Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Ligia D. F. Marczak

10 Moderate Electric Field Influence on Carotenoids Extraction Time from Heterochlorella luteoviridis

Authors: Débora P. Jaeschke, Eduardo A. Merlo, Rosane Rech, Giovana D. Mercali, Ligia D. F. Marczak

Abstract:

Carotenoids are high value added pigments that can be alternatively extracted from some microalgae species. However, the application of carotenoids synthetized by microalgae is still limited due to the utilization of organic toxic solvents. In this context, studies involving alternative extraction methods have been conducted with more sustainable solvents to replace and reduce the solvent volume and the extraction time. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the extraction time of carotenoids from the microalgae Heterochlorella luteoviridis using moderate electric field (MEF) as a pre-treatment to the extraction. The extraction methodology consisted of a pre-treatment in the presence of MEF (180 V) and ethanol (25 %, v/v) for 10 min, followed by a diffusive step performed for 50 min using a higher ethanol concentration (75 %, v/v). The extraction experiments were conducted at 30 °C and, to keep the temperature at this value, it was used an extraction cell with a water jacket that was connected to a water bath. Also, to enable the evaluation of MEF effect on the extraction, control experiments were performed using the same cell and conditions without voltage application. During the extraction experiments, samples were withdrawn at 1, 5 and 10 min of the pre-treatment and at 1, 5, 30, 40 and 50 min of the diffusive step. Samples were, then, centrifuged and carotenoids analyses were performed in the supernatant. Furthermore, an exhaustive extraction with ethyl acetate and methanol was performed, and the carotenoids content found for this analyses was considered as the total carotenoids content of the microalgae. The results showed that the application of MEF as a pre-treatment to the extraction influenced the extraction yield and the extraction time during the diffusive step; after the MEF pre-treatment and 50 min of the diffusive step, it was possible to extract up to 60 % of the total carotenoids content. Also, results found for carotenoids concentration of the extracts withdrawn at 5 and 30 min of the diffusive step did not presented statistical difference, meaning that carotenoids diffusion occurs mainly in the very beginning of the extraction. On the other hand, the results for control experiments showed that carotenoids diffusion occurs mostly during 30 min of the diffusive step, which evidenced MEF effect on the extraction time. Moreover, carotenoids concentration on samples withdrawn during the pre-treatment (1, 5 and 10 min) were below the quantification limit of the analyses, indicating that the extraction occurred in the diffusive step, when ethanol (75 %, v/v) was added to the medium. It is possible that MEF promoted cell membrane permeabilization and, when ethanol (75 %) was added, carotenoids interacted with the solvent and the diffusion occurred easily. Based on the results, it is possible to infer that MEF promoted the decrease of carotenoids extraction time due to the increasing of the permeability of the cell membrane which facilitates the diffusion from the cell to the medium.

Keywords: moderate electric field (MEF), pigments, microalgae, ethanol

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9 Moderate Electric Field and Ultrasound as Alternative Technologies to Raspberry Juice Pasteurization Process

Authors: Cibele F. Oliveira, Debora P. Jaeschke, Rodrigo R. Laurino, Amanda R. Andrade, Ligia D. F. Marczak

Abstract:

Raspberry is well-known as a good source of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanin. Some studies pointed out the importance of these bioactive compounds consumption, which is related to the decrease of the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The most consumed raspberry products are juices, yogurts, ice creams and jellies and, to ensure the safety of these products, raspberry is commonly pasteurized, for enzyme and microorganisms inactivation. Despite being efficient, the pasteurization process can lead to degradation reactions of the bioactive compounds, decreasing the products healthy benefits. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to evaluate moderate electric field (MEF) and ultrasound (US) technologies application on the pasteurization process of raspberry juice and compare the results with conventional pasteurization process. For this, phenolic compounds, anthocyanin content and physical-chemical parameters (pH, color changes, titratable acidity) of the juice were evaluated before and after the treatments. Moreover, microbiological analyses of aerobic mesophiles microorganisms, molds and yeast were performed in the samples before and after the treatments, to verify the potential of these technologies to inactivate microorganisms. All the pasteurization processes were performed in triplicate for 10 min, using a cylindrical Pyrex® vessel with a water jacket. The conventional pasteurization was performed at 90 °C using a hot water bath connected to the extraction cell. The US assisted pasteurization was performed using 423 and 508 W cm-2 (75 and 90 % of ultrasound intensity). It is important to mention that during US application the temperature was kept below 35 °C; for this, the water jacket of the extraction cell was connected to a water bath with cold water. MEF assisted pasteurization experiments were performed similarly to US experiments, using 25 and 50 V. Control experiments were performed at the maximum temperature of US and MEF experiments (35 °C) to evaluate only the effect of the aforementioned technologies on the pasteurization. The results showed that phenolic compounds concentration in the juice was not affected by US and MEF application. However, it was observed that the US assisted pasteurization, performed at the highest intensity, decreased anthocyanin content in 33 % (compared to in natura juice). This result was possibly due to the cavitation phenomena, which can lead to free radicals formation and accumulation on the medium; these radicals can react with anthocyanin decreasing the content of these antioxidant compounds in the juice. Physical-chemical parameters did not present statistical differences for samples before and after the treatments. Microbiological analyses results showed that all the pasteurization treatments decreased the microorganism content in two logarithmic cycles. However, as values were lower than 1000 CFU mL-1 it was not possible to verify the efficacy of each treatment. Thus, MEF and US were considered as potential alternative technologies for pasteurization process, once in the right conditions the application of the technologies decreased microorganism content in the juice and did not affected phenolic and anthocyanin content, as well as physical-chemical parameters. However, more studies are needed regarding the influence of MEF and US processes on microorganisms’ inactivation.

Keywords: MEF, microorganism inactivation, anthocyanin, phenolic compounds

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8 Antioxidant Potential of Sunflower Seed Cake Extract in Stabilization of Soybean Oil

Authors: Ivanor Zardo, Fernanda Walper Da Cunha, Júlia Sarkis, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira Marczak

Abstract:

Lipid oxidation is one of the most important deteriorating processes in oil industry, resulting in the losses of nutritional value of oils as well as changes in color, flavor and other physiological properties. Autoxidation of lipids occurs naturally between molecular oxygen and the unsaturation of fatty acids, forming fat-free radicals, peroxide free radicals and hydroperoxides. In order to avoid the lipid oxidation in vegetable oils, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertiary butyl hydro-quinone (TBHQ) are commonly used. However, the use of synthetic antioxidants has been associated with several health side effects and toxicity. The use of natural antioxidants as stabilizers of vegetable oils is being suggested as a sustainable alternative to synthetic antioxidants. The alternative that has been studied is the use of natural extracts obtained mainly from fruits, vegetables and seeds, which have a well-known antioxidant activity related mainly to the presence of phenolic compounds. The sunflower seed cake is rich in phenolic compounds (1 4% of the total mass), being the chlorogenic acid the major constituent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro application of the phenolic extract obtained from the sunflower seed cake as a retarder of the lipid oxidation reaction in soybean oil and to compare the results with a synthetic antioxidant. For this, the soybean oil, provided from the industry without any addition of antioxidants, was subjected to an accelerated storage test for 17 days at 65 °C. Six samples with different treatments were submitted to the test: control sample, without any addition of antioxidants; 100 ppm of synthetic antioxidant BHT; mixture of 50 ppm of BHT and 50 ppm of phenolic compounds; and 100, 500 and 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds concentration in the extract was expressed in gallic acid equivalents. To evaluate the oxidative changes of the samples, aliquots were collected after 0, 3, 6, 10 and 17 days and analyzed for the peroxide, diene and triene conjugate values. The soybean oil sample initially had a peroxide content of 2.01 ± 0.27 meq of oxygen/kg of oil. On the third day of the treatment, only the samples treated with 100, 500 and 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds showed a considerable oxidation retard compared to the control sample. On the sixth day of the treatment, the samples presented a considerable increase in the peroxide value (higher than 13.57 meq/kg), and the higher the concentration of phenolic compounds, the lower the peroxide value verified. From the tenth day on, the samples had a very high peroxide value (higher than 55.39 meq/kg), where only the sample containing 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds presented significant oxidation retard. The samples containing the phenolic extract were more efficient to avoid the formation of the primary oxidation products, indicating effectiveness to retard the reaction. Similar results were observed for dienes and trienes. Based on the results, phenolic compounds, especially chlorogenic acid (the major phenolic compound of sunflower seed cake), can be considered as a potential partial or even total substitute for synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: chlorogenic acid, natural antioxidant, vegetables oil deterioration, waste valorization

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7 Relationship between Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake, Biochemical Parameters and Body Fat among Adults and Elderly

Authors: Marcela Menah de Sousa Lima, Victor Ushijima Leone, Natasha Aparecida Grande de Franca, Barbara Santarosa Emo Peters, Ligia Araujo Martini

Abstract:

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) intake has been constantly related to benefits to human health since having a positive effect on reducing body fat. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between CLA intake and biochemical measurements and body composition of adults and the elderly. Subjects/Methods: 287 adults and elderly participants in an epidemiological study in Sao Paulo Brazil, were included in the present study. Participants had their dietary data obtained by two non-consecutive 24HR, a body composition assessed by dual-energy absorptiometry exam (DXA), and a blood collection. Mean differences and a correlation test was performed. For all statistical tests, a significance of 5% was considered. Results: CLA intake showed a positive correlation with HDL-c levels (r = 0.149; p = 0.011) and negative with VLDL-c levels (r = -0.134; p = 0.023), triglycerides (r = -0.135; p = 0.023) and glycemia (r = -0.171; p = 0.004), as well as negative correlation with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (r = -0.124, p = 0.036). Evaluating individuals in two groups according to VAT values, a significant difference in CLA intake was observed (p = 0.041), being the group with the highest VAT values, the one with the lowest fatty acid intake. Conclusions: This study suggests that CLA intake is associated with a better lipid profile and lower visceral adipose tissue volume, which contributes to the investigation of the effects of CLA on obesity parameters. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of CLA from milk and dairy products in the control adiposity.

Keywords: adiposity, dairy products, diet, fatty acids

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6 Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cooked Porcine Blood to Obtain Hydrolysates with Potential Biological Activities

Authors: Miguel Pereira, Lígia Pimentel, Manuela Pintado

Abstract:

Animal blood is a major by-product of slaughterhouses and still represents a cost and environmental problem in some countries. To be eliminated, blood should be stabilised by cooking and afterwards the slaughterhouses must have to pay for its incineration. In order to reduce the elimination costs and valorise the high protein content the aim of this study was the optimization of hydrolysis conditions, in terms of enzyme ratio and time, in order to obtain hydrolysates with biological activity. Two enzymes were tested in this assay: pepsin and proteases from Cynara cardunculus (cardosins). The latter has the advantage to be largely used in the Portuguese Dairy Industry and has a low price. The screening assays were carried out in a range of time between 0 and 10 h and using a ratio of enzyme/reaction volume between 0 and 5%. The assays were performed at the optimal conditions of pH and temperature for each enzyme: 55 °C at pH 5.2 for cardosins and 37 °C at pH 2.0 for pepsin. After reaction, the hydrolysates were evaluated by FPLC (Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography) and tested for their antioxidant activity by ABTS method. FPLC chromatograms showed different profiles when comparing the enzymatic reactions with the control (no enzyme added). The chromatogram exhibited new peaks with lower MW that were not present in control samples, demonstrating the hydrolysis by both enzymes. Regarding to the antioxidant activity, the best results for both enzymes were obtained using a ratio enzyme/reactional volume of 5% during 5 h of hydrolysis. However, the extension of reaction did not affect significantly the antioxidant activity. This has an industrial relevant aspect in what concerns to the process cost. In conclusion, the enzymatic blood hydrolysis can be a better alternative to the current elimination process allowing to the industry the reuse of an ingredient with biological properties and economic value.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, blood, by-products, enzymatic hydrolysis

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5 Positivity of Pathogenic Leptospira in Pigs from Rural Communities on the Coast of Ecuador

Authors: Veronica Barragan, Ligia Luna, Maria Patricia Zambrano, Carlos Bulnes, Eduardo Diaz, Talima Pearson

Abstract:

Leptospirosis impacts animal production and is responsible for important economic losses in the pig industry. Infection is associated with reproductive failures that lead to abortions, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality. The leptospira serogroups that have been traditionally linked to disease in pigs are Pomona, Australis, and Tarassovi. Unfortunately, knowledge about pig leptospirosis is biased towards infection in large-scale commercial farms from developed countries, where exposure is usually limited to host-specific serotypes. The aim of our study is to describe leptospirosis in pigs from rural communities located in the coast of Ecuador-South America, where leptospirosis is endemic. A particularity of these pigs is that, because they are usually raised in the backyard of their owner’s houses, exposure to other leptospira excreted by other animals is likely to occur. Therefore, we collected 420 kidney samples from pigs sacrificed at a local slaughterhouse, and Leptospira positivity was tested in all samples by amplifying the Lipl32 gen. Our results show pathogenic Leptospira positivity in 19.3% (81/420) of pigs. Microaglutination test was performed in 60 PCR positive samples with titers >1:100 in 17 pigs, titers of 1:50 in 28 pigs, and no MAT titers in 15 pigs even though Leptospira DNA was found in their kidneys. Interestingly, reacting serovars were very diverse, with 18.3% of pig sera reacting with two or more serovars. Additionally, serovar Canicola was found in 16.7% of pigs followed by Tarassovi (10%), Australis (6.7%), Pyogenes (5%), Icterohaemorrhageae (1.7%), and Grippotyphosa (1.7%). It is also important to highlight that most of the analyzed animals came from small-scale farms where pigs may be exposed to the pathogen by exposure to other domestic and peridomestic animals such as rats, dogs, horses, donkeys, and even wildlife. This would explain the finding of non-pig adapted Leptospira serovars such as Canicola, which is commonly reported in dogs.

Keywords: Leptospira, Lipl32, peridomestic, pig, serovar

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4 Development of an Electrochemical Aptasensor for the Detection of Human Osteopontin Protein

Authors: Sofia G. Meirinho, Luis G. Dias, António M. Peres, Lígia R. Rodrigues

Abstract:

The emerging development of electrochemical aptasen sors has enabled the easy and fast detection of protein biomarkers in standard and real samples. Biomarkers are produced by body organs or tumours and provide a measure of antigens on cell surfaces. When detected in high amounts in blood, they can be suggestive of tumour activity. These biomarkers are more often used to evaluate treatment effects or to assess the potential for metastatic disease in patients with established disease. Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein found in all body fluids and constitutes a possible biomarker because its overexpression has been related with breast cancer evolution and metastasis. Currently, biomarkers are commonly used for the development of diagnostic methods, allowing the detection of the disease in its initial stages. A previously described RNA aptamer was used in the current work to develop a simple and sensitive electrochemical aptasensor with high affinity for human OPN. The RNA aptamer was biotinylated and immobilized on a gold electrode by avidin-biotin interaction. The electrochemical signal generated from the aptamer–target molecule interaction was monitored electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry in the presence of [Fe (CN) 6]−3/− as a redox probe. The signal observed showed a current decrease due to the binding of OPN. The preliminary results showed that this aptasensor enables the detection of OPN in standard solutions, showing good selectivity towards the target in the presence of others interfering proteins such as bovine OPN and bovine serum albumin. The results gathered in the current work suggest that the proposed electrochemical aptasensor is a simple and sensitive detection tool for human OPN and so, may have future applications in cancer disease monitoring.

Keywords: osteopontin, aptamer, aptasensor, screen-printed electrode, cyclic voltammetry

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3 Technoeustress in Higher Education Teachers: A Study on Positive Stress

Authors: Ligia Nascimento, Manuela Faia Correia

Abstract:

Nowadays, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are embedded in most professions. Technostress - or stress induced by the use of ICTs, has been studied in various sectors of activity and in different geographical areas, mainly from the perspective of its harmful impacts. In the context of work, the technological contexts capable of causing stress have been examined in-depth, as well as the type of individuals most likely to experience its negative effects. However, new lines of the research argue that the stress generated by the use of ICTs may not necessarily be detrimental (technodistress), admitting that, in contrast, and in addition, it may actually be beneficial to organizations and their employees (technoeustress). Any measures that succeed in reducing technodistress do not necessarily lead to the creation of technoeustress, justifying the study of this phenomenon in a focused and independent manner. Adopting the transactional model of stress as the basic theoretical framework, an ongoing research project aims to study technoeustress independently. Given the role played in the qualification and progress of society and the economy, it becomes particularly critical to care for the well-being of the higher education teacher. Particularly in recent times, when teleworking is prevalent, these professionals have made a huge, compulsive effort to adapt to a new teaching reality. Rather than limiting itself to mitigating adverse effects of ICT use, which featured earlier approaches, the present study seeks to understand how to activate the positive side of technostress in higher education teachers in order to obtain favorable personal and organizational outcomes from ICT use at work. The research model seeks to understand, upstream, the ICT characteristics that increase the perception of technoeustress among higher education teachers, studying the direct and moderating effects of individual and organizational variables and, downstream, the impacts that technoeustress has on job satisfaction and performance. This research contributes both to expanding the knowledge of the technostress phenomenon and to identify possible recommendations for management.

Keywords: higher education teachers, ICT, stress, technoeustress

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2 In vitro Evaluation of Prebiotic Potential of Wheat Germ

Authors: Lígia Pimentel, Miguel Pereira, Manuela Pintado

Abstract:

Wheat germ is a by-product of wheat flour refining. Despite this by-product being a source of proteins, lipids, fibres and complex carbohydrates, and consequently a valuable ingredient to be used in Food Industry, only few applications have been studied. The main goal of this study was to assess the potential prebiotic effect of natural wheat germ. The prebiotic potential was evaluated by in vitro assays with individual microbial strains (Lactobacillus paracasei L26 and Lactobacillus casei L431). A simulated model of the gastrointestinal digestion was also used including the conditions present in the mouth (artificial saliva), oesophagus–stomach (artificial gastric juice), duodenum (artificial intestinal juice) and ileum. The effect of natural wheat germ and wheat germ after digestion on the growth of lactic acid bacteria was studied by growing those microorganisms in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth (with 2% wheat germ and 1% wheat germ after digestion) and incubating at 37 ºC for 48 h with stirring. A negative control consisting of MRS broth without glucose was used and the substrate was also compared to a commercial prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Samples were taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 48 h for bacterial cell counts (CFU/mL) and pH measurement. Results obtained showed that wheat germ has a stimulatory effect on the bacteria tested, presenting similar (or even higher) results to FOS, when comparing to the culture medium without glucose. This was demonstrated by the viable cell counts and also by the decrease on the medium pH. Both L. paracasei L26 and L. casei L431 could use these compounds as a substitute for glucose with an enhancement of growth. In conclusion, we have shown that wheat germ stimulate the growth of probiotic lactic acid bacteria. In order to understand if the composition of gut bacteria is altered and if wheat germ could be used as potential prebiotic, further studies including faecal fermentations should be carried out. Nevertheless, wheat germ seems to have potential to be a valuable compound to be used in Food Industry, mainly in the Bakery Industry.

Keywords: by-products, functional ingredients, prebiotic potential, wheat germ

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1 Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Solar Cooker

Authors: Bastien Sanglard, Lou Magnat, Ligia Barna, Julian Carrey, Sébastien Lachaize

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Cooking is a primary need for humans, several techniques being used around the globe based on different sources of energy: electricity, solid fuel (wood, coal...), fuel or liquefied petroleum gas. However, all of them leads to direct or indirect greenhouse gas emissions and sometimes health damage in household. Therefore, the solar concentrated power represent a great option to lower the damages because of a cleaner using phase. Nevertheless, the construction phase of the solar cooker still requires primary energy and materials, which leads to environmental impacts. The aims of this work is to analyse the ecological impacts of a commercialaluminium parabola and to compare it with other means of cooking, taking the boiling of 2 litres of water three times a day during 40 years as the functional unit. Life cycle assessment was performed using the software Umberto and the EcoInvent database. Calculations were realized over more than 13 criteria using two methods: the international panel on climate change method and the ReCiPe method. For the reflector itself, different aluminium provenances were compared, as well as the use of recycled aluminium. For the structure, aluminium was compared to iron (primary and recycled) and wood. Results show that climate impacts of the studied parabola was 0.0353 kgCO2eq/kWh when built with Chinese aluminium and can be reduced by 4 using aluminium from Canada. Assessment also showed that using 32% of recycled aluminium would reduce the impact by 1.33 and 1.43 compared to the use of primary Canadian aluminium and primary Chinese aluminium, respectively. The exclusive use of recycled aluminium lower the impact by 17. Besides, the use of iron (recycled or primary) or wood for the structure supporting the reflector significantly lowers the impact. The impact categories of the ReCiPe method show that the parabola made from Chinese aluminium has the heaviest impact - except for metal resource depletion - compared to aluminium from Canada, recycled aluminium or iron. Impact of solar cooking was then compared to gas stove and induction. The gas stove model was a cast iron tripod that supports the cooking pot, and the induction plate was as well a single spot plate. Results show the parabolic solar cooker has the lowest ecological impact over the 13 criteria of the ReCiPe method and over the global warming potential compared to the two other technologies. The climate impact of gas cooking is 0.628kgCO2/kWh when used with natural gas and 0.723 kgCO2/kWh when used with a bottle of gas. In each case, the main part of emissions came from gas burning. Induction cooking has a global warming potential of 0.12 kgCO2eq/kWh with the electricity mix of France, 96.3% of the impact being due to electricity production. Therefore, the electricity mix is a key factor for this impact: for instance, with the electricity mix of Germany and Poland, impacts are 0.81kgCO2eq/kWh and 1.39 kgCO2eq/kWh, respectively. Therefore, the parabolic solar cooker has a real ecological advantages compared to both gas stove and induction plate.

Keywords: life cycle assessement, solar concentration, cooking, sustainability

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