Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Search results for: Khashayar Jafari

38 Evaluation of Humoral Immune Response Against Somatic and Excretory- Secretory Antigens of Dicrocoelium Dendriticum in Infected Sheep by Western Blot

Authors: Arash Jafari, Somaye Bahrami, Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali


The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of excretory-secretory and somatic antigens from D. dendriticum by SDS-PAGE and evaluation of humeral immune response against these antigens. The sera of infected sheep with different infection degrees were collected. Somatic and ES proteins were isolated with SDS PAGE. Immunogenicity properties of the resulting proteins were determined using western blot analysis. The total extract of somatic antigens analysed by SDS-PAGE revealed 21 proteins. In mild infection, bands of 130 KDa were immune dominant. In moderate infections 48, 80 and 130 KDa and in heavy infections 48, 60, 80, 130 KDa were detected as immune dominant bands. In ES antigens, mild infection 130 KDa, in moderate infection 100, 120 and 130 KDa and in heavy infection 45, 80, 85, 100, 120 and 130 KDa were immune dominant bands. The most immunogenic protein band during different degrees of infection was 130KDa.

Keywords: Dicrocoelium dendriticum excretory-secretory antigens, somatic antigens, western blot

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37 Seedling Emergence and Initial Growth of Different Plants after Trichoderma sp. Inoculation

Authors: Dragana R. Stamenov, Simonida S. Djuric, Timea I. Hajnal Jafari


The use of plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) has significantly increased in the last decade mostly due to their multi-level properties, and their expected success as biofertilizers in agriculture. Beneficial fungi with broad-host range undergo long-term interactions with a large variety of plants thereby playing a significant role in managed ecosystems and in the adaptation of crops to global climate changes. Trichoderma spp. are promising fungi toward the development of sustainable agriculture. The aim of our experiment was to investigate the effect of seed inoculation of sunflower, maize, soybean, paprika, melon, and watermelon seeds with Trichoderma sp. on early seed germination energy and initial growth of the plant. The seed inoculation with Trichoderma sp. increased the seedling emergence from 7, 85% in melon to 156,70% in watermelon. The inoculation had the best effect on initial growth of maize shoot (+23,80%) and soybean root (+106,30%). The different response of seed and young plants on Trichoderma sp. inoculation implicate the need for future investigations of successful inoculation systems and modes of their integration in sustainable agriculture production systems.

Keywords: inoculation, Trichoderma sp, seedling, initial growth

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36 Comparison of Salt-Water Intrusion into Eastern and Western Coastal Aquifers of Urmia Lake thru Over-Exploration of Groundwater Resources

Authors: Saman Javadi, Mohammad Hassan Mahmoudi, Fatemeh Jafari, Aminreza Neshat


Urmia Lake’s water level has been dropped during the past decade. Although the most common reason in studies was declared climate change, but observation of adjacent lake (like Van in Turkey) is not the same as the common reason. Most of studies were focused on climate and land use change, but groundwater resource as one of the most important element is negligible. Due to population and agriculture activities growth, exploration of groundwater resource has been increased. In as much as continued decline of water levels can lead to saltwater intrusion, reduce stream discharge near outcrop regions and threaten groundwater quality, aquifers of this region were affected by saltwater intrusion of Urmia Lake. In this research comparison of saltwater intrusion into eastern and western coastal aquifer was studied. In conclusion eastern aquifers are in a critical situation; vice versa the western ones are in a better situation. Thus applying management of groundwater operation would be necessary for eastern aquifers.

Keywords: Saltwater Intrusion, coastal aquifer, groundwater over-exploration, Urmia Lake

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35 Formulation of Extended-Release Gliclazide Tablet Using a Mathematical Model for Estimation of Hypromellose

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani


Formulation of gliclazide in the form of extended-release tablet in 30 and 60 mg dosage forms was performed using hypromellose (HPMC K4M) as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with references Diamicron MR 30 and 60 mg tablets. The effect of size of powder particles, the amount of hypromellose in formulation, hardness of tablets, and also the effect of halving the tablets were investigated on drug release profile. A mathematical model which describes hypromellose behavior in initial times of drug release was proposed for the estimation of hypromellose content in modified-release gliclazide 60 mg tablet. This model is based on erosion of hypromellose in dissolution media. The model is applicable to describe release profiles of insoluble drugs. Therefore, by using dissolved amount of drug in initial times of dissolution and the model, the amount of hypromellose in formulation can be predictable. The model was used to predict the HPMC K4M content in modified-release gliclazide 30 mg and extended-release quetiapine 200 mg tablets.

Keywords: Drug Release, mathematical model, Gliclazide, hypromellose, modified-release tablet

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34 Factors Influencing the Adoption of Social Media as a Medium of Public Service Broadcasting

Authors: Seyed Mohammadbagher Jafari, Izmeera Shiham, Masoud Arianfar


The increased usage of Social media for different uses in turn makes it important to develop an understanding of users and their attitudes toward these sites, and moreover, the uses of such sites in a broader perspective such as broadcasting. This quantitative study addressed the problem of factors influencing the adoption of social media as a medium of public service broadcasting in the Republic of Maldives. These powerful and increasingly usable tools, accompanied by large public social media datasets, are bringing in a golden age of social science by empowering researchers to measure social behavior on a scale never before possible. This was conducted by exploring social responses on the use of social media. Research model was developed based on the previous models such as TAM, DOI and Trust combined model. It evaluates the influence of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust, complexity, compatibility and relative advantage influence on the adoption of social Media. The model was tested on a sample of 365 Maldivian people using survey method via questionnaire. The result showed that perceived usefulness, trust, relative advantage and complexity would highly influence the adoption of social media.

Keywords: Social Media, broadcasting, Adoption, maldives

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33 An Analytic Comparison between Arabic and English Prosodies: Poetical Feet and Meters

Authors: Jamil Jafari, Sharafat Karimi


The Arabic Language has a complicated system of prosody invented by the great grammarian Khalil Ibn Ahmad Farahidi. He could extract 15 meters out of his innovative five circles, which were used in Arabic poetry of the 7th and 8th centuries. Then after a while, his student Akhfash added or compensated another meter to his tutor's meters, so overall, we now have 16 different meters in Arabic poetry. These meters have been formed by various combinations of 8 different feet and each foot is combined of rudimentary units called Sabab and Wated which are combinations of movement (/) and silent (ʘ) letters. On the other hand in English, we are dealing with another system of metrical prosody. In this language, feet are consisted of stressed and unstressed syllables and are of six types: iamb, trochee, dactyl, anapest, spondee, and pyrrhic. Using the descriptive-analytic method, in this research we aim at making a comparison between Arabic and English systems of metrical prosody to investigate their similarities and differences. The results show that both of them are quantitative and both of them rely on syllables in afoot. But unlike Arabic, English is utilizing another rhyme system and the number of feet in a line differs from Arabic; also, its feet are combined of stressed and unstressed syllables, while those of Arabic is a combination of movement and silent letters.

Keywords: Poetry, Foot, meter, Arabic prosody, English prosody

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32 Investigation of Threshold Voltage Shift in Gamma Irradiated N-Channel and P-Channel MOS Transistors of CD4007

Authors: S. A. H. Feghhi, H. Jafari, S. Boorboor


The ionizing radiations cause different kinds of damages in electronic components. MOSFETs, most common transistors in today’s digital and analog circuits, are severely sensitive to TID damage. In this work, the threshold voltage shift of CD4007 device, which is an integrated circuit including P-channel and N-channel MOS transistors, was investigated for low dose gamma irradiation under different gate bias voltages. We used linear extrapolation method to extract threshold voltage from ID-VG characteristic curve. The results showed that the threshold voltage shift was approximately 27.5 mV/Gy for N-channel and 3.5 mV/Gy for P-channel transistors at the gate bias of |9 V| after irradiation by Co-60 gamma ray source. Although the sensitivity of the devices under test were strongly dependent to biasing condition and transistor type, the threshold voltage shifted linearly versus accumulated dose in all cases. The overall results show that the application of CD4007 as an electronic buffer in a radiation therapy system is limited by TID damage. However, this integrated circuit can be used as a cheap and sensitive radiation dosimeter for accumulated dose measurement in radiation therapy systems.

Keywords: gamma irradiation, threshold voltage shift, MOS transistor, linear extrapolation

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31 Internal DC Short-Circuit Fault Analysis and Protection for VSI of Wind Power Generation Systems

Authors: Mehdi Radmehr, Amir Hamed Mashhadzadeh, Mehdi Jafari


Traditional HVDC systems are tough to DC short circuits as they are current regulated with a large reactance connected in series with cables. Multi-terminal DC wind farm topologies are attracting increasing research attempt. With AC/DC converters on the generator side, this topology can be developed into a multi-terminal DC network for wind power collection, which is especially suitable for large-scale offshore wind farms. For wind farms, the topology uses high-voltage direct-current transmission based on voltage-source converters (VSC-HVDC). Therefore, they do not suffer from over currents due to DC cable faults and there is no over current to react to. In this study, the multi-terminal DC wind farm topology is introduced. Then, possible internal DC faults are analyzed according to type and characteristic. Fault over current expressions are given in detail. Under this characteristic analysis, fault detection and detailed protection methods are proposed. Theoretical analysis and PSCAD/EMTDC simulations are provided.

Keywords: Fault Analysis, DC short circuits, multi-terminal DC wind farm topologies, HVDC transmission based on VSC

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30 Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Tars and Metatars Region of Dromedary Camel

Authors: Aboozar Dehghan, S. Sharifi, A. Ardeshiri, F. Jafari, F. Samani


Ultrasonography is a safe, particular, available and easy to use method to evaluate soft tissues. Tendons play the main role to body locomotors system. Ultrasonography performed in tarsus and metatarsus region of rare limb of eight adult, Dromedary camels (camelus dromedaries) in both sex. Clinical examination and gate analysis was performed before slaughtering. From the tarsus to the 1st phalanx was divided to 4 equal region include 1a, 2a, 1b and 2b. Flexor surface was clipped and covered by enough ultrasonography gel. Ultrasonography was performed by linear phased array 8-12 Mhz transducer in transverse and longitudinal section and Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) and suspensory ligament (SL) were imaged. Echogenicity and diameter of these structures were recorded. Size of tendons and SL measured after necropsy too. statistical analysis obtained that SDFT diameter larger than others in all described regions and mean of DDFT diameter larger than suspensory ligament. Echogenicity of SL more than SDFT and DDFT. No Significant relationship was seen between left and right rare limb structures size. Between sex and tendons and SL diameter, significant relationship not seen.

Keywords: Ultrasonography, dromedary camel, tars and metatars

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29 Seismic Behavior of Suction Caisson Foundations

Authors: Mohsen Saleh Asheghabadi, Alireza Jafari Jebeli


Increasing population growth requires more sustainable development of energy. This non-contaminated energy has an inexhaustible energy source. One of the vital parameters in such structures is the choice of foundation type. Suction caissons are now used extensively worldwide for offshore wind turbine. Considering the presence of a number of offshore wind farms in earthquake areas, the study of the seismic behavior of suction caisson is necessary for better design. In this paper, the results obtained from three suction caisson models with different diameter (D) and skirt length (L) in saturated sand were compared with centrifuge test results. All models are analyzed using 3D finite element (FE) method taking account of elasto-plastic Mohr–Coulomb constitutive model for soil which is available in the ABAQUS library. The earthquake load applied to the base of models with a maximum acceleration of 0.65g. The results showed that numerical method is in relative good agreement with centrifuge results. The settlement and rotation of foundation decrease by increasing the skirt length and foundation diameter. The sand soil outside the caisson is prone to liquefaction due to its low confinement.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Liquefaction, Seismic Behavior, offshore wind turbine, suction caisson foundation

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28 Organizational Agility in 22 Districts of Tehran Municipality

Authors: Mehrnoosh Jafari, Zeinolabedin Amini Sabegh, Habibollah Azimian


Background: Today variable and dynamic environment doubles importance of using suitable solutions for confronting these changes in th4e organizations. One of the best ways for coping with environmental changes is directing the organization towards agility. Current research aims at investigating status of organizational agility in Tehran municipality (22 districts). Research Methodology: This research is applied research in terms of purpose of study and it is survey in terms of collection of descriptive data. A sample (n = 377) was selected from Tehran Municipality (22 districts) employees using multistage sampling method (cluster and regular). Data were collected using organizational agility standard questionnaire, and they were analyzed using statistical tests in SPSS software as well as inferential statistics such as one-sample t-test and Friedman test and descriptive statistics such as mean and median. Findings: Research findings showed organizational agility status in the organizations under study is in relatively optimal status and competence has highest priority in terms of ranking and priority of organizational agility indexes. Conclusion: It is necessary that managers provide suitable conditions for promoting organizational agility status in the organizations under study by identifying factors affecting change in the organizational environments and using available potentials for better coping with changes and higher flexibility and speed.

Keywords: Organizational, Municipality, agility, employer

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27 Paddy/Rice Singulation for Determination of Husking Efficiency and Damage Using Machine Vision

Authors: A. Jafari, S. Minaei, M. Shaker, M. H. Khoshtaghaza, A. Banakar


In this study a system of machine vision and singulation was developed to separate paddy from rice and determine paddy husking and rice breakage percentages. The machine vision system consists of three main components including an imaging chamber, a digital camera, a computer equipped with image processing software. The singulation device consists of a kernel holding surface, a motor with vacuum fan, and a dimmer. For separation of paddy from rice (in the image), it was necessary to set a threshold. Therefore, some images of paddy and rice were sampled and the RGB values of the images were extracted using MATLAB software. Then mean and standard deviation of the data were determined. An Image processing algorithm was developed using MATLAB to determine paddy/rice separation and rice breakage and paddy husking percentages, using blue to red ratio. Tests showed that, a threshold of 0.75 is suitable for separating paddy from rice kernels. Results from the evaluation of the image processing algorithm showed that the accuracies obtained with the algorithm were 98.36% and 91.81% for paddy husking and rice breakage percentage, respectively. Analysis also showed that a suction of 45 mmHg to 50 mmHg yielding 81.3% separation efficiency is appropriate for operation of the kernel singulation system.

Keywords: Computer Vision, breakage, husking, rice kernel

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26 A Field Study of Monochromatic Light Effects on Antibody Responses to Newcastle Disease by HI Test and the Correlation with ELISA

Authors: Seyed Mehrzad Pahlavani, Mozaffar Haji Jafari Anaraki, Sayma Mohammadi


A total of 34700 day-old broilers were exposed to green, blue and yellow light using a light-emitting diode system for 6 weeks to investigate the effects of light wave length on antibody responses to Newcastle disease by HI test and the correlation with ELISA. 3 poultry house broiler farms with the same conditions was selected and the lightening system of each was set according to the requirement. Blood samples were taken from 20 chicks on days 1, 24 and 46 and the Newcastle virus specific antibody was titered in serum using HI an ELISA test. On day 24, the probability value of more than 0/05 was observed in HI and ELISA tests of all groups while at the end of breeding period, the average HI serum antibody titer was more in the green light than the yellow one while the blue light was not significantly different from both. At the last titration, the green light has got the highest titer of Newcastle antibodies. There were no significant differences of Newcastle antibody titers between all groups and ages in broiler pullets in ELISA. According to the sampling and analysis of HI and ELISA serum tests, there were no significant relationships between all broiler pullets breeding in green, blue and yellow light on days 24 and 46 and the P-value was more than 0/05. It is suggested that the monochromatic light is effective on broilers immunity against Newcastle disease.

Keywords: ELISA test, monochromatic light, Newcastle disease, HI test

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25 The Effect of Traffic on Harmful Metals and Metalloids in the Street Dust and Surface Soil from Urban Areas of Tehran, Iran: Levels, Distribution and Chemical Partitioning Based on Single and Sequential Extraction Procedures

Authors: Hossein Arfaeinia, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari, Sina Dobaradaran, Sadegh Niazi, Mojtaba Ehsanifar, Amir Zahedi


Street dust and surface soil samples were collected from very heavy, heavy, medium and low traffic areas and natural site in Tehran, Iran. These samples were analyzed for some physical–chemical features, total and chemical speciation of selected metals and metalloids (Zn, Al, Sr, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni, and V) to study the effect of traffic on their mobility and accumulation in the environment. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), carbonates and organic carbon (OC) values were similar in soil and dust samples from similar traffic areas. The traffic increases EC contents in dust/soil matrixes but has no effect on concentrations of metals and metalloids in soil samples. Rises in metal and metalloids levels with traffic were found in dust samples. Moreover, the traffic increases the percentage of acid soluble fraction and Fe and Mn oxides associated fractions of Pb and Zn. The mobilization of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr in dust samples was easier than in soil. The speciation of metals and metalloids except Cd is mainly affected by physicochemical features in soil, although total metals and metalloids affected the speciation in dust samples (except chromium and nickel).

Keywords: Metals, Traffic, Metalloids, street dust, surface soil, chemical speciation

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24 Prediction of Ionic Liquid Densities Using a Corresponding State Correlation

Authors: Khashayar Nasrifar


Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit particular properties exemplified by extremely low vapor pressure and high thermal stability. The properties of ILs can be tailored by proper selection of cations and anions. As such, ILs are appealing as potential solvents to substitute traditional solvents with high vapor pressure. One of the IL properties required in chemical and process design is density. In developing corresponding state liquid density correlations, scaling hypothesis is often used. The hypothesis expresses the temperature dependence of saturated liquid densities near the vapor-liquid critical point as a function of reduced temperature. Extending the temperature dependence, several successful correlations were developed to accurately correlate the densities of normal liquids from the triple point to a critical point. Applying mixing rules, the liquid density correlations are extended to liquid mixtures as well. ILs are not molecular liquids, and they are not classified among normal liquids either. Also, ILs are often used where the condition is far from equilibrium. Nevertheless, in calculating the properties of ILs, the use of corresponding state correlations would be useful if no experimental data were available. With well-known generalized saturated liquid density correlations, the accuracy in predicting the density of ILs is not that good. An average error of 4-5% should be expected. In this work, a data bank was compiled. A simplified and concise corresponding state saturated liquid density correlation is proposed by phenomena-logically modifying reduced temperature using the temperature-dependence for an interacting parameter of the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. This modification improves the temperature dependence of the developed correlation. Parametrization was next performed to optimize the three global parameters of the correlation. The correlation was then applied to the ILs in our data bank with satisfactory predictions. The correlation of IL density applied at 0.1 MPa and was tested with an average uncertainty of around 2%. No adjustable parameter was used. The critical temperature, critical volume, and acentric factor were all required. Methods to extend the predictions to higher pressures (200 MPa) were also devised. Compared to other methods, this correlation was found more accurate. This work also presents the chronological order of developing such correlations dealing with ILs. The pros and cons are also expressed.

Keywords: correlation, Density, ionic liquid, corresponding state principle

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23 Evaluation the Influence of Trunk Bracing in Joint Contact Forces in Subjects with Scoliosis

Authors: Azadeh Jafari, Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Azadeh Nadi


Background: Scoliosis is the lateral curvature of the spine which may influence the abilities of the subjects during standing and walking. Most of the scoliotic subjects use orthosis to reduce the curve and to decrease the risk of curve progression. There was lack of information regarding the effects of orthosis on kinematic and joint contact force. Therefore, this research was done to highlight the effects of orthosis on the aforementioned parameters. Method: 5 scoliotic subjects were recruited in this study, with single curve less than 40 (females with age 13.2 ± 1.7). They were asked to walk with and without orthosis. The kinematic of the joints, force applied on the legs, moments transmitted through the joints and joint contact forces were evaluated in this study. Moreover, the lengths of muscles were determined by use of computer muscle control approach in OpenSim. Results: There was a significant difference between the second peak of vertical ground reaction force while walking with and without orthosis (p-value < 0.05). There was no difference between spatiotemporal gait parameters while walking with and without orthosis (P-value > 0.05). The mean values of joint contact forces (vertical component) increased by the use of orthosis, but the difference was not significant (p-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Although the kinematic of most of the body joints was not influenced by the use of orthosis, the joint contact force may be increased by orthosis. The increase in joint contact force may be due to the performance of orthosis which restricts the motions of pelvic and increases compensatory mechanism used by the subjects to decrease the side effects of the orthosis.

Keywords: kinetic, kinematic, scoliosis, joint contact force

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22 Nano-Zinc Oxide: A Powerful and Recyclable Catalyst for Chemospecific Synthesis of Dicoumarols Based on Aryl Glyoxals

Authors: F. Jafari, S. GharehzadehShirazi, S. Khodabakhshi


An efficient, simple, and environmentally benign procedure for the one-pot synthesis of dicoumarols was reported. The reaction entails the condensation of aryl glyoxals and 4-hydroxyxoumarin in the presence of catalytic amount of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) as recyclable catalyst in aqueous media. High product yields and use of clean conditions are important factors of green chemistry.Part of our continued interest to achieve high atom economic reactions by the use safe catalysts. The reaction mixture was refluxed with catalytic amount (3 mol%) of zinc oxide nanoparticles.Reducing the amount of toxic waste and byproducts arising from chemical reactions is an important issue in the context of green chemistry. In comparison with commonly organic solvents, the aqueous media is cheaper and more environmentally friendly. Avoiding the use of organic solvents is an important way to prevent waste in chemical processes. In the context of green and sustainable chemistry, one ofthe most promising approaches is the use of water as the reaction media. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition that water is an attractive media for manyorganic reactions. Using water continues to attract wide attention among synthetic chemists in the design of new synthetic methods.

Keywords: Green Chemistry, Catalyst, zinc oxide, dicoumarol, aryl glyoxal

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21 Foreign Exchange Volatilities and Stock Prices: Evidence from London Stock Exchange

Authors: Mahdi Karazmodeh, Pooyan Jafari


One of the most interesting topics in finance is the relation between stock prices and exchange rates. During the past decades different stock markets in different countries have been the subject of study for researches. The volatilities of exchange rates and its effect on stock prices during the past 10 years have continued to be an attractive research topic. The subject of this study is one of the most important indices, FTSE 100. 20 firms with the highest market capitalization in 5 different industries are chosen. Firms are included in oil and gas, mining, pharmaceuticals, banking and food related industries. 5 different criteria have been introduced to evaluate the relationship between stock markets and exchange rates. Return of market portfolio, returns on broad index of Sterling are also introduced. The results state that not all firms are sensitive to changes in exchange rates. Furthermore, a Granger Causality test has been run to observe the route of changes between stock prices and foreign exchange rates. The results are consistent, to some level, with the previous studies. However, since the number of firms is not large, it is suggested that a larger number of firms being used to achieve the best results. However results showed that not all firms are affected by foreign exchange rates changes. After testing Granger Causality, this study found out that in some industries (oil and gas, pharmaceuticals), changes in foreign exchange rate will not cause any changes in stock prices (or vice versa), however, in banking sector the situation was different. This industry showed more reaction to these changes. The results are similar to the ones with Richards and Noel, where a variety of firms in different industries were evaluated.

Keywords: granger causality, stock prices, foreign exchange rate, exchange rate exposure

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20 Identifying Dynamic Structural Parameters of Soil-Structure System Based on Data Recorded during Strong Earthquakes

Authors: Omid Bahar, Vahidreza Mahmoudabadi, Mohammad Kazem Jafari


In many applied engineering problems, structural analysis is usually conducted by assuming a rigid bed, while imposing the effect of structure bed flexibility can affect significantly on the structure response. This article focuses on investigation and evaluation of the effects arising from considering a soil-structure system in evaluation of dynamic characteristics of a steel structure with respect to elastic and inelastic behaviors. The recorded structure acceleration during Taiwan’s strong Chi-Chi earthquake on different floors of the structure was our evaluation criteria. The respective structure is an eight-story steel bending frame structure designed using a displacement-based direct method assuring weak beam - strong column function. The results indicated that different identification methods i.e. reverse Fourier transform or transfer functions, is capable to determine some of the dynamic parameters of the structure precisely, rather than evaluating all of them at once (mode frequencies, mode shapes, structure damping, structure rigidity, etc.). Response evaluation based on the input and output data elucidated that the structure first mode is not significantly affected, even considering the soil-structure interaction effect, but the upper modes have been changed. Also, it was found that the response transfer function of the different stories, in which plastic hinges have occurred in the structure components, provides similar results.

Keywords: System Identification, dynamic characteristics, bending steel frame structure, displacement-based design, soil-structure system

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19 Religious Tourism the Core Strategy of Shaping Life Style: Evidences from Iran

Authors: Mostafa Jafari


Religious tourism is the core strategy of shaping Iranian's life-style. Why and How? This paper answers to this question. Theoretical base: From strategic marketing point of view, Life style is pattern of believes values, interests and acts. Strategy can be defined as a set of continuous important decisions. Here, strategy is making decisions about the target place and vehicle of touristic travel due to reform and redefine the self-identity and shaping life style. Methodology: Target society of this research is the selected residents of three provinces at northwest of Iran. The data collection instrument is interview and questionnaire and the collected data analysis by SEM (structural Equation Modeling) and LISREL software. Results: The primary results show that variety of touristic travels play an important role on shaping new life style of Iranian people. The target places of touristic travel (Europe, USA. Japan and etc.) are at the second priority. The number of foreign friends is at the third position. The fourth criteria are the number of travels. Among all kind of touristic travels the religious tourism from competitive point of view plays the main role. Findings: The geometry of Iranian life style are shaping and reshaping through some domestic and international tourism strategies particular religious strategy. During the dynamic trend of identity redefine, so many Iranians put the quantity and quality of their touristic travel on the first priority.

Keywords: Religious Tourism, core strategy, shaping life style

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18 Simulation of a Three-Link, Six-Muscle Musculoskeletal Arm Activated by Hill Muscle Model

Authors: Amir Jafari, Nafiseh Ebrahimi


The study of humanoid character is of great interest to researchers in the field of robotics and biomechanics. One might want to know the forces and torques required to move a limb from an initial position to the desired destination position. Inverse dynamics is a helpful method to compute the force and torques for an articulated body limb. It enables us to know the joint torques required to rotate a link between two positions. Our goal in this study was to control a human-like articulated manipulator for a specific task of path tracking. For this purpose, the human arm was modeled with a three-link planar manipulator activated by Hill muscle model. Applying a proportional controller, values of force and torques applied to the joints were calculated by inverse dynamics, and then joints and muscle forces trajectories were computed and presented. To be more accurate to say, the kinematics of the muscle-joint space was formulated by which we defined the relationship between the muscle lengths and the geometry of the links and joints. Secondary, the kinematic of the links was introduced to calculate the position of the end-effector in terms of geometry. Then, we considered the modeling of Hill muscle dynamics, and after calculation of joint torques, finally, we applied them to the dynamics of the three-link manipulator obtained from the inverse dynamics to calculate the joint states, find and control the location of manipulator’s end-effector. The results show that the human arm model was successfully controlled to take the designated path of an ellipse precisely.

Keywords: arm manipulator, hill muscle model, six-muscle model, three-link lodel

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17 Analysis of Hotel Websites to Attract Tourists in Iran, Case Study: Yazd County

Authors: Leila Habibi, Hadi Hakimi, Hadi Sadeghian, Maryam Jafari Mehrabadi


Nowadays, the importance of information technology and web-based information in tourism is very obvious. Increasing of sales and promotion of brands, the rise of information about tourist attractions and tourist areas, entrepreneurship and making money, introducing of hotels and side information to tourists via web are some examples of website effects on tourism. The hotels using web-based information can succeed in attracting tourists and improve the quality of services to the tourists. So, the study of hotel websites has become one of the most important issues in tourism. Therefore, this research aims to analyze the status of hotel websites in Yazd County as one of the most tourist visited counties in Iran. The quality of hotel website in a county can be very vital for tourism. Hence, this research compares the status of hotel websites in Yazd County with standard indexes and items that extracted from literature and theoretical framework. Content analysis is used for analyzing hotel websites with indexes and items in methodology. In the other words, all of the items are compared with the content of hotel-websites in Yazd one by one. Finally, every hotel archived final score which represents the position of the hotel among the others. All of scores and status of hotels are displayed in their own figures. The result of this research shows that many hotels do not offer standard web-based services and information. So, the existing situation is not very suitable for the attraction of web users or improving the tourism. The result of this research may help the managers and authorities of tourism to offer and improve the web-based services and information.

Keywords: Tourism, e-tourism, hotel websites, web-tourism

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16 Analysis of Hotel Websites to Attract Tourists in Iran, Case Study: Yazd City

Authors: Leila Habibi, Hadi Hakimi, Hadi Sadeghian, Maryam Jafari Mehrabadi


Nowadays, the importance of information technology and web- based information in tourism is very obvious. Increasing of sales and promotion of brands, the rise of information about tourist attractions and tourist areas, Entrepreneurship and making money, introducing of hotels and side information to tourists via web are some Examples of website effects on tourism. The hotels using web-based information can succeed in attracting tourists and improve the quality of services to the tourists so; the study of hotel websites has become one of the most important issues in tourism. Therefore, this research aims to analyze the status of hotel websites in Yazd City as one of the most tourist visited counties in Iran. The quality of hotel website in a city such as this city can be very vital for tourism. Hence, this research compares the status of hotel websites in Yazd City with standard indexes and items that extracted from Literature and theoretical framework. It is used content analysis for analyzing of hotel websites with indexes and items in methodology. In the other words, all of the items is compared with the content of hotel-websites in Yazd one by one. Finally, every hotel archived final score and it represents the position of the hotel among the others. All of scores and status of hotels is displayed in their own Figures. The result of this research shows that many hotels do not offer standard web -based services and information. So, the existing situation is not very suitable for the attraction of web users or improving the tourism. The result of this research may help the managers and authorities of tourism to offer and improve the web- based services and information.

Keywords: Tourism, e-tourism, hotel websites, web-tourism

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15 Survey of the Relationship between Functional Movement Screening Tests and Anthropometric Dimensions in Healthy People, 2018

Authors: Ali Dehghan, Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi, Vafa Feyzi, Parisa Kahani, Fatollah Rahimi Bafrani, Nava Seyedi, Zohreh Forozanfar


Introduction: Movement function is considered as the ability to produce and maintain balance, stability, and movement throughout the movement chain. Having a score of 14 and above on 7 sub-tests in the functional movement screening (FMS) test shows agility and optimal movement performance. On the other hand, the person's body is an important factor in physical fitness and optimal movement performance. The aim of this study was to identify effective anthropometric dimensions in increasing motor function. Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study using simple random sampling. FMS test and 25 anthropometric dimensions and subcutaneous in five body regions measured in 139 healthy students of Bam University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and univariate tests and linear regressions at a significance level of 0.05. Results: 139 students were enrolled in the study, 51.1% (71 subjects) and the rest were female. The mean and standard deviation of age, weight, height, and arm subcutaneous fat were 21.5 ± 1.45, 12.6 ± 64.3, 168.7 ± 9.8, 15.3 ± 7, respectively. 17 subjects (12.2%) of the participants in the study have a score of less than 14, and the rest were above 14. Using regression analysis, it was found that exercise and arm subcutaneous fat are predictive variables associated with obtaining a high score in the FMS test. Conclusion: Exercise and weight loss are effective factors for increasing the movement performance of individuals, and this factor is independent of the size of other physical dimensions.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Anthropometry, functional movement, screening test

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14 Impure CO₂ Solubility Trapping in Deep Saline Aquifers: Role of Operating Conditions

Authors: Seyed Mostafa Jafari Raad, Hassan Hassanzadeh


Injection of impurities along with CO₂ into saline aquifers provides an exceptional prospect for low-cost carbon capture and storage technologies and can potentially accelerate large-scale implementation of geological storage of CO₂. We have conducted linear stability analyses and numerical simulations to investigate the effects of permitted impurities in CO₂ streams on the onset of natural convection and dynamics of subsequent convective mixing. We have shown that the rate of dissolution of an impure CO₂ stream with H₂S highly depends on the operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, and composition of impurity. Contrary to findings of previous studies, our results show that an impurity such as H₂S can potentially reduce the onset time of natural convection and can accelerate the subsequent convective mixing. However, at the later times, the rate of convective dissolution is adversely affected by the impurities. Therefore, the injection of an impure CO₂ stream can be engineered to improve the rate of dissolution of CO₂, which leads to higher storage security and efficiency. Accordingly, we have identified the most favorable CO₂ stream compositions based on the geophysical properties of target aquifers. Information related to the onset of natural convection such as the scaling relations and the most favorable operating conditions for CO₂ storage developed in this study are important in proper design, site screening, characterization and safety of geological storage. This information can be used to either identify future geological candidates for acid gas disposal or reviewing the current operating conditions of licensed injection sites.

Keywords: CO₂ storage, solubility trapping, convective dissolution, storage efficiency

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13 Evidence Theory Enabled Quickest Change Detection Using Big Time-Series Data from Internet of Things

Authors: Hossein Jafari, Xiangfang Li, Lijun Qian, Alexander Aved, Timothy Kroecker


Traditionally in sensor networks and recently in the Internet of Things, numerous heterogeneous sensors are deployed in distributed manner to monitor a phenomenon that often can be model by an underlying stochastic process. The big time-series data collected by the sensors must be analyzed to detect change in the stochastic process as quickly as possible with tolerable false alarm rate. However, sensors may have different accuracy and sensitivity range, and they decay along time. As a result, the big time-series data collected by the sensors will contain uncertainties and sometimes they are conflicting. In this study, we present a framework to take advantage of Evidence Theory (a.k.a. Dempster-Shafer and Dezert-Smarandache Theories) capabilities of representing and managing uncertainty and conflict to fast change detection and effectively deal with complementary hypotheses. Specifically, Kullback-Leibler divergence is used as the similarity metric to calculate the distances between the estimated current distribution with the pre- and post-change distributions. Then mass functions are calculated and related combination rules are applied to combine the mass values among all sensors. Furthermore, we applied the method to estimate the minimum number of sensors needed to combine, so computational efficiency could be improved. Cumulative sum test is then applied on the ratio of pignistic probability to detect and declare the change for decision making purpose. Simulation results using both synthetic data and real data from experimental setup demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented schemes.

Keywords: KL divergence, CUSUM, evidence theory, quickest change detection, time series data

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12 An Analytical Study on the Impact of Cultural and Literary Heritage on the Contemporary Arabic Novel

Authors: Jamil Jafari, Sharafat Karimi


The impact of Western Literature on other nations' pieces of literature (including Arabic) has caused critics to ignore the importance of Arabic cultural & literary heritage in the formation of contemporary Arabic fiction; but on the contrary, an important part of literary genres in any society, especially fiction has been formed in the past and depends on ancient literary events. The current paper, utilizing the descriptive-analytical method and by means of library studies, tries to challenge those critics who regard Western Literature as the only effective factor on the appearance of Arabic fiction. Furthermore, this research tries to find out effective Islamic-Arabic elements on the development of Arabic novel by the investigation of some fictional works. The results show that in addition to regarding Western literature as an important factor, Arab novelists have applied their heritage, culture, and ancient history, either written or orally transmitted to the current generation, in their innovations. Among great historical works containing moral stories, allegorical legends, myths, tales of heroes, and folklore, we can refer to Arabian Nights, Kalila & Dimna, romantic stories, historical puzzles, history of Islam, history of ancient Egypt, Maqama, and Quranic stories. Famous novels like 'Hadith Isa ibn-Hisham', 'Layali Alif Layla', 'Abas al-Aqdar', 'Radoubis', 'Ahlam Shahrzad, and 'Alam Bela Kharaet' were compiled on the basis of ancient literary heritage not only in the theme but also in the structure; so one can conclude that the ancient literary-cultural heritage and Islamic-Arabian history have been influential on Arabic novel appearance and development.

Keywords: Culture, History, Language, heritage, novel, Arabic fictional literature

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11 A Geometrical Multiscale Approach to Blood Flow Simulation: Coupling 2-D Navier-Stokes and 0-D Lumped Parameter Models

Authors: Azadeh Jafari, Robert G. Owens


In this study, a geometrical multiscale approach which means coupling together the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations, constitutive equations and 0-D lumped parameter models is investigated. A multiscale approach, suggest a natural way of coupling detailed local models (in the flow domain) with coarser models able to describe the dynamics over a large part or even the whole cardiovascular system at acceptable computational cost. In this study we introduce a new velocity correction scheme to decouple the velocity computation from the pressure one. To evaluate the capability of our new scheme, a comparison between the results obtained with Neumann outflow boundary conditions on the velocity and Dirichlet outflow boundary conditions on the pressure and those obtained using coupling with the lumped parameter model has been performed. Comprehensive studies have been done based on the sensitivity of numerical scheme to the initial conditions, elasticity and number of spectral modes. Improvement of the computational algorithm with stable convergence has been demonstrated for at least moderate Weissenberg number. We comment on mathematical properties of the reduced model, its limitations in yielding realistic and accurate numerical simulations, and its contribution to a better understanding of microvascular blood flow. We discuss the sophistication and reliability of multiscale models for computing correct boundary conditions at the outflow boundaries of a section of the cardiovascular system of interest. In this respect the geometrical multiscale approach can be regarded as a new method for solving a class of biofluids problems, whose application goes significantly beyond the one addressed in this work.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, geometrical multiscale models, haemorheology model, coupled 2-D navier-stokes 0-D lumped parameter modeling

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10 Theoretical Analysis and Design Consideration of Screened Heat Pipes for Low-Medium Concentration Solar Receivers

Authors: Davoud Jafari, Paolo Di Marco, Alessandro Franco, Sauro Filippeschi


This paper summarizes the results of an investigation into the heat pipe heat transfer for solar collector applications. The study aims to show the feasibility of a concentrating solar collector, which is coupled with a heat pipe. Particular emphasis is placed on the capillary and boiling limits in capillary porous structures, with different mesh numbers and wick thicknesses. A mathematical model of a cylindrical heat pipe is applied to study its behaviour when it is exposed to higher heat input at the evaporator. The steady state analytical model includes two-dimensional heat conduction in the HP’s wall, the liquid flow in the wick and vapor hydrodynamics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted by considering different design criteria and working conditions. Different wicks (mesh 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and, 300), different porosities (0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9) with different wick thicknesses (0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mm) are analyzed with water as a working fluid. Results show that it is possible to improve heat transfer capability (HTC) of a HP by selecting the appropriate wick thickness, the effective pore radius, and lengths for a given HP configuration, and there exist optimal design criteria (optimal thick, evaporator adiabatic and condenser sections). It is shown that the boiling and wicking limits are connected and occurs in dependence on each other. As different parts of the HP external surface collect different fractions of the total incoming insolation, the analysis of non-uniform heat flux distribution indicates that peak heat flux is not affecting parameter. The parametric investigations are aimed to determine working limits and thermal performance of HP for medium temperature SC application.

Keywords: screened heat pipes, analytical model, boiling and capillary limits, concentrating collector

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9 Plant Growth and Yield Enhancement of Soybean by Inoculation with Symbiotic and Nonsymbiotic Bacteria

Authors: Timea I. Hajnal-Jafari, Simonida S. Đurić, Dragana R. Stamenov


Microbial inoculants from the group of symbiotic-nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are well known and widely used in production of legumes. On the other hand, nonsymbiotic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are not commonly used in practice. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of soybean inoculation with symbiotic and nonsymbiotic bacteria on plant growth and seed yield of soybean. Microbiological activity in rhizospheric soil was also determined. The experiment was set up using a randomized block system in filed conditions with the following treatments: control-no inoculation; treatment 1-Bradyrhizobium japonicum; treatment 2-Azotobacter sp.; treatment 3-Bacillus sp..In the flowering stage of growth (FS) the number of nodules per plant (NPP), root length (RL), plant height (PH) and weight (PW) were measured. The number of pod per plant (PPP), number of seeds per pod (SPP) and seed weight per plant (SWP) were recorded at the end of vegetation period (EV). Microbiological analyses of soil included the determination of total number of bacteria (TNB), number of fungi (FNG), actinomycetes (ACT) and azotobacters (AZB) as well as the activity of the dehydrogenase enzyme (DHA). The results showed that bacterial inoculation led to the formation of root nodules regardless of the treatments with statistically no significant difference. Strong nodulation was also present in control treatment. RL and PH were positively influenced by inoculation with Azotobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively. Statistical analyses of the number of PPP, SPP, and SWP showed no significant differences among investigated treatments. High average number of microorganisms were determined in all treatments. Most abundant were TNB (log No 8,010) and ACT (log No 6,055) than FNG and AZB with log No 4,867 and log No 4,025, respectively. The highest DHA activity was measured in the FS of soybean in treatment 3. The application of nonsymbiotic bacteria in soybean production can alleviate initial plant growth and help the plant to better overcome different stress conditions caused by abiotic and biotic factors.

Keywords: Bacteria, soybean, inoculation, microbial activity

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