Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6985

Search results for: Global Accuracy Indicator (GAI)

6985 Comparison of Solar Radiation Models

Authors: O. Behar, A. Khellaf, K. Mohammedi, S. Ait Kaci

Abstract:

Up to now, most validation studies have been based on the MBE and RMSE, and therefore, focused only on long and short terms performance to test and classify solar radiation models. This traditional analysis does not take into account the quality of modeling and linearity. In our analysis we have tested 22 solar radiation models that are capable to provide instantaneous direct and global radiation at any given location Worldwide. We introduce a new indicator, which we named Global Accuracy Indicator (GAI) to examine the linear relationship between the measured and predicted values and the quality of modeling in addition to long and short terms performance. Note that the quality of model has been represented by the T-Statistical test, the model linearity has been given by the correlation coefficient and the long and short term performance have been respectively known by the MBE and RMSE. An important founding of this research is that the use GAI allows avoiding default validation when using traditional methodology that might results in erroneous prediction of solar power conversion systems performances.

Keywords: solar radiation model, parametric model, performance analysis, Global Accuracy Indicator (GAI)

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
6984 Models to Estimate Monthly Mean Daily Global Solar Radiation on a Horizontal Surface in Alexandria

Authors: Ahmed R. Abdelaziz, Zaki M. I. Osha

Abstract:

Solar radiation data are of great significance for solar energy system design. This study aims at developing and calibrating new empirical models for estimating monthly mean daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface in Alexandria, Egypt. Day length hours, sun height, day number, and declination angle calculated data are used for this purpose. A comparison between measured and calculated values of solar radiation is carried out. It is shown that all the proposed correlations are able to predict the global solar radiation with excellent accuracy in Alexandria.

Keywords: solar energy, global solar radiation, model, regression coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
6983 Comparative Study of Accuracy of Land Cover/Land Use Mapping Using Medium Resolution Satellite Imagery: A Case Study

Authors: M. C. Paliwal, A. K. Jain, S. K. Katiyar

Abstract:

Classification of satellite imagery is very important for the assessment of its accuracy. In order to determine the accuracy of the classified image, usually the assumed-true data are derived from ground truth data using Global Positioning System. The data collected from satellite imagery and ground truth data is then compared to find out the accuracy of data and error matrices are prepared. Overall and individual accuracies are calculated using different methods. The study illustrates advanced classification and accuracy assessment of land use/land cover mapping using satellite imagery. IRS-1C-LISS IV data were used for classification of satellite imagery. The satellite image was classified using the software in fourteen classes namely water bodies, agricultural fields, forest land, urban settlement, barren land and unclassified area etc. Classification of satellite imagery and calculation of accuracy was done by using ERDAS-Imagine software to find out the best method. This study is based on the data collected for Bhopal city boundaries of Madhya Pradesh State of India.

Keywords: resolution, accuracy assessment, land use mapping, satellite imagery, ground truth data, error matrices

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
6982 Improved Accuracy of Ratio Multiple Valuation

Authors: Julianto Agung Saputro, Jogiyanto Hartono

Abstract:

Multiple valuation is widely used by investors and practitioners but its accuracy is questionable. Multiple valuation inaccuracies are due to the unreliability of information used in valuation, inaccuracies comparison group selection, and use of individual multiple values. This study investigated the accuracy of valuation to examine factors that can increase the accuracy of the valuation of multiple ratios, that are discretionary accruals, the comparison group, and the composite of multiple valuation. These results indicate that multiple value adjustment method with discretionary accruals provides better accuracy, the industry comparator group method combined with the size and growth of companies also provide better accuracy. Composite of individual multiple valuation gives the best accuracy. If all of these factors combined, the accuracy of valuation of multiple ratios will give the best results.

Keywords: multiple, valuation, composite, accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
6981 Learning-Oriented School Education: Indicator Construction and Taiwan's Implementation Performance

Authors: Meiju Chen, Chaoyu Guo, Chia Wei Tang

Abstract:

The present study's purpose is twofold: first, to construct indicators for learning-oriented school education and, second, to conduct a survey to examine how learning-oriented education has been implemented in junior high schools after the launch of the 12-year compulsory curriculum. For indicator system construction, we compiled relevant literature to develop a preliminary indicator list model and then conducted two rounds of a questionnaire survey to gain comprehensive feedback from experts to finalize our indicator model. In the survey's first round, 12 experts were invited to evaluate the indicators' appropriateness. Based on the experts' consensus, we determined our final indicator list and used it to develop the Fuzzy Delphi questionnaire to finalize the indicator system and each indicator's relative value. For the fact-finding survey, we collected 454 valid samples to examine how the concept of learning-oriented education is adopted and implemented in the junior high school context. We also used this data in our importance-performance analysis to explore the strengths and weaknesses of school education in Taiwan. The results suggest that the indicator system for learning-oriented school education must consist of seven dimensions and 34 indicators. Among the seven dimensions, 'student learning' and 'curriculum planning and implementation' are the most important yet underperforming dimensions that need immediate improvement. We anticipate that the indicator system will be a useful tool for other countries' evaluation of schools' performance in learning-oriented education.

Keywords: learning-oriented education, school education, fuzzy Delphi method, importance-performance analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
6980 Redefining the Croatian Economic Sentiment Indicator

Authors: Ivana Lolic, Petar Soric, Mirjana Cizmesija

Abstract:

Based on Business and Consumer Survey (BCS) data, the European Commission (EC) regularly publishes the monthly Economic Sentiment Indicator (ESI) for each EU member state. ESI is conceptualized as a leading indicator, aimed ad tracking the overall economic activity. In calculating ESI, the EC employs arbitrarily chosen weights on 15 BCS response balances. This paper raises the predictive quality of ESI by applying nonlinear programming to find such weights that maximize the correlation coefficient of ESI and year-on-year GDP growth. The obtained results show that the highest weights are assigned to the response balances of industrial sector questions, followed by questions from the retail trade sector. This comes as no surprise since the existing literature shows that the industrial production is a plausible proxy for the overall Croatian economic activity and since Croatian GDP is largely influenced by the aggregate personal consumption.

Keywords: business and consumer survey, economic sentiment indicator, leading indicator, nonlinear optimization with constraints

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
6979 The Mirage of Progress? a Longitudinal Study of Japanese Students’ L2 Oral Grammar

Authors: Robert Long, Hiroaki Watanabe

Abstract:

This longitudinal study examines the grammatical errors of Japanese university students’ dialogues with a native speaker over an academic year. The L2 interactions of 15 Japanese speakers were taken from the JUSFC2018 corpus (April/May 2018) and the JUSFC2019 corpus (January/February). The corpora were based on a self-introduction monologue and a three-question dialogue; however, this study examines the grammatical accuracy found in the dialogues. Research questions focused on a possible significant difference in grammatical accuracy from the first interview session in 2018 and the second one the following year, specifically regarding errors in clauses per 100 words, global errors and local errors, and with specific errors related to parts of speech. The investigation also focused on which forms showed the least improvement or had worsened? Descriptive statistics showed that error-free clauses/errors per 100 words decreased slightly while clauses with errors/100 words increased by one clause. Global errors showed a significant decline, while local errors increased from 97 to 158 errors. For errors related to parts of speech, a t-test confirmed there was a significant difference between the two speech corpora with more error frequency occurring in the 2019 corpus. This data highlights the difficulty in having students self-edit themselves.

Keywords: clause analysis, global vs. local errors, grammatical accuracy, L2 output, longitudinal study

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
6978 In-door Localization Algorithm and Appropriate Implementation Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Adeniran K. Ademuwagun, Alastair Allen

Abstract:

The relationship dependence between RSS and distance in an enclosed environment is an important consideration because it is a factor that can influence the reliability of any localization algorithm founded on RSS. Several algorithms effectively reduce the variance of RSS to improve localization or accuracy performance. Our proposed algorithm essentially avoids this pitfall and consequently, its high adaptability in the face of erratic radio signal. Using 3 anchors in close proximity of each other, we are able to establish that RSS can be used as reliable indicator for localization with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Inherent in this concept, is the ability for each prospective anchor to validate (guarantee) the position or the proximity of the other 2 anchors involved in the localization and vice versa. This procedure ensures that the uncertainties of radio signals due to multipath effects in enclosed environments are minimized. A major driver of this idea is the implicit topological relationship among sensors due to raw radio signal strength. The algorithm is an area based algorithm; however, it does not trade accuracy for precision (i.e the size of the returned area).

Keywords: anchor nodes, centroid algorithm, communication graph, radio signal strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
6977 Structuring Highly Iterative Product Development Projects by Using Agile-Indicators

Authors: Guenther Schuh, Michael Riesener, Frederic Diels

Abstract:

Nowadays, manufacturing companies are faced with the challenge of meeting heterogeneous customer requirements in short product life cycles with a variety of product functions. So far, some of the functional requirements remain unknown until late stages of the product development. A way to handle these uncertainties is the highly iterative product development (HIP) approach. By structuring the development project as a highly iterative process, this method provides customer oriented and marketable products. There are first approaches for combined, hybrid models comprising deterministic-normative methods like the Stage-Gate process and empirical-adaptive development methods like SCRUM on a project management level. However, almost unconsidered is the question, which development scopes can preferably be realized with either empirical-adaptive or deterministic-normative approaches. In this context, a development scope constitutes a self-contained section of the overall development objective. Therefore, this paper focuses on a methodology that deals with the uncertainty of requirements within the early development stages and the corresponding selection of the most appropriate development approach. For this purpose, internal influencing factors like a company’s technology ability, the prototype manufacturability and the potential solution space as well as external factors like the market accuracy, relevance and volatility will be analyzed and combined into an Agile-Indicator. The Agile-Indicator is derived in three steps. First of all, it is necessary to rate each internal and external factor in terms of the importance for the overall development task. Secondly, each requirement has to be evaluated for every single internal and external factor appropriate to their suitability for empirical-adaptive development. Finally, the total sums of internal and external side are composed in the Agile-Indicator. Thus, the Agile-Indicator constitutes a company-specific and application-related criterion, on which the allocation of empirical-adaptive and deterministic-normative development scopes can be made. In a last step, this indicator will be used for a specific clustering of development scopes by application of the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. The FCM-method determines sub-clusters within functional clusters based on the empirical-adaptive environmental impact of the Agile-Indicator. By means of the methodology presented in this paper, it is possible to classify requirements, which are uncertainly carried out by the market, into empirical-adaptive or deterministic-normative development scopes.

Keywords: agile, highly iterative development, agile-indicator, product development

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
6976 A Newspapers Expectations Indicator from Web Scraping

Authors: Pilar Rey del Castillo

Abstract:

This document describes the building of an average indicator of the general sentiments about the future exposed in the newspapers in Spain. The raw data are collected through the scraping of the Digital Periodical and Newspaper Library website. Basic tools of natural language processing are later applied to the collected information to evaluate the sentiment strength of each word in the texts using a polarized dictionary. The last step consists of summarizing these sentiments to produce daily indices. The results are a first insight into the applicability of these techniques to produce periodic sentiment indicators.

Keywords: natural language processing, periodic indicator, sentiment analysis, web scraping

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6975 Linguistic Codes: Food as a Class Indicator

Authors: Elena Valeryevna Pozhidaeva

Abstract:

This linguistic case study is based on an interaction between the social position and foodways. In every culture there is a social hierarchical system in which there can be means to express and to identify the social status of a person. Food serves as a class indicator. The British being a verbal nation use the words as a preferred medium for signalling and recognising the social status. The linguistic analysis reflects a symbolic hierarchy determined by social groups in the UK. The linguistic class indicators of a British hierarchical system are detectable directly – in speech acts. They are articulated in every aspect of a national identity’s life from preferences of the food and the choice to call it to the names of the meals. The linguistic class indicators can as well be detected indirectly – through symbolic meaning or via the choice of the mealtime, its class (e.g the classes of tea or marmalade), the place to buy food (the class of the supermarket) and consume it (the places for eating out and the frequency of such practices). Under analysis of this study are not only food items and their names but also such categories as cutlery as a class indicator and the act of eating together as a practice of social significance and a class indicator. Current social changes and economic developments are considered and their influence on the class indicators appearance and transformation.

Keywords: linguistic, class, social indicator, English, food class

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6974 Examining the Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in L2 Learners' Writing after L2 Instruction

Authors: Khaled Barkaoui

Abstract:

Research on second-language (L2) learning tends to focus on comparing students with different levels of proficiency at one point in time. However, to understand L2 development, we need more longitudinal research. In this study, we adopt a longitudinal approach to examine changes in three indicators of L2 ability, complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF), as reflected in the writing of L2 learners when writing on different tasks before and after a period L2 instruction. Each of 85 Chinese learners of English at three levels of English language proficiency responded to two writing tasks (independent and integrated) before and after nine months of English-language study in China. Each essay (N= 276) was analyzed in terms of numerous CAF indices using both computer coding and human rating: number of words written, number of errors per 100 words, ratings of error severity, global syntactic complexity (MLS), complexity by coordination (T/S), complexity by subordination (C/T), clausal complexity (MLC), phrasal complexity (NP density), syntactic variety, lexical density, lexical variation, lexical sophistication, and lexical bundles. Results were then compared statistically across tasks, L2 proficiency levels, and time. Overall, task type had significant effects on fluency and some syntactic complexity indices (complexity by coordination, structural variety, clausal complexity, phrase complexity) and lexical density, sophistication, and bundles, but not accuracy. L2 proficiency had significant effects on fluency, accuracy, and lexical variation, but not syntactic complexity. Finally, fluency, frequency of errors, but not accuracy ratings, syntactic complexity indices (clausal complexity, global complexity, complexity by subordination, phrase complexity, structural variety) and lexical complexity (lexical density, variation, and sophistication) exhibited significant changes after instruction, particularly for the independent task. We discuss the findings and their implications for assessment, instruction, and research on CAF in the context of L2 writing.

Keywords: second language writing, Fluency, accuracy, complexity, longitudinal

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6973 The Selection of the Nearest Anchor Using Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI)

Authors: Hichem Sassi, Tawfik Najeh, Noureddine Liouane

Abstract:

The localization information is crucial for the operation of WSN. There are principally two types of localization algorithms. The Range-based localization algorithm has strict requirements on hardware; thus, it is expensive to be implemented in practice. The Range-free localization algorithm reduces the hardware cost. However, it can only achieve high accuracy in ideal scenarios. In this paper, we locate unknown nodes by incorporating the advantages of these two types of methods. The proposed algorithm makes the unknown nodes select the nearest anchor using the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and choose two other anchors which are the most accurate to achieve the estimated location. Our algorithm improves the localization accuracy compared with previous algorithms, which has been demonstrated by the simulating results.

Keywords: WSN, localization, DV-Hop, RSSI

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6972 A Two-Stage Bayesian Variable Selection Method with the Extension of Lasso for Geo-Referenced Data

Authors: Georgiana Onicescu, Yuqian Shen

Abstract:

Due to the complex nature of geo-referenced data, multicollinearity of the risk factors in public health spatial studies is a commonly encountered issue, which leads to low parameter estimation accuracy because it inflates the variance in the regression analysis. To address this issue, we proposed a two-stage variable selection method by extending the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) to the Bayesian spatial setting, investigating the impact of risk factors to health outcomes. Specifically, in stage I, we performed the variable selection using Bayesian Lasso and several other variable selection approaches. Then, in stage II, we performed the model selection with only the selected variables from stage I and compared again the methods. To evaluate the performance of the two-stage variable selection methods, we conducted a simulation study with different distributions for the risk factors, using geo-referenced count data as the outcome and Michigan as the research region. We considered the cases when all candidate risk factors are independently normally distributed, or follow a multivariate normal distribution with different correlation levels. Two other Bayesian variable selection methods, Binary indicator, and the combination of Binary indicator and Lasso were considered and compared as alternative methods. The simulation results indicated that the proposed two-stage Bayesian Lasso variable selection method has the best performance for both independent and dependent cases considered. When compared with the one-stage approach, and the other two alternative methods, the two-stage Bayesian Lasso approach provides the highest estimation accuracy in all scenarios considered.

Keywords: Lasso, Bayesian analysis, spatial analysis, variable selection

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6971 Enhanced Weighted Centroid Localization Algorithm for Indoor Environments

Authors: I. Nižetić Kosović, T. Jagušt

Abstract:

Lately, with the increasing number of location-based applications, demand for highly accurate and reliable indoor localization became urgent. This is a challenging problem, due to the measurement variance which is the consequence of various factors like obstacles, equipment properties and environmental changes in complex nature of indoor environments. In this paper we propose low-cost custom-setup infrastructure solution and localization algorithm based on the Weighted Centroid Localization (WCL) method. Localization accuracy is increased by several enhancements: calibration of RSSI values gained from wireless nodes, repetitive measurements of RSSI to exclude deviating values from the position estimation, and by considering orientation of the device according to the wireless nodes. We conducted several experiments to evaluate the proposed algorithm. High accuracy of ~1m was achieved.

Keywords: indoor environment, received signal strength indicator, weighted centroid localization, wireless localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
6970 Performance Evaluation of Contemporary Classifiers for Automatic Detection of Epileptic EEG

Authors: K. E. Ch. Vidyasagar, M. Moghavvemi, T. S. S. T. Prabhat

Abstract:

Epilepsy is a global problem, and with seizures eluding even the smartest of diagnoses a requirement for automatic detection of the same using electroencephalogram (EEG) would have a huge impact in diagnosis of the disorder. Among a multitude of methods for automatic epilepsy detection, one should find the best method out, based on accuracy, for classification. This paper reasons out, and rationalizes, the best methods for classification. Accuracy is based on the classifier, and thus this paper discusses classifiers like quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), classification and regression tree (CART), support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes classifier (NBC), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Results show that ANN is the most accurate of all the above stated classifiers with 97.7% accuracy, 97.25% specificity and 98.28% sensitivity in its merit. This is followed closely by SVM with 1% variation in result. These results would certainly help researchers choose the best classifier for detection of epilepsy.

Keywords: classification, seizure, KNN, SVM, LDA, ANN, epilepsy

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6969 A Developmental Survey of Local Stereo Matching Algorithms

Authors: André Smith, Amr Abdel-Dayem

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the history and development of stereo matching algorithms. Details from its inception, up to relatively recent techniques are described, noting challenges that have been surmounted across these past decades. Different components of these are explored, though focus is directed towards the local matching techniques. While global approaches have existed for some time, and demonstrated greater accuracy than their counterparts, they are generally quite slow. Many strides have been made more recently, allowing local methods to catch up in terms of accuracy, without sacrificing the overall performance.

Keywords: developmental survey, local stereo matching, rectification, stereo correspondence

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6968 Propagation of DEM Varying Accuracy into Terrain-Based Analysis

Authors: Wassim Katerji, Mercedes Farjas, Carmen Morillo

Abstract:

Terrain-Based Analysis results in derived products from an input DEM and these products are needed to perform various analyses. To efficiently use these products in decision-making, their accuracies must be estimated systematically. This paper proposes a procedure to assess the accuracy of these derived products, by calculating the accuracy of the slope dataset and its significance, taking as an input the accuracy of the DEM. Based on the output of previously published research on modeling the relative accuracy of a DEM, specifically ASTER and SRTM DEMs with Lebanon coverage as the area of study, analysis have showed that ASTER has a low significance in the majority of the area where only 2% of the modeled terrain has 50% or more significance. On the other hand, SRTM showed a better significance, where 37% of the modeled terrain has 50% or more significance. Statistical analysis deduced that the accuracy of the slope dataset, calculated on a cell-by-cell basis, is highly correlated to the accuracy of the input DEM. However, this correlation becomes lower between the slope accuracy and the slope significance, whereas it becomes much higher between the modeled slope and the slope significance.

Keywords: terrain-based analysis, slope, accuracy assessment, Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
6967 An Accurate Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD System for Diagnosis of Aortic Enlargement by Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Mahdi Bazarganigilani

Abstract:

Aortic enlargement, also known as an aortic aneurysm, can occur when the walls of the aorta become weak. This disease can become deadly if overlooked and undiagnosed. In this paper, a Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD system was introduced to accurately diagnose Aortic enlargement from chest x-ray images. A novel approach by using an optimized Convolutional Neural Networks - CNN was employed. Three main areas, including the left lung, heart, and right lung were extracted from the original images. These three areas were then fed to a CNN. The accuracy of the system was evaluated on 1000 sample images by using 4-fold cross-validation. A promising accuracy of 84% was achieved in terms of the F-measure indicator. This encouraged the author to evaluate this method on a larger dataset and even on different CAD systems for further enhancement of this methodology.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis systems, aortic enlargement, chest X-ray, image processing, convolutional neural networks

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6966 Intercultural Trainings for Future Global Managers: Evaluating the Effect on the Global Mind-Set

Authors: Nina Dziatzko, Christopher Stehr, Franziska Struve

Abstract:

Intercultural competence as an explicit required skill nearly never appears in job advertisements in international or even global contexts. But especially those who have to deal with different nationalities and cultures in their everyday business need to have several intercultural competencies and further a global mind-set. This way the question arises how potential future global managers can be trained to learn these competencies. In this regard, it might be helpful to see if different types of intercultural trainings have different effects on those skills. This paper outlines lessons learned based on the evaluation of two different intercultural trainings for management students. The main differences between the observed intercultural trainings are the amount of theoretical input in relation to hands-on experiences, the number of trainers as well as the used methods to teach implicit cultural rules. Both groups contain management students with the willingness and perspective to work abroad or to work in international context. The research is carried out with a pre-training-survey and a post-training-survey which consists of questions referring the international context of the students and a self-estimation of 19 identified intercultural and global mind-set skills, such as: cosmopolitanism, empathy, differentiation and adaptability. Whereas there is no clear result which training gets overall a significant higher increase of skills, there is a clear difference between the focus of competencies trained by each of the intercultural trainings. This way this research provides a guideline for both academicals institutions as well as companies for the decision between different types of intercultural trainings, if the to be trained required skills are defined. Therefore the efficiency and the accuracy of fit of the education of future global managers get optimized.

Keywords: global mind-set, intercultural competencies, intercultural training, learning experiences

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
6965 Radar Charts Analysis to Compare the Level of Innovation in Mexico with Most Innovative Countries in Triple Helix Schema Economic and Human Factor Dimension

Authors: M. Peña Aguilar Juan, Valencia Luis, Pastrana Alberto, Nava Estefany, A. Martinez, M. Vivanco, A. Castañeda

Abstract:

This paper seeks to compare the innovation of Mexico from an economic and human perspective, with the seven most innovative countries according to the Global Innovation Index 2013, done by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). The above analysis suggests nine dimensions: Expenditure on R & D, intellectual property, appropriate environment to conduct business, economic stability, and triple helix for R & D, ICT Infrastructure, education, human resources and quality of life. Each dimension is represented by an indicator which is later used to construct a radial graph that compares the innovative capacity of the countries analysed. As a result, it is proposed a new indicator of innovation called The Area of Innovation. Observations are made from the results, and finally as a conclusion, those items or dimensions in which Mexico suffers lag in innovation are identify.

Keywords: dimension, measure, innovation level, economy, radar chart

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6964 Epileptic Seizure Prediction by Exploiting Signal Transitions Phenomena

Authors: Mohammad Zavid Parvez, Manoranjan Paul

Abstract:

A seizure prediction method is proposed by extracting global features using phase correlation between adjacent epochs for detecting relative changes and local features using fluctuation/deviation within an epoch for determining fine changes of different EEG signals. A classifier and a regularization technique are applied for the reduction of false alarms and improvement of the overall prediction accuracy. The experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and provides high prediction accuracy (i.e., 97.70%) with low false alarm using EEG signals in different brain locations from a benchmark data set.

Keywords: Epilepsy, seizure, phase correlation, fluctuation, deviation.

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6963 Towards Printed Green Time-Temperature Indicator

Authors: Mariia Zhuldybina, Ahmed Moulay, Mirko Torres, Mike Rozel, Ngoc-Duc Trinh, Chloé Bois

Abstract:

To reduce the global waste of perishable goods, a solution for monitoring and traceability of their environmental conditions is needed. Temperature is the most controllable environmental parameter determining the kinetics of physical, chemical, and microbial spoilage in food products. To store the time-temperature information, time-temperature indicator (TTI) is a promising solution. Printed electronics (PE) has shown a great potential to produce customized electronic devices using flexible substrates and inks with different functionalities. We propose to fabricate a hybrid printed TTI using environmentally friendly materials. The real-time TTI profile can be stored and transmitted to the smartphone via Near Field Communication (NFC). To ensure environmental performance, Canadian Green Electronics NSERC Network is developing green materials for the ink formulation with different functionalities. In terms of substrate, paper-based electronics has gained the great interest for utilization in a wide area of electronic systems because of their low costs in setup and methodology, as well as their eco-friendly fabrication technologies. The main objective is to deliver a prototype of TTI using small-scale printed techniques under typical printing conditions. All sub-components of the smart labels, including a memristor, a battery, an antenna compatible with NFC protocol, and a circuit compatible with integration performed by an offsite supplier will be fully printed with flexography or flat-bed screen printing.

Keywords: NFC, printed electronics, time-temperature indicator, hybrid electronics

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6962 Indicator-Immobilized, Cellulose Based Optical Sensing Membrane for the Detection of Heavy Metal Ions

Authors: Nisha Dhariwal, Anupama Sharma

Abstract:

The synthesis of cellulose nanofibrils quaternized with 3‐chloro‐2‐hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) in NaOH/urea aqueous solution has been reported. Xylenol Orange (XO) has been used as an indicator for selective detection of Sn (II) ions, by its immobilization on quaternized cellulose membrane. The effects of pH, reagent concentration and reaction time on the immobilization of XO have also been studied. The linear response, limit of detection, and interference of other metal ions have also been studied and no significant interference has been observed. The optical chemical sensor displayed good durability and short response time with negligible leaching of the reagent.

Keywords: cellulose, chemical sensor, heavy metal ions, indicator immobilization

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6961 A Procedure for Post-Earthquake Damage Estimation Based on Detection of High-Frequency Transients

Authors: Aleksandar Zhelyazkov, Daniele Zonta, Helmut Wenzel, Peter Furtner

Abstract:

In the current research structural health monitoring is considered for addressing the critical issue of post-earthquake damage detection. A non-standard approach for damage detection via acoustic emission is presented - acoustic emissions are monitored in the low frequency range (up to 120 Hz). Such emissions are termed high-frequency transients. Further a damage indicator defined as the Time-Ratio Damage Indicator is introduced. The indicator relies on time-instance measurements of damage initiation and deformation peaks. Based on the time-instance measurements a procedure for estimation of the maximum drift ratio is proposed. Monitoring data is used from a shaking-table test of a full-scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. Damage of the experimental column is successfully detected and the proposed damage indicator is calculated.

Keywords: acoustic emission, damage detection, shaking table test, structural health monitoring

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6960 Closed Loop Traffic Control System Using PLC

Authors: Chinmay Shah

Abstract:

The project is all about development of a close loop traffic light control system using PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). This project is divided into two parts which are hardware and software. The hardware part for this project is a model of four way junction of a traffic light. Three indicator lamps (Red, Yellow and Green) are installed at each lane for represents as traffic light signal. This traffic control model is a replica of actuated traffic control. Actuated traffic control system is a close loop traffic control system which controls the timing of the indicator lamps depending on the fluidity of traffic for a particular lane. To make it autonomous, in each lane three IR sensors are placed which helps to sense the percentage of traffic present on any particular lane. The IR Sensors and Indicator lamps are connected to LG PLC XGB series. The PLC controls every signal which is coming from the inputs (IR Sensors) to software and display to the outputs (Indicator lamps). Default timing for the indicator lamps is 30 seconds for each lane. But depending on the percentage of traffic present, if the traffic is nearly 30-35%, green lamp will be on for 10 seconds, for 65-70% traffic it will be 20 seconds, for full 100% traffic it will be on for full 30 seconds. The software part that operates with LG PLC is “XG 5000” Programmer. Using this software, the ladder logic diagram is programmed to control the traffic light base on the flow chart. At the end of this project, the traffic light system is actuated successfully by PLC.

Keywords: close loop, IR sensor, PLC, light control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
6959 Solutions for Quality Pre-Control of Crimp Contacts

Authors: C. F. Ocoleanu, G. Cividjian, Gh. Manolea

Abstract:

In this paper, we present two solutions for connections quality pre-control of Crimp Contacts and to identify in the first moments the connections improperly executed, before final assembly of a electrical machines. The first solution supposed experimental determination of specific losses by calculated the initial rate of temperature rise. This can be made drawing the tangent at the origin at heating curve. The method can be used to identify bad connections by passing a current through the winding at ambient temperature and simultaneously record connections temperatures in the first few minutes since the current is setting. The second proposed solution is to apply to each element crimping a thermal indicator one level, and making a test heating with a heating current corresponding to critical temperature indicator.

Keywords: temperature, crimp contact, thermal indicator, current distribution, specific losses

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6958 A Comparison between the Results of Hormuz Strait Wave Simulations Using WAVEWATCH-III and MIKE21-SW and Satellite Altimetry Observations

Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Sharifi

Abstract:

In the present study, the capabilities of WAVEWATCH-III and MIKE21-SW for predicting the characteristics of wind waves in Hormuz Strait are evaluated. The GFS wind data (Global Forecast System) were derived. The bathymetry of gride with 2 arc-minute resolution, also were extracted from the ETOPO1. WAVEWATCH-III findings illustrate more valid prediction of wave features comparing to the MIKE-21 SW in deep water. Apparently, in shallow area, the MIKE-21 provides more uniformities with altimetry measurements. This may be due to the merits of the unstructured grid which are used in MIKE-21, leading to better representations of the coastal area. The findings on the direction of waves generated by wind in the modeling area indicate that in some regions, despite the increase in wind speed, significant wave height stays nearly unchanged. This is fundamental because of swift changes in wind track over the Strait of Hormuz. After discussing wind-induced waves in the region, the impact of instability of the surface layer on wave growth has been considered. For this purpose, the average monthly mean air temperature has been used. The results in cold months, when the surface layer is unstable, indicates an acceptable increase in the accuracy of prediction of the indicator wave height.

Keywords: numerical modeling, WAVEWATCH-III, Strait of Hormuz, MIKE21-SW

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
6957 Transient Signal Generator For Fault Indicator Testing

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Ali Alfallah

Abstract:

This paper describes an application for testing of a fault indicator but it could be used for other network protection testing. The application is created in the LabVIEW environment and consists of three parts. The first part of the application is determined for transient phenomenon generation and imitates voltage and current transient signal at ground fault originate. The second part allows to set sequences of trend for each current and voltage output signal, up to six trends for each phase. The last part of the application generates harmonic signal with continuously controllable amplitude of current or voltage output signal and phase shift of each signal can be changed there. Further any sub-harmonics and upper harmonics can be added to selected current output signal

Keywords: signal generator-fault indicator, harmonic signal generator, voltage output

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
6956 High Altitude Glacier Surface Mapping in Dhauliganga Basin of Himalayan Environment Using Remote Sensing Technique

Authors: Aayushi Pandey, Manoj Kumar Pandey, Ashutosh Tiwari, Kireet Kumar

Abstract:

Glaciers play an important role in climate change and are sensitive phenomena of global climate change scenario. Glaciers in Himalayas are unique as they are predominantly valley type and are located in tropical, high altitude regions. These glaciers are often covered with debris which greatly affects ablation rate of glaciers and work as a sensitive indicator of glacier health. The aim of this study is to map high altitude Glacier surface with a focus on glacial lake and debris estimation using different techniques in Nagling glacier of dhauliganga basin in Himalayan region. Different Image Classification techniques i.e. thresholding on different band ratios and supervised classification using maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) have been used on high resolution sentinel 2A level 1c satellite imagery of 14 October 2017.Here Near Infrared (NIR)/Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) ratio image was used to extract the glaciated classes (Snow, Ice, Ice Mixed Debris) from other non-glaciated terrain classes. SWIR/BLUE Ratio Image was used to map valley rock and Debris while Green/NIR ratio image was found most suitable for mapping Glacial Lake. Accuracy assessment was performed using high resolution (3 meters) Planetscope Imagery using 60 stratified random points. The overall accuracy of MLC was 85 % while the accuracy of Band Ratios was 96.66 %. According to Band Ratio technique total areal extent of glaciated classes (Snow, Ice ,IMD) in Nagling glacier was 10.70 km2 nearly 38.07% of study area comprising of 30.87 % Snow covered area, 3.93% Ice and 3.27 % IMD covered area. Non-glaciated classes (vegetation, glacial lake, debris and valley rock) covered 61.93 % of the total area out of which valley rock is dominant with 33.83% coverage followed by debris covering 27.7 % of the area in nagling glacier. Glacial lake and Debris were accurately mapped using Band ratio technique Hence, Band Ratio approach appears to be useful for the mapping of debris covered glacier in Himalayan Region.

Keywords: band ratio, Dhauliganga basin, glacier mapping, Himalayan region, maximum likelihood classifier (MLC), Sentinel-2 satellite image

Procedia PDF Downloads 142