Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: András Fülöp

24 Soil Bioremediation Monitoring Systems Powered by Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: András Fülöp, Lejla Heilmann, Zsolt Szabó, Ákos Koós

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) present a sustainable biotechnological solution to future energy demands. The aim of this study was to construct soil based, single cell, membrane-less MFC systems, operated without treatment to continuously power on-site monitoring and control systems during the soil bioremediation processes. Our Pseudomonas aeruginosa 541 isolate is an ideal choice for MFCs, because it is able to produce pyocyanin which behaves as electron-shuttle molecule, furthermore, it also has a significant antimicrobial effect. We tested several materials and structural configurations to obtain long term high power output. Comparing different configurations, a proton exchange membrane-less, 0.6 m long with 0.05 m diameter MFC tubes offered the best long-term performances. The long-term electricity production were tested from starch, yeast extract (YE), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with humic acid (HA) as a mediator. In all cases, 3 kΩ external load have been used. The two best-operated systems were the Pseudomonas aeruginosa 541 containing MFCs with 1 % carboxymethyl cellulose and the MFCs with 1% yeast extract in the anode area and 35% hydrogel in the cathode chamber. The first had 3.3 ± 0.033 mW/m2 and the second had 4.1 ± 0.065 mW/m2 power density values. These systems have operated for 230 days without any treatment. The addition of 0.2 % HA and 1 % YE referred to the volume of the anode area resulted in 1.4 ± 0.035 mW/m2 power densities. The mixture of 1% starch with 0.2 % HA gave 1.82 ± 0.031 mW/m2. Using CMC as retard carbon source takes effect in the long-term bacterial survivor, thus enable the expression of the long term power output. The application of hydrogels in the cathode chamber significantly increased the performance of the MFC units due to their good water retention capacity.

Keywords: Bioremediation, microbial fuel cell, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biotechnological solution

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23 Relationships between Social Entrepreneurship, CSR and Social Innovation: In Theory and Practice

Authors: Gyula Fülöp, Krisztina Szegedi, Ádám Bereczk

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The shared goal of social entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility and social innovation is the advancement of society. The business model of social enterprises is characterized by unique strategies based on the competencies of the entrepreneurs, and is not aimed primarily at the maximization of profits, but rather at carrying out goals for the benefit of society. Corporate social responsibility refers to the active behavior of a company, by which it can create new solutions to meet the needs of society, either on its own or in cooperation with other social stakeholders. The objectives of this article are to define concepts, describe and integrate relevant theoretical models, develop a model and introduce some examples of international practice that can inspire initiatives for social development.

Keywords: Social innovation, social entrepreneurship, Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR

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22 Multidimensional Approach to Analyse the Environmental Impacts of Mobility

Authors: Adrienn Buruzs, Andras Gyorfi, Andras Torma

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Mobility has been evolved to a determining field of science. The continuously developing segment involves a variety of affected issues such as public and economic sectors. Beside the changes in mobility the state of environment had also changed in the last period. Alternative mobility as a separate category and the idea of its widespread appliance is such a new field that needs to be studied deeper. Alternative mobility implies finding new types of propulsion, using innovative kinds of power and energy resources, revolutionizing the approach to vehicular control. Including new resources and excluding others has such a complex effect which cannot be unequivocally confirmed by today’s scientific achievements. Changes in specific parameters will most likely reduce the environmental impacts, however, the production of new substances or even their subtraction of the system will cause probably energy deficit as well. The aim of this research is to elaborate the environmental impact matrix of alternative mobility and cognize the factors that are yet unknown, analyse them, look for alternative solutions and conclude all the above in a coherent system. In order to this, we analyse it with a method called ‘the system of systems (SoS) method’ to model the effects and the dynamics of the system. A part of the research process is to examine its impacts on the environment, and to decide whether the newly developed versions of alternative mobility are affecting the environmental state. As a final result, a complex approach will be used which can supplement the current scientific studies. By using the SoS approach, we create a framework of reference containing elements in which we examine the interactions as well. In such a way, a flexible and modular model can be established which supports the prioritizing of effects and the deeper analysis of the complex system.

Keywords: Environment, alternative mobility, complex model, element analysis, multidimensional map

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21 Current Strategic Trends – A Comparative Analysis of Hungarian Corporations

Authors: Gyula Fülöp, Bettina Hernádi

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This paper deals with the current strategic challenges related to the reshaping of the basic conditions of corporate operations. With the help of the experimental analysis of some domestic corporations, it presents the form and extent the Hungarian corporations are prepared for the current strategic challenges. The study examines how strategic directions and answer opportunities changed in the following interrelated areas in the past five years: economic globalization, corporate sustainability, IT applications, labour force diversity and ethical competences. The conclusions of the empirical survey give a reliable basis for economic organizations and enterprises to formulate their strategy.

Keywords: Economic Globalization, Corporate Sustainability, IT applications, labour force diversity, ethical competences

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20 Phylogenetic Relationships between the Whole Sets of Individual Flow Sorted U, M, S and C Chromosomes of Aegilops and Wheat as Revealed by COS Markers

Authors: András Farkas, István Molnár, Jan Vrána, Veronika Burešová, Petr Cápal, András Cseh, Márta Molnár-Láng, Jaroslav Doležel

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Species of Aegilops played a central role in the evolution of wheat and are sources of traits related to yield quality and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. These wild genes and alleles are desirable to use in crop improvement programs via introgressive hybridization. However, the success of chromosome mediated gene transfer to wheat are hampered by the pour knowledge on the genome structure of Aegilops relative to wheat and by the low number of cost-effective molecular markers specific for Aegilops chromosomes. The COS markers specific for genes conserved throughout evolution in both sequence and copy number between Triticeae/Aegilops taxa and define orthologous regions, thus enabling the comparison of regions on the chromosomes of related species. The present study compared individual chromosomes of Aegilops umbellulata (UU), Ae. comosa (MM), Ae. speltoides (SS) and Ae. caudata (CC) purified by flourescent labelling with oligonucleotid SSR repeats and biparametric flow cytometry with wheat by identifying orthologous chromosomal regions by COS markers. The linear order of bin-mapped COS markers along the wheat D chromosomes was identified by the use of chromosome-specific sequence data and virtual gene order. Syntenic regions of wheat identifying genome rearrangements differentiating the U, M, S or C genomes from the D genome of wheat were detected. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species and wheat will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U, M, S and C genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to the evolution of Aegilops.

Keywords: Wheat, Aegilops, cos-markers, flow-sorting

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19 On Phase Based Stereo Matching and Its Related Issues

Authors: Andras Rovid, Takeshi Hashimoto

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The paper focuses on the problem of the point correspondence matching in stereo images. The proposed matching algorithm is based on the combination of simpler methods such as normalized sum of squared differences (NSSD) and a more complex phase correlation based approach, by considering the noise and other factors, as well. The speed of NSSD and the preciseness of the phase correlation together yield an efficient approach to find the best candidate point with sub-pixel accuracy in stereo image pairs. The task of the NSSD in this case is to approach the candidate pixel roughly. Afterwards the location of the candidate is refined by an enhanced phase correlation based method which in contrast to the NSSD has to run only once for each selected pixel.

Keywords: stereo matching, sub-pixel accuracy, phase correlation, SVD, NSSD

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18 Assessment of Rehabilitation Possibilities in Case of Budapest Jewish Quarter Building Stock

Authors: Michihiro Kita, Viktória Sugár, Attila Talamon, András Horkai

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The dense urban fabric of the Budapest 7th district is known as the former Jewish Quarter. The majority of the historical building stock contains multi-story tenement houses with courtyards, built around the end of the 19th century. Various rehabilitation and urban planning attempt occurred until today, mostly left unfinished. Present paper collects the past rehabilitation plans, actions and their effect which took place in the former Jewish District of Budapest. The authors aim to assess the boundaries of a complex building stock rehabilitation, by taking into account the monument protection guidelines. As a main focus of the research, structural as well as energetic rehabilitation possibilities are analyzed in case of each building by using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Protection, Geographic Information System, Hungary, Jewish Quarter, monument

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17 Energy Saving, Heritage Conserving Renovation Methods in Case of Historical Building Stock

Authors: Viktória Sugár, Attila Talamon, András Horkai, Zoltán Laczó, Gyula Kiss

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The majority of the building stock of Budapest inner districts was built around the turn of the 19th and 20th century. Although the structural stability of the buildings is not questioned, as the load bearing structures are in sufficient state, the secondary structures are aged, resulting unsatisfactory energetic state. The renovation of these historical buildings requires special methodology and technology: their ornamented facades and custom-made fenestration cannot be insulated or exchanged with conventional solutions without damaging the heritage values. The present paper aims to introduce and systematize the possible technological solutions for heritage respecting energy retrofit in case of a historical residential building stock. Through case study, the possible energy saving potential is also calculated using multiple renovation scenarios.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, heritage, renovation, historical building

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16 The Optimization of Sun Collector Parameters

Authors: Hosam Bayoumi Hamuda, István Patkó, András Szeder

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In order to efficiently solve the problems created by the deepening energy crisis affecting Europe and the world, governments cannot neglect the opportunities of using the energy produced by sun collectors. In many of the EU countries there are sun collectors producing heat energy, e.g. in 2011 in the area of EU27 (countries which belong to European Union) + Switzerland altogether 37519126 m2 were operated, which are capable of producing 26.3 GWh heat energy. The energy produced by these sun collectors is utilized at the place of production. In the near future governments will have to focus more on spreading and using sun collectors. Among the complex problems of operating sun collectors, this article deals with determining the optimal tilt angle, directions of sun collectors. We evaluate the contamination of glass surface of sun collector to the produced energy. Our theoretically results are confirmed by laboratory measurements. The purpose of our work is to help users and engineers in determination of optimal operation parameters of sun collectors.

Keywords: Heat Energy, tilt angle, direction of sun collector, contamination of surface

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15 Energy Intensity of a Historical Downtown: Estimating the Energy Demand of a Budapest District

Authors: Michihiro Kita, Viktória Sugár, Attila Talamon, András Horkai

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The dense urban fabric of the 7th district of Budapest -known as the former Jewish Quarter-, contains mainly historical style, multi-story tenement houses with courtyards. The high population density and the unsatisfactory energetic state of the buildings result high energy consumption. As a preliminary survey of a complex rehabilitation plan, the authors aim to determine the energy demand of the area. The energy demand was calculated by analyzing the structure and the energy consumption of each building by using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. The carbon dioxide emission was also calculated, to assess the potential of reducing the present state value by complex structural and energetic rehabilitation. As a main focus of the survey, an energy intensity map has been created about the area.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, CO2, geographic information system (GIS), Hungary, Jewish Quarter, energy intensity map

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14 Investigation of the Grain-Boundary Segregation Transition in the Binary Fe-C Alloy

Authors: Végh Ádám, Mekler Csaba, Dezső András, Szabó Dávid, Stomp Dávid, Kaptay György

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Grain boundary segregation transition (GBST) has been calculated by a thermodynamic model in binary alloys. The method is used on cementite (Fe3C) segregation in base-centered cubic (ferrite) iron (Fe) in the Fe-C binary system. The GBST line is shown in the Fe3C lacking part of the phase diagram with high solvent (Fe) concentration. At a lower solute content (C) or at higher temperature the grain boundary is composed mostly of the solvent atoms (Fe). On higher concentration compared to the GBST line or at lower temperature a phase transformation occurs at the grain boundary, the latter mostly composed of the associates (Fe3C). These low-segregation and high-segregation states are first order interfacial phase transitions of the grain boundary and can be transformed into each other reversibly. These occur when the GBST line is crossed by changing the bulk composition or temperature.

Keywords: segregation, GBST, cementite, Fe-C alloy

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13 Bread Quality Improvement with Special Novel Additives

Authors: Mónika Bartalné-Berceli, Eszter Izsó, Szilveszter Gergely, András Salgó

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Nowadays a significant portion of the Earth's population does not have access to healthy food. Either because they can not afford them or because they do not know which they are. The aim of the VIIth Framework CHANCE project (Nr. 266331) supported by the European Union has been to develop relatively cheap food favorable from nutritional point of view and has acceptable quality for consumers. Within the project we dealt with manufacturing of bread belonging to basic foods. We had examined the enrichment of bread products with four kinds of bran, with a special milling product of grain industry (aleurone flour) and with a soy-based sprouted additive. The applied concentration of the six mentioned additives has been optimized and the physical and sensory properties of the bread products were monitored. The weight of the enriched breads increased slightly, however the volume and height decreased slightly compared to the corresponding data of the control bread. The composition of the final product is favorable affected by these additives having highly preferred composition from nutritional point of view.

Keywords: bread products, brans, YASO, aleurone flour

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12 The Environmental Impact of Geothermal Energy and Opportunities for Its Utilization in Hungary

Authors: István Patkó, András Medve, Katalin Szabad

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According to the International Energy Association the previous principles of the energy sector should be reassessed, in which renewable energy sources have a significant role. We might witness the exchange of roles of countries from importer to exporter, which look for the main resources of market needs. According to the World Energy Outlook 2013, the duration of high oil prices is exceptionally long in the history of the energy market. Forecasts also point at the expected great differences between the regional prices of gas and electric energy. The energy need of the world will grow by its third. two thirds of which will appear in China, India, and South-East Asia, while only 4 per cent of which will be related to OECD countries. Current trends also forecast the growth of the price of energy sources and the emission of glasshouse gases. As a reflection of these forecasts alternative energy sources will gain value, of which geothermic energy is one of the cheapest and most economical. Hungary possesses outstanding resources of geothermic energy. The aim of the study is to research the environmental effects of geothermic energy and the opportunities of its exploitation in Hungary, related to „Horizon 2020” project.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Sustainable Energy, development of geothermic energy in Hungary

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11 Effect of Exercise Training on Body Composition and Metabolic Profile in Older Adults during Cancer Treatment

Authors: Adeline Fontvieille, Hugo Parent-Roberge, Marie-France Langlois, Tamas Fulop, Michel Pavic, Eleonor Riesco

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Introduction: Total lean body mass is reduced during cancer treatment. This loss is called cancer cachexia and is accompanied by a progressive loss of fat mass. In older adults, these body composition changes can have a larger impact on metabolic health, physical autonomy, and cancer survival. Although currently untreatable, exercise training could reduce these effects. Hence, the objective of this pilot study is to investigate if 12 weeks of exercise training during cancer treatment can mitigate the loss of muscle mass and fat mass in older adults. Methods: A total of 40 older adults (65-80 years) with an ongoing treatment for a curable cancer are currently recruited and randomised in two groups: 1) Combined training (EX, n=20) and 2) Control group (CON, n=20). All variables are measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention: Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index), body composition (total fat mass, visceral adipose tissue, total and appendicular muscle mass; DXA), metabolic profile (HDL-C and LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose and insulin levels). Results: Preliminary analyses revealed no impact of exercise training on appendicular muscle mass (p=0,31) and fat mass (p=0,31). Furthermore, total body weight, waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels remained unchanged (all p ≥ 0.79) after 12 weeks of training. However, statistical analyses revealed that triglyceride levels slightly increased (p=0.03), irrespective of the group. Conclusion: Preliminary analyses did not reveal any impact of aerobic and resistance exercise training on body composition in oncogeriatric patients. Furthermore, exercise training seems not efficient to prevent the cancer treatment-related triglyceride levels increase.

Keywords: Cancer, Aging, fat mass, metabolic profile, muscle mass, combined training

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10 Nearly Zero-Energy Regulation and Buildings Built with Prefabricated Technology: The Case of Hungary

Authors: Viktória Sugár, Attila Talamon, András Horkai

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There is an urgent need nowadays to reduce energy demand and the current level of greenhouse gas emission and use renewable energy sources increase in energy efficiency. On the other hand, the European Union (EU) countries are largely dependent on energy imports and are vulnerable to disruption in energy supply, which may, in turn, threaten the functioning of their current economic structure. Residential buildings represent a significant part of the energy consumption of the building stock. Only a small part of the building stock is exchanged every year, thus it is essential to increase the energy efficiency of the existing buildings. Present paper focuses on the buildings built with industrialized technology only, and their opportunities in the boundaries of nearly zero-energy regulation. Current paper shows the emergence of panel construction method, and past and present of the ‘panel’ problem in Hungary with a short outlook to Europe. The study shows as well as the possibilities for meeting the nearly zero and cost optimized requirements for residential buildings by analyzing the renovation scenarios of an existing residential typology.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Budapest, industrialized technology, nearly zero-energy buildings

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9 Rule Based Architecture for Collaborative Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design Optimisation

Authors: Nickolay Jelev, Andy Keane, Carren Holden, András Sóbester

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In aircraft design, the jump from the conceptual to preliminary design stage introduces a level of complexity which cannot be realistically handled by a single optimiser, be that a human (chief engineer) or an algorithm. The design process is often partitioned along disciplinary lines, with each discipline given a level of autonomy. This introduces a number of challenges including, but not limited to: coupling of design variables; coordinating disciplinary teams; handling of large amounts of analysis data; reaching an acceptable design within time constraints. A number of classical Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) architectures exist in academia specifically designed to address these challenges. Their limited use in the industrial aircraft design process has inspired the authors of this paper to develop an alternative strategy based on well established ideas from Decision Support Systems. The proposed rule based architecture sacrifices possibly elusive guarantees of convergence for an attractive return in simplicity. The method is demonstrated on analytical and aircraft design test cases and its performance is compared to a number of classical distributed MDO architectures.

Keywords: Decision Support System, Aircraft design, Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation, Rule Based Architecture

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8 Analytical Solution of the Boundary Value Problem of Delaminated Doubly-Curved Composite Shells

Authors: Andras Szekrenyes

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Delamination is one of the major failure modes in laminated composite structures. Delamination tips are mostly captured by spatial numerical models in order to predict crack growth. This paper presents some mechanical models of delaminated composite shells based on shallow shell theories. The mechanical fields are based on a third-order displacement field in terms of the through-thickness coordinate of the laminated shell. The undelaminated and delaminated parts are captured by separate models and the continuity and boundary conditions are also formulated in a general way providing a large size boundary value problem. The system of differential equations is solved by the state space method for an elliptic delaminated shell having simply supported edges. The comparison of the proposed and a numerical model indicates that the primary indicator of the model is the deflection, the secondary is the widthwise distribution of the energy release rate. The model is promising and suitable to determine accurately the J-integral distribution along the delamination front. Based on the proposed model it is also possible to develop finite elements which are able to replace the computationally expensive spatial models of delaminated structures.

Keywords: J-integral, levy method, third-order shell theory, state space solution

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7 Analytical and Numerical Investigation of Friction-Restricted Growth and Buckling of Elastic Fibers

Authors: Peter L. Varkonyi, Andras A. Sipos

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The quasi-static growth of elastic fibers is studied in the presence of distributed contact with an immobile surface, subject to isotropic dry or viscous friction. Unlike classical problems of elastic stability modelled by autonomous dynamical systems with multiple time scales (slowly varying bifurcation parameter, and fast system dynamics), this problem can only be formulated as a non-autonomous system without time scale separation. It is found that the fibers initially converge to a trivial, straight configuration, which is later replaced by divergence reminiscent of buckling phenomena. In order to capture the loss of stability, a new definition of exponential stability against infinitesimal perturbations for systems defined over finite time intervals is developed. A semi-analytical method for the determination of the critical length based on eigenvalue analysis is proposed. The post-critical behavior of the fibers is studied numerically by using variational methods. The emerging post-critical shapes and the asymptotic behavior as length goes to infinity are identified for simple spatial distributions of growth. Comparison with physical experiments indicates reasonable accuracy of the theoretical model. Some applications from modeling plant root growth to the design of soft manipulators in robotics are briefly discussed.

Keywords: Growth, buckling, friction, elastica

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6 The Determination of the Phosphorous Solubility in the Iron by the Function of the Other Components

Authors: Andras Dezső, Peter Baumli, George Kaptay

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The phosphorous is the important components in the steels, because it makes the changing of the mechanical properties and possibly modifying the structure. The phosphorous can be create the Fe3P compounds, what is segregated in the ferrite grain boundary in the intervals of the nano-, or microscale. This intermetallic compound is decreasing the mechanical properties, for example it makes the blue brittleness which means that the brittle created by the segregated particles at 200 ... 300°C. This work describes the phosphide solubility by the other components effect. We make calculations for the Ni, Mo, Cu, S, V, C, Si, Mn, and the Cr elements by the Thermo-Calc software. We predict the effects by approximate functions. The binary Fe-P system has a solubility line, which has a determinating equation. The result is below: lnwo = -3,439 – 1.903/T where the w0 means the weight percent of the maximum soluted concentration of the phosphorous, and the T is the temperature in Kelvin. The equation show that the P more soluble element when the temperature increasing. The nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, manganese, and the chromium make dependence to the maximum soluted concentration. These functions are more dependent by the elements concentration, which are lower when we put these elements in our steels. The copper, sulphur and carbon do not make effect to the phosphorous solubility. We predict that all of cases the maximum solubility concentration increases when the temperature more and more high. Between 473K and 673 K, in the phase diagram, these systems contain mostly two or three phase eutectoid, and the singe phase, ferritic intervals. In the eutectoid areas the ferrite, the iron-phosphide, and the metal (III)-phospide are in the equilibrium. In these modelling we predicted that which elements are good for avoid the phosphide segregation or not. These datas are important when we make or choose the steels, where the phosphide segregation stopping our possibilities.

Keywords: steel, segregation, phosphorous, thermo-calc software

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5 The Effects of Inoculation and N Fertilization on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Seed Yield and Protein Concentration under Drought Stress

Authors: Oqba Basal, András Szabó

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Using mineral fertilization is increasing worldwide, as it is claimed to be majorly responsible for achieving high yields; however, the negative impacts of mineral fertilization on soil and environment are becoming more obvious, with alternative methods being more necessary and applicable, especially with the current climatic changes which have imposed serious abiotic stresses, such as drought. An experiment was made during 2017 growing season in Debrecen, Hungary to investigate the effects of inoculation and N fertilization on the seed yield and protein concentration of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivar (Panonia Kincse) under three different irrigation regimes: severe drought stress (SD), moderate drought stress (MD) and control with no drought stress (ND). Three N fertilizer rates were applied: no N fertilizer (0 N), 35 kg ha⁻¹ of N fertilizer (35 N) and 105 kg ha⁻¹ of N fertilizer (105 N). Half of the seeds in each treatment was inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant, and the other half was not inoculated. The results showed significant differences in the seed yield associated with inoculation, irrigation and the interaction between them, whereas there were no significant differences in the seed yield associated with fertilization alone or in interaction with inoculation or irrigation or both. When seeds were inoculated, yield was increased when (35 N) was applied compared to (0 N) but not significantly; however, the high rate of N fertilizer (105 N) reduced the yield to a level even less than (0 N). When seeds were not inoculated, the highest rate of N increased the yield the most compared to the other two N fertilizer rates whenever the drought was present (moderate or severe). Under severe drought stress, inoculation was positively and significantly correlated with yield; however, adding N fertilizer increased the yield of uninoculated plants compared to the inoculated ones, regardless of the rate of N fertilizer. Protein concentration in the seeds was significantly affected by irrigation and by fertilization, but not by inoculation. Protein concentration increased as the N fertilization rate increased, regardless of the inoculation or irrigation treatments; moreover, increasing the N rate reduced the correlation coefficient of protein concentration with the irrigation. It was concluded that adding N fertilizer is not always recommended, especially when seeds are inoculated before being sown; however, it is very important under severe drought stress to sustain yield. Enhanced protein concentrations could be achieved by applying N fertilization, whether the seeds were pre-inoculated or not.

Keywords: soybean, drought stress, N fertilization, protein concentration

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4 Effective Medium Approximations for Modeling Ellipsometric Responses from Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP) Tribofilms Formed on Sliding Surfaces

Authors: Maria Miranda-Medina, Sara Salopek, Andras Vernes, Martin Jech

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Sliding lubricated surfaces induce the formation of tribofilms that reduce friction, wear and prevent large-scale damage of contact parts. Engine oils and lubricants use antiwear and antioxidant additives such as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) from where protective tribofilms are formed by degradation. The ZDDP tribofilms are described as a two-layer structure composed of inorganic polymer material. On the top surface, the long chain polyphosphate is a zinc phosphate and in the bulk, the short chain polyphosphate is a mixed Fe/Zn phosphate with a gradient concentration. The polyphosphate chains are partially adherent to steel surface through a sulfide and work as anti-wear pads. In this contribution, ZDDP tribofilms formed on gray cast iron surfaces are studied. The tribofilms were generated in a reciprocating sliding tribometer with a piston ring-cylinder liner configuration. Fully formulated oil of SAE grade 5W-30 was used as lubricant during two tests at 40Hz and 50Hz. For the estimation of the tribofilm thicknesses, spectroscopic ellipsometry was used due to its high accuracy and non-destructive nature. Ellipsometry works under an optical principle where the change in polarisation of light reflected by the surface, is associated with the refractive index of the surface material or to the thickness of the layer deposited on top. Ellipsometrical responses derived from tribofilms are modelled by effective medium approximation (EMA), which includes the refractive index of involved materials, homogeneity of the film and thickness. The materials composition was obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies, where the presence of ZDDP, O and C was confirmed. From EMA models it was concluded that tribofilms formed at 40 Hz are thicker and more homogeneous than the ones formed at 50 Hz. In addition, the refractive index of each material is mixed to derive an effective refractive index that describes the optical composition of the tribofilm and exhibits a maximum response in the UV range, being a characteristic of glassy semitransparent films.

Keywords: effective medium approximation, reciprocating sliding tribometer, spectroscopic ellipsometry, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate

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3 Preparation and Characterization of CO-Tolerant Electrocatalyst for PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: Irina Borbath, Istvan Bakos, Andras Tompos, Ádám Vass, Zoltán Pászti, István Sajó

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Important requirements for the anode side electrocatalysts of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are CO-tolerance, stability and corrosion resistance. Carbon is still the most common material for electrocatalyst supports due to its low cost, high electrical conductivity and high surface area, which can ensure good dispersion of the Pt. However, carbon becomes degraded at higher potentials and it causes problem during application. Therefore it is important to explore alternative materials with improved stability. Molybdenum-oxide can improve the CO-tolerance of the Pt/C catalysts, but it is prone to leach in acidic electrolyte. The Mo was stabilized by isovalent substitution of molybdenum into the rutile phase titanium-dioxide lattice, achieved by a modified multistep sol-gel synthesis method optimized for preparation of Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite. High degree of Mo incorporation into the rutile lattice was developed. The conductivity and corrosion resistance across the anticipated potential/pH window was ensured by mixed oxide – activated carbon composite. Platinum loading was carried out using NaBH4 and ethylene glycol; platinum content was 40 wt%. The electrocatalyst was characterized by both material investigating methods (i.e. XRD, TEM, EDS, XPS techniques) and electrochemical methods (cyclic-voltammetry, COads stripping voltammetry, hydrogen oxidation reaction on rotating disc electrode). The electrochemical activity of the sample was compared to commercial 40 wt% Pt/C (Quintech) and PtRu/C (Quintech, Pt= 20 wt%, Ru= 10 wt%) references. Enhanced CO tolerance of the electrocatalyst prepared using the Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite material was evidenced by the appearance of a CO-oxidation related 'pre-peak' and by the pronounced shift of the maximum of the main CO oxidation peak towards less positive potential compared to Pt/C. Fuel cell polarization measurements were also carried out using Bio-Logic and Paxitech FCT-150S test device. All details on the design, preparation, characterization and testing by both electrochemical measurements and fuel cell test device of electrocatalyst supported on Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite material will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: Composite Material, anode electrocatalyst, CO-tolerance, TiMoOx

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2 The Effects of Drought and Nitrogen on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Physiology and Yield

Authors: Oqba Basal, András Szabó

Abstract:

Legume crops are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic relation with specific bacteria, which allows the use of the mineral nitrogen-fertilizer to be reduced, or even excluded, resulting in more profit for the farmers and less pollution for the environment. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important legumes with its high content of both protein and oil. However, it is recommended to combine the two nitrogen sources under stress conditions in order to overcome its negative effects. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that increasingly limits soybean yields. A precise rate of mineral nitrogen under drought conditions is not confirmed, as it depends on many factors; soybean yield-potential and soil-nitrogen content to name a few. An experiment was conducted during 2017 growing season in Debrecen, Hungary to investigate the effects of nitrogen source on the physiology and the yield of the soybean cultivar 'Boglár'. Three N-fertilizer rates including no N-fertilizer (0 N), 35 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (35 N) and 105 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (105 N) were applied under three different irrigation regimes; severe drought stress (SD), moderate drought stress (MD) and control with no drought stress (ND). Half of the seeds in each treatment were pre-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant. The overall results showed significant differences associated with fertilization and irrigation, but not with inoculation. Increasing N rate was mostly accompanied with increased chlorophyll content and leaf area index, whereas it positively affected the plant height only when the drought was waived off. Plant height was the lowest under severe drought, regardless of inoculation and N-fertilizer application and rate. Inoculation increased the yield when there was no drought, and a low rate of N-fertilizer increased the yield furthermore; however, the high rate of N-fertilizer decreased the yield to a level even less than the inoculated control. On the other hand, the yield of non-inoculated plants increased as the N-fertilizer rate increased. Under drought conditions, adding N-fertilizer increased the yield of the non-inoculated plants compared to their inoculated counterparts; moreover, the high rate of N-fertilizer resulted in the best yield. Regardless of inoculation, the mean yield of the three fertilization rates was better when the water amount increased. It was concluded that applying N-fertilizer to provide the nitrogen needed by soybean plants, with the absence of N2-fixation process, is very important. Moreover, adding relatively high rate of N-fertilizer is very important under severe drought stress to alleviate the drought negative effects. Further research to recommend the best N-fertilizer rate to inoculated soybean under drought stress conditions should be executed.

Keywords: Yield, inoculation, drought stress, N-fertilizer, soybean physiology

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1 Controlled Synthesis of Pt₃Sn-SnOx/C Electrocatalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Péter Németh, Dorottya Guban, Irina Borbath, Istvan Bakos, Andras Tompos

Abstract:

One of the greatest challenges of the implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is to find active and durable electrocatalysts. The cell performance is always limited by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode since it is at least 6 orders of magnitude slower than the hydrogen oxidation on the anode. Therefore high loading of Pt is required. Catalyst corrosion is also more significant on the cathode, especially in case of mobile applications, where rapid changes of loading have to be tolerated. Pt-Sn bulk alloys and SnO2-decorated Pt3Sn nanostructures are among the most studied bimetallic systems for fuel cell applications. Exclusive formation of supported Sn-Pt alloy phases with different Pt/Sn ratios can be achieved by using controlled surface reactions (CSRs) between hydrogen adsorbed on Pt sites and tetraethyl tin. In this contribution our results for commercial and a home-made 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts modified by tin anchoring via CSRs are presented. The parent Pt/C catalysts were synthesized by modified NaBH4-assisted ethylene-glycol reduction method using ethanol as a solvent, which resulted either in dispersed and highly stable Pt nanoparticles or evenly distributed raspberry-like agglomerates according to the chosen synthesis parameters. The 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts prepared that way showed improved electrocatalytic performance in the ORR and stability in comparison to the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C catalysts. Then, in order to obtain Sn-Pt/C catalysts with Pt/Sn= 3 ratio, the Pt/C catalysts were modified with tetraethyl tin (SnEt4) using three and five consecutive tin anchoring periods. According to in situ XPS studies in case of catalysts with highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles, pre-treatment in hydrogen even at 170°C resulted in complete reduction of the ionic tin to Sn0. No evidence of the presence of SnO2 phase was found by means of the XRD and EDS analysis. These results demonstrate that the method of CSRs is a powerful tool to create Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles exclusively, without tin deposition onto the carbon support. On the contrary, the XPS results revealed that the tin-modified catalysts with raspberry-like Pt agglomerates always contained a fraction of non-reducible tin oxide. At the same time, they showed increased activity and long-term stability in the ORR than Pt/C, which was assigned to the presence of SnO2 in close proximity/contact with Pt-Sn alloy phase. It has been demonstrated that the content and dispersion of the fcc Pt3Sn phase within the electrocatalysts can be controlled by tuning the reaction conditions of CSRs. The bimetallic catalysts displayed an outstanding performance in the ORR. The preparation of a highly dispersed 20Pt/C catalyst permits to decrease the Pt content without relevant decline in the electrocatalytic performance of the catalysts.

Keywords: oxygen reduction reaction, anode catalyst, cathode catalyst, controlled surface reactions, PtSn/C electrocatalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 117