Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15830

Search results for: full reference image quality assessment (FR-IQA)

15830 A New Categorization of Image Quality Metrics Based on a Model of Human Quality Perception

Authors: Maria Grazia Albanesi, Riccardo Amadeo


This study presents a new model of the human image quality assessment process: the aim is to highlight the foundations of the image quality metrics proposed in literature, by identifying the cognitive/physiological or mathematical principles of their development and the relation with the actual human quality assessment process. The model allows to create a novel categorization of objective and subjective image quality metrics. Our work includes an overview of the most used or effective objective metrics in literature, and, for each of them, we underline its main characteristics, with reference to the rationale of the proposed model and categorization. From the results of this operation, we underline a problem that affects all the presented metrics: the fact that many aspects of human biases are not taken in account at all. We then propose a possible methodology to address this issue.

Keywords: eye-tracking, image quality assessment metric, MOS, quality of user experience, visual perception

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15829 Subjective versus Objective Assessment for Magnetic Resonance (MR) Images

Authors: Heshalini Rajagopal, Li Sze Chow, Raveendran Paramesran


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most important medical imaging modality. Subjective assessment of the image quality is regarded as the gold standard to evaluate MR images. In this study, a database of 210 MR images which contains ten reference images and 200 distorted images is presented. The reference images were distorted with four types of distortions: Rician Noise, Gaussian White Noise, Gaussian Blur and DCT compression. The 210 images were assessed by ten subjects. The subjective scores were presented in Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). The DMOS values were compared with four FR-IQA metrics. We have used Pearson Linear Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) to validate the DMOS values. The high correlation values of PLCC and SROCC shows that the DMOS values are close to the objective FR-IQA metrics.

Keywords: medical resonance (MR) images, difference mean opinion score (DMOS), full reference image quality assessment (FR-IQA)

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15828 Blind Data Hiding Technique Using Interpolation of Subsampled Images

Authors: Singara Singh Kasana, Pankaj Garg


In this paper, a blind data hiding technique based on interpolation of sub sampled versions of a cover image is proposed. Sub sampled image is taken as a reference image and an interpolated image is generated from this reference image. Then difference between original cover image and interpolated image is used to embed secret data. Comparisons with the existing interpolation based techniques show that proposed technique provides higher embedding capacity and better visual quality marked images. Moreover, the performance of the proposed technique is more stable for different images.

Keywords: interpolation, image subsampling, PSNR, SIM

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15827 Optimizing Exposure Parameters in Digital Mammography: A Study in Morocco

Authors: Talbi Mohammed, Oustous Aziz, Ben Messaoud Mounir, Sebihi Rajaa, Khalis Mohammed


Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of death for women around the world. Screening mammography is the reference examination, due to its sensitivity for detecting small lesions and micro-calcifications. Therefore, it is essential to ensure quality mammographic examinations with the most optimal dose. These conditions depend on the choice of exposure parameters. Clinically, practices must be evaluated in order to determine the most appropriate exposure parameters. Material and Methods: We performed our measurements on a mobile mammography unit (PLANMED Sofie-classic.) in Morocco. A solid dosimeter (AGMS Radcal) and a MTM 100 phantom allow to quantify the delivered dose and the image quality. For image quality assessment, scores are defined by the rate of visible inserts (MTM 100 phantom), obtained and compared for each acquisition. Results: The results show that the parameters of the mammography unit on which we have made our measurements can be improved in order to offer a better compromise between image quality and breast dose. The last one can be reduced up from 13.27% to 22.16%, while preserving comparable image quality.

Keywords: Mammography, Breast Dose, Image Quality, Phantom

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15826 A Multi Sensor Monochrome Video Fusion Using Image Quality Assessment

Authors: M. Prema Kumar, P. Rajesh Kumar


The increasing interest in image fusion (combining images of two or more modalities such as infrared and visible light radiation) has led to a need for accurate and reliable image assessment methods. This paper gives a novel approach of merging the information content from several videos taken from the same scene in order to rack up a combined video that contains the finest information coming from different source videos. This process is known as video fusion which helps in providing superior quality (The term quality, connote measurement on the particular application.) image than the source images. In this technique different sensors (whose redundant information can be reduced) are used for various cameras that are imperative for capturing the required images and also help in reducing. In this paper Image fusion technique based on multi-resolution singular value decomposition (MSVD) has been used. The image fusion by MSVD is almost similar to that of wavelets. The idea behind MSVD is to replace the FIR filters in wavelet transform with singular value decomposition (SVD). It is computationally very simple and is well suited for real time applications like in remote sensing and in astronomy.

Keywords: multi sensor image fusion, MSVD, image processing, monochrome video

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15825 Arbitrarily Shaped Blur Kernel Estimation for Single Image Blind Deblurring

Authors: Aftab Khan, Ashfaq Khan


The research paper focuses on an interesting challenge faced in Blind Image Deblurring (BID). It relates to the estimation of arbitrarily shaped or non-parametric Point Spread Functions (PSFs) of motion blur caused by camera handshake. These PSFs exhibit much more complex shapes than their parametric counterparts and deblurring in this case requires intricate ways to estimate the blur and effectively remove it. This research work introduces a novel blind deblurring scheme visualized for deblurring images corrupted by arbitrarily shaped PSFs. It is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and utilises the Blind/Reference-less Image Spatial QUality Evaluator (BRISQUE) measure as the fitness function for arbitrarily shaped PSF estimation. The proposed BID scheme has been compared with other single image motion deblurring schemes as benchmark. Validation has been carried out on various blurred images. Results of both benchmark and real images are presented. Non-reference image quality measures were used to quantify the deblurring results. For benchmark images, the proposed BID scheme using BRISQUE converges in close vicinity of the original blurring functions.

Keywords: blind deconvolution, blind image deblurring, genetic algorithm, image restoration, image quality measures

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15824 Evaluating the Performance of Existing Full-Reference Quality Metrics on High Dynamic Range (HDR) Video Content

Authors: Maryam Azimi, Amin Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Yuanyuan Dong, Mahsa T. Pourazad, Panos Nasiopoulos


While there exists a wide variety of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) quality metrics, only a limited number of metrics are designed specifically for the High Dynamic Range (HDR) content. With the introduction of HDR video compression standardization effort by international standardization bodies, the need for an efficient video quality metric for HDR applications has become more pronounced. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of the existing full-reference LDR and HDR video quality metrics on HDR content and identify the most effective one for HDR applications. To this end, a new HDR video data set is created, which consists of representative indoor and outdoor video sequences with different brightness, motion levels and different representing types of distortions. The quality of each distorted video in this data set is evaluated both subjectively and objectively. The correlation between the subjective and objective results confirm that VIF quality metric outperforms all to their tested metrics in the presence of the tested types of distortions.

Keywords: HDR, dynamic range, LDR, subjective evaluation, video compression, HEVC, video quality metrics

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15823 Quality Assurances for an On-Board Imaging System of a Linear Accelerator: Five Months Data Analysis

Authors: Liyun Chang, Cheng-Hsiang Tsai


To ensure the radiation precisely delivering to the target of cancer patients, the linear accelerator equipped with the pretreatment on-board imaging system is introduced and through it the patient setup is verified before the daily treatment. New generation radiotherapy using beam-intensity modulation, usually associated the treatment with steep dose gradients, claimed to have achieved both a higher degree of dose conformation in the targets and a further reduction of toxicity in normal tissues. However, this benefit is counterproductive if the beam is delivered imprecisely. To avoid shooting critical organs or normal tissues rather than the target, it is very important to carry out the quality assurance (QA) of this on-board imaging system. The QA of the On-Board Imager® (OBI) system of one Varian Clinac-iX linear accelerator was performed through our procedures modified from a relevant report and AAPM TG142. Two image modalities, 2D radiography and 3D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), of the OBI system were examined. The daily and monthly QA was executed for five months in the categories of safety, geometrical accuracy and image quality. A marker phantom and a blade calibration plate were used for the QA of geometrical accuracy, while the Leeds phantom and Catphan 504 phantom were used in the QA of radiographic and CBCT image quality, respectively. The reference images were generated through a GE LightSpeed CT simulator with an ADAC Pinnacle treatment planning system. Finally, the image quality was analyzed via an OsiriX medical imaging system. For the geometrical accuracy test, the average deviations of the OBI isocenter in each direction are less than 0.6 mm with uncertainties less than 0.2 mm, while all the other items have the displacements less than 1 mm. For radiographic image quality, the spatial resolution is 1.6 lp/cm with contrasts less than 2.2%. The spatial resolution, low contrast, and HU homogenous of CBCT are larger than 6 lp/cm, less than 1% and within 20 HU, respectively. All tests are within the criteria, except the HU value of Teflon measured with the full fan mode exceeding the suggested value that could be due to itself high HU value and needed to be rechecked. The OBI system in our facility was then demonstrated to be reliable with stable image quality. The QA of OBI system is really necessary to achieve the best treatment for a patient.

Keywords: CBCT, image quality, quality assurance, OBI

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15822 Evaluating Classification with Efficacy Metrics

Authors: Guofan Shao, Lina Tang, Hao Zhang


The values of image classification accuracy are affected by class size distributions and classification schemes, making it difficult to compare the performance of classification algorithms across different remote sensing data sources and classification systems. Based on the term efficacy from medicine and pharmacology, we have developed the metrics of image classification efficacy at the map and class levels. The novelty of this approach is that a baseline classification is involved in computing image classification efficacies so that the effects of class statistics are reduced. Furthermore, the image classification efficacies are interpretable and comparable, and thus, strengthen the assessment of image data classification methods. We use real-world and hypothetical examples to explain the use of image classification efficacies. The metrics of image classification efficacy meet the critical need to rectify the strategy for the assessment of image classification performance as image classification methods are becoming more diversified.

Keywords: accuracy assessment, efficacy, image classification, machine learning, uncertainty

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15821 Comparison of Radiation Dosage and Image Quality: Digital Breast Tomosynthesis vs. Full-Field Digital Mammography

Authors: Okhee Woo


Purpose: With increasing concern of individual radiation exposure doses, studies analyzing radiation dosage in breast imaging modalities are required. Aim of this study is to compare radiation dosage and image quality between digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Methods and Materials: 303 patients (mean age 52.1 years) who studied DBT and FFDM were retrospectively reviewed. Radiation dosage data were obtained by radiation dosage scoring and monitoring program: Radimetrics (Bayer HealthCare, Whippany, NJ). Entrance dose and mean glandular doses in each breast were obtained in both imaging modalities. To compare the image quality of DBT with two-dimensional synthesized mammogram (2DSM) and FFDM, 5-point scoring of lesion clarity was assessed and the better modality between the two was selected. Interobserver performance was compared with kappa values and diagnostic accuracy was compared using McNemar test. The parameters of radiation dosages (entrance dose, mean glandular dose) and image quality were compared between two modalities by using paired t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: For entrance dose and mean glandular doses for each breasts, DBT had lower values compared with FFDM (p-value < 0.0001). Diagnostic accuracy did not have statistical difference, but lesion clarity score was higher in DBT with 2DSM and DBT was chosen as a better modality compared with FFDM. Conclusion: DBT showed lower radiation entrance dose and also lower mean glandular doses to both breasts compared with FFDM. Also, DBT with 2DSM had better image quality than FFDM with similar diagnostic accuracy, suggesting that DBT may have a potential to be performed as an alternative to FFDM.

Keywords: radiation dose, DBT, digital mammography, image quality

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15820 Kinoform Optimisation Using Gerchberg- Saxton Iterative Algorithm

Authors: M. Al-Shamery, R. Young, P. Birch, C. Chatwin


Computer Generated Holography (CGH) is employed to create digitally defined coherent wavefronts. A CGH can be created by using different techniques such as by using a detour-phase technique or by direct phase modulation to create a kinoform. The detour-phase technique was one of the first techniques that was used to generate holograms digitally. The disadvantage of this technique is that the reconstructed image often has poor quality due to the limited dynamic range it is possible to record using a medium with reasonable spatial resolution.. The kinoform (phase-only hologram) is an alternative technique. In this method, the phase of the original wavefront is recorded but the amplitude is constrained to be constant. The original object does not need to exist physically and so the kinoform can be used to reconstruct an almost arbitrary wavefront. However, the image reconstructed by this technique contains high levels of noise and is not identical to the reference image. To improve the reconstruction quality of the kinoform, iterative techniques such as the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GS) are employed. In this paper the GS algorithm is described for the optimisation of a kinoform used for the reconstruction of a complex wavefront. Iterations of the GS algorithm are applied to determine the phase at a plane (with known amplitude distribution which is often taken as uniform), that satisfies given phase and amplitude constraints in a corresponding Fourier plane. The GS algorithm can be used in this way to enhance the reconstruction quality of the kinoform. Different images are employed as the reference object and their kinoform is synthesised using the GS algorithm. The quality of the reconstructed images is quantified to demonstrate the enhanced reconstruction quality achieved by using this method.

Keywords: computer generated holography, digital holography, Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm, kinoform

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15819 Damage Assessment Based on Full-Polarimetric Decompositions in the 2017 Colombia Landslide

Authors: Hyeongju Jeon, Yonghyun Kim, Yongil Kim


Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an effective tool for damage assessment induced by disasters due to its all-weather and night/day acquisition capability. In this paper, the 2017 Colombia landslide was observed using full-polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR-2 data. Polarimetric decompositions, including the Freeman-Durden decomposition and the Cloude decomposition, are utilized to analyze the scattering mechanisms changes before and after-landslide. These analyses are used to detect the damaged areas induced by the landslide. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the full polarimetric SAR data since the damaged areas can be well discriminated. Thus, we can conclude the proposed method using full polarimetric data has great potential for damage assessment of landslides.

Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), polarimetric decomposition, damage assessment, landslide

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15818 Design and Implementation of Image Super-Resolution for Myocardial Image

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad


Super-resolution is the technique of intelligently upscaling images, avoiding artifacts or blurring, and deals with the recovery of a high-resolution image from one or more low-resolution images. Single-image super-resolution is a process of obtaining a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution observations by signal processing. While super-resolution has been demonstrated to improve image quality in scaled down images in the image domain, its effects on the Fourier-based technique remains unknown. Super-resolution substantially improved the spatial resolution of the patient LGE images by sharpening the edges of the heart and the scar. This paper aims at investigating the effects of single image super-resolution on Fourier-based and image based methods of scale-up. In this paper, first, generate a training phase of the low-resolution image and high-resolution image to obtain dictionary. In the test phase, first, generate a patch and then difference of high-resolution image and interpolation image from the low-resolution image. Next simulation of the image is obtained by applying convolution method to the dictionary creation image and patch extracted the image. Finally, super-resolution image is obtained by combining the fused image and difference of high-resolution and interpolated image. Super-resolution reduces image errors and improves the image quality.

Keywords: image dictionary creation, image super-resolution, LGE images, patch extraction

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15817 Performance Analysis of New Types of Reference Targets Based on Spaceborne and Airborne SAR Data

Authors: Y. S. Zhou, C. R. Li, L. L. Tang, C. X. Gao, D. J. Wang, Y. Y. Guo


Triangular trihedral corner reflector (CR) has been widely used as point target for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) calibration and image quality assessment. The additional “tip” of the triangular plate does not contribute to the reflector’s theoretical RCS and if it interacts with a perfectly reflecting ground plane, it will yield an increase of RCS at the radar bore-sight and decrease the accuracy of SAR calibration and image quality assessment. Regarding this problem, two types of CRs were manufactured. One was the hexagonal trihedral CR. It is a self-illuminating CR with relatively small plate edge length, while large edge length usually introduces unexpected edge diffraction error. The other was the triangular trihedral CR with extended bottom plate which considers the effect of ‘tip’ into the total RCS. In order to assess the performance of the two types of new CRs, flight campaign over the National Calibration and Validation Site for High Resolution Remote Sensors was carried out. Six hexagonal trihedral CRs and two bottom-extended trihedral CRs, as well as several traditional triangular trihedral CRs, were deployed. KOMPSAT-5 X-band SAR image was acquired for the performance analysis of the hexagonal trihedral CRs. C-band airborne SAR images were acquired for the performance analysis of the bottom-extended trihedral CRs. The analysis results showed that the impulse response function of both the hexagonal trihedral CRs and bottom-extended trihedral CRs were much closer to the ideal sinc-function than the traditional triangular trihedral CRs. The flight campaign results validated the advantages of new types of CRs and they might be useful in the future SAR calibration mission.

Keywords: synthetic aperture radar, calibration, corner reflector, KOMPSAT-5

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15816 Automatic Vehicle Detection Using Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar Image

Authors: Leping Chen, Daoxiang An, Xiaotao Huang


Automatic vehicle detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image has been widely researched, as well as using optical remote sensing images. However, most researches treat the detection as an independent problem, failing to make full use of SAR data information. In circular SAR (CSAR), the two long borders of vehicle will shrink if the imaging surface is set higher than the reference one. Based on above variance, an automatic vehicle detection using CSAR image is proposed to enhance detection ability under complex environment, such as vehicles’ closely packing, which confuses the detector. The detection method uses the multiple images generated by different height plane to obtain an energy-concentrated image for detecting and then uses the maximally stable extremal regions method (MSER) to detect vehicles. A result of vehicles’ detection is given to verify the effectiveness and correctness of proposed method.

Keywords: circular SAR, vehicle detection, automatic, imaging

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15815 3D Guided Image Filtering to Improve Quality of Short-Time Binned Dynamic PET Images using MRI Images

Authors: Tabassum Husain, Dr. Shen Peng Li, Dr. Zhaolin Chen


This paper evaluates the usability of 3D Guided Image Filtering to enhance the quality of short-time binned dynamic PET images by using MRI images. Guided image filtering is an edge-preserving filter proposed to enhance 2D images. The 3D filter is applied on 1 and 5-minute binned images. The results are compared with 15-minute binned images and the Gaussian filtering. The guided image filter enhances the quality of dynamic PET images while also preserving important information of the voxels.

Keywords: dynamic PET images, guided image filter, image enhancement, information preservation filtering

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15814 Keyframe Extraction Using Face Quality Assessment and Convolution Neural Network

Authors: Rahma Abed, Sahbi Bahroun, Ezzeddine Zagrouba


Due to the huge amount of data in videos, extracting the relevant frames became a necessity and an essential step prior to performing face recognition. In this context, we propose a method for extracting keyframes from videos based on face quality and deep learning for a face recognition task. This method has two steps. We start by generating face quality scores for each face image based on the use of three face feature extractors, including Gabor, LBP, and HOG. The second step consists in training a Deep Convolutional Neural Network in a supervised manner in order to select the frames that have the best face quality. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to the methods of the state of the art.

Keywords: keyframe extraction, face quality assessment, face in video recognition, convolution neural network

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15813 Influence of High-Resolution Satellites Attitude Parameters on Image Quality

Authors: Walid Wahballah, Taher Bazan, Fawzy Eltohamy


One of the important functions of the satellite attitude control system is to provide the required pointing accuracy and attitude stability for optical remote sensing satellites to achieve good image quality. Although offering noise reduction and increased sensitivity, time delay and integration (TDI) charge coupled devices (CCDs) utilized in high-resolution satellites (HRS) are prone to introduce large amounts of pixel smear due to the instability of the line of sight. During on-orbit imaging, as a result of the Earth’s rotation and the satellite platform instability, the moving direction of the TDI-CCD linear array and the imaging direction of the camera become different. The speed of the image moving on the image plane (focal plane) represents the image motion velocity whereas the angle between the two directions is known as the drift angle (β). The drift angle occurs due to the rotation of the earth around its axis during satellite imaging; affecting the geometric accuracy and, consequently, causing image quality degradation. Therefore, the image motion velocity vector and the drift angle are two important factors used in the assessment of the image quality of TDI-CCD based optical remote sensing satellites. A model for estimating the image motion velocity and the drift angle in HRS is derived. The six satellite attitude control parameters represented in the derived model are the (roll angle φ, pitch angle θ, yaw angle ψ, roll angular velocity φ֗, pitch angular velocity θ֗ and yaw angular velocity ψ֗ ). The influence of these attitude parameters on the image quality is analyzed by establishing a relationship between the image motion velocity vector, drift angle and the six satellite attitude parameters. The influence of the satellite attitude parameters on the image quality is assessed by the presented model in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF) in both cross- and along-track directions. Three different cases representing the effect of pointing accuracy (φ, θ, ψ) bias are considered using four different sets of pointing accuracy typical values, while the satellite attitude stability parameters are ideal. In the same manner, the influence of satellite attitude stability (φ֗, θ֗, ψ֗) on image quality is also analysed for ideal pointing accuracy parameters. The results reveal that cross-track image quality is influenced seriously by the yaw angle bias and the roll angular velocity bias, while along-track image quality is influenced only by the pitch angular velocity bias.

Keywords: high-resolution satellites, pointing accuracy, attitude stability, TDI-CCD, smear, MTF

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15812 The Effect of Compensating Filter on Image Quality in Lateral Projection of Thoracolumbar Radiography

Authors: Noor Arda Adrina Daud, Mohd Hanafi Ali


The compensating filter is placed between the patient and X-ray tube to compensate various density and thickness of human body. The main purpose of this project is to study the effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoracolumbar radiography. The study was performed by an X-ray unit where different thicknesses of aluminum were used as compensating filter. Specifically the relationship between thickness of aluminum, density and noise were evaluated. Results show different thickness of aluminum compensating filter improved the image quality of lateral projection thoracolumbar radiography. The compensating filter of 8.2 mm was considered as the optimal filter to compensate the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L1), 1 mm to compensate lumbar region and 5.9 mm to compensate thorax region. The aluminum wedge compensating filter was designed resulting in an acceptable image quality.

Keywords: compensating filter, aluminum, image quality, lateral, thoracolumbar

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15811 Study of Natural Patterns on Digital Image Correlation Using Simulation Method

Authors: Gang Li, Ghulam Mubashar Hassan, Arcady Dyskin, Cara MacNish


Digital image correlation (DIC) is a contactless full-field displacement and strain reconstruction technique commonly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Comparing with physical measuring devices, such as strain gauges, which only provide very restricted coverage and are expensive to deploy widely, the DIC technique provides the result with full-field coverage and relative high accuracy using an inexpensive and simple experimental setup. It is very important to study the natural patterns effect on the DIC technique because the preparation of the artificial patterns is time consuming and hectic process. The objective of this research is to study the effect of using images having natural pattern on the performance of DIC. A systematical simulation method is used to build simulated deformed images used in DIC. A parameter (subset size) used in DIC can have an effect on the processing and accuracy of DIC and even cause DIC to failure. Regarding to the picture parameters (correlation coefficient), the higher similarity of two subset can lead the DIC process to fail and make the result more inaccurate. The pictures with good and bad quality for DIC methods have been presented and more importantly, it is a systematic way to evaluate the quality of the picture with natural patterns before they install the measurement devices.

Keywords: Digital Image Correlation (DIC), deformation simulation, natural pattern, subset size

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15810 The Mediating Role of Bank Image in Customer Satisfaction Building

Authors: H. Emari, Z. Emari


The main objective of this research was to determine the dimensions of service quality in the banking industry of Iran. For this purpose, the study empirically examined the European perspective suggesting that service quality consists of three dimensions, technical, functional and image. This research is an applied research and its strategy is casual strategy. A standard questionnaire was used for collecting the data. 287 customers of Melli Bank of Northwest were selected through cluster sampling and were studied. The results from a banking service sample revealed that the overall service quality is influenced more by a consumer’s perception of technical quality than functional quality. Accordingly, the Gronroos model is a more appropriate representation of service quality than the American perspective with its limited concentration on the dimension of functional quality in the banking industry of Iran. So, knowing the key dimensions of the quality of services in this industry and planning for their improvement can increase the satisfaction of customers and productivity of this industry.

Keywords: technical quality, functional quality, banking, image, mediating role

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15809 Digital Image Steganography with Multilayer Security

Authors: Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha, Balkrishan Jindal


In this paper, a new method is developed for hiding image in a digital image with multilayer security. In the proposed method, the secret image is encrypted in the first instance using a flexible matrix based symmetric key to add first layer of security. Then another layer of security is added to the secret data by encrypting the ciphered data using Pythagorean Theorem method. The ciphered data bits (4 bits) produced after double encryption are then embedded within digital image in the spatial domain using Least Significant Bits (LSBs) substitution. To improve the image quality of the stego-image, an improved form of pixel adjustment process is proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, image quality metrics including Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), entropy, correlation, mean value and Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI) are measured. It has been found experimentally that the proposed method provides higher security as well as robustness. In fact, the results of this study are quite promising.

Keywords: Pythagorean theorem, pixel adjustment, ciphered data, image hiding, least significant bit, flexible matrix

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15808 Quality Assurance in Cardiac Disorder Detection Images

Authors: Anam Naveed, Asma Andleeb, Mehreen Sirshar


In the article, Image processing techniques have been applied on cardiac images for enhancing the image quality. Two types of methodologies considers for survey, invasive techniques and non-invasive techniques. Different image processes for improvement of cardiac image quality and reduce the amount of radiation exposure for invasive techniques are explored. Different image processing algorithms for enhancing the noninvasive cardiac image qualities are described. Beside these two methodologies, third methodology has applied on live streaming of heart rate on ECG window for extracting necessary information, removing noise and enhancing quality. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out to investigate the impacts of cardiac images for diagnosis of cardiac arteries disease and how the enhancement on images will help the cardiologist to diagnoses disease. The paper evaluates strengths and weaknesses of different techniques applied for improved the image quality and draw a conclusion. Some specific limitations must be considered for whole survey, like the patient heart beat must be 70-75 beats/minute while doing the angiography, similarly patient weight and exposure radiation amount has some limitation.

Keywords: cardiac images, CT angiography, critical analysis, exposure radiation, invasive techniques, invasive techniques, non-invasive techniques

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15807 An Investigation of Surface Water Quality in an Industrial Area Using Integrated Approaches

Authors: Priti Saha, Biswajit Paul


Rapid urbanization and industrialization has increased the pollution load in surface water bodies. However, these water bodies are major source of water for drinking, irrigation, industrial activities and fishery. Therefore, water quality assessment is paramount importance to evaluate its suitability for all these purposes. This study focus to evaluate the surface water quality of an industrial city in eastern India through integrating interdisciplinary techniques. The multi-purpose Water Quality Index (WQI) assess the suitability for drinking, irrigation as well as fishery of forty-eight sampling locations, where 8.33% have excellent water quality (WQI:0-25) for fishery and 10.42%, 20.83% and 45.83% have good quality (WQI:25-50), which represents its suitability for drinking irrigation and fishery respectively. However, the industrial water quality was assessed through Ryznar Stability Index (LSI), which affirmed that only 6.25% of sampling locations have neither corrosive nor scale forming properties (RSI: 6.2-6.8). Integration of these statistical analysis with geographical information system (GIS) helps in spatial assessment. It identifies of the regions where the water quality is suitable for its use in drinking, irrigation, fishery as well as industrial activities. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of statistical and GIS techniques for water quality assessment.

Keywords: surface water, water quality assessment, water quality index, spatial assessment

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15806 Assessment of Image Databases Used for Human Skin Detection Methods

Authors: Saleh Alshehri


Human skin detection is a vital step in many applications. Some of the applications are critical especially those related to security. This leverages the importance of a high-performance detection algorithm. To validate the accuracy of the algorithm, image databases are usually used. However, the suitability of these image databases is still questionable. It is suggested that the suitability can be measured mainly by the span the database covers of the color space. This research investigates the validity of three famous image databases.

Keywords: image databases, image processing, pattern recognition, neural networks

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15805 Assessment of Sleep Disorders in Moroccan Women with Gynecological Cancer: Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Amina Aquil, Abdeljalil El Got


Background: Sleep quality is one of the most important indicators related to the quality of life of patients suffering from cancer. Many factors could affect this quality of sleep and then be considered as associated predictors. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders and the associated factors with impaired sleep quality in Moroccan women with gynecological cancer. A cross-sectional study was carried out within the oncology department of the Ibn Rochd University Hospital, Casablanca, on Moroccan women who had undergone radical surgery for gynecological cancer (n=100). Translated and validated Arabic versions of the following international scales were used: Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Rosenberg's self-esteem scale (RSES), and Body image scale (BIS). Results: 78% of participants were considered poor sleepers. Most of the patients exhibited very poor subjective quality, low sleep latency, a short period of sleep, and a low rate of usual sleep efficiency. The vast majority of these patients were in poor shape during the day and did not use sleep medication. Waking up in the middle of the night or early in the morning and getting up to use the bathroom were the main reasons for poor sleep quality. PSQI scores were positively correlated with anxiety, depression, body image dissatisfaction, and lower self-esteem (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Sleep quality and its predictors require a systematic evaluation and adequate management to prevent sleep disturbances and mental distress as well as to improve the quality of life of these patients.

Keywords: body image, gynecological cancer, self esteem, sleep quality

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15804 Structural Analysis of Kamaluddin Behzad's Works Based on Roland Barthes' Theory of Communication, 'Text and Image'

Authors: Mahsa Khani Oushani, Mohammad Kazem Hasanvand


Text and image have always been two important components in Iranian layout. The interactive connection between text and image has shaped the art of book design with multiple patterns. In this research, first the structure and visual elements in the research data were analyzed and then the position of the text element and the image element in relation to each other based on Roland Barthes theory on the three theories of text and image, were studied and analyzed and the results were compared, and interpreted. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pattern of text and image in the works of Kamaluddin Behzad based on three Roland Barthes communication theories, 1. Descriptive communication, 2. Reference communication, 3. Matched communication. The questions of this research are what is the relationship between text and image in Behzad's works? And how is it defined according to Roland Barthes theory? The method of this research has been done with a structuralist approach with a descriptive-analytical method in a library collection method. The information has been collected in the form of documents (library) and is a tool for collecting online databases. Findings show that the dominant element in Behzad's drawings is with the image and has created a reference relationship in the layout of the drawings, but in some cases it achieves a different relationship that despite the preference of the image on the page, the text is dispersed proportionally on the page and plays a more active role, played within the image. The text and the image support each other equally on the page; Roland Barthes equates this connection.

Keywords: text, image, Kamaluddin Behzad, Roland Barthes, communication theory

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15803 Digital Retinal Images: Background and Damaged Areas Segmentation

Authors: Eman A. Gani, Loay E. George, Faisel G. Mohammed, Kamal H. Sager


Digital retinal images are more appropriate for automatic screening of diabetic retinopathy systems. Unfortunately, a significant percentage of these images are poor quality that hinders further analysis due to many factors (such as patient movement, inadequate or non-uniform illumination, acquisition angle and retinal pigmentation). The retinal images of poor quality need to be enhanced before the extraction of features and abnormalities. So, the segmentation of retinal image is essential for this purpose, the segmentation is employed to smooth and strengthen image by separating the background and damaged areas from the overall image thus resulting in retinal image enhancement and less processing time. In this paper, methods for segmenting colored retinal image are proposed to improve the quality of retinal image diagnosis. The methods generate two segmentation masks; i.e., background segmentation mask for extracting the background area and poor quality mask for removing the noisy areas from the retinal image. The standard retinal image databases DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, STARE, DRIVE and some images obtained from ophthalmologists have been used to test the validation of the proposed segmentation technique. Experimental results indicate the introduced methods are effective and can lead to high segmentation accuracy.

Keywords: retinal images, fundus images, diabetic retinopathy, background segmentation, damaged areas segmentation

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15802 An Exploratory Study of E-Learning Stakeholders’ Experiences of Developing, Implementing and Enhancing E-Courses in One Saudi University

Authors: Zahra Alqahtani


The use of e-learning technologies is gaining momentum in all educational institutions of the world, including Saudi universities. In the e-learning context, there is a growing need and concern among Saudi universities to improve and enhance quality assurance for e-learning systems. Practicing quality assurance activities and applying quality standards in e-learning in Saudi universities is thought to reduce the negative viewpoints of some stakeholders and ensure stakeholders’ satisfaction and needs. As a contribution to improving the quality of e-learning method in Saudi universities, the main purpose of this study is to explore and investigate strategies for the development of quality assurance in e-learning in one university in Saudi Arabia, which is considered a good reference university using the best and ongoing practices in e-learning systems among Saudi universities. In order to ensure the quality of its e-learning methods, Saudi university has adopted Quality Matters Standards as a controlling guide for the quality of its blended and full e-course electronic courses. Furthermore, quality assurance can be further improved if a variety of perspectives are taken into consideration from the comprehensive viewpoints of faculty members, administrative staff, and students.This qualitative research involved the use of different types of interviews, as well as documents that contain data related to e-learning methods in the Saudi university environment. This exploratory case study was undertaken, from the perspectives of various participants, to understand the phenomenon of quality assurance using an inductive technique.The results revealed six main supportive factors that assist in ensuring the quality of e-learning in the Saudi university environment. Essentially, these factors are institutional support, faculty member support, evaluation of faculty, quality of e-course design, technology support, and student support, which together have a remarkable positive effect on quality, forming intrinsic columns connected by bricks leading to quality e-learning. Quality Matters standards are considered to have a strong impact on improving faculty members' skills and on the development of high-quality blended and full e-courses.

Keywords: E-learning, quality assurance, quality matters standards, KKU-supportive factors

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15801 Evaluation of Video Quality Metrics and Performance Comparison on Contents Taken from Most Commonly Used Devices

Authors: Pratik Dhabal Deo, Manoj P.


With the increasing number of social media users, the amount of video content available has also significantly increased. Currently, the number of smartphone users is at its peak, and many are increasingly using their smartphones as their main photography and recording devices. There have been a lot of developments in the field of Video Quality Assessment (VQA) and metrics like VMAF, SSIM etc. are said to be some of the best performing metrics, but the evaluation of these metrics is dominantly done on professionally taken video contents using professional tools, lighting conditions etc. No study particularly pinpointing the performance of the metrics on the contents taken by users on very commonly available devices has been done. Datasets that contain a huge number of videos from different high-end devices make it difficult to analyze the performance of the metrics on the content from most used devices even if they contain contents taken in poor lighting conditions using lower-end devices. These devices face a lot of distortions due to various factors since the spectrum of contents recorded on these devices is huge. In this paper, we have presented an analysis of the objective VQA metrics on contents taken only from most used devices and their performance on them, focusing on full-reference metrics. To carry out this research, we created a custom dataset containing a total of 90 videos that have been taken from three most commonly used devices, and android smartphone, an IOS smartphone and a DSLR. On the videos taken on each of these devices, the six most common types of distortions that users face have been applied on addition to already existing H.264 compression based on four reference videos. These six applied distortions have three levels of degradation each. A total of the five most popular VQA metrics have been evaluated on this dataset and the highest values and the lowest values of each of the metrics on the distortions have been recorded. Finally, it is found that blur is the artifact on which most of the metrics didn’t perform well. Thus, in order to understand the results better the amount of blur in the data set has been calculated and an additional evaluation of the metrics was done using HEVC codec, which is the next version of H.264 compression, on the camera that proved to be the sharpest among the devices. The results have shown that as the resolution increases, the performance of the metrics tends to become more accurate and the best performing metric among them is VQM with very few inconsistencies and inaccurate results when the compression applied is H.264, but when the compression is applied is HEVC, SSIM and VMAF have performed significantly better.

Keywords: distortion, metrics, performance, resolution, video quality assessment

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