Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Heshalini Rajagopal

13 Subjective versus Objective Assessment for Magnetic Resonance (MR) Images

Authors: Heshalini Rajagopal, Li Sze Chow, Raveendran Paramesran


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most important medical imaging modality. Subjective assessment of the image quality is regarded as the gold standard to evaluate MR images. In this study, a database of 210 MR images which contains ten reference images and 200 distorted images is presented. The reference images were distorted with four types of distortions: Rician Noise, Gaussian White Noise, Gaussian Blur and DCT compression. The 210 images were assessed by ten subjects. The subjective scores were presented in Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). The DMOS values were compared with four FR-IQA metrics. We have used Pearson Linear Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) to validate the DMOS values. The high correlation values of PLCC and SROCC shows that the DMOS values are close to the objective FR-IQA metrics.

Keywords: medical resonance (MR) images, difference mean opinion score (DMOS), full reference image quality assessment (FR-IQA)

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12 Generic Hybrid Models for Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Guided Wave Problems

Authors: Manoj Reghu, Prabhu Rajagopal, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam


A thorough understanding of guided ultrasonic wave behavior in structures is essential for the application of existing Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technologies, as well as for the development of new methods. However, the analysis of guided wave phenomena is challenging because of their complex dispersive and multimodal nature. Although numerical solution procedures have proven to be very useful in this regard, the increasing complexity of features and defects to be considered, as well as the desire to improve the accuracy of inspection often imposes a large computational cost. Hybrid models that combine numerical solutions for wave scattering with faster alternative methods for wave propagation have long been considered as a solution to this problem. However usually such models require modification of the base code of the solution procedure. Here we aim to develop Generic Hybrid models that can be directly applied to any two different solution procedures. With this goal in mind, a Numerical Hybrid model and an Analytical-Numerical Hybrid model has been developed. The concept and implementation of these Hybrid models are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: guided ultrasonic waves, Finite Element Method (FEM), Hybrid model

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11 A Phase Field Approach to Model Crack Interface Interaction in Ceramic Matrix Composites

Authors: Dhaladhuli Pranavi, Amirtham Rajagopal


There are various failure modes in ceramic matrix composites; notable ones are fiber breakage, matrix cracking and fiber matrix debonding. Crack nucleation and propagation in microstructure of such composites requires an understanding of interaction of crack with the multiple inclusion heterogeneous system and interfaces. In order to assess structural integrity, the material parameters especially of the interface that governs the crack growth should be determined. In the present work, a nonlocal phase field approach is proposed to model the crack interface interaction in such composites. Nonlocal approaches help in understanding the complex mechanisms of delamination growth and mitigation and operates at a material length scale. The performance of the proposed formulation is illustrated through representative numerical examples. The model proposed is implemented in the framework of the finite element method. Several parametric studies on interface crack interaction are conducted. The proposed model is easy and simple to implement and works very well in modeling fracture in composite systems.

Keywords: composite, interface, nonlocal, phase field

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10 Cytochrome B Marker Reveals Three Distinct Genetic Lineages of the Oriental Latrine Fly Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia

Authors: Rajagopal Kavitha, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Chee Dhang Chen, Mohd Yusof Farida Zuraina, Mohd Salleh Ahmad Firdaus, Navaratnam Shanti, Abdul Haiyee Zaibunnisa


This study investigated the hidden genetic lineages in the oriental latrine fly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) across four states (i.e., Johore, Pahang, Perak and Selangor) and a federal territory (i.e., Kuala Lumpur) in Malaysia using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) genetic marker. The Cyt b phylogenetic tree and haplotype network revealed three distinct genetic lineages of Ch. megacephala. Lineage A, the basal clade was restricted to flies that originated from Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, while Lineages B and C, comprised of flies from all studied populations. An overlap of the three genetically divergent groups of Ch. megacephala was observed. However, the flies from both Kuala Lumpur and Selangor populations consisted of three different lineages, indicating that they are genetically diverse compared to those from Pahang, Perak and Johore.

Keywords: forensic entomology, calliphoridae, mitochondrial DNA, cryptic lineage

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9 Indian Road Traffic Flow Analysis Using Blob Tracking from Video Sequences

Authors: Balaji Ganesh Rajagopal, Subramanian Appavu alias Balamurugan, Ayyalraj Midhun Kumar, Krishnan Nallaperumal


Intelligent Transportation System is an Emerging area to solve multiple transportation problems. Several forms of inputs are needed in order to solve ITS problems. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) is a core and important ITS area of this modern era. This involves travel time forecasting, efficient road map analysis and cost based path selection, Detection of the vehicle in the dynamic conditions and Traffic congestion state forecasting. This Article designs and provides an algorithm for traffic data generation which can be used for the above said ATIS application. By inputting the real world traffic situation in the form of video sequences, the algorithm determines the Traffic density in terms of congestion, number of vehicles in a given path which can be fed for various ATIS applications. The Algorithm deduces the key frame from the video sequences and follows the Blob detection, Identification and Tracking using connected components algorithm to determine the correlation between the vehicles moving in the real road scene.

Keywords: traffic transportation, traffic density estimation, blob identification and tracking, relative velocity of vehicles, correlation between vehicles

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8 Stability Optimization of NABH₄ via PH and H₂O:NABH₄ Ratios for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

Authors: Parth Mehta, Vedasri Bai Khavala, Prabhu Rajagopal, Tiju Thomas


There is an increasing need for alternative clean fuels, and hydrogen (H₂) has long been considered a promising solution with a high calorific value (142MJ/kg). However, the storage of H₂ and expensive processes for its generation have hindered its usage. Sodium borohydride (NaBH₄) can potentially be used as an economically viable means of H₂ storage. Thus far, there have been attempts to optimize the life of NaBH₄ (half-life) in aqueous media by stabilizing it with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for various pH values. Other reports have shown that H₂ yield and reaction kinetics remained constant for all ratios of H₂O to NaBH₄ > 30:1, without any acidic catalysts. Here we highlight the importance of pH and H₂O: NaBH₄ ratio (80:1, 40:1, 20:1 and 10:1 by weight), for NaBH₄ stabilization (half-life reaction time at room temperature) and corrosion minimization of H₂ reactor components. It is interesting to observe that at any particular pH>10 (e.g., pH = 10, 11 and 12), the H₂O: NaBH₄ ratio does not have the expected linear dependence with stability. On the contrary, high stability was observed at the ratio of 10:1 H₂O: NaBH₄ across all pH>10. When the H₂O: NaBH₄ ratio is increased from 10:1 to 20:1 and beyond (till 80:1), constant stability (% degradation) is observed with respect to time. For practical usage (consumption within 6 hours of making NaBH₄ solution), 15% degradation at pH 11 and NaBH₄: H₂O ratio of 10:1 is recommended. Increasing this ratio demands higher NaOH concentration at the same pH, thus requiring a higher concentration or volume of acid (e.g., HCl) for H₂ generation. The reactions are done with tap water to render the results useful from an industrial standpoint. The observed stability regimes are rationalized based on complexes associated with NaBH₄ when solvated in water, which depend sensitively on both pH and NaBH₄: H₂O ratio.

Keywords: hydrogen, sodium borohydride, stability optimization, H₂O:NaBH₄ ratio

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7 Behavioral and Electroantennographic Responses of the Tea Shot Hole Borer, Euwallacea fornicatus, Eichhoff (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) to Volatiles Compounds of Montanoa bipinnatifida (Compositae: Asteraceae) and Development of a Kairomone Trap

Authors: Sachin Paul James, Selvasundaram Rajagopal, Muraleedharan Nair, Babu Azariah


The shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (= Xyleborus fornicatus) (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) is one of the major pests of tea in southern India and Sri Lanka. The partially dried cut stem of a jungle plant, Montanoa bipinnatifida (C.Koch) (Compositae: Asteraceae) reported to attract shot hole borer beetles in the field. Collection, isolation, identification and quantification of the emitted volatiles from the partially dried cut stems of M. bipinnatifida using dynamic head space and GC-MS revealed the presence of seven compounds viz. α- pinene, β- phellandrene, β - pinene, D- limonene, trans-caryophyllene, iso- caryophyllene and germacrene– D. Behavioural bioassays using electroantennogram (EAG) and wind tunnel proved that, among these identified compounds only α - pinene, trans-caryophyllene, β – phellandrene and germacrene-D evoked significant behavioral response and maximum response was obtained to a specific blend of these four compounds @ 10:1:0.1:3. Field trapping experiments of this blend conducted in the SHB infested field using multiple funnel traps further proved the efficiency of the blend with a mean trap catch of 176.7 ± 13.1 beetles. Mass trapping studies in the field helped to develop a kairomone trap for the management of SHB in the tea fields of southern India.

Keywords: electroantennogram, kairomone trap, Montanoa bipinnatifida, tea shot hole borer

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6 Women's Menstrual Experience in India: A Psycho-Social Approach

Authors: Bhavna Rajagopal, Mrinmoyi Kulkarni


Today women experience more menstrual cycles than their ancestors did a hundred years ago, owing to early puberty, fewer pregnancies and dietary changes. Much of the research in menstruation is located in the medical domain with a focus on physical symptoms. The research in psychology is largely concerned with premenstrual syndrome (PMS), whereas the focus in sociology is on social and cultural practices relating to menstruation. Research that simultaneously studies the physical, psychological, social and cultural aspects is lacking. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to identify socio-cultural, psychological and physical factors that interact to influence a woman’s experience of menstruation in the urban setting. The study included seven unmarried women in the age group of 24-30 and data was obtained through a focus group discussion. The transcript of the focus group discussion was thematically analysed. Two major themes relating to the self and social experience of menstruation emerged. Themes relating to the self included menarcheal experiences, self-perception, mood and management of menstrual hygiene and symptoms while themes relating to social experience included the construction of menstruation by family and peers, and cultural factors. Attitudes towards the menstrual cycle appeared to be primarily influenced by severity of symptoms and the resulting disruption to daily life. Outcomes of this study have indicated that future research needs to study menstruation and its impact on women’s wellbeing by adopting a socio-ecological approach and by collecting data using the whole cycle approach across a woman’s reproductive years.

Keywords: India, menstrual cycle, psychosocial approach, wellbeing

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5 Analysis of Gait Characteristics Using Dynamic Foot Scanner in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: C. G. Shashi Kumar, G. Arun Maiya, H. Manjunath Hande, K. V. Rajagopal


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with involvement of neurovascular and muscular system. Studies have documented that the gait parameter is altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus with peripheral neuropathy. However, there is a dearth of literature regarding the gait characteristics in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, the present study is focused on identifying gait changes in early type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Objective: To analyze the gait characteristics in Type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance from Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC), 36 T2DM without peripheral neuropathy and 32 matched healthy subjects were recruited. Gait characteristics (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, stride duration, step length, double stance duration) of all the subjects were analyzed using Windtrack dynamic foot scanner. Data were analyzed using Independent‘t’ test to find the difference between the groups (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration) and Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the step length and double stance duration to find difference between the groups. Level of significance was kept at P<0.05. Results: Result analysis showed significant decrease in step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, step length, double stance duration in T2DM subjects as compared to healthy subjects. We also observed a mean increase in stride duration in T2DM subjects compared to healthy subjects.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, dynamic foot scan, gait characteristics, medical and health sciences

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4 Binding Mechanism of Synthesized 5β-Dihydrocortisol and 5β-Dihydrocortisol Acetate with Human Serum Albumin to Understand Their Role in Breast Cancer

Authors: Monika Kallubai, Shreya Dubey, Rajagopal Subramanyam


Our study is all about the biological interactions of synthesized 5β-dihydrocortisol (Dhc) and 5β-dihydrocortisol acetate (DhcA) molecules with carrier protein Human Serum Albumin (HSA). The cytotoxic study was performed on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) normal human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293), the IC50 values for MCF-7 cells were 28 and 25 µM, respectively, whereas no toxicity in terms of cell viability was observed with HEK293 cell line. The further experiment proved that Dhc and DhcA induced 35.6% and 37.7% early apoptotic cells and 2.5%, 2.9% late apoptotic cells respectively. Morphological observation of cell death through TUNEL assay revealed that Dhc and DhcA induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. The complexes of HSA–Dhc and HSA–DhcA were observed as static quenching, and the binding constants (K) was 4.7±0.03×104 M-1 and 3.9±0.05×104 M-1, and their binding free energies were found to be -6.4 and -6.16 kcal/mol, respectively. The displacement studies confirmed that lidocaine 1.4±0.05×104 M-1 replaced Dhc, and phenylbutazone 1.5±0.05×104 M-1 replaced by DhcA, which explains domain I and domain II are the binding sites for Dhc and DhcA. Further, CD results revealed that the secondary structure of HSA was altered in the presence of Dhc and DhcA. Furthermore, the atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the dimensions like height and molecular sizes of the HSA–Dhc and HSA–DhcA complex were larger compared to HSA alone. Detailed analysis through molecular dynamics simulations also supported the greater stability of HSA–Dhc and HSA–DhcA complexes, and root-mean-square-fluctuation interpreted the binding site of Dhc as domain IB and domain IIA for DhcA. This information is valuable for the further development of steroid derivatives with improved pharmacological significance as novel anti-cancer drugs.

Keywords: apoptosis, dihydrocortisol, fluorescence quenching, protein conformations

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3 Influence of Reinforcement Stiffness on the Performance of Back-to-Back Reinforced Earth Wall upon Rainwater Infiltration

Authors: Gopika Rajagopal, Sudheesh Thiyyakkandi


Back-to-back reinforced earth (RE) walls are extensively used in these days as bridge abutments and highway ramps, owing to their cost efficiency and ease of construction. High quality select fill is the most suitable backfill material due to its excellent engineering properties and constructability. However, industries are compelled to use low quality, locally available soil because of its ample availability on site. However, several failure cases of such walls are reported, especially subsequent to rainfall events. The stiffness of reinforcement is one of the major factors affecting the performance of RE walls. The present study focused on analyzing the effect of reinforcement stiffness on the performance of complete select fill, complete marginal fill, and hybrid-fill (i.e., combination of select and marginal fills) back-to-back RE walls, immediately after construction and upon rainwater infiltration through finite element modelling. A constant width to height (W/H) ratio of 3 and height (H) of 6 m was considered for the numerical analysis and the stiffness of reinforcement layers was varied from 500 kN/m to 10000 kN/m. Results showed that reinforcement stiffness had a noticeable influence on the response of RE wall, subsequent to construction as well as rainwater infiltration. Facing displacement was found to decrease and maximum reinforcement tension and factor of safety were observed to increase with increasing the stiffness of reinforcement. However, beyond a stiffness of 5000 kN/m, no significant reduction in facing displacement was observed. The behavior of fully marginal fill wall considered in this study was found to be reasonable even after rainwater infiltration when the high stiffness reinforcement layers are used.

Keywords: back-to-back reinforced earth wall, finite element modelling, rainwater infiltration, reinforcement stiffness

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2 Human Factors Considerations in New Generation Fighter Planes to Enhance Combat Effectiveness

Authors: Chitra Rajagopal, Indra Deo Kumar, Ruchi Joshi, Binoy Bhargavan


Role of fighter planes in modern network centric military warfare scenarios has changed significantly in the recent past. New generation fighter planes have multirole capability of engaging both air and ground targets with high precision. Multirole aircraft undertakes missions such as Air to Air combat, Air defense, Air to Surface role (including Air interdiction, Close air support, Maritime attack, Suppression and Destruction of enemy air defense), Reconnaissance, Electronic warfare missions, etc. Designers have primarily focused on development of technologies to enhance the combat performance of the fighter planes and very little attention is given to human factor aspects of technologies. Unique physical and psychological challenges are imposed on the pilots to meet operational requirements during these missions. Newly evolved technologies have enhanced aircraft performance in terms of its speed, firepower, stealth, electronic warfare, situational awareness, and vulnerability reduction capabilities. This paper highlights the impact of emerging technologies on human factors for various military operations and missions. Technologies such as ‘cooperative knowledge-based systems’ to aid pilot’s decision making in military conflict scenarios as well as simulation technologies to enhance human performance is also studied as a part of research work. Current and emerging pilot protection technologies and systems which form part of the integrated life support systems in new generation fighter planes is discussed. System safety analysis application to quantify the human reliability in military operations is also studied.

Keywords: combat effectiveness, emerging technologies, human factors, systems safety analysis

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1 Human Factors Interventions for Risk and Reliability Management of Defence Systems

Authors: Chitra Rajagopal, Indra Deo Kumar, Ila Chauhan, Ruchi Joshi, Binoy Bhargavan


Reliability and safety are essential for the success of mission-critical and safety-critical defense systems. Humans are part of the entire life cycle of defense systems development and deployment. The majority of industrial accidents or disasters are attributed to human errors. Therefore, considerations of human performance and human reliability are critical in all complex systems, including defense systems. Defense systems are operating from the ground, naval and aerial platforms in diverse conditions impose unique physical and psychological challenges to the human operators. Some of the safety and mission-critical defense systems with human-machine interactions are fighter planes, submarines, warships, combat vehicles, aerial and naval platforms based missiles, etc. Human roles and responsibilities are also going through a transition due to the infusion of artificial intelligence and cyber technologies. Human operators, not accustomed to such challenges, are more likely to commit errors, which may lead to accidents or loss events. In such a scenario, it is imperative to understand the human factors in defense systems for better systems performance, safety, and cost-effectiveness. A case study using Task Analysis (TA) based methodology for assessment and reduction of human errors in the Air and Missile Defense System in the context of emerging technologies were presented. Action-oriented task analysis techniques such as Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) and Operator Action Event Tree (OAET) along with Critical Action and Decision Event Tree (CADET) for cognitive task analysis was used. Human factors assessment based on the task analysis helps in realizing safe and reliable defense systems. These techniques helped in the identification of human errors during different phases of Air and Missile Defence operations, leading to meet the requirement of a safe, reliable and cost-effective mission.

Keywords: defence systems, reliability, risk, safety

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