Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Sadegh Niazi

41 The Effect of Traffic on Harmful Metals and Metalloids in the Street Dust and Surface Soil from Urban Areas of Tehran, Iran: Levels, Distribution and Chemical Partitioning Based on Single and Sequential Extraction Procedures

Authors: Hossein Arfaeinia, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari, Sina Dobaradaran, Sadegh Niazi, Mojtaba Ehsanifar, Amir Zahedi


Street dust and surface soil samples were collected from very heavy, heavy, medium and low traffic areas and natural site in Tehran, Iran. These samples were analyzed for some physical–chemical features, total and chemical speciation of selected metals and metalloids (Zn, Al, Sr, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni, and V) to study the effect of traffic on their mobility and accumulation in the environment. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), carbonates and organic carbon (OC) values were similar in soil and dust samples from similar traffic areas. The traffic increases EC contents in dust/soil matrixes but has no effect on concentrations of metals and metalloids in soil samples. Rises in metal and metalloids levels with traffic were found in dust samples. Moreover, the traffic increases the percentage of acid soluble fraction and Fe and Mn oxides associated fractions of Pb and Zn. The mobilization of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr in dust samples was easier than in soil. The speciation of metals and metalloids except Cd is mainly affected by physicochemical features in soil, although total metals and metalloids affected the speciation in dust samples (except chromium and nickel).

Keywords: street dust, surface soil, traffic, metals, metalloids, chemical speciation

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40 Optimization of Shear Frame Structures Applying Various Forms of Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sohrab Nemati, Ehsan Khojastehfar, Sadegh Balaghi


In the present research, various formulations of wavelet transform are applied on acceleration time history of earthquake. The mentioned transforms decompose the strong ground motion into low and high frequency parts. Since the high frequency portion of strong ground motion has a minor effect on dynamic response of structures, the structure is excited by low frequency part. Consequently, the seismic response of structure is predicted consuming one half of computational time, comparing with conventional time history analysis. Towards reducing the computational effort needed in seismic optimization of structure, seismic optimization of a shear frame structure is conducted by applying various forms of mentioned transformation through genetic algorithm.

Keywords: time history analysis, wavelet transform, optimization, earthquake

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
39 Effects of Various Wavelet Transforms in Dynamic Analysis of Structures

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sadegh Balaghi, Ehsan Khojastehfar


Time history dynamic analysis of structures is considered as an exact method while being computationally intensive. Filtration of earthquake strong ground motions applying wavelet transform is an approach towards reduction of computational efforts, particularly in optimization of structures against seismic effects. Wavelet transforms are categorized into continuum and discrete transforms. Since earthquake strong ground motion is a discrete function, the discrete wavelet transform is applied in the present paper. Wavelet transform reduces analysis time by filtration of non-effective frequencies of strong ground motion. Filtration process may be repeated several times while the approximation induces more errors. In this paper, strong ground motion of earthquake has been filtered once applying each wavelet. Strong ground motion of Northridge earthquake is filtered applying various wavelets and dynamic analysis of sampled shear and moment frames is implemented. The error, regarding application of each wavelet, is computed based on comparison of dynamic response of sampled structures with exact responses. Exact responses are computed by dynamic analysis of structures applying non-filtered strong ground motion.

Keywords: wavelet transform, computational error, computational duration, strong ground motion data

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
38 On the Accuracy of Basic Modal Displacement Method Considering Various Earthquakes

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sadegh Balaghi, Ehsan Khojastehfar


Time history seismic analysis is supposed to be the most accurate method to predict the seismic demand of structures. On the other hand, the required computational time of this method toward achieving the result is its main deficiency. While being applied in optimization process, in which the structure must be analyzed thousands of time, reducing the required computational time of seismic analysis of structures makes the optimization algorithms more practical. Apparently, the invented approximate methods produce some amount of errors in comparison with exact time history analysis but the recently proposed method namely, Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) and Sum Root of the Sum of Squares (SRSS) drastically reduces the computational time by combination of peak responses in each mode. In the present research, the Basic Modal Displacement (BMD) method is introduced and applied towards estimation of seismic demand of main structure. Seismic demand of sampled structure is estimated by calculation of modal displacement of basic structure (in which the modal displacement has been calculated). Shear steel sampled structures are selected as case studies. The error applying the introduced method is calculated by comparison of the estimated seismic demands with exact time history dynamic analysis. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by application of three types of earthquakes (in view of time of peak ground acceleration).

Keywords: time history dynamic analysis, basic modal displacement, earthquake-induced demands, shear steel structures

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37 Alumina Nanoparticles in One-Pot Synthesis of Pyrazolopyranopyrimidinones

Authors: Saeed Khodabakhshi, Alimorad Rashidi, Ziba Tavakoli, Sajad Kiani, Sadegh Dastkhoon


Alumina nanoparticles (γ-Al2O3 NPs) were prepared via a new and simple synthetic route and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of prepared γ-Al2O3 NPs was investigated for the one-pot, four-component synthesis of fused tri-heterocyclic compounds containing pyrazole, pyran, and pyrimidine. This procedure has some advantages such as high efficiency, simplicity, high rate and environmental safety.

Keywords: alumina nanoparticles, one-pot, fused tri-heterocyclic compounds, pyran

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36 Investigation of Genetic Diversity in Bread Wheat by RAPD and SSR Markers

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Khavarinejad


In this study, genetic diversity of 10 bread wheat genotypes by SSR and RAPD markers was evaluated. 11 primers were used included 6 RAPD primers and 5 SSR primers. RAPDs and SSRs could find 33 and 17 polymorphism respectively. In RAPDs, primers UBC 350 and UBC 109 and in SSRs, Primers Xgwm 469-6D and Xgwm120-2B showed genetic diversity among genotypes more than others.

Keywords: wheat, molecular markers, SSR, RAPD

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35 Investigating the Potential of a Blended Format for the Academic Reading Module Course Redesign

Authors: Reham Niazi, Marwa Helmy, Susanne Rizzo


This classroom action research is designed to explore the possibility of adding effective online content to supplement and add learning value to the current reading module. The aim of this research was two-fold, first to investigate students’ acceptance of and interactivity with online components, chosen to orient students with the content, and to pave the way for more in-class activities and skill practice. Secondly, the instructor aimed to examine students’ willingness to have the course contact hours remain the same with some online components to be done at home (flipped approach) or if students were open to turn the class into a blended format with two scenarios; either to have the current contact hours and apply the blended and in this case the face to face component will be less or keep the number of face to face classes the same and add more online structured classes as part of the course hours.

Keywords: blended learning, flipped classroom, graduate students, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
34 Fuzzy Gauge Capability (Cg and Cgk) through Buckley Approach

Authors: Seyed Habib A. Rahmati, Mohsen Sadegh Amalnick


Different terms of the statistical process control (SPC) has sketch in the fuzzy environment. However, measurement system analysis (MSA), as a main branch of the SPC, is rarely investigated in fuzzy area. This procedure assesses the suitability of the data to be used in later stages or decisions of the SPC. Therefore, this research focuses on some important measures of MSA and through a new method introduces the measures in fuzzy environment. In this method, which works based on Buckley approach, imprecision and vagueness nature of the real world measurement are considered simultaneously. To do so, fuzzy version of the gauge capability (Cg and Cgk) are introduced. The method is also explained through example clearly.

Keywords: measurement, SPC, MSA, gauge capability (Cg and Cgk)

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33 A Resistant-Based Comparative Study between Iranian Concrete Design Code and Some Worldwide Ones

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Najmeh Bemani


The design in most counties should be inevitably carried out by their native code such as Iran. Since the Iranian concrete code does not exist in structural design software, most engineers in this country analyze the structures using commercial software but design the structural members manually. This point motivated us to make a communication between Iranian code and some other well-known ones to create facility for the engineers. Finally, this paper proposes the so-called interpretation charts which help specify the position of Iranian code in comparison of some worldwide ones.

Keywords: beam, concrete code, strength, interpretation charts

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32 Austempering Heat Treatment of AISI 4340 Steel and Comparative Analysis of Various Physical Properties at Different Parameters

Authors: Najeeb Niazi, Salman Nisar, Aqueel Shah


In this study a special heat treatment process named austempering on AISI 4340 steel is carried out. Heat treatment on steel is carried out to enhance mechanical properties. In this regard, it is considered essential to undertake a study to evaluate different changes occurred in AISI 4340 steel in terms of hardness, tensile strength and impact strength at different austempering temperatures and cooling times and achieving the best combination of these improved mechanical properties for better and optimum utilization of this grade of steel. By using software Design Expert DOE is formulated with Taguchi orthogonal arrays comprising of L18 (3*3) with 03 factors and 03 responses to be calculated. Results of experiments are analyzed via Taguchi method. Signal to noise ratio of responses are carried out to determine the significant factors among the 03 factors chosen for experimental runs. Overall analysis showed that impact factor along with hardness is improved to great extent by austempering process.

Keywords: austempering temperature, AISI 4340 steel, bainite, Taguchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
31 Modeling of Production Lines Systems with Layout Constraints

Authors: Sadegh Abebi


There are problems with estimating time of product process of products, especially when there is variable serving time, like control stage. These problems will cause overestimation of process time. Layout constraints, reworking constraints and inflexible product schedule in multi product lines, needs a precise planning to reduce volume in particular situation of line stock. In this article, by analyzing real queue systems with layout constraints and by using concepts and principles of Markov chain in queue theory, a hybrid model has been presented. This model can be a base to assess queue systems with probable parameters of service. Here by presenting a case study, the proposed model will be described. so, production lines of a home application manufacturer will be analyzed.

Keywords: Queuing theory, Markov Chain, layout, line balance

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30 Kernel Parallelization Equation for Identifying Structures under Unknown and Periodic Loads

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi


This paper presents a Kernel parallelization equation for damage identification in structures under unknown periodic excitations. Herein, the dynamic differential equation of the motion of structure is viewed as a mapping from displacements to external forces. Utilizing this viewpoint, a new method for damage detection in structures under periodic loads is presented. The developed method requires only two periods of load. The method detects the damages without finding the input loads. The method is based on the fact that structural displacements under free and forced vibrations are associated with two parallel subspaces in the displacement space. Considering the concept, kernel parallelization equation (KPE) is derived for damage detection under unknown periodic loads. The method is verified for a case study under periodic loads.

Keywords: Kernel, unknown periodic load, damage detection, Kernel parallelization equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
29 Numerical Investigation of Blood Flow around a Leaflet Valve through a Perforating Vein

Authors: Zohreh Sheidaei, Farhad Sadegh Moghanlou, Rahim Vesal


Diseases related to leg venous system are common worldwide. An incompetent vein with deformed wall and insufficient valves affects flow field of blood and disrupts the process of blood circulating system. Having enough knowledge about the flow field through veins will help find new ways to cure the related diseases. In the present study, blood flow around a leaflet valve of a perforating vein is investigated numerically by Finite Element Method. Flow behavior and vortexes, generated around the leaflet valves, are studied considering valve opening percentage. Obtained velocity and pressure fields show mechanical stresses on vein wall and these valves and consequently introduce the regions susceptible to deformation.

Keywords: fluid flow, leaflet valve, numerical investigation, perforating vein

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28 Anticipation of Bending Reinforcement Based on Iranian Concrete Code Using Meta-Heuristic Tools

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Najmeh Bemani


In this paper, different concrete codes including America, New Zealand, Mexico, Italy, India, Canada, Hong Kong, Euro Code and Britain are compared with the Iranian concrete design code. First, by using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), the codes having the most correlation with the Iranian ninth issue of the national regulation are determined. Consequently, two anticipated methods are used for comparing the codes: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multi-variable regression. The results show that ANN performs better. Predicting is done by using only tensile steel ratio and with ignoring the compression steel ratio.

Keywords: adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system, anticipate method, artificial neural network, concrete design code, multi-variable regression

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27 All-or-None Principle and Weakness of Hodgkin-Huxley Mathematical Model

Authors: S. A. Sadegh Zadeh, C. Kambhampati


Mathematical and computational modellings are the necessary tools for reviewing, analysing, and predicting processes and events in the wide spectrum range of scientific fields. Therefore, in a field as rapidly developing as neuroscience, the combination of these two modellings can have a significant role in helping to guide the direction the field takes. The paper combined mathematical and computational modelling to prove a weakness in a very precious model in neuroscience. This paper is intended to analyse all-or-none principle in Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model. By implementation the computational model of Hodgkin-Huxley model and applying the concept of all-or-none principle, an investigation on this mathematical model has been performed. The results clearly showed that the mathematical model of Hodgkin-Huxley does not observe this fundamental law in neurophysiology to generating action potentials. This study shows that further mathematical studies on the Hodgkin-Huxley model are needed in order to create a model without this weakness.

Keywords: all-or-none, computational modelling, mathematical model, transmembrane voltage, action potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
26 Experimental Investigation of Natural Frequency and Forced Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beam under Displacement of Concentrated Mass and Load

Authors: Aref Aasi, Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei, Balaji Panchapakesan


This work aims to evaluate the free and forced vibration of a beam with two end joints subjected to a concentrated moving mass and a load using the Euler-Bernoulli method. The natural frequency is calculated for different locations of the concentrated mass and load on the beam. The analytical results are verified by the experimental data. The variations of natural frequency as a function of the location of the mass, the effect of the forced frequency on the vibrational amplitude, and the displacement amplitude versus time are investigated. It is discovered that as the concentrated mass moves toward the center of the beam, the natural frequency of the beam and the relative error between experimental and analytical data decreases. There is a close resemblance between analytical data and experimental observations.

Keywords: Euler-Bernoulli beam, natural frequency, forced vibration, experimental setup

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25 Responses of Trifolium pratense to Lead Accumulation Under In-Vitro Culture Conditions

Authors: Arash Khorasani Esmaeili, Rosna Mat Taha, Sadegh Mohajer


Seeds of Trifolium pratense (Red clover) were exposed in vitro for 6 weeks to six levels of lead (Pb) concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 µM) to analyze the effects on growth, total chlorophyll and total protein contents of grown plants against the lead accumulation. The growth of plants was negatively affected by various levels of lead treatment. The fresh and dry weights, as well as lengths of shoots and roots of grown plants under various lead treatments, were found significantly lower in comparison with the control plants. Total chlorophyll and total soluble protein contents of grown plants under lower concentrations of lead treatment did not show significant differences when compared with the control plants, although they were affected significantly in higher levels of lead accumulation (150-250 µM).

Keywords: trifolium pratense, lead accumulation, chlorophyll content, protein content

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24 Studying Roughness Effects on Flow Regimes in Offshore Pipelines

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Narges, Zahra Ghadampour


Due to the specific condition, offshore pipelines are given careful consideration and care in both design and operation. Most of the offshore pipeline flows are multi-phase. Multi-phase flows construct different pattern or flow regimes (in simultaneous gas-liquid flow, flow regimes like slug flow, wave and …) under different circumstances. One of the influencing factors on the flow regime is the pipeline roughness value. So far, roughness value influences and the sensitivity of the present models to this parameter have not been taken into consideration. Therefore, roughness value influences on the flow regimes in offshore pipelines are discussed in this paper. Results showed that geometry, absolute pipeline roughness value (materials that the pipeline is made of) and flow phases prevailing the system are of the influential parameters on the flow regimes prevailing multi-phase pipelines in a way that a change in any of these parameters results in a change in flow regimes in all or part of the pipeline system.

Keywords: absolute roughness, flow regime, multi-phase flow, offshore pipelines

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23 Reliability Analysis of Steel Columns under Buckling Load in Second-Order Theory

Authors: Hamed Abshari, M. Reza Emami Azadi, Madjid Sadegh Azar


For studying the overall instability of members of steel structures, there are several methods in which overall buckling and geometrical imperfection effects are considered in analysis. In first section, these methods are compared and ability of software to apply these methods is studied. Buckling loads determined from theoretical methods and software is compared for 2D one bay, one and two stories steel frames. To consider actual condition, buckling loads of three steel frames that have various dimensions are calculated and compared. Also, uncertainties that exist in loading and modeling of structures such as geometrical imperfection, yield stress, and modulus of elasticity in buckling load of 2D framed steel structures have been studied. By performing these uncertainties to each reliability analysis procedures (first-order, second-order, and simulation methods of reliability), one index of reliability from each procedure is determined. These values are studied and compared.

Keywords: buckling, second-order theory, reliability index, steel columns

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22 Combined Heat and Power Generation in Pressure Reduction City Gas Station (CGS)

Authors: Sadegh Torfi


Realization of anticipated energy efficiency from recuperative run-around energy recovery (RER) systems requires identification of the system components influential parameters. Because simulation modeling is considered as an integral part of the design and economic evaluation of RER systems, it is essential to calibrate the developed models and validate the performance predictions by means of comparison with data from experimental measurements. Several theoretical and numerical analyses on RER systems by researchers have been done, but generally the effect of distance between hot and cold flow is ignored. The objective of this study is to develop a thermohydroulic model for a typical RER system that accounts for energy loss from the interconnecting piping and effects of interconnecting pipes length performance of run-around energy recovery systems. Numerical simulation shows that energy loss from the interconnecting piping is change linear with pipes length and if pipes are properly isolated, maximum reduction of effectiveness of RER systems is 2% in typical piping systems.

Keywords: combined heat and power, heat recovery, effectiveness, CGS

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
21 Wire Localization Procedures in Non-Palpable Breast Cancers: An Audit Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Waqas Ahmad, Eisha Tahir, Shahper Aqeel, Imran Khalid Niazi, Amjad Iqbal


Background: Breast conservation surgery applies a number of techniques for accurate localization of lesions. Wire localization remains the method of choice in non-palpable breast cancers post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of wire localization procedures in our department and compare it with internationally set protocols as per the Royal College of Radiologists. Post wire mammography, as well as the margin status of the postoperative specimen, assessed the accuracy of the procedure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 225 patients who presented to our department from May 2014 to June 2015 post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with non-palpable cancers. These patients are candidates for wire localized lumpectomies either under ultrasound or stereotactic guidance. Metallic marker was placed in all the patients at the time of biopsy. Post wire mammogram was performed in all the patients and the distance of the wire tip from the marker was calculated. The presence or absence of the metallic clip in the postoperative specimen, as well as the marginal status of the postoperative specimen, was noted. Results: 157 sonographic and 68 stereotactic wire localization procedures were performed. 95% of the wire tips were within 1 cm of the metallic marker. Marginal status was negative in 94% of the patients in histopathological specimen. Conclusion: Our audit report declares more than 95% accuracy of image guided wire localization in successful excision of non-palpable breast lesions.

Keywords: breast, cancer, non-palpable, wire localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
20 Experimental Correlation for Erythrocyte Aggregation Rate in Population Balance Modeling

Authors: Erfan Niazi, Marianne Fenech


Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes tend to form chain-like aggregates under low shear rate called rouleaux. This is a reversible process and rouleaux disaggregate in high shear rates. Therefore, RBCs aggregation occurs in the microcirculation where low shear rates are present but does not occur under normal physiological conditions in large arteries. Numerical modeling of RBCs interactions is fundamental in analytical models of a blood flow in microcirculation. Population Balance Modeling (PBM) is particularly useful for studying problems where particles agglomerate and break in a two phase flow systems to find flow characteristics. In this method, the elementary particles lose their individual identity due to continuous destructions and recreations by break-up and agglomeration. The aim of this study is to find RBCs aggregation in a dynamic situation. Simplified PBM was used previously to find the aggregation rate on a static observation of the RBCs aggregation in a drop of blood under the microscope. To find aggregation rate in a dynamic situation we propose an experimental set up testing RBCs sedimentation. In this test, RBCs interact and aggregate to form rouleaux. In this configuration, disaggregation can be neglected due to low shear stress. A high-speed camera is used to acquire video-microscopic pictures of the process. The sizes of the aggregates and velocity of sedimentation are extracted using an image processing techniques. Based on the data collection from 5 healthy human blood samples, the aggregation rate was estimated as 2.7x103(±0.3 x103) 1/s.

Keywords: red blood cell, rouleaux, microfluidics, image processing, population balance modeling

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19 Proposing an Index for Determining Key Knowledge Management Processes in Decision Making Units Using Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Method

Authors: Sadegh Abedi, Ali Yaghoubi, Hamidreza Mashatzadegan


This paper proposes an approach to identify key processes required by an organization in the field of knowledge management and aligning them with organizational objectives. For this purpose, first, organization’s most important non-financial objectives which are impacted by knowledge management processes are identified and then, using a quality house, are linked with knowledge management processes which are regarded as technical elements. Using this method, processes that are in need of improvement and more attention are prioritized based on their significance. This means that if a process has more influence on organization’s objectives and is in a dire situation comparing to others, is prioritized for choice and improvement. In this research process dominance is considered to be an influential element in process ranking (in addition to communication matrix). This is the reason for utilizing DEA techniques for prioritizing processes in quality house. Results of implementing the method in Khuzestan steel company represents this method’s capability of identifying key processes that require improvements in organization’s knowledge management system.

Keywords: knowledge management, organizational performance, fuzzy data, envelopment analysis

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18 Basic Modal Displacements (BMD) for Optimizing the Buildings Subjected to Earthquakes

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Mohsen Khatibinia


In structural optimizations through meta-heuristic algorithms, analyses of structures are performed for many times. For this reason, performing the analyses in a time saving way is precious. The importance of the point is more accentuated in time-history analyses which take much time. To this aim, peak picking methods also known as spectrum analyses are generally utilized. However, such methods do not have the required accuracy either done by square root of sum of squares (SRSS) or complete quadratic combination (CQC) rules. The paper presents an efficient technique for evaluating the dynamic responses during the optimization process with high speed and accuracy. In the method, first by using a static equivalent of the earthquake, an initial design is obtained. Then, the displacements in the modal coordinates are achieved. The displacements are herein called basic modal displacements (MBD). For each new design of the structure, the responses can be derived by well scaling each of the MBD along the time and amplitude and superposing them together using the corresponding modal matrices. To illustrate the efficiency of the method, an optimization problems is studied. The results show that the proposed approach is a suitable replacement for the conventional time history and spectrum analyses in such problems.

Keywords: basic modal displacements, earthquake, optimization, spectrum

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17 Evaluation of Site Laboratory Conditions Effect on Seismic Design Characteristics in Ramhormoz

Authors: Sayyed Yaghoub Zolfegharifar, Khairul Anuar Kassim, Hossein Khoramrooz, Khodayar Farhadiasl, Sadegh Jahan


Iran is one of the world's seismically active countries so that it experiences many small to medium earthquakes annually and a large earthquake every ten years. Due to seism tectonic conditions and special geographical and climatic position, Iran has the potential to create numerous severe earthquakes. Therefore, seismicity studies and seismic zonation of seismic zones of the country are necessary. In this article, the effect of local site conditions on the characteristics of seismic design in Rahmormoz will be examined. After analyzing the seismic hazard for Rahmormoz through deterministic and statistical methods and preparing the necessary geotechnical models based on available data, the ground response will be analyzed for different parts of the city based on four inputs and acceleration level estimated for bedrock through the equivalent linear method and by means of Deep Soil program. Finally, through the analysis of the obtained results, the seismic profiles of the ground surface for different parts of the city will be presented.

Keywords: seismic microzonation, ground response, resonance spectrum, period, site conditions

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16 Molecular Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Ticks of Golestan Province, Iran

Authors: Nariman Shahhosseini, Sadegh Chinikar


Introduction: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) causes severe disease with fatality rates of 30%. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick, direct contact with the products of infected livestock and nosocomially. The disease occurs sporadically throughout many of African, Asian, and European countries. Different species of ticks serve either as vector or reservoir for CCHFV. Materials and Methods: A molecular survey was conducted on hard ticks (Ixodidae) in Golestan province, north of Iran during 2014-2015. Samples were sent to National Reference Laboratory of Arboviruses (Pasteur Institute of Iran) and viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR. Results: Result revealed the presence of CCHFV in 5.3% of the selected ticks. The infected ticks belonged to Hy. dromedarii, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. marginatum, and Rh. sanguineus. Conclusions: These data demonstrates that Hyalomma ticks are the main vectors of CCHFV in Golestan province. Thus, preventive strategies such as using acaricides and repellents in order to avoid contact with Hyalomma ticks are proposed. Also, personal protective equipment (PPE) must be utilized at abattoirs.

Keywords: tick, CCHFV, surveillance, vector diversity

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15 Assessing the Actual Status and Farmer’s Attitude towards Agroforestry in Chiniot, Pakistan

Authors: M. F. Nawaz, S. Gul, T. H. Farooq, M. T. Siddiqui, M. Asif, I. Ahmad, N. K. Niazi


In Pakistan, major demands of fuel wood and timber wood are fulfilled by agroforestry. However, the information regarding economic significance of agroforestry and its productivity in Pakistan is still insufficient and unreliable. Survey of field conditions to examine the agroforestry status at local level helps us to know the future trends and to formulate the policies for sustainable wood supply. The objectives of this research were to examine the actual status and potential of agroforestry and to point out the barriers that are faced by farmers in the adoption of agroforestry. Research was carried out in Chiniot district, Pakistan because it is the famous city for furniture industry that is largely dependent on farm trees. A detailed survey of district Chiniot was carried out from 150 randomly selected farmer respondents using multi-objective oriented and pre-tested questionnaire. It was found that linear tree planting method was more adopted (45%) as compared to linear + interplanting (42%) and/or compact planting (12.6%). Chi-square values at P-value <0.5 showed that age (11.35) and education (17.09) were two more important factors in the quick adoption of agroforestry as compared to land holdings (P-value of 0.7). The major reason of agroforestry adoption was to obtain income, fodder and fuelwood. The most dominant species in farmlands was shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) but since last five years, mostly farmers were growing Sufeida (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), kikar (Acacia nilotica) and popular (Populus deltoides) on their fields due to “Shisham die-back” problem. It was found that agro-forestry can be increased by providing good quality planting material to farmers and improving wood markets.

Keywords: agroforestry, trees, services, agriculture, farmers

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14 Callus Induction, In-Vitro Plant Regeneration and Acclimatization of Lycium barbarum L. (Goji)

Authors: Rosna Mat Taha, Sakinah Abdullah, Sadegh Mohajer, Asmah Awal


Lycium barbarum L. (Goji) belongs to Solanaceae family and native to some areas of China. Ethnobotanical studies have shown that this plant has been consumed by the Chinese since ancient times. It has been used as medicine in providing excellent effects on cardiovascular system and cholesterol level, besides contains high antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. In the present study, some tissue culture work has been carried out to induce callus, in vitro regeneration from various explants of Goji and also some acclimatization protocols were followed to transfer the regenerated plants to soil. The main aims being to establish high efficient regeneration system for mass production and commercialization for future uses, since the growth of this species is very limited in Malaysia. The optimum hormonal regime and the most suitable and responsive explants were identified. It was found that leaves and stems gave good responses. Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L BAP was the best for callus induction and MS media fortified with 1.0 mg/L NAA and 1.0 mg/L BAP was optimum for in vitro regeneration. The survival rates of plantlets after acclimatization was 63±1.5 % on black soil and 50±1.3 % on mixed soil (combination of black and red soil at a ratio of 2 to 1), respectively.

Keywords: callus, acclimatization, in vitro culture, regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
13 Multistage Data Envelopment Analysis Model for Malmquist Productivity Index Using Grey's System Theory to Evaluate Performance of Electric Power Supply Chain in Iran

Authors: Mesbaholdin Salami, Farzad Movahedi Sobhani, Mohammad Sadegh Ghazizadeh


Evaluation of organizational performance is among the most important measures that help organizations and entities continuously improve their efficiency. Organizations can use the existing data and results from the comparison of units under investigation to obtain an estimation of their performance. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) is an important index in the evaluation of overall productivity, which considers technological developments and technical efficiency at the same time. This article proposed a model based on the multistage MPI, considering limited data (Grey’s theory). This model can evaluate the performance of units using limited and uncertain data in a multistage process. It was applied by the electricity market manager to Iran’s electric power supply chain (EPSC), which contains uncertain data, to evaluate the performance of its actors. Results from solving the model showed an improvement in the accuracy of future performance of the units under investigation, using the Grey’s system theory. This model can be used in all case studies, in which MPI is used and there are limited or uncertain data.

Keywords: Malmquist Index, Grey's Theory, CCR Model, network data envelopment analysis, Iran electricity power chain

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12 Investigating the Factors Affecting the Innovation of Firms in Metropolitan Regions: The Case of Mashhad Metropolitan Region, Iran

Authors: Hashem Dadashpoor, Sadegh Saeidi Shirvan


While with the evolution of the economy towards a knowledge-based economy, innovation is a requirement for metropolitan regions, the adoption of an open innovation strategy is an option and a requirement for many industrial firms in these regions. Studies show that investing in research and development units cannot alone increase innovation. Within the framework of the theory of learning regions, this gap, which scholars call it the ‘innovation gap’, is filled with regional features of firms. This paper attempts to investigate the factors affecting the open innovation of firms in metropolitan regions, and it searches for these in territorial innovation models and, in particular, the theory of learning regions. In the next step, the effect of identified factors which is considered as regional learning factors in this research is analyzed on the innovation of sample firms by SPSS software using multiple linear regression. The case study of this research is constituted of industrial enterprises from two groups of food industry and auto parts in Toos industrial town in Mashhad metropolitan region. For data gathering of this research, interviews were conducted with managers of industrial firms using structured questionnaires. Based on this study, the effect of factors such as size of firms, inter-firm competition, the use of local labor force and institutional infrastructures were significant in the innovation of the firms studied, and 44% of the changes in the firms’ innovation occurred as a result of the change in these factors.

Keywords: regional knowledge networks, learning regions, interactive learning, innovation

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