Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 264

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Marine and Environmental Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

264 Understanding Cruise Passengers' On-Board Experience throughout the Customer Decision Journey

Authors: Sabina Akter, Osiris Valdez Banda, Pentti Kujala, Jani Romanoff

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationship between on-board environmental factors and customer overall satisfaction in the context of the cruise on-board experience. The on-board environmental factors considered are ambient, layout/design, social, product/service, and on-board enjoyment factors. The study presents a data-driven framework and model for the on-board cruise experience. The data is collected from 893 respondents in an application of a self-administered online questionnaire of their cruise experience. This study reveals the cruise passengers’ on-board experience through the customer decision journey based on the publicly available data. The Pearson correlation and regression analysis have been applied, and the results show a positive and significant relationship between the environmental factors and on-board experience. This data helps to understand the cruise passengers' on-board experience, which will be used for the ultimate decision-making process in cruise ship design.

Keywords: cruise behavior, customer activities, on-board environmental factors, on-board experience, user or customer satisfaction

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263 Synthesis of Magnetic Chitosan Beads and Its Cross-Linked Derivatives for Sorption of Zinc Ions from Water Samples of Yamuna and Hindon Rivers in India

Authors: Rajni Johar, Priti Rani, P. S. Jassal

Abstract:

The magnetic chitosan beads (MCB) were synthesized using co-precipitation method and made to react with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to get the cross-linked derivative (ECH-MCB). The beads were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and TGA. It is found that zinc metal ion sorption efficiency of ECH-MCB is significantly higher than MCB. Various factors affecting the uptake behavior of metal ions, such as pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature effects, were investigated. The adsorption parameters fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The equilibrium parameter RL values support that the adsorption (0 < RL < 1) is favorable and spontaneous process. The thermodynamic parameters confirm that it is an endothermic reaction, which results in an increase in the randomness of adsorption process. The beads were regenerated using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for further use. These beads prove as promising materials for the removal of pollutants from industrial wastewater. Water samples from Yamuna and Hindon rivers were analysed for the detection of Zn (II) ions.

Keywords: epichlorohydrin, EDTA, removal efficiency, chitosan magnetic beads

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262 Evaluation of Toxicity of Cerium Oxide on Zebrafish Developmental Stages

Authors: Elena Maria Scalisi, Roberta Pecoraro

Abstract:

Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) and Nanomaterials (ENMs) concern an active research area and a sector in full expansion. They have physical-chemical characteristics and small size that improve their performance compared to common materials. Due to the increase in their production and their subsequent release into the environment, new strategies are emerging to assess risk of nanomaterials. NPs can be released into the environment through aquatic systems by human activities and exert toxicity on living organisms. We evaluated the potential toxic effect of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles because it’s used in different fields due to its peculiar properties. In order to assess nanoparticles toxicity, Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test was performed. Powders of CeO2 NPs supplied by the CNR-IMM of Catania are indicated as CeO2 type 1 (as-prepared) and CeO2 type 2 (modified), while CeO2 type 3 (commercial) is supplied by Sigma-Aldrich. Starting from a stock solution (0.001g/10 ml dilution water) of each type of CeO2 NPs, the other concentration solutions were obtained adding 1 ml of the stock solution to 9 ml of dilution water, leading to three different solutions of concentration (10-4, 10-5, 10-6 g/ml). All the solutions have been sonicated to avoid natural tendency of NPs to aggregate and sediment. FET test was performed according to the OECD guidelines for testing chemicals using our internal protocol procedure. A number of eight selected fertilized eggs were placed in each becher filled with 5 ml of each concentration of the three types of CeO2 NPs; control samples were incubated only with dilution water. Replication was performed for each concentration. During the exposure period, we observed four endpoints (embryo coagulation, lack of formation of somites, failure to lift the yolk bag, no heartbeat) by a stereomicroscope every 24 hours. Immunohistochemical analysis on treated larvae was performed to evaluate the expression of metallothioneins (MTs), Heat Shock Proteins 70 (HSP70) and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-diethylase (EROD). Our results have not shown evident alterations on embryonic development because all embryos completed the development and the hatching of the eggs, started around the 48th hour after exposure, took place within the last observation at 72 hours. A good reactivity, both in the embryos and in the newly hatched larvae, was found. The presence of heartbeat has also been observed in embryos with reduced mobility confirming their viability. A higher expression of EROD biomarker was observed in the larvae exposed to the three types of CeO2, showing a clear difference with the control. A weak positivity was found for MTs biomarker in treated larvae as well as in the control. HSP70 are expressed homogeneously in all the type of nanoparticles tested but not too much greater than control. Our results are in agreement with other studies in the literature, in which the exposure of Danio rerio larvae to other metal oxide nanoparticles does not show adverse effects on survival and hatching time. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of these NPs and also to solve conflicting opinions.

Keywords: Metallic Nanoparticles, Danio rerio, endpoints, fish embryo toxicity test

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261 In Vivo Evaluation of Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields at 27 GHz (5G) of Danio Rerio: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Elena Maria Scalisi, Roberta Pecoraro, Martina Contino, Sara Ignoto, Carmelo Iaria, Santi Concetto Pavone, Gino Sorbello, Loreto Di Donato, Maria Violetta Brundo

Abstract:

5G Technology is evolving to satisfy a variety of service requirements that may allow high data-rate connections (1Gbps) and lower latency times than current (<1ms). In order to support a high data transmission speed and a high traffic service for eMBB (enhanced mobile broadband) use cases, 5G systems have the characteristic of using different frequency bands of the radio wave spectrum (700 MHz, 3.6-3.8 GHz and 26.5-27.5 GHz), thus taking advantage of higher frequencies than previous mobile radio generations (1G-4G). However, waves at higher frequencies have a lower capacity to propagate in free space and therefore, in order to guarantee the capillary coverage of the territory for high reliability applications, it will be necessary to install a large number of repeaters. Following the introduction of this new technology, there has been growing concern over the past few months about possible harmful effects on human health. The aim of this preliminary study is to evaluate possible short term effects induced by 5G-millimeter waves on embryonic development and early life stages of Danio rerio by Z-FET. We exposed developing zebrafish at frequency of 27 GHz, with a standard pyramidal horn antenna placed at 15 cm far from the samples holder ensuring an incident power density of 10 mW/cm2. During the exposure cycle, from 6 h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf, we measured a different morphological endpoints every 24 hours. Zebrafish embryo toxicity test (Z-FET) is a short term test, carried out on fertilized eggs of zebrafish and it represents an effective alternative to acute test with adult fish (OECD, 2013). We have observed that 5G did not reveal significant impacts on mortality nor on morphology because exposed larvae showed a normal detachment of the tail, presence of heartbeat, well-organized somites, therefore hatching rate was lower than untreated larvae even at 48 h of exposure. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis performed on larvae showed a negativity to the HSP-70 expression used as a biomarkers. This is a preliminary study on evaluation of potential toxicity induced by 5G and it seems appropriate to underline the importance that further studies would take, aimed at clarifying the probable real risk of exposure to electromagnetic fields.

Keywords: Embryonic Development, Biomarker of exposure, zebrafish embryo toxicity test

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260 Analytical and Numerical Study of Formation of Sporadic E Layer with Taking into Account Horizontal and Vertical In-Homogeneity of the Horizontal Wind

Authors: Giorgi Dalakishvili, Goderdzi G. Didebulidze, Maya Todua

Abstract:

The possibility of sporadic E (Es) layer formation in the mid-latitude nighttime lower thermosphere by horizontal homogeneous and inhomogeneous (vertically and horizontally changing) winds is investigated in 3D by analytical and numerical solutions of continuity equation for dominant heavy metallic ions Fe+. The theory of influence of wind velocity direction, value, and its shear on formation of sporadic E is developed in case of presence the effect of horizontally changing wind (the effect of horizontal convergence). In this case, the horizontal wind with horizontal shear, characterized by compressibility and/or vortices, can provide an additional influence on heavy metallic ions Fe+ horizontal convergence and Es layers density, which can be formed by their vertical convergence caused as by wind direction and values and by its horizontal shear as well. The horizontal wind value and direction have significant influence on ion vertical drift velocity and its minimal negative values of divergence necessary for development of ion vertical convergence into sporadic E type layer. The horizontal wind horizontal shear, in addition to its vertical shear, also influences the ion drift velocity value and its vertical changes and correspondingly on formation of sporadic E layer and its density. The atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs), with relatively smaller horizontal wave length than planetary waves and tidal motion, can significantly influence location of ion vertical drift velocity nodes (where Es layers formation expectable) and its vertical and horizontal shear providing ion vertical convergence into thin layer. Horizontal shear can cause additional influence in the Es layers density than in the case of only wind value and vertical shear only. In this case, depending on wind direction and value in the height region of the lower thermosphere about 90-150 km occurs heavy metallic ions (Fe+) vertical convergence into thin sporadic E type layer. The horizontal wind horizontal shear also can influence on ions horizontal convergence and density and location Es layers. The AGWs modulate the horizontal wind direction and values and causes ion additional horizontal convergence, while the vertical changes (shear) causes additional vertical convergence than in the case without vertical shear. Influence of horizontal shear on sporadic E density and the importance of vertical compressibility of the lower thermosphere, which also can be influenced by AGWs, is demonstrated numerically. For the given wavelength and background wind, the predictability of formation Es layers and its possible location regions are shown. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Georgian Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation Grant no. FR17-357.

Keywords: Wind, thermosphere, in-homogeneous, sporadic E

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259 An Adaptive Decomposition for the Variability Analysis of Observation Time Series in Geophysics

Authors: Olivier Delage, Thierry Portafaix, Hassan Bencherif, Guillaume Guimbretiere

Abstract:

Most observation data sequences in geophysics can be interpreted as resulting from the interaction of several physical processes at several time and space scales. As a consequence, measurements time series in geophysics have often characteristics of non-linearity and non-stationarity and thereby exhibit strong fluctuations at all time-scales and require a time-frequency representation to analyze their variability. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is a relatively new technic as part of a more general signal processing method called the Hilbert-Huang transform. This analysis method turns out to be particularly suitable for non-linear and non-stationary signals and consists in decomposing a signal in an auto adaptive way into a sum of oscillating components named IMFs (Intrinsic Mode Functions), and thereby acts as a bank of bandpass filters. The advantages of the EMD technic are to be entirely data driven and to provide the principal variability modes of the dynamics represented by the original time series. However, the main limiting factor is the frequency resolution that may give rise to the mode mixing phenomenon where the spectral contents of some IMFs overlap each other. To overcome this problem, J. Gilles proposed an alternative entitled “Empirical Wavelet Transform” (EWT) which consists in building from the segmentation of the original signal Fourier spectrum, a bank of filters. The method used is based on the idea utilized in the construction of both Littlewood-Paley and Meyer’s wavelets. The heart of the method lies in the segmentation of the Fourier spectrum based on the local maxima detection in order to obtain a set of non-overlapping segments. Because linked to the Fourier spectrum, the frequency resolution provided by EWT is higher than that provided by EMD and therefore allows to overcome the mode-mixing problem. On the other hand, if the EWT technique is able to detect the frequencies involved in the original time series fluctuations, EWT does not allow to associate the detected frequencies to a specific mode of variability as in the EMD technic. Because EMD is closer to the observation of physical phenomena than EWT, we propose here a new technic called EAWD (Empirical Adaptive Wavelet Decomposition) based on the coupling of the EMD and EWT technics by using the IMFs density spectral content to optimize the segmentation of the Fourier spectrum required by EWT. In this study, EMD and EWT technics are described, then EAWD technic is presented. Comparison of results obtained respectively by EMD, EWT and EAWD technics on time series of ozone total columns recorded at Reunion island over [1978-2019] period is discussed. This study was carried out as part of the SOLSTYCE project dedicated to the characterization and modeling of the underlying dynamics of time series issued from complex systems in atmospheric sciences

Keywords: Filter Banks, Wavelet, Adaptive Filtering, empirical mode decomposition, empirical wavelet transform, mode-mixing, non-linear and non-stationary time series

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258 Greenhouse Gasses Effect on Atmospheric Temperature Increase and the Observable Effects on Ecosystems

Authors: Alexander J. Severinsky

Abstract:

Radiative forces of greenhouse gases (GHG) [used in place of greenhouse gasses hereafter] increase the temperature of the Earth's surface, more on land, and less in oceans, due to their thermal capacities. Given this inertia, the temperature increase is delayed over time. Air temperature, however, is not delayed as air thermal capacity is much lower. In this study, through analysis and synthesis of multidisciplinary science and data, an estimate of atmospheric temperature increase is made. Then this estimate is used to shed light on current observations of ice and snow loss, desertification and forest fires, and increased extreme air disturbances. The reason for this inquiry is due to the author’s skepticism that current changes cannot be explained by a "~1oC" global average surface temperature rise within the last 50-60 years. The only other plausible cause to explore for understanding is that of atmospheric temperature rise. The study utilizes an analysis of air temperature rise from three different scientific disciplines: thermodynamics, climate science experiments, and climactic historical studies. The results coming from these diverse disciplines are nearly the same, within ± 1.6%. The direct radiative force of GHGs with a high level of scientific understanding is near 4.7 W/m2 on average over all of the Earth’s surface in 2018, as compared to one in Pre-Industrial time in the mid-1700s. The additional radiative force of fast feedbacks coming from various forms of water gives approximately an additional ~15 W/m2. In 2018, these radiative forces heated the atmosphere by approximately 5.1oC, which will create a thermal equilibrium average ground surface temperature increase of 4.6 to 4.8 oC by the end of this century. After 2018, the temperature will continue to increase without any additional increases in the concentration of the GHGs, primarily of carbon dioxide and methane. These findings of the radiative force of GHGs in 2018 were applied to estimates of effects on major Earth ecosystems. This additional force of nearly 20 W/m2 causes an increase in ice melting by an additional rate of over 90 cm/year, green leaves temperature increase by nearly 5oC, and a work energy increase of air by approximately 40 Joules/mole. This explains the observed high rates of ice melting at all altitudes and latitudes, the spread of deserts and increases in forest fires, as well as increased energy of tornadoes, typhoons, hurricanes, and extreme weather, much more plausibly than the 1.5oC increase in average global surface temperature in the same time interval. Planned mitigation and adaptation measures might prove to be much more effective when directed toward the reduction of existing GHGs in the atmosphere.

Keywords: greenhouse air temperature, greenhouse thermodynamics, greenhouse historical, greenhouse radiative force in air, greenhouse radiative force, greenhouse radiative force on ice, greenhouse radiative force on plants

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257 A Survey of Field Programmable Gate Array Based Convolutional Neural Networks Accelerators

Authors: Wei Zhang

Abstract:

With the rapid development of deep learning, neural network and deep learning algorithms play a significant role in various practical applications. Due to the high accuracy and good performance, especially CNNs, it has become a research hot spot in research organizations for the past few years. However, the size of the networks becomes increasingly large scale due to the demands of the practical applications, which poses a significant challenge to construct a high-performance implementation of deep learning neural networks. Meanwhile, many of these application scenarios also have strict requirements on the performance and low-power consumption of hardware devices. Therefore, it is particularly critical to choose a moderate computing platform for hardware acceleration of CNNs. This article is aimed to survey the recent advance in FPGA-based acceleration of CNNs. Various designs and implementations of the accelerator based on FPGA under different devices and network models are overviewed, and the versions of GPUs, ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated Circuits), and DSPs (Digital Signal Processors) are compared, which is to present our own critical analysis and comments. Finally, we give a discussion on different perspectives of these acceleration and optimization methods on FPGA platforms and to further explore the opportunities and challenges for future research. More helpfully, we give a prospect for future development of FPGA-based accelerator.

Keywords: FPGA, Deep learning, Convolutional Neural Networks, field programmable gate array, CNN, hardware accelerator

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256 Preliminary Results on Marine Debris Classification in The Island of Mykonos (Greece) via Coastal and Underwater Clean up over 2016-20: A Successful Case of Recycling Plastics into Useful Daily Items

Authors: Eleni Akritopoulou, Katerina Topouzoglou

Abstract:

The last 20 years marine debris has been identified as one of the main marine pollution sources caused by anthropogenic activities. Plastics has reached the farthest marine areas of the planet affecting all marine trophic levels including the, recently discovered, amphipoda Eurythenes plasticus inhabiting Mariana Trench to large cetaceans, marine reptiles and sea birds causing immunodeficiency disorders, deteriorating health and death overtime. For the time period 2016-20, in the framework of the national initiative ‘Keep Aegean Blue”, All for Blue team has been collecting marine debris (coastline and underwater) following a modified in situ MEDSEALITTER monitoring protocol from eight Greek islands. After collection, marine debris was weighted, sorted and categorised according to material; plastic (PL), glass (G), metal (M), wood (W), rubber (R), cloth (CL), paper (P), mixed (MX). The goal of the project included the documentation of marine debris sources, human trends, waste management and public marine environmental awareness. Waste management was focused on plastics recycling and utilisation into daily useful products. This research is focused on the island of Mykonos due to its continuous touristic activity and lack of scientific information. In overall, a field work area of 1.832.856 m2 was cleaned up yielding 5092 kg of marine debris. The preliminary results indicated PL as main source of marine debris (62,8%) followed by M (15,5%), GL (13,2%) and MX (2,8%). Main items found were fishing tools (lines, nets), disposable cutlery, cups and straws, cigarette butts, flip flops and other items like plastic boat compartments. In collaboration with a local company for plastic management and the Circular Economy and Eco Innovation Institute (Sweden), all plastic debris was recycled. Granulation process was applied transforming plastic into building materials used for refugees’ houses, litter bins bought by municipalities and schools and, other items like shower components. In terms of volunteering and attendance in public awareness seminars, there was a raise of interest by 63% from different age ranges and professions. Regardless, the research being fairly new for Mykonos island and logistics issues potentially affected systemic sampling, it appeared that plastic debris is the main littering source attributed, possibly to the intense touristic activity of the island all year around. However, marine environmental awareness activities were pointed out to be an effective tool in forming public perception against marine debris and, alter the daily habits of local society. Since the beginning of this project, three new local environmental teams were formed against marine pollution supported by the local authorities and stakeholders. The continuous need and request for the production of items made by recycled marine debris appeared to be beneficial socio-economically to the local community and actions are taken to expand the project nationally. Finally, as an ongoing project and whilst, new scientific information is collected, further funding and research is needed.

Keywords: Waste Management, Tourism, Greece, Recycled Plastic, marine debris, marine environmental awareness, Mykonos island, plastics debris, plastic granulation

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255 Hydrodynamic Analysis on the Body of a Solar Autonomous Underwater Vehicle by Numerical Method

Authors: Mohammad Moonesun, Ehsan Asadi Asrami, Julia Bodnarchuk

Abstract:

In the case of Solar Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, which uses photovoltaic panels to provide its required power, due to limitation of energy, accurate estimation of resistance and energy has major sensitivity. In this work, hydrodynamic calculations by numerical method for a solar autonomous underwater vehicle equipped by two 50 W photovoltaic panels has been studied. To evaluate the required power and energy, hull hydrodynamic resistance in several velocities should be taken into account. To do this assessment, the ANSYS FLUENT 18 applied as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool that solves Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS) equations around AUV hull, and K-ω SST is used as turbulence model. To validate of solution method and modeling approach, the model of Myring submarine that it’s experimental data was available, is simulated. There is good agreement between numerical and experimental results. Also, these results showed that the K-ω SST Turbulence model is an ideal method to simulate the AUV motion in low velocities.

Keywords: CFD, Numerical Modelling, RANS, underwater vehicle, hydrodynamic resistance

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254 A Future Technology: Solar Winged Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Design

Authors: Mohammad Moonesun

Abstract:

One of the most important future technologies is related to solar Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). In this technical paper, some aspects of solar winged AUV design are mentioned. The case study is for Arya project. The submarine movement cyclograms, weight quotas for internal equipment, hydrodynamic test results are mentioned, and some other technical notes are discussed here. The main body is the SUBOFF type and has two hydroplanes on the both sides of the body with the NACA0015 cross section. On these two hydroplanes, two 50-W photovoltaic panel will be mounted. Four small hydroplanes with the same cross section of the NACA0015 are arranged at the stern of the body at a 90° angle to each other. This test is performed in National Iranian Marine Laboratory with the length of 402 m.

Keywords: Solar, model test, AUV, hydrodynamic resistance

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253 Inferring the Ecological Quality of Seagrass Beds from Using Composition and Configuration Indices

Authors: Fabrice Houngnandan, Celia Fery, Thomas Bockel, Julie Deter

Abstract:

Getting water cleaner and stopping global biodiversity loss requires indices to measure changes and evaluate the achievement of objectives. The endemic and protected seagrass species Posidonia oceanica is a biological indicator used to monitor the ecological quality of marine Mediterranean waters. One ecosystem index (EBQI), two biotic indices (PREI, Bipo), and several landscape indices, which measure the composition and configuration of the P. oceanica seagrass at the population scale have been developed. While the formers are measured at monitoring sites, the landscape indices can be calculated for the entire seabed covered by this ecosystem. This present work aims to search on the link between these indices and the best scale to be used in order to maximize this link. We used data collected between 2014 to 2019 along the French Mediterranean coastline to calculate EBQI, PREI, and Bipo at 100 sites. From the P. oceanica seagrass distribution map, configuration and composition indices around these different sites in 6 different grid sizes (100 m x 100 to 1000 m x 1000 m) were determined. Correlation analyses were first used to find out the grid size presenting the strongest and most significant link between the different types of indices. Finally, several models were compared basis on various metrics to identify the one that best explains the nature of the link between these indices. Our results showed a strong and significant link between biotic indices and the best correlations between biotic and landscape indices within the 600 m x 600 m grid cells. These results showed that the use of landscape indices is possible to monitor the health of seagrass beds at a large scale.

Keywords: Conservation, Decline, submerged aquatic vegetation, ecological indicators

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252 Climate Variability and Its Impacts on Rice (Oryza sativa) Productivity in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Auwal Garba, Rabiu Maijama’a, Abdullahi Muhammad Jalam

Abstract:

Variability in climate has affected the agricultural production all over the globe. This concern has motivated important changes in the field of research during the last decade. Climate variability is believed to have declining effects towards rice production in Nigeria. This study examined climate variability and its impact on rice productivity in Dass Local Government Area, Bauchi State, by employing Linear Trend Model (LTM), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis. Annual seasonal data of the climatic variables for temperature (min. and max), rainfall, and solar radiation from 1990 to 2015 were used. Results confirmed that 74.4% of the total variation in rice yield in the study area was explained by the changes in the independent variables. That is to say, temperature (minimum and maximum), rainfall, and solar radiation explained rice yield with 74.4% in the study area. Rising mean maximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while moderate increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production, and the persistent rise in the mean maximum temperature, in the long run, will have more negatively affect rice production in the future. It is, therefore, important to promote agro-meteorological advisory services, which will be useful in farm planning and yield sustainability. Closer collaboration among the meteorologist and agricultural scientist is needed to increase the awareness about the existing database, crop weather models among others, with a view to reaping the full benefits of research on specific problems and sustainable yield management and also there should be a special initiative by the ADPs (State Agricultural Development Programme) towards promoting best agricultural practices that are resilient to climate variability in rice production and yield sustainability.

Keywords: Productivity, Impact, Rice, Climate Variability

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251 Distributed Leadership and Emergency Response: A Study on Seafarers

Authors: Delna Shroff

Abstract:

Merchant shipping is an occupation with a high rate of fatal injuries caused by organizational accidents and maritime disasters. In most accident investigations, the leader’s actions are under scrutiny and point out the necessity to investigate the leader’s decisions in critical conditions. While several leadership studies have been carried out in the past, there is a tendency for most research to focus on holders of formal positions. The unit of analysis in most studies has been the ‘individual.’ A need is, therefore, felt to adopt a practice-based perspective of leadership, understand how leadership emerges to affect maritime safety. This paper explores the phenomenon of distributed leadership among seafarers more holistically. It further examines the role of one form of distributed leadership, that is, planfully aligned leadership in the emergency response of the team. A mixed design will be applied. In the first phase, the data gathered by way of semi-structured interviews will be used to explore the seafarer’s implicit understanding of leadership. The data will be used to develop a conceptual framework of distributed leadership, specific to the maritime context. This framework will be used to develop a simulation. Experimental design will be used to examine the relationship between planfully aligned leadership and emergency response of the team members during navigation. Findings show that planfully aligned leadership significantly and positively predicts the emergency response of team members. Planfully aligned leadership leads to a better emergency response of the team members as compared to authoritarian leadership. In the third qualitative phase, additional data will be gathered through semi-structured interviews to further validate the findings to gain a more complete understanding of distributed leadership and its relation to emergency response. Above are the predictive results; the study expects to be a cornerstone of safety leadership research and has important implications for leadership development and training within the maritime industry.

Keywords: Emergency Response, distributed leadership, authoritarian leadership, planfully aligned leadership

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250 Investigations of Bergy Bits and Ship Interactions in Extreme Waves Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: Mohammed Islam, Jungyong Wang, Dong Cheol Seo

Abstract:

The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is a novel, meshless, and Lagrangian technique based numerical method that has shown promises to accurately predict the hydrodynamics of water and structure interactions in violent flow conditions. The main goal of this study is to build confidence on the versatility of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) based tool, to use it as a complementary tool to the physical model testing capabilities and support research need for the performance evaluation of ships and offshore platforms exposed to an extreme and harsh environment. In the current endeavor, an open-sourced SPH-based tool was used and validated for modeling and predictions of the hydrodynamic interactions of a 6-DOF ship and bergy bits. The study involved the modeling of a modern generic drillship and simplified bergy bits in floating and towing scenarios and in regular and irregular wave conditions. The predictions were validated using the model-scale measurements on a moored ship towed at multiple oblique angles approaching a floating bergy bit in waves. Overall, this study results in a thorough comparison between the model scale measurements and the prediction outcomes from the SPH tool for performance and accuracy. The SPH predicted ship motions and forces were primarily within ±5% of the measurements. The velocity and pressure distribution and wave characteristics over the free surface depicts realistic interactions of the wave, ship, and the bergy bit. This work identifies and presents several challenges in preparing the input file, particularly while defining the mass properties of complex geometry, the computational requirements, and the post-processing of the outcomes.

Keywords: Model Validation, SPH, ship and bergy bit, hydrodynamic interactions, physical model testing

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249 Forecasting the Temperature at a Weather Station Using Deep Neural Networks

Authors: Debneil Saha Roy

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Weather forecasting is a complex topic and is well suited for analysis by deep learning approaches. With the wide availability of weather observation data nowadays, these approaches can be utilized to identify immediate comparisons between historical weather forecasts and current observations. This work explores the application of deep learning techniques to weather forecasting in order to accurately predict the weather over a given forecast hori­zon. Three deep neural networks are used in this study, namely, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Long Short Tunn Memory Network (LSTM) and a combination of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and LSTM. The predictive performance of these models is compared using two evaluation metrics. The results show that forecasting accuracy increases with an increase in the complexity of deep neural networks.

Keywords: Deep learning, multi-layer perceptron, convolutional neural network, long short term memory

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248 Recession Rate of Gangotri and Its Tributary Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India through Kinematic GPS Survey and Satellite Data

Authors: Kireet Kumar, Harish Bisht, Bahadur Singh Kotlia

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In order to reconstruct past retreating rates, total area loss, volume change and shift in snout position were measured through multi-temporal satellite data from 1989 to 2016 and kinematic GPS survey from 2015 to 2016. The results obtained from satellite data indicate that in the last 27 years, Chaturangi glacier snout has retreated 1172.57 ± 38.3 m (average 45.07 ± 4.31 m/year) with a total area and volume loss of 0.626 ± 0.001 sq. Km and 0.139 Km³, respectively. The field measurements through differential global positioning system survey revealed that the annual retreating rate was 22.84 ± 0.05 m/year. The large variations in results derived from both the methods are probably because of higher difference in their accuracy. Snout monitoring of the Gangotri glacier during the ablation season (May to September) in the years 2005 and 2015 reveals that the retreating rate has been comparatively more declined than that shown by the earlier studies. The GPS dataset shows that the average recession rate is 10.26 ± 0.05 m/year. In order to determine the possible causes of decreased retreating rate, a relationship between debris thickness and melt rate was also established by using ablation stakes. The present study concludes that remote sensing method is suitable for large area and long term study, while kinematic GPS is more appropriate for the annual monitoring of retreating rate of glacier snout. The present study also emphasizes on mapping of all the tributary glaciers in order to assess the overall changes in the main glacier system and its health.

Keywords: Chaturangi glacier, Gangotri glacier, glacier snout, kinematic global positioning system, retreat rate

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247 Mid-Winter Stratospheric Warming Effects on Equatorial Dynamics over Peninsular India

Authors: SHWETA SRIKUMAR

Abstract:

Winter stratospheric dynamics is a highly variable and spectacular field of research in middle atmosphere. It is well believed that the interaction of energetic planetary waves with mean flow causes the temperature to increase in the stratosphere and associated circulation reversal. This wave driven sudden disturbances in the polar stratosphere is defined as Sudden Stratospheric Warming. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the mid-winter major stratospheric warming events on equatorial dynamics over Peninsular India. To explore the effect of mid-winter stratospheric warming on Indian region (60oE -100oE), we have selected the winters 2003/04, 2005/06, 2008/09, 2012/13 and 2018/19. This study utilized the data from ERA-Interim Reanalysis, Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) from NOAA and TRMM satellite data from NASA mission. It is observed that a sudden drop in OLR (averaged over Indian Region) occurs during the course of warming for the winters 2005/06, 2008/09 and 2018/19. But in winters 2003/04 and 2012/13, drop in OLR happens prior to the onset of major warming. Significant amplitude of planetary wave activity is observed in equatorial lower stratosphere which indicates the propagation of extra-tropical planetary waves from high latitude to equator. During the course of warming, a strong downward propagation of EP flux convergence is observed from polar to equator region. The polar westward wind reaches upto 20oN and the weak eastward wind dominates the equator during the winters 2003/04, 2005/06 and 2018/19. But in 2012/13 winter, polar westward wind reaches upto equator. The equatorial wind at 2008/09 is dominated by strong westward wind. Further detailed results will be presented in the conference.

Keywords: Equatorial dynamics, Outgoing Longwave Radiation, Sudden Stratospheric Warming, Planetary Waves

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246 Differentiating Morphological Patterns of the Common Benthic Anglerfishes from the Indian Waters

Authors: M. P. Rajeeshkumar, K. V. Aneesh Kumar, J. L. Otero-Ferrer, A. Lombarte, M. Hashim, N. Saravanane, V. N.Sanjeevan, V. M. Tuset

Abstract:

The anglerfishes are widely distributed from shallow to deep-water habitats and are highly diverse in morphology, behaviour, and niche occupancy patterns. To understand this interspecific variability and degree of niche overlap, we performed a functional analysis of five species inhabiting Indian waters where diversity of deep-sea anglerfishes is very high. The sensory capacities (otolith shape and eye size) were also studied to improve the understanding of coexistence of species. The analyses of fish body and otolith shape clustered species in two morphotypes related to phylogenetic lineages: i) Malthopsis lutea, Lophiodes lugubri and Halieutea coccinea were characterized by a dorso-ventrally flattened body with high swimming ability and relative small otoliths, and ii) Chaunax spp. were distinguished by their higher body depth, lower swimming efficiency, and relative big otoliths. The sensory organs did not show a pattern linked to depth distribution of species. However, the larger eye size in M. lutea suggested a nocturnal feeding activity, whereas Chaunax spp. had a large mouth and deeper body in response to different ecological niches. Therefore, the present study supports the hypothesis of spatial and temporal segregation of anglerfishes in the Indian waters, which can be explained from a functional approach and understanding from sensory capabilities.

Keywords: fishes, functional traits, otoliths, niche overlap, Indian waters

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245 Synoptic Analysis of a Heavy Flood in the Province of Sistan-Va-Balouchestan: Iran January 2020

Authors: N. Pegahfar, P. Ghafarian

Abstract:

In this research, the synoptic weather conditions during the heavy flood of 10-12 January 2020 in the Sistan-va-Balouchestan Province of Iran will be analyzed. To this aim, reanalysis data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS) analysis data, measured data from a surface station together with satellite images from the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) have been used from 9 to 12 January 2020. Atmospheric parameters both at the lower troposphere and also at the upper part of that have been used, including absolute vorticity, wind velocity, temperature, geopotential height, relative humidity, and precipitation. Results indicated that both lower-level and upper-level currents were strong. In addition, the transport of a large amount of humidity from the Oman Sea and the Red Sea to the south and southeast of Iran (Sistan-va-Balouchestan Province) led to the vast and unexpected precipitation and then a heavy flood.

Keywords: Sistan-va-Balouchestn Province, heavy flood, synoptic, analysis data

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244 Groundwater Flow Dynamics in Shallow Coastal Plain Sands Aquifer, Abesan Area, Eastern Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Anne Joseph, Yinusa Asiwaju-Bello, Oluwaseun Olabode

Abstract:

Sustainable administration of groundwater resources tapped in Coastal Plain Sands aquifer in Abesan area, Eastern Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria necessitates the knowledge of the pattern of groundwater flow in meeting a suitable environmental need for habitation. Thirty hand-dug wells were identified and evaluated to study the groundwater flow dynamics and anionic species distribution in the study area. Topography and water table levels method with the aid of Surfer were adopted in the identification of recharge and discharge zones where six recharge and discharge zones were delineated correspondingly. Dissolved anionic species of HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-and NO3- were determined using titrimetric and spectrophotometric method. The trend of significant anionic concentrations of groundwater samples are in the order Cl- > HCO3-> SO42- > NO3-. The prominent anions in the discharge and recharge area are Cl- and HCO3- ranging from 0.22ppm to 3.67ppm and 2.59ppm to 0.72ppm respectively. Analysis of groundwater head distribution and the groundwater flow vector in Abesan area confirmed that Cl- concentration is higher than HCO3- concentration in recharge zones. Conversely, there is a high concentration of HCO3- than Cl- inland towards the continent; therefore, HCO3-concentration in the discharge zones is higher than the Cl- concentration. The anions were to be closely related to the recharge and discharge areas which were confirmed by comparison of activities such as rainfall regime and anthropogenic activities in Abesan area. A large percentage of the samples showed that HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-and NO3- falls within the permissible limit of the W.H.O standard. Most of the samples revealed Cl- / (CO3- + HCO3-) ratio higher than 0.5 indicating that there is saltwater intrusion imprints in the groundwater of the study area. Gibbs plot shown that most of the samples is from rock dominance, some from evaporation dominance and few from precipitation dominance. Potential salinity and SO42/ Cl- ratios signifies that most of the groundwater in Abesan is saline and falls in a water class found to be insuitable for irrigation. Continuous dissolution of these anionic species may pose a significant threat to the inhabitants of Abesan area in the nearest future.

Keywords: Groundwater Flow, discharge, recharge, Abessan, Anionic species

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243 A Data-Driven Approach for Studying the Washout Effects of Rain on Air Pollution

Authors: N. David, H. O. Gao

Abstract:

Air pollution is a serious environmental threat on a global scale and can cause harm to human health, morbidity and premature mortality. Reliable monitoring and control systems are therefore necessary to develop coping skills against the hazards associated with this phenomenon. However, existing environmental monitoring means often do not provide a sufficient response due to practical and technical limitations. Commercial microwave links that form the infrastructure for transmitting data between cell phone towers can be harnessed to map rain at high tempo-spatial resolution. Rainfall causes a decrease in the signal strength received by these wireless communication links allowing it to be used as a built-in sensor network to map the phenomenon. In this study, we point to the potential that lies in this system to indirectly monitor areas where air pollution is reduced. The relationship between pollutant wash-off and rainfall provides an opportunity to acquire important spatial information about air quality using existing cell-phone tower signals. Since the density of microwave communication networks is high relative to any dedicated sensor arrays, it could be possible to rely on this available observation tool for studying precipitation scavenging on air pollutants, for model needs and more.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Rainfall, commercial microwave links, washout

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242 Microplastic Concentrations in Cultured Oyster in Two Bays of Baja California, Mexico

Authors: Eduardo Antonio Lozano Hernandez, Nancy Ramirez Alvarez, Lorena Margarita Rios Mendoza, Jose Vinicio Macias Zamora, Felix Augusto Hernandez Guzman, Jose Luis Sanchez Osorio

Abstract:

Microplastics (MPs) are one of the most numerous reported wastes found in the marine ecosystem, representing one of the greatest risks for organisms that inhabit that environment due to their bioavailability. Such is the case of bivalve mollusks, since they are capable of filtering large volumes of water, which increases the risk of contamination by microplastics through the continuous exposure to these materials. This study aims to determine, quantify and characterize microplastics found in the cultured oyster Crassostrea gigas. We also analyzed if there are spatio-temporal differences in the microplastic concentration of organisms grown in two bays having quite different human population. In addition, we wanted to have an idea of the possible impact on humans via consumption of these organisms. Commercial size organisms (>6cm length; n = 15) were collected by triplicate from eight oyster farming sites in Baja California, Mexico during winter and summer. Two sites are located in Todos Santos Bay (TSB), while the other six are located in San Quintin Bay (SQB). Site selection was based on commercial concessions for oyster farming in each bay. The organisms were chemically digested with 30% KOH (w/v) and 30% H₂O₂ (v/v) to remove the organic matter and subsequently filtered using a GF/D filter. All particles considered as possible MPs were quantified according to their physical characteristics using a stereoscopic microscope. The type of synthetic polymer was determined using a FTIR-ATR microscope and using a user as well as a commercial reference library (Nicolet iN10 Thermo Scientific, Inc.) of IR spectra of plastic polymers (with a certainty ≥70% for polymers pure; ≥50% for composite polymers). Plastic microfibers were found in all the samples analyzed. However, a low incidence of MP fragments was observed in our study (approximately 9%). The synthetic polymers identified were mainly polyester and polyacrylonitrile. In addition, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, and T. elastomer. On average, the content of microplastics in organisms were higher in TSB (0.05 ± 0.01 plastic particles (pp)/g of wet weight) than found in SQB (0.02 ± 0.004 pp/g of wet weight) in the winter period. The highest concentration of MPs found in TSB coincides with the rainy season in the region, which increases the runoff from streams and wastewater discharges to the bay, as well as the larger population pressure (> 500,000 inhabitants). Otherwise, SQB is a mainly rural location, where surface runoff from streams is minimal and in addition, does not have a wastewater discharge into the bay. During the summer, no significant differences (Manne-Whitney U test; P=0.484) were observed in the concentration of MPs found in the cultured oysters of TSB and SQB, (average: 0.01 ± 0.003 pp/g and 0.01 ± 0.002 pp/g, respectively). Finally, we concluded that the consumption of oyster does not represent a risk for humans due to the low concentrations of MPs found. The concentration of MPs is influenced by the variables such as temporality, circulations dynamics of the bay and existing demographic pressure.

Keywords: Microplastic, oyster, FTIR-ATR, Human risk

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241 Meteorological Risk Assessment for Ships with Fuzzy Logic Designer

Authors: İsmail Karaca, Omer Soner, Ridvan Saracoglu

Abstract:

Fuzzy Logic, an advanced method to support decision-making, is used by various scientists in many disciplines. Fuzzy programming is a product of fuzzy logic, fuzzy rules, and implication. In marine science, fuzzy programming for ships is dramatically increasing together with autonomous ship studies. In this paper, a program to support the decision-making process for ship navigation has been designed. The program is produced in fuzzy logic and rules, by taking the marine accidents and expert opinions into account. After the program was designed, the program was tested by 46 ship accidents reported by the Transportation Safety Investigation Center of Turkey. Wind speed, sea condition, visibility, day/night ratio have been used as input data. They have been converted into a risk factor within the Fuzzy Logic Designer application and fuzzy rules set by marine experts. Finally, the expert's meteorological risk factor for each accident is compared with the program's risk factor, and the error rate was calculated. The main objective of this study is to improve the navigational safety of ships, by using the advance decision support model. According to the study result, fuzzy programming is a robust model that supports safe navigation.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, calculation of risk factor, fuzzy programming for ship, safety navigation of ships

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240 Atlantic Sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) Distribution off the East Coast of Florida from 2003 to 2018 in Response to Sea Surface Temperature

Authors: Meredith M. Pratt

Abstract:

The Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) ranges from 40°N to 40°S in the Western Atlantic Ocean and has great economic and recreational value for sport fishers. Off the eastern coast of Florida, charter boats often target this species. Stuart, Florida, bills itself as the sailfish capital of the world. Sailfish tag data from The Billfish Foundation and NOAA was used to determine the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and the distribution of Atlantic sailfish caught and released over a fifteen-year period (2003 to 2018). Tagging information was collected from local sports fishermen in Florida. Using the time and location of each landed sailfish, a satellite-derived SST value was obtained for each point. The purpose of this study was to determine if sea surface warming was associated with changes in sailfish distribution. On average, sailfish were caught at 26.16 ± 1.70°C (x̄ ± s.d.) over the fifteen-year period. The most sailfish catches occurred at temperatures ranging from 25.2°C to 25.5°C. Over the fifteen-year period, sailfish catches decreased at lower temperatures (~23°C and ~24°C) and at 31°C. At ~25°C and ~30°C there was no change in catch numbers of sailfish. From 26°C to 29°C, there was an increase in the number of sailfish. Based on these results, increasing ocean temperatures will have an impact on the distribution and habitat utilization of sailfish. Warming sea surface temperatures create a need for more policy and regulation to protect the Atlantic sailfish and related highly migratory billfish species.

Keywords: sea surface temperature, atlantic sailfish, Billfish, istiophorus albicans

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239 Investigating Real Ship Accidents with Descriptive Analysis in Turkey

Authors: İsmail Karaca, Omer Soner

Abstract:

The use of advanced methods has been increasing day by day in the maritime sector, which is one of the sectors least affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is aimed to minimize accidents, especially by using advanced methods in the investigation of marine accidents. This research aimed to conduct an exploratory statistical analysis of particular ship accidents in the Transport Safety Investigation Center of Turkey database. 46 ship accidents, which occurred between 2010-2018, have been selected from the database. In addition to the availability of a reliable and comprehensive database, taking advantage of the robust statistical models for investigation is critical to improving the safety of ships. Thus, descriptive analysis has been used in the research to identify causes and conditional factors related to different types of ship accidents. The research outcomes underline the fact that environmental factors and day and night ratio have great influence on ship safety.

Keywords: Maritime Safety, Descriptive Analysis, maritime industry, ship accident statistics

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238 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination for the Sustainable Management of Vulnerable Mangrove Ecosystem, the Sundarbans

Authors: M. A. Islam, S. Begum, T. Biswas

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The present research investigates the distribution and contamination of heavy metals in core sediments collected from three locations of the Sundarbans mangrove forest. In this research, quality of the analysis is evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials IAEA-SL-1 (lake sediment), IAEA-Soil-7, and NIST-1633b (coal fly ash). Total concentrations of 28 heavy metals (Na, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U) have determined in core sediments of the Sundarbans mangrove by neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. When compared with upper continental crustal (UCC) values, it is observed that mean concentrations of K, Ti, Zn, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Hf, and Th show elevated values in the research area is high. In this research, the assessments of metal contamination levels using different environmental contamination indices (EF, Igeo, CF) indicate that Ti, Sb, Cs, REEs, and Th have minor enrichment of the sediments of the Sundarbans. The modified degree of contamination (mCd) of studied samples of the Sundarbans ecosystem show low contamination. The pollution load index (PLI) values for the cores suggested that sampling points are moderately polluted. The possible sources of the deterioration of the sediment quality can be attributed to the different chemical carrying cargo accidents, port activities, ship breaking, agricultural and aquaculture run-off of the area. Pearson correlation matrix (PCM) established relationships among elements. The PCM indicates that most of the metal's distributions have been controlled by the same factors such as Fe-oxy-hydroxides and clay minerals, and also they have a similar origin. The poor correlations of Ca with most of the elements in the sediment cores indicate that calcium carbonate has a less significant role in this mangrove sediment. Finally, the data from this research will be used as a benchmark for future research and help to quantify levels of metal pollutions, as well as to manage future ecological risks of the vulnerable mangrove ecosystem, the Sundarbans.

Keywords: Contamination, trace element, vulnerable, sundarbans, core sediment

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237 Exceptional Cost and Time Optimization with Successful Leak Repair and Restoration of Oil Production: West Kuwait Case Study

Authors: Nasser Al-Azmi, Al-Sabea Salem, Abu-Eida Abdullah, Milan Patra, Mohamed Elyas, Daniel Freile, Larisa Tagarieva

Abstract:

Well intervention was done along with Production Logging Tools (PLT) to detect sources of water, and to check well integrity for two West Kuwait oil wells started to produce 100 % water. For the first well, to detect the source of water, PLT was performed to check the perforations, no production observed from the bottom two perforation intervals, and an intake of water was observed from the top most perforation. Then a decision was taken to extend the PLT survey from tag depth to the Y-tool. For the second well, the aim was to detect the source of water and if there was a leak in the 7’’liner in front of the upper zones. Data could not be recorded in flowing conditions due to the casing deformation at almost 8300 ft. For the first well from the interpretation of PLT and well integrity data, there was a hole in the 9 5/8'' casing from 8468 ft to 8494 ft producing almost the majority of water, which is 2478 bbl/d. The upper perforation from 10812 ft to 10854 ft was taking 534 stb/d. For the second well, there was a hole in the 7’’liner from 8303 ft MD to 8324 ft MD producing 8334.0 stb/d of water with an intake zone from10322.9-10380.8 ft MD taking the whole fluid. To restore the oil production, W/O rig was mobilized to prevent dump flooding, and during the W/O, the leaking interval was confirmed for both wells. The leakage was cement squeezed and tested at 900-psi positive pressure and 500-psi drawdown pressure. The cement squeeze job was successful. After W/O, the wells kept producing for cleaning, and eventually, the WC reduced to 0%. Regular PLT and well integrity logs are required to study well performance, and well integrity issues, proper cement behind casing is essential to well longevity and well integrity, and the presence of the Y-tool is essential as monitoring of well parameters and ESP to facilitate well intervention tasks. Cost and time optimization in oil and gas and especially during rig operations is crucial. PLT data quality and the accuracy of the interpretations contributed a lot to identify the leakage interval accurately and, in turn, saved a lot of time and reduced the repair cost with almost 35 to 45 %. The added value here was more related to the cost reduction and effective and quick proper decision making based on the economic environment.

Keywords: cement, leak, water shut-off, water leak

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236 Numerical Predictions of Trajectory Stability of a High-Speed Water-Entry and Water-Exit Projectile

Authors: Lin Lu, Qiang Li, Tao Cai, Pengjun Zhang

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In this study, a detailed analysis of trajectory stability and flow characteristics of a high-speed projectile during the water-entry and water-exit process has been investigated numerically. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri (Z-G-B) cavitation model and the SST k-ω turbulence model based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method are employed. The numerical methodology is validated by comparing the experimental photograph of cavitation shape and the experimental underwater velocity with the numerical simulation results. Based on the numerical methodology, the influences of rotational speed, water-entry and water-exit angle of the projectile on the trajectory stability and flow characteristics have been carried out in detail. The variation features of projectile trajectory and total resistance have been conducted, respectively. In addition, the cavitation characteristics of water-entry and water-exit have been presented and analyzed. Results show that it may not be applicable for the water-entry and water-exit to achieve the projectile stability through the rotation of projectile. Furthermore, there ought to be a critical water-entry angle for the water-entry stability of practical projectile. The impact of water-exit angle on the trajectory stability and cavity phenomenon is not as remarkable as that of the water-entry angle.

Keywords: numerical predictions, cavitation characteristics, high-speed projectile, trajectory stability, water-entry, water-exit

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235 Ecosystem Modeling along the Western Bay of Bengal

Authors: A. D. Rao, Sachiko Mohanty, R. Gayathri, V. Ranga Rao

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Modeling on coupled physical and biogeochemical processes of coastal waters is vital to identify the primary production status under different natural and anthropogenic conditions. About 7, 500 km length of Indian coastline is occupied with number of semi enclosed coastal bodies such as estuaries, inlets, bays, lagoons, and other near shore, offshore shelf waters, etc. This coastline is also rich in wide varieties of ecosystem flora and fauna. Directly/indirectly extensive domestic and industrial sewage enter into these coastal water bodies affecting the ecosystem character and create environment problems such as water quality degradation, hypoxia, anoxia, harmful algal blooms, etc. lead to decline in fishery and other related biological production. The present study is focused on the southeast coast of India, starting from Pulicat to Gulf of Mannar, which is rich in marine diversity such as lagoon, mangrove and coral ecosystem. Three dimensional Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) along with Darwin biogeochemical module is configured for the western Bay of Bengal (BoB) to study the biogeochemistry over this region. The biogeochemical module resolves the cycling of carbon, phosphorous, nitrogen, silica, iron and oxygen through inorganic, living, dissolved and particulate organic phases. The model domain extends from 4°N-16.5°N and 77°E-86°E with a horizontal resolution of 1 km. The bathymetry is derived from General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), which has a resolution of 30 sec. The model is initialized by using the temperature, salinity filed from the World Ocean Atlas (WOA2013) of National Oceanographic Data Centre with a resolution of 0.25°. The model is forced by the surface wind stress from ASCAT and the photosynthetically active radiation from the MODIS-Aqua satellite. Seasonal climatology of nutrients (phosphate, nitrate and silicate) for the southwest BoB region are prepared using available National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) in-situ data sets and compared with the WOA2013 seasonal climatology data. The model simulations with the two different initial conditions viz., WOA2013 and the generated NIO climatology, showed evident changes in the concentration and the evolution of the nutrients in the study region. It is observed that the availability of nutrients is more in NIO data compared to WOA in the model domain. The model simulated primary productivity is compared with the spatially distributed satellite derived chlorophyll data and at various locations with the in-situ data. The seasonal variability of the model simulated primary productivity is also studied.

Keywords: Biogeochemistry, Bay of Bengal, Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model, MITgcm, primary productivity

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