Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 88

Search results for: toluene

88 Toluene Methylation with Methanol Using Synthesized HZSM-5 Catalysts Modified by Silylation and Dealumination

Authors: Weerachit Pulsawas, Thirasak Rirksomboon

Abstract:

Due to its abundance from catalytic reforming and thermal cracking of naphtha, toluene could become more value-added compound if it is converted into xylenes, particularly p-xylene, via toluene methylation. Attractively, toluene methylation with methanol is an alternative route to produce xylenes in the absence of other hydrocarbon by-products for which appropriate catalyst would be utilized. In this study, HZSM-5 catalysts with Si/Al molar ratio of 100 were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment and modified by either chemical liquid deposition using tetraethyl-orthosilicate or dealumination with steam. The modified catalysts were characterized by several techniques and tested for their catalytic activity in a continuous down-flow fixed bed reactor. Various operating conditions including WHSV’s of 5 to 20 h-1, reaction temperatures of 400 to 500 °C, and toluene-to-methanol molar ratios (T/M) of 1 to 4 were investigated for attaining possible highest p-xylene selectivity. As a result, the catalytic activity of parent HZSM-5 with temperature of 400 °C, T/M of 4 and WHSV of 24 h-1 showed 65.36% in p-xylene selectivity and 11.90% in toluene conversion as demonstrated for 4 h on stream.

Keywords: toluene methylaion, HZSM-5, silylation, dealumination

Procedia PDF
87 Dinitrotoluene and Trinitrotoluene Measuring in Double-Base Solid Propellants

Authors: Z. H. Safari, M. Anbia, G. H. Kouzegari, R. Amirkhani

Abstract:

Toluene and Nitro derivatives are widely used in industry particularly in various defense applications. Tri-nitro-toluene derivative is a powerful basic explosive material that is a basis upon which to compare equivalent explosive power of similar materials. The aim of this paper is to measure the explosive power of these hazardous substances in fuels having different shelf-life and therefore optimizing their storage and maintenance. The methodology involves measuring the amounts of di- nitro- toluene and tri-nitro-toluene in the aged samples at 90 ° C by gas chromatography. Results show no significant difference in the concentration of the TNT compound over a given time while there was a significant difference in DNT compound over the same period. The underlying reason is attributed to the simultaneous production of the material with destruction of stabilizer.

Keywords: dinitrotoluene, trinitrotoluene, double-base solid propellants, artificial aging

Procedia PDF
86 Adsorption of Toluene from Aqueous Solutions by Porous Clay Hetero-Structures

Authors: F. Asadi, M. M. Zerafat, S. Sabbaghi

Abstract:

Among water pollutants, volatile organic compounds can cause severe long lasting effects not only on biotic organism but also on human health. As a result, this material group has attracted more attention in recent years. Adsorption is one of the common processes for remediation of aromatic compounds. In this study, porous clay hetrostructers (PCHs) are synthesized through gallery template approach and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and dodecylamine used as template and co-template, respectively. Porous clay is characterized by XRD and FTIR. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of various adsorption parameters like adsorbent dosage, pH, initial concentration and contact time. It was found that by increasing adsorbent dosage from 0.5gr/lit to 4gr/lit, toluene removal is increased from 34% to 88.1%. Increasing contact time and decreasing the pH of aqueous solution increases toluene removal efficiency.

Keywords: adsorption, clay, nano-porous, toluene

Procedia PDF
85 Bioremediation as a Treatment of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wastewater

Authors: Hen Friman, Alex Schechter, Yeshayahu Nitzan, Rivka Cahan

Abstract:

The treatment of aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater resulting from oil spills and chemical manufactories is becoming a key concern in many modern countries. Benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BETX) contaminate groundwater as well as soil. These compounds have an acute effect on human health and are known to be carcinogenic. Conventional removal of these toxic materials involves separation and burning of the wastes, however, the cost of chemical treatment is very high and energy consuming. Bioremediation methods for removal of toxic organic compounds constitute an attractive alternative to the conventional chemical or physical techniques. Bioremediation methods use microorganisms to reduce the concentration and toxicity of various chemical pollutants Toluene is biodegradable both aerobically and anaerobically, it can be growth inhibitory to microorganisms at elevated concentrations, even to those species that can use it as a substrate. In this research culture of Pseudomonas putida was grown in bath bio-reactor (BBR) with toluene 100 mg/l as a single carbon source under constant voltage of 125 mV, 250 mV and 500 mV. The culture grown in BBR reached to 0.8 OD660nm while the control culture that grown without external voltage reached only to 0.6 OD660nm. The residual toluene concentration after 147 h, in the BBR operated under external voltage (125 mV) was 22 % on average, while in the control BBR it was 81 % on average.

Keywords: bioremediation, aromatic hydrocarbons, BETX, toluene, pseudomonas putida

Procedia PDF
84 Cracking of Tar Analogue in N₂ Carrier Gas Using Non-Thermal Plasma Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

Authors: Faisal Saleem, Kui Zhang, Adam Harvey

Abstract:

The role of N₂ carrier gas towards the conversion of tar analogue was studied in a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The important parameters such as power (5-40W), residence time (1.41-4.23 s), concentration (20-82 g/Nm³), and temperature (Ambient-400°C) were explored. The present study demonstrated that plasma power and residence time played a key role in the decomposition of toluene, and almost complete removal of toluene was observed at 40w and 4.23 s. H₂ is obtained as a major gaseous product with a maximum selectivity of 40% along with some lighter hydrocarbons (5.5%). The removal efficiency of toluene slightly decreases with increasing the concentration of toluene from 20 g/Nm³ to 82 g/Nm³. The solid residue formation takes place inside the plasma reactor. The selectivity of LHC (lower hydrocarbons) increased up to 15% by increasing the temperature to 400°C. Introducing H₂ to the gas at elevated temperature opens up new reaction routes to raise the selectivity to lower hydrocarbons. The selectivity to methane reaches to 42% using 35% H₂ at 400°C and total selectivity of LHC increases to 57%.

Keywords: biomass gasification tar, non-thermal plasma, dielectric barrier discharge, residence time

Procedia PDF
83 Potassium Acetate - Coconut Shell Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Benzene and Toluene: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Jibril Mohammed, Usman Dadum Hamza, Abdulsalam Surajudeen, Baba Yahya Danjuma

Abstract:

Considerable concerns have been raised over the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water. In this study, coconut shell based activated carbon was produced through chemical activation with potassium acetate (PAAC) for adsorption of benzene and toluene. The porous carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proximate analysis, and ultimate analysis and nitrogen adsorption tests. Adsorption of benzene and toluene on the porous carbons were conducted at varying concentrations (50-250 mg/l). The high BET surface area of 622 m2/g and highly heteroporous adsorbent prepared gave good removal efficiencies of 79 and 82% for benzene and toluene respectively, with 32% yield. Equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms with all the models having R2 > 0.94. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm, with maximum adsorption capacity of 192 mg/g and 227 mg/g for benzene and toluene respectively. The Webber and Chakkravorti equilibrium parameter (RL) values are between 0 and 1 confirming the favourability of the Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The PAAC produced can be used effectively to salvage environmental pollution problems posed by VOCs through a sustainable process.

Keywords: adsorption, equilibrium and kinetics studies, potassium acetate, water treatment

Procedia PDF
82 The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Ambient Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene Concentrations at an International Airport in South Africa

Authors: Ryan S. Johnson, Raeesa Moolla

Abstract:

Airports are known air pollution hotspots due to the variety of fuel driven activities that take place within the confines of them. As such, people working within airports are particularly vulnerable to exposure of hazardous air pollutants, including hundreds of aromatic hydrocarbons, and more specifically a group of compounds known as BTEX (viz. benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes). These compounds have been identified as being harmful to human and environmental health. Through the use of passive and active sampling methods, the spatial and temporal variability of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene concentrations within the international airport was investigated. Two sampling campaigns were conducted. In order to quantify the temporal variability of concentrations within the airport, an active sampling strategy using the Synspec Spectras Gas Chromatography 955 instrument was used. Furthermore, a passive sampling campaign, using Radiello Passive Samplers was used to quantify the spatial variability of these compounds. In addition, meteorological factors are known to affect the dispersal and dilution of pollution. Thus a Davis Pro-Weather 2 station was utilised in order to measure in situ weather parameters (viz. wind speed, wind direction and temperature). Results indicated that toluene varied on a daily, temporal scale considerably more than other concentrations. Toluene further exhibited a strong correlation with regards to the meteorological parameters, inferring that toluene was affected by these parameters to a greater degree than the other pollutants. The passive sampling campaign revealed BTEXtotal concentrations ranged between 12.95 – 124.04 µg m-3. From the results obtained it is clear that benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene concentrations are heterogeneously spatially dispersed within the airport. Due to the slow wind speeds recorded over the passive sampling campaign (1.13 m s-1.), the hotspots were located close to the main concentration sources. The most significant hotspot was located over the main apron of the airport. It is recommended that further, extensive investigations into the seasonality of hazardous air pollutants at the airport is necessary in order for sound conclusions to be made about the temporal and spatial distribution of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene concentrations within the airport.

Keywords: airport, air pollution hotspot, BTEX concentrations, meteorology

Procedia PDF
81 Improvement of Egyptian Vacuum Distillates by Solvent Dewaxing

Authors: Ehssan M. R. Nassef

Abstract:

De-waxing of vacuum distillates by using solvent was investigated in the present study. The present work deals with studying solvent dewaxing system which have been developed to give better dewaxing performance with respect to the important factors in the choice of solvents which are good solubility of oil in the solvent and low solubility of wax in the solvent. In this study, solvent dewaxing process using Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) and toluene are used for Egyptian vacuum distillates using two types of distillates. The effect of varying the composition of(MEK to toluene) on the percent yield of the oil, percent of wax, pour point, refractive index at 20 and 70°C, viscosity at 40 and 100°C, viscosity index and specific gravity of the oil produced for the two types of distillates (I & II) were evaluated. In the present study, the operating conditions of solvent dewaxing using MEK toluene mixture achieved the best pour point at -15°C for distillate I at (1:1) solvent composition mixture. At the same ratio of MEK to toluene the best specific gravity of oil produced changed from 0.871 to 0.8802, with refractive index of 1.84. Percent yield of 65% for oil was obtained. The results for distillate II, of higher specific gravity, are comparatively higher than those for distillate I. The effect of temperature was also investigated and the best temperature was -20°C.

Keywords: dewaxing, solvent dewaxing, pour point, lubricating oil production, wax

Procedia PDF
80 Comparative Analysis of Enzyme Activities Concerned in Decomposition of Toluene

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

In recent years, pollutions of the environment by toxic substances become a serious problem. While there are many methods of environmental clean-up, the methods by microorganisms are considered to be reasonable and safety for environment. Compost is known that it catabolize the meladorous substancess in its production process, however the mechanism of its catabolizing system is not known yet. In the catabolization process, organic matters turn into inorganic by the released enzymes from lots of microorganisms which live in compost. In other words, the cooperative of activated enzymes in the compost decomposes malodorous substances. Thus, clarifying the interaction among enzymes is important for revealing the catabolizing system of meladorous substance in compost. In this study, we utilized statistical method to infer the interaction among enzymes. We developed a method which combined partial correlation with cross correlation to estimate the relevance between enzymes especially from time series data of few variables. Because of using cross correlation, we can estimate not only the associative structure but also the reaction pathway. We applied the developed method to the enzyme measured data and estimated an interaction among the enzymes in decomposition mechanism of toluene.

Keywords: enzyme activities, comparative analysis, compost, toluene

Procedia PDF
79 Toxicological Validation during the Development of New Catalytic Systems Using Air/Liquid Interface Cell Exposure

Authors: M. Al Zallouha, Y. Landkocz, J. Brunet, R. Cousin, J. M. Halket, E. Genty, P. J. Martin, A. Verdin, D. Courcot, S. Siffert, P. Shirali, S. Billet

Abstract:

Toluene is one of the most used Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the industry. Amongst VOCs, Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX) emitted into the atmosphere have a major and direct impact on human health. It is, therefore, necessary to minimize emissions directly at source. Catalytic oxidation is an industrial technique which provides remediation efficiency in the treatment of these organic compounds. However, during operation, the catalysts can release some compounds, called byproducts, more toxic than the original VOCs. The catalytic oxidation of a gas stream containing 1000ppm of toluene on Pd/α-Al2O3 can release a few ppm of benzene, according to the operating temperature of the catalyst. The development of new catalysts must, therefore, include chemical and toxicological validation phases. In this project, A549 human lung cells were exposed in air/liquid interface (Vitrocell®) to gas mixtures derived from the oxidation of toluene with a catalyst of Pd/α-Al2O3. Both exposure concentrations (i.e. 10 and 100% of catalytic emission) resulted in increased gene expression of Xenobiotics Metabolising Enzymes (XME) (CYP2E1 CYP2S1, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, and NQO1). Some of these XMEs are known to be induced by polycyclic organic compounds conventionally not searched during the development of catalysts for VOCs degradation. The increase in gene expression suggests the presence of undetected compounds whose toxicity must be assessed before the adoption of new catalyst. This enhances the relevance of toxicological validation of such systems before scaling-up and marketing.

Keywords: BTEX toxicity, air/liquid interface cell exposure, Vitrocell®, catalytic oxidation

Procedia PDF
78 BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Degradation by Cold Plasma

Authors: Anelise Leal Vieira Cubas, Marina de Medeiros Machado, Marília de Medeiros Machado

Abstract:

The volatile organic compounds - BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene) petroleum derivatives, have high rates of toxicity, which may carry consequences for human health, biota and environment. In this direction, this paper proposes a method of treatment of these compounds by using corona discharge plasma technology. The efficiency of the method was tested by analyzing samples of BTEX after going through a plasma reactor by gas chromatography method. The results show that the optimal residence time of the sample in the reactor was 8 minutes.

Keywords: BTEX, degradation, cold plasma, ecological sciences

Procedia PDF
77 Hysteresis Effect in Organometallic Perovskite Solar Cells with Mesoscopic NiO as a Hole Transport Layer

Authors: D. C. Asebiah, D. Saranin, S. Karazhanov, A. R. Tameev, M. Kah

Abstract:

In this paper, the mesoscopic NiO was used as a hole transport layer in the inverted planar organometallic hybrid perovskite solar cell to study the effect of hysteresis. The devices we fabricated have the structures Fluorine Tin Oxide (FTO)/mesoscopic NiO/perovskite/[6,6]-phenyl C₆₁-butyric acid methyl ester (PC₆₁BM) photovoltaic device. The perovskite solar cell was done by toluene air (TLA) method and horn sonication for the dispersion of the NiO nanoparticles in deionized water. The power conversion efficiency was 12.07% under 1.5 AM illumination. We report hysteresis in the in current-voltage dependence of the solar cells with mesoscopic NiO as a hole transport layer.

Keywords: perovskite, mesoscopic, hysteresis, toluene air

Procedia PDF
76 Ta-doped Nb2O5: Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity

Authors: Mahendrasingh J. Pawar, M. D. Gaoner

Abstract:

Ta-doped Nb2O5 (Ta content 0.5-2% mole fraction) nanoparticles in the range of 20-40 nm were synthesized by combustion technique. The crystalline phase, morphology and size of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The specific surface area of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption (BET analysis). The undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles were found to have the particles size in the range of 50−80 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the samples was characterized by degrading 20 mg/L toluene under UV−Vis irradiation. The results show that the Ta-doped Nb2O5 nanoparticles exhibit a significant increase in photocatalytic performance over the undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles, and the Nb2O5 nanoparticles doped with 1.5% Ta and calcined at 450°C show the best photocatalytic performance.

Keywords: Nb2O5, Ta-doped Nb2O5, photodegradation of Toluene, combustion method

Procedia PDF
75 Efficiency of Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene and Benzene by a Photocatalytic Textile

Authors: Z. Younsi, L. Koufi, H. Gidik, D. Lahem, W. Wim Thielemans

Abstract:

This study investigated the efficiency of photocatalytic textile to remove the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in indoor air. Functionalization of the fabric was achieved by adding a photocatalyst material active in the visible spectrum of light. This is a modified titanium dioxide photocatalyst doped with non-metal ions synthesized via sol-gel process, which should allow the degradation of the pollutants – ideally into H₂O and CO₂ – using photocatalysis based on visible light and no additionnal external energy source. The visible light photocatalytic activity of textile sample was evaluated for toluene and benzene gaseous removal, under the visible irradiation, in a test chamber with the total volume of 1m³. The suggested approach involves experimental investigations of the global behavior of the photocatalytic textile. The experimental apparatus permits simultaneous measurements of the degradation of pollutants and presence of eventually formed by-products. It also allows imposing and measuring concentration variations with respect to selected time scales in the test chamber. The observed results showed that the amount of TiO₂ incorporation improved the photocatalytic efficiency of functionalized textile significantly under visible light. The results obtained with such textile are very promising.

Keywords: benzene, C₆H₆, efficiency, photocatalytic degradation, textile fabrics, titanium dioxide, TiO₂, toluene, C₇H₈, visible light

Procedia PDF
74 Batch and Fixed-Bed Studies of Ammonia Treated Coconut Shell Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Benzene and Toluene

Authors: Jibril Mohammed, Usman Dadum Hamza, Muhammad Idris Misau, Baba Yahya Danjuma, Yusuf Bode Raji, Abdulsalam Surajudeen

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been reported to be responsible for many acute and chronic health effects and environmental degradations such as global warming. In this study, a renewable and low-cost coconut shell activated carbon (PHAC) was synthesized and treated with ammonia (PHAC-AM) to improve its hydrophobicity and affinity towards VOCs. Removal efficiencies and adsorption capacities of the ammonia treated activated carbon (PHAC-AM) for benzene and toluene were carried out through batch and fixed-bed studies respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption isotherms were tested for the adsorption process and the experimental data were best fitted by Langmuir model and least fitted by Tempkin model; the favourability and suitability of fitness were validated by equilibrium parameter (RL) and the root square mean deviation (RSMD). Judging by the deviation of the predicted values from the experimental values, pseudo-second-order kinetic model best described the adsorption kinetics than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for the two VOCs on PHAC and PHAC-AM. In the fixed-bed study, the effect of initial VOC concentration, bed height and flow rate on benzene and toluene adsorption were studied. The highest bed capacities of 77.30 and 69.40 mg/g were recorded for benzene and toluene respectively; at 250 mg/l initial VOC concentration, 2.5 cm bed height and 4.5 ml/min flow rate. The results of this study revealed that ammonia treated activate carbon (PHAC-AM) is a sustainable adsorbent for treatment of VOCs in polluted waters.

Keywords: volatile organic compounds, equilibrium and kinetics studies, batch and fixed bed study, bio-based activated carbon

Procedia PDF
73 Measurement and Prediction of Speed of Sound in Petroleum Fluids

Authors: S. Ghafoori, A. Al-Harbi, B. Al-Ajmi, A. Al-Shaalan, A. Al-Ajmi, M. Ali Juma

Abstract:

Seismic methods play an important role in the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, the success of the method depends strongly on the reliability of the measured or predicted information regarding the velocity of sound in the media. Speed of sound has been used to study the thermodynamic properties of fluids. In this study, experimental data are reported and analyzed on the speed of sound in toluene and octane binary mixture. Three-factor three-level Box-Benhkam design is used to determine the significance of each factor, the synergetic effects of the factors, and the most significant factors on speed of sound. The developed mathematical model and statistical analysis provided a critical analysis of the simultaneous interactive effects of the independent variables indicating that the developed quadratic models were highly accurate and predictive.

Keywords: experimental design, octane, speed of sound, toluene

Procedia PDF
72 A Novel CeO2-WOx-TiO2 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Model Fuel Oil

Authors: Corazon Virtudazo-Ligaray, Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Meng-Wei Wan, Ming-Chun Lu

Abstract:

A series of ternary compound catalyst with nanocomposites of ceria, tungsten trioxide and titania (CeO2-WOx-TiO2) with different WOx mole fraction (10, 20, 30, 40) have been synthesized by sol-gel method. These nanocomposite catalysts were used for oxidative extractive desulfurization of model fuel oil, which were composed of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in toluene. The 30% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 was used as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. These catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDS to determine the morphology. Catalytic oxidation results show that the catalysts have high selectivity in refractory fuel oil with organo sulfur contents. The oxidative removal of DBT increases as the HPW content increases. The nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 also shows high selectivity for DBT oxidation in the DBT–toluene acetonitrile system. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization ratio of model fuel reached to 100% with nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 (35-30-35) mol percent catalyst nanocomposition under 333 K in 30 minutes.

Keywords: ceria, oxidative desulfurization, titania, phosphotungstic acid

Procedia PDF
71 Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of New Series of Oil Sorbers Based on Maleate Esters

Authors: Nora A. Hamad, Ayman M. Atta, Adel A. H. Abdel-Rahman

Abstract:

Two malice anhydride esters were prepared using long chain aliphatic alcohols (C8H17OH and C12H25OH, 1:1 mole ratio). Three series of crosslinked homo and copolymers of maleate esters with octadecyl acrylate and acrylic acid were prepared respectively through suspension copolymerization. The monomers were mixed with 0.02 Wt% of BP initiator, PVA 1% (170 ml for each 100g of monomers) and different weight ratios of DVB crosslinked (1% and 4%) in cyclohexane. The prepared crosslinked homo and copolymers were characterized by SEM, TGA and FTIR spectroscopic analyses. The prepared polymers were coated onto poly (ethylene terephethalate) nonwoven fiber (NWPET). The effect of copolymerization feed composition, crosslinker wt% and reaction media or solvent on swelling properties of crosslinked polymers were studied through the oil absorption tests in toluene and 10% of diluted crude oil with toluene.

Keywords: acrylic acid, crosslinked copolymers, maleate ester, poly(ethylene terephethalate) nonwoven fiber (NWPET), oil absorbency, octadecyl acrylat

Procedia PDF
70 An Occupational Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes: A Case Study of Informal Traders in a Metro Centre (Taxi Rank) in South Africa

Authors: Makhosazana Dubazana

Abstract:

Many South Africans commuters use minibus taxis daily and are connected to the informal transport network through metro centres informally known as Taxi Ranks. Taxi ranks form part of an economic nexus for many informal traders, connecting them to commuters, their prime clientele. They work along designated areas along the periphery of the taxi rank and in between taxi lanes. Informal traders are therefore at risk of adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of exhaust fumes from minibus taxis. Of the exhaust emissions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) have high toxicity. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a Human Health Risk Assessment for informal traders, looking at their exposure to BTEX compounds. Methods: The study was conducted in a subsection of a taxi rank which is representative of the entire taxi rank. This subsection has a daily average of 400 minibus taxi moving through it and an average of 60 informal traders working in it. In the health risk assessment, a questionnaire was conducted to understand the occupational behaviour of the informal traders. This was used to deduce the exposure scenarios and sampling locations. Three sampling campaigns were run for an average of 10 hours each covering the average working hours of traders. A gas chronographer was used for collecting continues ambient air samples at 15 min intervals. Results: Over the three sampling days, the average concentrations were, 8.46ppb, 0.63 ppb, 1.27ppb and 1.0ppb for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene respectively. The average cancer risk is 9.46E-03. In several cases, they were incidences of unacceptable risk for the cumulative exposure of all four BTEX compounds. Conclusion: This study adds to the body of knowledge on the Human Health Risk effects of urban BTEX pollution, furthermore focusing on the impact of urban BTEX on high risk personal such as informal traders, in Southern Africa.

Keywords: human health risk assessment, informal traders, occupational risk, urban BTEX

Procedia PDF
69 An Evaluation of Solubility of Wax and Asphaltene in Crude Oil for Improved Flow Properties Using a Copolymer Solubilized in Organic Solvent with an Aromatic Hydrocarbon

Authors: S. M. Anisuzzaman, Sariah Abang, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, N. M. Ismail, G. B. Sandrison

Abstract:

Wax and asphaltene are high molecular weighted compounds that contribute to the stability of crude oil at a dispersed state. Transportation of crude oil along pipelines from the oil rig to the refineries causes fluctuation of temperature which will lead to the coagulation of wax and flocculation of asphaltenes. This paper focuses on the prevention of wax and asphaltene precipitate deposition on the inner surface of the pipelines by using a wax inhibitor and an asphaltene dispersant. The novelty of this prevention method is the combination of three substances; a wax inhibitor dissolved in a wax inhibitor solvent and an asphaltene solvent, namely, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer dissolved in methylcyclohexane (MCH) and toluene (TOL) to inhibit the precipitation and deposition of wax and asphaltene. The objective of this paper was to optimize the percentage composition of each component in this inhibitor which can maximize the viscosity reduction of crude oil. The optimization was divided into two stages which are the laboratory experimental stage in which the viscosity of crude oil samples containing inhibitor of different component compositions is tested at decreasing temperatures and the data optimization stage using response surface methodology (RSM) to design an optimizing model. The results of experiment proved that the combination of 50% EVA + 25% MCH + 25% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of 67% while the RSM model proved that the combination of 57% EVA + 20.5% MCH + 22.5% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of up to 61%.

Keywords: asphaltene, ethylene-vinyl acetate, methylcyclohexane, toluene, wax

Procedia PDF
68 A Two-Stage Process for the Sustainable Production of Aliphatic Polyesters

Authors: A. Douka, S. Vouyiouka, L. M. Papaspyridi, D. Korres, C. Papaspyrides

Abstract:

A "green" process was studied for the preparation of partially renewable aliphatic polyesters based on 1,4-butanediol and 1,8-octanediol with various diacids and derivatives, namely diethyl succinate, adipic acid, sebacic acid, 1,12-dodecanedioic acid and 1,14-tetradecanedioic acid. A first step of enzymatic prepolymerization was carried out in the presence of two different solvents, toluene and diphenylether, applying molecular sieves and vacuum, respectively, to remove polycondensation by-products. Poly(octylene adipate) (PE 8.6), poly(octylene dodecanate)(PE 8.12) and poly(octylene tetradecanate) (PE 8.14) were firstly enzymatically produced in toluene using molecular sieves giving however, low-molecular-weight products. Thereafter, the synthesis of PE 8.12 and PE 8.14 was examined under optimized conditions using diphenylether as solvent and a more vigorous by-product removal step, such as application of vacuum. Apart from these polyesters, the optimized process was also implemented for the production of another long-chain polyester-poly(octylene sebacate) (PE 8.10) and a short-chain polyester-poly(butylene succinate) (PE 4.4). Subsequently, bulk post-polymerization in the melt or solid state was performed. SSP runs involved absence of biocatalyst and reaction temperatures (T) in the vicinity of the prepolymer melting point (Tm-T varied between 15.5 up to 4oC). Focusing on PE 4.4 and PE 8.12, SSP took place under vacuum or flowing nitrogen leading to increase of the molecular weight and improvement of the end product physical appearance and thermal properties.

Keywords: aliphatic polyester, enzymatic polymerization, solid state polymerization, Novozym 435

Procedia PDF
67 Quantifying Temporal Variation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Ozone Forming Potential at Rural Atmosphere in Delhi

Authors: Amit Kumar, Bhupendra Pratap Singh, Manoj Singh, Monika Punia, Krishan Kumar, V. K. Jain

Abstract:

Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in order to find out temporal variations and their ozone forming potentials (OFP) at rural site in Delhi National Capital Region during summer 2013. Sampling was performed for continuous five days, to identify the differences in working days and weekend VOCs concentration levels. Sampling and analytical procedure for VOCs were done using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method. On each sampling day, VOCs samples were collected for 3-hours in the morning, afternoon and evening. There has been observed a noticeable contrast in the concentration of VOCs levels between working days and weekend. However, most of the VOCs showed diurnal fluctuations with higher concentrations in the morning and evening as compared to afternoon which might be due to change in meteorology. The results showed that mean toluene/benzene and m-/p-xylene/benzene ratios were higher in the afternoon while it was lower during morning and evening. The relative contribution of the VOCs to ozone formation, total propylene equivalent concentrations and OFP were calculated. Toluene was the most contributing organic contaminant to ozone formation as well as ambient VOCs concentrations. Results obtained in current study demonstrate that ozone formation at rural site in Delhi is probably limited by the emissions of VOCs.

Keywords: VOCs, rural, NIOSH, ozone forming potential, propylene equivalent concentration

Procedia PDF
66 Structural Analysis of Polymer Thin Films at Single Macromolecule Level

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki, Toru Asada, Tomomi Tanii

Abstract:

The properties of a spin-cast film of a polymer material are different from those in the bulk material because the polymer chains are frozen in an un-equilibrium state due to the rapid evaporation of the solvent. However, there has been little information on the un-equilibrated conformation and dynamics in a spin-cast film at the single chain level. The real-space observation of individual chains would provide direct information to discuss the morphology and dynamics of single polymer chains. The recent development of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods allows the conformational analysis of single polymer chain. In the current study, the conformation of a polymer chain in a spin-cast film by the super-resolution microscopy. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with the molecular weight of 2.2 x 10^6 was spin-cast onto a glass substrate from toluene and chloroform. For the super-resolution fluorescence imaging, a small amount of the PMMA labeled by rhodamine spiroamide dye was added. The radius of gyration (Rg) was evaluated from the super-resolution fluorescence image of each PMMA chain. The mean-square-root of Rg was 48.7 and 54.0 nm in the spin-cast films prepared from the toluene and chloroform solutions, respectively. On the other hand, the chain dimension in a bulk state (a thermally annealed 10- μm-thick sample) was observed to be 43.1 nm. This indicates that the PMMA chain in the spin-cast film takes an expanded conformation compared to the unperturbed chain and that the chain dimension is dependent on the solvent quality. In a good solvent, the PMMA chain has an expanded conformation by the excluded volume effect. The polymer chain is frozen before the relaxation from an un-equilibrated expanded conformation to an unperturbed one by the rapid solvent evaporation.

Keywords: chain conformation, polymer thin film, spin-coating, super-resolution optical microscopy

Procedia PDF
65 Permeable Reactive Pavement for Controlling the Transport of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-Benzene, and Xylene (BTEX) Contaminants

Authors: Shengyi Huang, Chenju Liang

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) are common contaminants in environment, which could come from asphalt concrete or exhaust emissions of vehicles. The BTEX may invade to the subsurface environment via wet and dry atmospheric depositions. If there aren’t available ways for controlling contaminants’ fate and transport, they would extensively harm natural environment. In the 1st phase of this study, various adsorbents were screened for a suitable one to be an additive in the porous asphalt mixture. In the 2nd phase, addition of the selected adsorbent was incorporated with the design of porous asphalt concrete (PAC) to produce the permeable reactive pavement (PRP), which was subsequently tested for the potential of adsorbing aqueous BTEX as compared to the PAC, in the 3rd phase. The PRP was prepared according to the following steps: firstly, the suitable adsorbent was chosen based on the analytical results of specific surface area analysis, thermal-gravimetric analysis, adsorption kinetics and isotherms, and thermal dynamics analysis; secondly, the materials of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, filler, asphalt, and fiber were tested in order to meet regulated specifications (e.g., water adsorption, soundness, viscosity etc.) for preparing the PRP; thirdly, the amount of adsorbent additive was determined in the PRP; fourthly, the prepared PAC and PRP were examined for their physical properties (e.g., abrasion loss, drain-down loss, Marshall stability, Marshall flow, dynamic stability etc.). As a result of comparison between PRP and PAC, the PRP showed better physical performance than the traditional PAC. At last, the Marshall Specimen column tests were conducted to explore the adsorption capacities of PAC and PRPs. The BTEX adsorption capacities of PRPs are higher than those obtained from traditional PAC. In summary, PRPs showed superior physical performance and adsorption capacities, which exhibit the potential of PRP to be applied as a replacement of PAC for better controlling the transport of non-point source pollutants.

Keywords: porous asphalt concrete, volatile organic compounds, permeable reactive pavement, non-point source pollution

Procedia PDF
64 Absorption Kinetic and Tensile Mechanical Properties of Swollen Elastomer/Carbon Black Nanocomposites using Typical Solvents

Authors: F. Elhaouzi, H. Lahlali, M. Zaghrioui, I. El Aboudi A. BelfKira, A. Mdarhri

Abstract:

The effect of physico chemical properties of solvents on the transport process and mechanical properties in elastomeric nano composite materials is reported. The investigated samples are formed by a semi-crystalline ethylene-co-butyl acrylate polymer filled with hard spherical carbon black (CB) nano particles. The swelling behavior was studied by immersion the dried samples in selected solvents at room temperature during 2 days. For this purpose, two chemical compounds methyl derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons of benzene, i.e. toluene and xylene, are used to search for the mass and molar volume dependence on the absorption kinetics. Mass gain relative to the mass of dry material at specific times was recorded to probe the absorption kinetics. The transport of solvent molecules in these filled elastomeric composites is following a Fickian diffusion mechanism. Additionally, the swelling ratio and diffusivity coefficient deduced from the Fickian law are found to decrease with the CB concentration. These results indicate that the CB nano particles increase the effective path length for diffusion and consequently limit the absorption of the solvent by occupation free volumes in the material. According to physico chemical properties of the two used solvents, it is found that the diffusion is more important for the toluene molecules solvent due to their low values of the molecular weight and volume molar compared to those for the xylene. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photo electron (XPS) were also used to probe the eventual change in the chemical composition for the swollen samples. Mechanically speaking, the stress-strain curves of uniaxial tensile tests pre- and post- swelling highlight a remarkably decrease of the strength and elongation at break of the swollen samples. This behavior can be attributed to the decrease of the load transfer density between the matrix and the CB in the presence of the solvent. We believe that the results reported in this experimental investigation can be useful for some demanding applications e.g. tires, sealing rubber.

Keywords: nanocomposite, absorption kinetics, mechanical behavior, diffusion, modelling, XPS, DSC

Procedia PDF
63 The Effect of Diluents in the Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Cobalt(II) with Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid

Authors: Fatima Ghebghoub

Abstract:

The solvent extraction of cobalt (II) from sulfate medium using di(2-ethylhexy1) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA, HL) at 25°C has been investigated. The influence of the following parameters was studied: the equilibrium pH, the concentration of the extractant and the nature of diluent. The effect of the diluent using polar and non-polar solvents in the extraction of nickel(II) is discussed. The extracted nickel (II species were found to be CoL2 in 1-octanol and methyl isobutyl ketone and CoL2.2HL in toluene, dichloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and cyclohexane. The extraction constants are evaluated for the different diluents.

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, cobalt(II), di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, diluent effect

Procedia PDF
62 Functionalized PU Foam for Water Filtration

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Subhashini Gunashekar

Abstract:

Polyurethane foam is functionalized with Sulfonic acid groups to remove lead ions (Pb2+) from drinking water through a action exchange process. The synthesis is based on addition polymerization of the -NCO groups of an isocyanine with the –OH groups of a polio to form the urethane. Toluene-diisocyanateis reacted with Polypropylene glycol to form a linear pre-polymer, which is further polymerized using a chain extender, N, N-bis(2-hydorxyethyl)-2-aminoethane-sulfonic acid (BES). BES acts as a functional group site to exchange Pb2+ ions. A set of experiments was designed to study the effect of various processing parameters on the performance of the synthesized foam. The maximum Pb2+ ion exchange capacity of the foam was found to be 47ppb/g from a 100ppb Pb2+ solution over a period of 60 minutes. A multistage batch filtration process increased the lead removal to 50-54ppb/3g of foam over a period of 90 minutes.

Keywords: adsorption, functionalized, ion exchange, polyurethane, sulfonic

Procedia PDF
61 Sulfur Removal of Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Oxidative Desulfurization Enhanced by Fenton Process

Authors: Mahsa Ja’fari, Mohammad R. Khosravi-Nikou, Mohsen Motavassel

Abstract:

A comprehensive development towards the production of ultra-clean fuels as a feed stoke is getting to raise due to the increasing use of diesel fuels and global air pollution. Production of environmental-friendly fuels can be achievable by some limited single methods and most integrated ones. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) presents vast ranges of technologies possessing suitable characteristics with regard to the Fenton process. Using toluene as a model fuel feed with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur compound under various operating conditions is the attempt of this study. The results showed that this oxidative process followed a pseudo-first order kinetics. Removal efficiency of 77.43% is attained under reaction time of 40 minutes with (Fe+2/H2O2) molar ratio of 0.05 in acidic pH environment. In this research, temperature of 50 °C represented the most influential role in proceeding the reaction.

Keywords: design of experiment (DOE), dibenzothiophene (DBT), optimization, oxidative desulfurization (ODS)

Procedia PDF
60 Modified Graphene Oxide in Ceramic Composite

Authors: Natia Jalagonia, Jimsher Maisuradze, Karlo Barbakadze, Tinatin Kuchukhidze

Abstract:

At present intensive scientific researches of ceramics, cermets and metal alloys have been conducted for improving materials physical-mechanical characteristics. In purpose of increasing impact strength of ceramics based on alumina, simple method of graphene homogenization was developed. Homogeneous distribution of graphene (homogenization) in pressing composite became possible through the connection of functional groups of graphene oxide (-OH, -COOH, -O-O- and others) and alumina superficial OH groups with aluminum organic compounds. These two components connect with each other with -O-Al–O- bonds, and by their thermal treatment (300–500°C), graphene and alumina phase are transformed. Thus, choosing of aluminum organic compounds for modification is stipulated by the following opinion: aluminum organic compounds fragments fixed on graphene and alumina finally are transformed into an integral part of the matrix. By using of other elements as modifier on the matrix surface (Al2O3) other phases are transformed, which change sharply physical-mechanical properties of ceramic composites, for this reason, effect caused by the inclusion of graphene will be unknown. Fixing graphene fragments on alumina surface by alumoorganic compounds result in new type graphene-alumina complex, in which these two components are connected by C-O-Al bonds. Part of carbon atoms in graphene oxide are in sp3 hybrid state, so functional groups (-OH, -COOH) are located on both sides of graphene oxide layer. Aluminum organic compound reacts with graphene oxide at the room temperature, and modified graphene oxide is obtained: R2Al-O-[graphene]–COOAlR2. Remaining Al–C bonds also reacts rapidly with surface OH groups of alumina. In a result of these process, pressing powdery composite [Al2O3]-O-Al-O-[graphene]–COO–Al–O–[Al2O3] is obtained. For the purpose, graphene oxide suspension in dry toluene have added alumoorganic compound Al(iC4H9)3 in toluene with equimolecular ratio. Obtained suspension has put in the flask and removed solution in a rotary evaporate presence nitrogen atmosphere. Obtained powdery have been researched and used to consolidation of ceramic materials based on alumina. Ceramic composites are obtained in high temperature vacuum furnace with different temperature and pressure conditions. Received ceramics do not have open pores and their density reaches 99.5 % of TD. During the work, the following devices have been used: High temperature vacuum furnace OXY-GON Industries Inc (USA), device of spark-plasma synthesis, induction furnace, Electronic Scanning Microscopes Nikon Eclipse LV 150, Optical Microscope NMM-800TRF, Planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, Shimadzu Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester DUH-211S, Analysette 12 Dynasizer and others.

Keywords: graphene oxide, alumo-organic, ceramic

Procedia PDF
59 Naphtha Catalytic Reform: Modeling and Simulation of Unity

Authors: Leal Leonardo, Pires Carlos Augusto de Moraes, Casiraghi Magela

Abstract:

In this work were realized the modeling and simulation of the catalytic reformer process, of ample form, considering all the equipment that influence the operation performance. Considered it a semi-regenerative reformer, with four reactors in series intercalated with four furnaces, two heat exchanges, one product separator and one recycle compressor. A simplified reactional system was considered, involving only ten chemical compounds related through five reactions. The considered process was the applied to aromatics production (benzene, toluene, and xylene). The models developed to diverse equipment were interconnecting in a simulator that consists of a computer program elaborate in FORTRAN 77. The simulation of the global model representative of reformer unity achieved results that are compatibles with the literature ones. It was then possible to study the effects of operational variables in the products concentration and in the performance of the unity equipment.

Keywords: catalytic reforming, modeling, simulation, petrochemical engineering

Procedia PDF