are unmarking the secrets of the universe by exploring different stars and planets and most of the space exploration is done by unmanned space robots. In addition to our planet Earth, there are pieces of evidence that show other astronomical objects in our solar system such as Venus, Mars, Saturn’s moon Titan and Uranus support the flight of fixed wing air vehicles. In this paper, we take forward the concept of presence of large rounded tubercles along the leading edge of a wing and use it as a passive flow control device that will help in improving its aerodynamic performance and maneuverability. Furthermore, in this research, aerodynamic measurements and performance analysis of wavy leading tubercles on the fixed wings at 5-degree angle of attack are carried out after determination of the flow conditions on the selected planetary bodies. Wavelength and amplitude for the sinusoidal modifications on the leading edge are analyzed and simulations are carried out for three-dimensional NACA 0012 airfoil maintaining unity AR (Aspect Ratio). Tubercles have consistently demonstrated the ability to delay and decrease the severity of stall as per the studies were done in the Earth’s atmosphere. Implementing the same design on the leading edges of Micro-Air Vehicles (MAVs) and UAVs could make these aircrafts more stable over a greater range of angles of attack in different planetary environments of our solar system.

Keywords: amplitude, NACA0012, tubercles, unmanned space robots

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23 Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Leaching for Extraction of Copper from Chalcopyrite Concentrate

Authors: Ayfer Kilicarslan, Kubra Onol, Sercan Basit, Muhlis Nezihi Saridede

Abstract:

Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the most common primary mineral used for the commercial production of copper. The low dissolution efficiency of chalcopyrite in sulfate media has prevented an efficient industrial leaching of this mineral in sulfate media. Ferric ions, bacteria, oxygen and other oxidants have been used as oxidizing agents in the leaching of chalcopyrite in sulfate and chloride media under atmospheric or pressure leaching conditions. Two leaching methods were studied to evaluate chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) dissolution in acid media. First, the conventional oxidative acid leaching method was carried out using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as oxidant at atmospheric pressure. Second, microwave-assisted acid leaching was performed using the microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) for same reaction media. Parameters affecting the copper extraction such as leaching time, leaching temperature, concentration of H2SO4 and concentration of K2Cr2O7 were investigated. The results of conventional acid leaching experiments were compared to the microwave leaching method. It was found that the copper extraction obtained under high temperature and high concentrations of oxidant with microwave leaching is higher than those obtained conventionally. 81% copper extraction was obtained by the conventional oxidative acid leaching method in 180 min, with the concentration of 0.3 mol/L K2Cr2O7 in 0.5M H2SO4 at 50 ºC, while 93.5% copper extraction was obtained in 60 min with microwave leaching method under same conditions.

Keywords: extraction, copper, microwave-assisted leaching, chalcopyrite, potassium dichromate

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