Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7446

Search results for: surface soil

7446 Measuring the Amount of Eroded Soil and Surface Runoff Water in the Field

Authors: Abdulfatah Faraj Aboufayed


Water erosion is the most important problems of the soil in the Jebel Nefusa area located in north west of Libya, therefore erosion station had been established in the Faculty of Veterinary and rainfed agriculture research Station, University of the Jepel Algherbee in Zentan. The length of the station is 72.6 feet, 6 feet width, and the percentage of it's slope is 3%. The station was established to measure the mount of soil eroded and amount of surface water produced during the seasons 95/96 and 96/97 from each rain storms. The Monitoring shows that there was a difference between the two seasons in the number of rainstorms which made differences in the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of soil eroded between the two seasons. Although the slope is low (3%), the soil texture is sandy and the land ploughed twice during each season surface runoff and soil eroded occurred. The average amount of eroded soil was 3792 grams (gr) per season and the average amount of surface runoff water was 410 litter (L) per season. The amount of surface runoff water would be much greater from Jebel Nefusa upland with steep slopes and collecting of them will save a valuable amount of water which lost as a runoff while this area is in desperate of this water. The regression analysis of variance show strong correlation between rainfall depth and the other two depended variable (the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of eroded soil). It shows also strong correlation between amount of surface runoff water and amount of eroded soil.

Keywords: rain, surface runoff water, soil, water erosion, soil erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
7445 Comparison of Different Techniques to Estimate Surface Soil Moisture

Authors: S. Farid F. Mojtahedi, Ali Khosravi, Behnaz Naeimian, S. Adel A. Hosseini


Land subsidence is a gradual settling or sudden sinking of the land surface from changes that take place underground. There are different causes of land subsidence; most notably, ground-water overdraft and severe weather conditions. Subsidence of the land surface due to ground water overdraft is caused by an increase in the intergranular pressure in unconsolidated aquifers, which results in a loss of buoyancy of solid particles in the zone dewatered by the falling water table and accordingly compaction of the aquifer. On the other hand, exploitation of underground water may result in significant changes in degree of saturation of soil layers above the water table, increasing the effective stress in these layers, and considerable soil settlements. This study focuses on estimation of soil moisture at surface using different methods. Specifically, different methods for the estimation of moisture content at the soil surface, as an important term to solve Richard’s equation and estimate soil moisture profile are presented, and their results are discussed through comparison with field measurements obtained from Yanco1 station in south-eastern Australia. Surface soil moisture is not easy to measure at the spatial scale of a catchment. Due to the heterogeneity of soil type, land use, and topography, surface soil moisture may change considerably in space and time.

Keywords: artificial neural network, empirical method, remote sensing, surface soil moisture, unsaturated soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
7444 Soil Surface Insect Diversity of Tobacco Agricultural Ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia

Authors: Martina Faika Harianja, Zahtamal, Indah Nuraini, Septi Mutia Handayani, R. C. Hidayat Soesilohadi


Tobacco is a valuable commodity that supports economic growth in Indonesia. Soil surface insects are important components that influence productivity of tobacco. Thus, diversity of soil surface insects needs to be studied in order to acquire information about specific roles of each species in ecosystem. This research aimed to study the soil surface insect diversity of tobacco agricultural ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. Samples were collected by pitfall-sugar bait trap in August 2015. Result showed 5 orders, 8 families, and 17 genera of soil surface insects were found. The diversity category of soil surface insects in tobacco agricultural ecosystem was poor. Dominant genus was Monomorium with dominance index score 0.07588. Percentages of insects’ roles were omnivores 43%, detritivores 24%, predators 19%, and herbivores 14%.

Keywords: diversity, Indonesia, soil surface insect, tobacco

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
7443 Experimental Investigation of the Failure Behavior of a Retaining Wall Constructed with Soil Bags

Authors: Kewei Fan, Sihong Liu, Yi Pik Cheng


This paper aims to analyse the failure behaviour of the retaining wall constructed with soil bags that are formed by filling river sand into woven bags (geosynthetics). Model tests were conducted to obtain the failure mode of the wall, and shear tests on two-layers and five-layers of soil bags were designed to investigate the mechanical characteristics of the interface of soil bags. The test results show that the slip surface in the soil bags-constructed retaining wall is ladder-like due to the inter-layer insertion of soil bags, and the wall above the ladder-like surface undergoes a rigid body translation. The insertion strengthens the shear strength of two-layer staggered-stacked soil bags. Meanwhile, it affects the shape of the slip surface of the five-layer staggered-stacked soil bags. Finally, the interlayer resisting friction of soil bags is found to be related to the shape of the slip surface.

Keywords: geosynthetics, retaining wall, soil bag, failure mode, interface, shear strength

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7442 The Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS)

Authors: George N. Zaimes, Valasia Iakovoglou, Paschalis Koutalakis, Konstantinos Ioannou, Ioannis Kosmadakis, Panagiotis Tsardaklis, Theodoros Laopoulos


The advancements in technology allow the development of a new system that can continuously measure surface soil erosion. Continuous soil erosion measurements are required in order to comprehend the erosional processes and propose effective and efficient conservation measures to mitigate surface erosion. Mitigating soil erosion, especially in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, is essential in order to maintain environmental and agricultural sustainability. In this paper, we present the Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS) that measures surface soil erosion along with other factors that impact erosional process. Specifically, this system measures ground level changes (surface soil erosion), rainfall, air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture. Another important innovation is that the data will be collected by remote communication. In addition, stakeholder’s awareness is a key factor to help reduce any environmental problem. The different dissemination activities that were utilized are described. The overall outcomes were the development of an innovative system that can measure erosion very accurately. These data from the system help study the process of erosion and find the best possible methods to reduce erosion. The dissemination activities enhance the stakeholder's and public's awareness on surface soil erosion problems and will lead to the adoption of more effective soil erosion conservation practices in Greece.

Keywords: soil management, climate change, new technologies, conservation practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
7441 Soil Compaction by a Forwarder in Timber Harvesting

Authors: Juang R. Matangaran, Erianto I. Putra, Iis Diatin, Muhammad Mujahid, Qi Adlan


Industrial plantation forest is the producer of logs in Indonesia. Several companies of industrial plantation forest have been successfully planted with fast-growing species, and it entered their annual harvesting period. Heavy machines such as forwarders are used in timber harvesting to extract logs from stump to landing site. The negative impact of using such machines are loss of topsoil and soil compaction. Compacted soil is considered unfavorable for plant growth. The research objectives were to analyze the soil bulk density, rut, and cone index of the soil caused by a forwarder passes, to analyze the relation between several times of forwarder passes to the increase of soil bulk density. A Valmet forwarder was used in this research. Soil bulk density at soil surface and cone index from the soil surface to the 50 cm depth of soil were measured at the harvested area. The result showed that soil bulk density increase with the increase of the Valmet forwarder passes. Maximum soil bulk density occurred after 5 times forwarder Valmet passed. The cone index tended to increase from the surface until 50 cm depth of soil. Rut formed and high soil bulk density indicated the soil compaction occurred by the forwarder operation.

Keywords: bulk density, forwarder Valmet, plantation forest, soil compaction, timber harvesting

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7440 Contribution to the Study of the Rill Density Effects on Soil Erosion: Laboratory Experiments

Authors: L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef


Rills begin to be generated once overland flow shear capacity overcomes the soil surface resistance. This resistance depends on soil texture, the arrangement of soil particles and on chemical and physical properties. The rill density could affect soil erosion, especially when the distance between the rills (interrill) contributes to the variation of the rill characteristics, and consequently on sediment concentration. To investigate this point, agricultural sandy soil, a soil tray of 0.2x1x3m³ and a piece of hardwood rectangular in shape to build up rills were the base of this work. The results have shown that small lines have been developed between the rills and the flow acceleration increased in comparison to the flow on the flat surface (interrill). Sediment concentration increased with increasing rill number (density).

Keywords: artificial rainfall, experiments, rills, soil erosion, transport capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
7439 Ground Response Analysis at the Rukni Irrigation Project Site Located in Assam, India

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Kasturi Bhuyan


In the present paper, Ground Response Analysis at the Rukni irrigation project has been thoroughly investigated. Surface level seismic hazard is mainly used by the practical Engineers for designing the important structures. Surface level seismic hazard can be obtained accounting the soil factor. Structures on soft soil will show more ground shaking than the structure located on a hard soil. The Surface level ground motion depends on the type of soil. Density and shear wave velocity is different for different types of soil. The intensity of the soil amplification depends on the density and shear wave velocity of the soil. Rukni irrigation project is located in the North Eastern region of India, near the Dauki fault (550 Km length) which has already produced earthquakes of magnitude (Mw= 8.5) in the past. There is a probability of a similar type of earthquake occuring in the future. There are several faults also located around the project site. There are 765 recorded strong ground motion time histories available for the region. These data are used to determine the soil amplification factor by incorporation of the engineering properties of soil. With this in view, three of soil bore holes have been studied at the project site up to a depth of 30 m. It has been observed that in Soil bore hole 1, the shear wave velocity vary from 99.44 m/s to 239.28 m/s. For Soil Bore Hole No 2 and 3, shear wave velocity vary from 93.24 m/s to 241.39 m/s and 93.24m/s to 243.01 m/s. In the present work, surface level seismic hazard at the project site has been calculated based on the Probabilistic seismic hazard approach accounting the soil factor.

Keywords: Ground Response Analysis, shear wave velocity, soil amplification, surface level seismic hazard

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7438 The Effect of Filter Cake Powder on Soil Stability Enhancement in Active Sand Dunes, In the Long and Short Term

Authors: Irit Rutman Halili, Tehila Zvulun, Natali Elgabsi, Revaya Cohen, Shlomo Sarig


Active sand dunes (ASD) may cause significant damage to field crops and livelihood, and therefore, it is necessary to find a treatment that would enhance ADS soil stability. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) contain microorganisms on the soil surface. Metabolic polysaccharides secreted by biocrust cyanobacteria glue the soil particles into aggregates, thereby stabilizing the soil surface. Filter cake powder (FCP) is a waste by-product in the final stages of the production of sugar from sugarcane, and its disposal causes significant environmental pollution. FCP contains high concentrations of polysaccharides and has recently been shown to be soil stability enhancing agent in ASD. It has been reported that adding FCP to the ASD soil surface by dispersal significantly increases the level of penetration resistance of soil biocrust (PRSB) nine weeks after a single treatment. However, it was not known whether a similar effect could be obtained by administering the FCP in liquid form by means of spraying. It has now been found that spraying a water solution of FCP onto the ASD soil surface significantly increased the level of penetration resistance of soil biocrust (PRSB) three weeks after a single treatment. These results suggest that FCP spraying can be used as a short-term soil stability-enhancing agent for ASD, while administration by dispersal might be more efficient over the long term. Finally, an additional benefit of using FCP as a soil stabilizer, either by dispersal or by spraying, is the reduction in environmental pollution that would otherwise result from the disposal of FCP solid waste.

Keywords: active sand dunes, filter cake powder, biological soil crusts, penetration resistance of soil biocrust

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7437 Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Soil Surrounding Buried Pipeline Using Multi-Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Won Mog Choi, Seong Kyeong Hong, Seok Young Jeong


The stress on the buried pipeline under pavement is significantly affected by vehicle loads and elastic modulus of the soil surrounding the pipeline. The correct elastic modulus of soil has to be applied to the finite element model to investigate the effect of the vehicle loads on the buried pipeline using finite element analysis. The purpose of this study is to establish the approach to calculating the correct elastic modulus of soil using the optimization process. The optimal elastic modulus of soil, which minimizes the difference between the strain measured from vehicle driving test at the velocity of 35km/h and the strain calculated from finite element analyses, was calculated through the optimization process using multi-response surface methodology. Three elastic moduli of soil (road layer, original soil, dense sand) surrounding the pipeline were defined as the variables for the optimization. Further analyses with the optimal elastic modulus at the velocities of 4.27km/h, 15.47km/h, 24.18km/h were performed and compared to the test results to verify the applicability of multi-response surface methodology. The results indicated that the strain of the buried pipeline was mostly affected by the elastic modulus of original soil, followed by the dense sand and the load layer, as well as the results of further analyses with optimal elastic modulus of soil show good agreement with the test.

Keywords: pipeline, optimization, elastic modulus of soil, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
7436 On the Fixed Rainfall Intensity: Effects on Overland Flow Resistance, Shear Velocity and on Soil Erosion

Authors: L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef


Raindrops and overland flow both are erosive parameters but they do not act by the same way. The overland flow alone tends to shear the soil horizontally and concentrates into rills. In the presence of rain, the soil particles are removed from the soil surface in the form of a uniform sheet layer. In addition to this, raindrops falling on the flow roughen the water and soil surface depending on the flow depth, and retard the velocity, therefore influence shear velocity and Manning’s factor. To investigate this part, agricultural sandy soil, rainfall simulator and a laboratory soil tray of 0.2x1x3 m were the base of this work. Five overland flow depths of 0; 3.28; 4.28; 5.16; 5.60; 5.80 mm were generated under a rainfall intensity of 217.2 mm/h. Sediment concentration control is based on the proportionality of depth/microtopography. The soil loose is directly related to the presence of rain splash on thin sheet flow. The effect of shear velocity on sediment concentration is limited by the value of 5.28 cm/s. In addition to this, the rain splash reduces the soil roughness by breaking the soil crests. The rainfall intensity is the major factor influencing depth and soil erosion. In the presence of rainfall, the shear velocity of the flow is due to two simultaneous effects. The first, which is horizontal, comes from the flow and the second, vertical, is due to the raindrops.

Keywords: flow resistance, laboratory experiments, rainfall simulator, sediment concentration, shear velocity, soil erosion

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7435 The Effect of Traffic on Harmful Metals and Metalloids in the Street Dust and Surface Soil from Urban Areas of Tehran, Iran: Levels, Distribution and Chemical Partitioning Based on Single and Sequential Extraction Procedures

Authors: Hossein Arfaeinia, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari, Sina Dobaradaran, Sadegh Niazi, Mojtaba Ehsanifar, Amir Zahedi


Street dust and surface soil samples were collected from very heavy, heavy, medium and low traffic areas and natural site in Tehran, Iran. These samples were analyzed for some physical–chemical features, total and chemical speciation of selected metals and metalloids (Zn, Al, Sr, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni, and V) to study the effect of traffic on their mobility and accumulation in the environment. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), carbonates and organic carbon (OC) values were similar in soil and dust samples from similar traffic areas. The traffic increases EC contents in dust/soil matrixes but has no effect on concentrations of metals and metalloids in soil samples. Rises in metal and metalloids levels with traffic were found in dust samples. Moreover, the traffic increases the percentage of acid soluble fraction and Fe and Mn oxides associated fractions of Pb and Zn. The mobilization of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr in dust samples was easier than in soil. The speciation of metals and metalloids except Cd is mainly affected by physicochemical features in soil, although total metals and metalloids affected the speciation in dust samples (except chromium and nickel).

Keywords: street dust, surface soil, traffic, metals, metalloids, chemical speciation

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
7434 The Influence of Different Technologies on the Infiltration Properties and Soil Surface Crusting Processing in the North Bohemia Region

Authors: Miroslav Dumbrovsky, Lucie Larisova


The infiltration characteristic of the soil surface is one of the major factors that determines the potential soil degradation risk. The physical, chemical and biological characteristic of soil is changed by the processing of soil. The infiltration soil ability has an important role in soil and water conservation. The subject of the contribution is the evaluation of the influence of the conventional tillage and reduced tillage technology on soil surface crusting processing and infiltration properties of the soil in the North Bohemia region. Field experimental work at the area was carried out in the years 2013-2016 on Cambisol district medium-heavy clayey soil. The research was conducted on sloping erosion-endangered blocks of compacted arable land. The areas were chosen each year in the way that one of the experimental areas was handled by conventional tillage technologies and the other by reduced tillage technologies. Intact soil samples were taken into Kopecký´s cylinders in the three landscape positions, at a depth of 10 cm (representing topsoil) and 30 cm (representing subsoil). The cumulative infiltration was measured using a mini-disc infiltrometer near the consumption points. The Zhang method (1997), which provides an estimate of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(h), was used for the evaluation of the infiltration tests of the mini-disc infiltrometer. The soil profile processed by conventional tillage showed a higher degree of compaction and soil crusting processing. The bulk density was between 1.10–1.67⁻³, compared to the land processed by the reduced tillage technology, where the values were between 0.80–1.29⁻³. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity values were about one-third higher within the reduced tillage technology soil processing.

Keywords: soil crusting processing, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, cumulative infiltration, bulk density, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
7433 Effect of Humic Acids on Agricultural Soil Structure and Stability and Its Implication on Soil Quality

Authors: Omkar Gaonkar, Indumathi Nambi, Suresh G. Kumar


The functional and morphological aspects of soil structure determine the soil quality. The dispersion of colloidal soil particles, especially the clay fraction and rupture of soil aggregates, both of which play an important role in soil structure development, lead to degradation of soil quality. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of the behaviour of soil colloids on the agricultural soil structure and quality. The effect of commercial humic acid and soil natural organic matter on the electrical and structural properties of the soil colloids was also studied. Agricultural soil, belonging to the sandy loam texture class from northern part of India was considered in this study. In order to understand the changes in the soil quality in the presence and absence of humic acids, the soil fabric and structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Electrical properties of natural soil colloids in aqueous suspensions were assessed by zeta potential measurements at varying pH values with and without the presence of humic acids. The influence of natural organic matter was analyzed by oxidizing the natural soil organic matter with hydrogen peroxide. The zeta potential of the soil colloids was found to be negative in the pH range studied. The results indicated that hydrogen peroxide treatment leads to deflocculation of colloidal soil particles. In addition, the humic acids undergoes effective adsorption onto the soil surface imparting more negative zeta potential to the colloidal soil particles. The soil hydrophilicity decreased in the presence of humic acids which was confirmed by surface free energy determination. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of humic acids altered the soil fabric and structure, thereby affecting the soil quality. This study assumes significance in understanding soil aggregation and the interactions at soil solid-liquid interface.

Keywords: humic acids, natural organic matter, zeta potential, soil quality

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7432 Sunflower Irrigation with Two Different Types of Soil Moisture Sensors

Authors: C. D. Papanikolaou, V. A. Giouvanis, E. A. Karatasiou, D. S. Dimakas, M. A. Sakellariou-Makrantonaki


Irrigation is one of the most important cultivation practices for each crop, especially in areas where rainfall is enough to cover the crop water needs. In such areas, the farmers must irrigate in order to achieve high economical results. The precise irrigation scheduling contributes to irrigation water saving and thus a valuable natural resource is protected. Under this point of view, in the experimental field of the Laboratory of Agricultural Hydraulics of the University of Thessaly, a research was conducted during the growing season of 2012 in order to evaluate the growth, seed and oil production of sunflower as well as the water saving, by applying different methods of irrigation scheduling. Three treatments in four replications were organized. These were: a) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on the Penman-Monteith (PM) method (control); b) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil moisture sensor (SMS); and c) surface drip irrigation, where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil potential sensor (WM).

Keywords: irrigation, energy production, soil moisture sensor, sunflower, water saving

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
7431 Bearing Capacity of Sulphuric Acid Content Soil

Authors: R. N. Khare, J. P. Sahu, Rajesh Kumar Tamrakar


Tests were conducted to determine the property of soil with variation of H2SO4 content for soils under different stage. The soils had varying amounts of plasticity’s ranging from low to high plasticity. The unsaturated soil behavior was investigated for different conditions, covering a range of compactive efforts and water contents. The soil characteristic curves were more sensitive to changes in compaction effort than changes in compaction water content. In this research paper two types of water (Ground water Ph =7.9, Turbidity= 13 ppm; Cl =2.1mg/l and surface water Ph =8.65; Turbidity=18.5; Cl=1mg/l) were selected of Bhilai Nagar, State-Chhattisgarh, India which is mixed with a certain type of soil. Results shows that by the presence of ground water day by day the particles are becoming coarser in 7 days thereafter its size reduces; on the other hand by the presence of surface water the courser particles are disintegrating, finer particles are accumulating and also the dry density is reduces. Plasticity soils retained the smallest water content and the highest plasticity soils retained the highest water content at a specified suction. In addition, soil characteristic for soils to be compacted in the laboratory and in the field are still under process for analyzing the bearing capacity. The bearing capacity was reduced 2 to 3 times in the presence of H2SO4.

Keywords: soil compaction, H2SO4, soil water, water conditions

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7430 Gas Monitoring and Soil Control at the Natural Gas Storage Site (Minerbio, Italy)

Authors: Ana Maria Carmen Ilie, Carmela Vaccaro


Gas migration through wellbore failure, in particular from abandoned wells, is repeatedly identified as the highest risk mechanism. The vadose zone was subject to monitoring system close to the wellbore in Minerbio, methane storage site. The new technology has been well-developed and used with the purpose to provide reliable estimates of leakage parameters. Of these techniques, soil flux sampling at the soil surface, via the accumulation chamber method and soil flux sampling at the depths of 100cm below the ground surface, have been an important technique for characterizing the gas concentrations at the gas storage site. We present results of soil Radon Bq/m3, CO2%, CH4% and O2% concentration gases. Measurements have been taken for radon concentrations with an Durridge RAD7 Company, Inc., USA, instrument. We used for air and soil quality an Biogas ETG instrument monitoring system, with NDIR CO2, CH4 gas sensor and electrochemical O2 gas sensor. The measurements started in September-October 2015, where no outliers have been identified. The measurements have continued in March-April-July-August-September 2016, almost at the same time in the same place around the gas storage site, values measured 15 minutes for each sampling, to determine their concentration, their distribution and to understand the relationship among gases and atmospheric conditions. At a depth of 100 cm, the maximum soil radon gas concentrations were found to be 1770 ±±582 Bq/m3, the soil consists of 64.31% sand, 20.75% silt and 14.94% clay, and with 0.526 ppm of Uranium. The maximum concentration (September 2016), in soil at 100cm below the ground surface, with 83% sand, 8.96% silt and 7.89% clay, was about 0.06% CH4, and in atmosphere 0.06% CH4 at 40°C (T). In the other months the values have been on the range of 0.01% to 0.03% CH4. Since we did not have outliers in the gas storage site, soil-gas samples for isotopic analysis have not been done.

Keywords: leakage gas monitoring, lithology, soil gas, methane

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7429 Iron Influx, Its Root-Shoot Relations and Utilization Efficiency in Wheat

Authors: Abdul Malik Dawlatzai, Shafiqullah Rahmani


Plant cultivars of the same species differ in their Fe efficiency. This paper studied the Fe influx and root-shoot relations of Fe at different growth stages in wheat. The four wheat cultivars (HD 2967, PDW 233, PBW 550 and PDW 291) were grown in pots in Badam Bagh agricultural researching farm, Kabul under two Fe treatments: (i) 0 mg Fe kg⁻¹ soil (soil with 2.7 mg kg⁻¹ of DTPA-extractable Fe) and (ii) 50 mg Fe kg⁻¹ soil. Root length (RL), shoot dry matter (SDM), Fe uptake, and soil parameters were measured at tillering and anthesis. Application of Fe significantly increased RL, root surface area, SDM, and Fe uptake in all wheat cultivars. Under Fe deficiency, wheat cv. HD 2967 produced 90% of its maximum RL and 75% of its maximum SDM. However, PDW 233 produced only 69% and 60%, respectively. Wheat cultivars HD 2967, and PDW 233 exhibited the highest and lowest value of root surface area and Fe uptake, respectively. The concentration difference in soil solution Fe between bulk soil and root surface (ΔCL) was maximum in wheat cultivar HD 2967, followed by PBW 550, PDW 291, and PDW 233. More depletion at the root surface causes steeper concentration gradients, which result in a high influx and transport of Fe towards root. Fe influx in all the wheat cultivars increased with the Fe application, but the increase was maximum, i.e., 4 times in HD 2967 and minimum, i.e., 2.8 times in PDW 233. It can be concluded that wheat cultivars HD 2967 and PBW 550 efficiently utilized Fe as compared to other cultivars. Additionally, iron efficiency of wheat cultivars depends upon uptake of each root segment, i.e., the influx, which in turn depends on depletion of Fe in the rhizosphere during vegetative phase and higher utilization efficiency of acquired Fe during reproductive phase that governs the ultimate grain yield.

Keywords: Fe efficiency, Fe influx, Fe uptake, Rhizosphere

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7428 Estimation of Soil Moisture at High Resolution through Integration of Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing and Applications in Drought Analyses

Authors: Donglian Sun, Yu Li, Paul Houser, Xiwu Zhan


California experienced severe drought conditions in the past years. In this study, the drought conditions in California are analyzed using soil moisture anomalies derived from integrated optical and microwave satellite observations along with auxiliary land surface data. Based on the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) classifications, three typical drought conditions were selected for the analysis: extreme drought conditions in 2007 and 2013, severe drought conditions in 2004 and 2009, and normal conditions in 2005 and 2006. Drought is defined as negative soil moisture anomaly. To estimate soil moisture at high spatial resolutions, three approaches are explored in this study: the universal triangle model that estimates soil moisture from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST); the basic model that estimates soil moisture under different conditions with auxiliary data like precipitation, soil texture, topography, and surface types; and the refined model that uses accumulated precipitation and its lagging effects. It is found that the basic model shows better agreements with the USDM classifications than the universal triangle model, while the refined model using precipitation accumulated from the previous summer to current time demonstrated the closest agreements with the USDM patterns.

Keywords: soil moisture, high resolution, regional drought, analysis and monitoring

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7427 The Effect of the Rain Intensity on the Hydrodynamic Behavior of the Low-Floor ChéLiffe

Authors: Ahmed Abbas


Land degradation in the Lower Cheliff region leads to loss of their fertility, physical and chemical properties by secondary salinization and film forming surface or surface crust. The main factor related to runoff and soil erosion is their susceptibility to crusting caused by the impact of raindrops, which causes the reduction of the filterability of the soil. The present study aims to investigate the hydrodynamic behavior of five types of soil taken from the plain of low Cheliff under simulated rainfall by using two intensities, one moderate, and others correspond to heavy rains at low kinetic energies. Experimental results demonstrate the influence of chemical and mechanical physical properties of soils on their hydrodynamic behavior and the influence of heavy rain on the modality of the reduction in the filterability and the amount of transported sediment.

Keywords: erosion, hydrodynamic behavior, rain simulation, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
7426 Investigation of Soil Slopes Stability

Authors: Nima Farshidfar, Navid Daryasafar


In this paper, the seismic stability of reinforced soil slopes is studied using pseudo-dynamic analysis. Equilibrium equations that are applicable to the every kind of failure surface are written using Horizontal Slices Method. In written equations, the balance of the vertical and horizontal forces and moment equilibrium is fully satisfied. Failure surface is assumed to be log-spiral, and non-linear equilibrium equations obtained for the system are solved using Newton-Raphson Method. Earthquake effects are applied as horizontal and vertical pseudo-static coefficients to the problem. To solve this problem, a code was developed in MATLAB, and the critical failure surface is calculated using genetic algorithm. At the end, comparing the results obtained in this paper, effects of various parameters and the effect of using pseudo - dynamic analysis in seismic forces modeling is presented.

Keywords: soil slopes, pseudo-dynamic, genetic algorithm, optimization, limit equilibrium method, log-spiral failure surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
7425 Potential of Aerodynamic Feature on Monitoring Multilayer Rough Surfaces

Authors: Ibtissem Hosni, Lilia Bennaceur Farah, Saber Mohamed Naceur


In order to assess the water availability in the soil, it is crucial to have information about soil distributed moisture content; this parameter helps to understand the effect of humidity on the exchange between soil, plant cover and atmosphere in addition to fully understanding the surface processes and the hydrological cycle. On the other hand, aerodynamic roughness length is a surface parameter that scales the vertical profile of the horizontal component of the wind speed and characterizes the surface ability to absorb the momentum of the airflow. In numerous applications of the surface hydrology and meteorology, aerodynamic roughness length is an important parameter for estimating momentum, heat and mass exchange between the soil surface and atmosphere. It is important on this side, to consider the atmosphere factors impact in general, and the natural erosion in particular, in the process of soil evolution and its characterization and prediction of its physical parameters. The study of the induced movements by the wind over soil vegetated surface, either spaced plants or plant cover, is motivated by significant research efforts in agronomy and biology. The known major problem in this side concerns crop damage by wind, which presents a booming field of research. Obviously, most models of soil surface require information about the aerodynamic roughness length and its temporal and spatial variability. We have used a bi-dimensional multi-scale (2D MLS) roughness description where the surface is considered as a superposition of a finite number of one-dimensional Gaussian processes each one having a spatial scale using the wavelet transform and the Mallat algorithm to describe natural surface roughness. We have introduced multi-layer aspect of the humidity of the soil surface, to take into account a volume component in the problem of backscattering radar signal. As humidity increases, the dielectric constant of the soil-water mixture increases and this change is detected by microwave sensors. Nevertheless, many existing models in the field of radar imagery, cannot be applied directly on areas covered with vegetation due to the vegetation backscattering. Thus, the radar response corresponds to the combined signature of the vegetation layer and the layer of soil surface. Therefore, the key issue of the numerical estimation of soil moisture is to separate the two contributions and calculate both scattering behaviors of the two layers by defining the scattering of the vegetation and the soil blow. This paper presents a synergistic methodology, and it is for estimating roughness and soil moisture from C-band radar measurements. The methodology adequately represents a microwave/optical model which has been used to calculate the scattering behavior of the aerodynamic vegetation-covered area by defining the scattering of the vegetation and the soil below.

Keywords: aerodynamic, bi-dimensional, vegetation, synergistic

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7424 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu


A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: A-3 soil, clay minerals, pozzolanic action, stabilization

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7423 The Influence of Conservation Measures, Limiting Soil Degradation, on the Quality of Surface Water Resources

Authors: V. Sobotková, B. Šarapatka, M. Dumbrovský, J. Uhrová, M. Bednář


The paper deals with the influence of implemented conservation measures on the quality of surface water resources. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity to improve the quality of the environment and sustainability of crop production by means of better soil and water conservation. The most important degradation factor in our study area in the Hubenov drinking water reservoir catchment basin was water erosion together with loss of organic matter. Hubenov Reservoir water resources were monitored for twenty years (1990–2010) to collect water quality data for nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3-), total P, and undissolved substances. Results obtained from measurements taken before and after land consolidation indicated a decrease in the linear trend of N-NO3- and total P concentrations, this was achieved through implementation of conservation measures limiting soil degradation in the Hubenov reservoir catchment area.

Keywords: complex land consolidation, degradation, land use, soil and water conservation, surface water resources

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7422 Using GIS and Map Data for the Analysis of the Relationship between Soil and Groundwater Quality at Saline Soil Area of Kham Sakaesaeng District, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

Authors: W. Thongwat, B. Terakulsatit


The study area is Kham Sakaesaeng District in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, the south section of Northeastern Thailand, located in the Lower Khorat-Ubol Basin. This region is the one of saline soil area, located in a dry plateau and regularly experience standing with periods of floods and alternating with periods of drought. Especially, the drought in the summer season causes the major saline soil and saline water problems of this region. The general cause of dry land salting resulted from salting on irrigated land, and an excess of water leading to the rising water table in the aquifer. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of physical and chemical properties between the soil and groundwater. The soil and groundwater samples were collected in both rainy and summer seasons. The content of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride and salinity were investigated. The experimental result of soil and groundwater samples show the slightly pH less than 7, EC (186 to 8,156 us/cm and 960 to 10,712 us/cm), TDS (93 to 3,940 ppm and 480 to 5,356 ppm), chloride content (45.58 to 4,177,015 mg/l and 227.90 to 9,216,736 mg/l), and salinity (0.07 to 4.82 ppt and 0.24 to 14.46 ppt) in the rainy and summer seasons, respectively. The distribution of chloride content and salinity content were interpolated and displayed as a map by using ArcMap 10.3 program, according to the season. The result of saline soil and brined groundwater in the study area were related to the low-lying topography, drought area, and salt-source exposure. Especially, the Rock Salt Member of Maha Sarakham Formation was exposed or lies near the ground surface in this study area. During the rainy season, salt was eroded or weathered from the salt-source rock formation and transported by surface flow or leached into the groundwater. In the dry season, the ground surface is dry enough resulting salt precipitates from the brined surface water or rises from the brined groundwater influencing the increasing content of chloride and salinity in the ground surface and groundwater.

Keywords: environmental geology, soil salinity, geochemistry, groundwater hydrology

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7421 Effect of the Soil-Foundation Interface Condition in the Determination of the Resistance Domain of Rigid Shallow Foundations

Authors: Nivine Abbas, Sergio Lagomarsino, Serena Cattari


The resistance domain of a generally loaded rigid shallow foundation is normally represented as an interaction diagram limited by a failure surface in the three dimensional (3D) load space (N, V, M), where N is the vertical centric load component, V is the horizontal load component and M is the bending moment component. Usually, this resistance domain is constructed neglecting the foundation sliding mechanism that take place at the level of soil-foundation interface once the applied horizontal load exceeds the interface frictional resistance of the foundation. This issue is translated in the literature by the fact that the failure limit in the (2D) load space (N, V) is constructed as a parabola having an initial slope, at the center of the coordinate system, that depends, in some works, only of the soil friction angle, and in other works, has an empirical value. However, considering a given geometry of the foundation lying on a given soil type, the initial slope of the failure limit must change, for instance, when varying the roughness of the foundation surface at its interface with the soil. The present study discusses the effect of the soil-foundation interface condition on the construction of the resistance domain, and proposes a correction to be applied to the failure limit in order to overcome this effect.

Keywords: soil-foundation interface, sliding mechanism, soil shearing, resistance domain, rigid shallow foundation

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7420 Preliminary Assessment of Arsenic Levels in Farmland Soils of Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State Nigeria

Authors: W. M. Buba, J. G. Nangbes, J. P. Butven


This research was undertaken to evolve community based awareness on the arsenic contamination from agricultural practices in Communities of Bokkos local government area. Contaminated farmland soil samples were collected from the surface for tailings and at various depths (50, 100, 150 cm intervals) in eight holes drilled in each farm at different locations using hand auger. A total of sixty- four (64) soil samples were collected from eight (8) different communities. A standard titrimetric method was applied for the determination of arsenic. It was found that the average concentration of arsenic in the surface soil (0-150cm) for the entire study areas was 0.0525mg/kg with range 0.0425 -0.0601mg/kg which is well above the recommended the soil to plant concentration guideline range of 2.3 – 4.3 x10-4 mg/kg value. This indicates that the arsenic concentration in the study areas does pose health risk for agricultural practices via potential bioaccumulation in plant food crops. However, some risks measures could follow the arsenic occurrence through direct exposure such as those resulting from the inhalation, oral or dermal intake of arsenic during agricultural practices and in the course of stay on the contaminated soil.

Keywords: agrochemicals, arsenic, bokkos, contamination, soil

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7419 Influence of Nano Copper Slag in Strength Behavior of Lime Stabilized Soil

Authors: V. K. Stalin, M. Kirithika, K. Shanmugam, K. Tharini


Nanotechnology has been widely used in many applications such as medical, electronics, robotics and also in geotechnical engineering area through stabilization of bore holes, grouting etc. In this paper, an attempt is made for understanding the influence of nano copper slag (1%, 2% & 3%) on the index, compaction and UCC strength properties of natural soil (CH type) with and without lime stabilization for immediate and 7 days curing period. Results indicated that upto 1% of Nano copper slag, there is an increment in UC strength of virgin soil and lime stabilised soil. Beyond 1% nano copper slag, there is a steep reduction in UC strength and increase of plasticity both in lime stabilised soil and virgin soil. The effect of lime is found to show more influence on large surface area of nano copper slag in natural soil. For both immediate and curing effect, with 1% of Nano copper slag, the maximum unconfined compressive strength was 38% and 106% higher than that of the virgin soil strength.

Keywords: lime, nano copper slag, SEM, XRD, stabilisation

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7418 Two-Dimensional Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Including Base Sliding

Authors: Djamel Ouzandja, Boualem Tiliouine


The safety evaluation of the concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic excitations is really very complex as the earthquake response of the concrete gravity dam depends upon its contraction joints with foundation soil. This paper presents the seismic response of concrete gravity dams considering friction contact and welded contact. Friction contact is provided using contact elements. Two-dimensional (2D) finite element model of Oued Fodda concrete gravity dam, located in Chlef at the west of Algeria, is used for this purpose. Linear and nonlinear analyses considering dam-foundation soil interaction are performed using ANSYS software. The reservoir water is modeled as added mass using the Westergaard approach. The Drucker-Prager model is preferred for dam and foundation rock in nonlinear analyses. The surface-to-surface contact elements based on the Coulomb's friction law are used to describe the friction. These contact elements use a target surface and a contact surface to form a contact pair. According to this study, the seismic analysis of concrete gravity dams including base sliding. When the friction contact is considered in joints, the base sliding displacement occurs along the dam-foundation soil contact interface. Besides, the base sliding may generally decrease the principal stresses in the dam.

Keywords: concrete gravity dam, dynamic soil-structure interaction, friction contact, sliding

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7417 Experimental Investigation on the Efficiency of Expanded Polystyrene Geofoam Post and Beam System in Protecting Lifelines

Authors: Masood Abdollahi, Seyed Naser Moghaddas Tafreshi


Expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam is a cellular geosynthetic material that can be used to protect lifelines (e.g. pipelines, electricity cables, etc.) below ground. Post and beam system is the most recent configuration of EPS blocks which can be implemented for this purpose. It provides a void space atop lifelines which allows settlement of the loading surface with imposing no pressure on the lifelines system. This paper investigates the efficiency of the configuration of post-beam system subjected to static loading. To evaluate the soil surface settlement, beam deformation and transferred pressure over the beam, laboratory tests using two different densities for EPS blocks are conducted. The effect of geogrid-reinforcing the cover soil on system response is also investigated. The experimental results show favorable performance of EPS post and beam configuration in protecting underground lifelines. 

Keywords: beam deformation, EPS block, laboratory test, post-Beam system, soil surface settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 140