Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 315

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Marine and Environmental Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

315 Antioxidant Capacity, Proximate Biomass Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Five Marine Microalgal Species with Potential as Aquaculture Feed

Authors: Vasilis Andriopoulos, Maria D. Gkioni, Elena Koutra, Savvas G. Mastropetros, Fotini N. Lamari, Sofia Hatziantoniou, Michalis Kornaros


In the present study, the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Chlorella minutissima, Dunaliella salina, Isochrysis galbana, Nannochloropsis oculata and Tisohrysis lutea, as well as the proximate composition and fatty acid profile were evaluated, with the aim to select species suitable for co-production of antioxidants and aquaculture feed. Batch cultivation was performed at 25oC in a modified f/2 medium under continuous illumination and aeration with ambient air. Biomass was collected via centrifugation and extracted first with H2O and subsequently with methanol at two growth phases (early and late stationary). Total phenolic content and antioxidant and reducing activity of the extracts were evaluated. The highest phenolic content was found in the methanolic extract of C. minutissima at the early stationary phase (9.04±0.68 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent g-1 dry weight), and the aqueous extract of D. salina at the late stationary phase (8.78±1.49 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent g-1 Dry weight). Antioxidant activity, measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of methanolic extracts were comparable to the literature and correlated to Total phenolic content and Chlorophyll content of the biomass. No such correlation was found in the aqueous extracts. N. oculata and T. lutea were high in protein (39.88±1.72% Dry weight and 43.30±1.33% Dry weight, respectively) and carotenoids (0.64±0.13% and 0.92±0.02%, respectively). Additionally, they presented high eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels (33.74±9.98 mg eicosapentaenoic acid g-1 DW and 31.31±2.92 mg docosahexaenoic acid g-1 dry weight, respectively). N. oculata and T. lutea are promising candidates for the co-production of antioxidants and aquaculture feed, while C. minutissima and D. salina showed promise due to their higher antioxidant content.

Keywords: aquaculture fee, antioxidant activity, fatty acids, microalgae, total phenolic content

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314 A Novel Rapid Well Control Technique Modelled in Computational Fluid Dynamics Software

Authors: Michael Williams


The ability to control a flowing well is of the utmost important. During the kill phase, heavy weight kill mud is circulated around the well. While increasing bottom hole pressure near wellbore formation, the damage is increased. The addition of high density spherical objects has the potential to minimise this near wellbore damage, increase bottom hole pressure and reduce operational time to kill the well. This operational time saving is seen in the rapid deployment of high density spherical objects instead of building high density drilling fluid. The research aims to model the well kill process using a Computational Fluid Dynamics software. A model has been created as a proof of concept to analyse the flow of micron sized spherical objects in the drilling fluid. Initial results show that this new methodology of spherical objects in drilling fluid agrees with traditional stream lines seen in non-particle flow. Additional models have been created to demonstrate that areas of higher flow rate around the bit can lead to increased probability of wash out of formations but do not affect the flow of micron sized spherical objects. Interestingly, areas that experience dimensional changes such as tool joints and various BHA components do not appear at this initial stage to experience increased velocity or create areas of turbulent flow, which could lead to further borehole stability. In conclusion, the initial models of this novel well control methodology have not demonstrated any adverse flow patterns, which would conclude that this model may be viable under field conditions.

Keywords: well control, fluid mechanics, safety, environment

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313 Offshore Wind Assessment and Analysis for South Western Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Abdallah Touaibia, Nachida Kasbadji Merzouk, Mustapha Merzouk, Ryma Belarbi


accuracy assessment and a better understand of the wind resource distribution are the most important tasks for decision making before installing wind energy operating systems in a given region, there where our interest come to the Algerian coastline and its Mediterranean sea area. Despite its large coastline overlooking the border of Mediterranean Sea, there is still no strategy encouraging the development of offshore wind farms in Algerian waters. The present work aims to estimate the offshore wind fields for the Algerian Mediterranean Sea based on wind data measurements ranging from 1995 to 2018 provided of 24 years of measurement by seven observation stations focusing on three coastline cities in Algeria under a different measurement time step recorded from 30 min, 60 min, and 180 min variate from one to each other, two stations in Spain, two other ones in Italy and three in the coast of Algeria from the east Annaba, at the center Algiers, and to Oran taken place at the west of it. The idea behind consists to have multiple measurement points that helping to characterize this area in terms of wind potential by the use of interpolation method of their average wind speed values between these available data to achieve the approximate values of others locations where aren’t any available measurement because of the difficulties against the implementation of masts within the deep depth water. This study is organized as follow: first, a brief description of the studied area and its climatic characteristics were done. After that, the statistical properties of the recorded data were checked by evaluating wind histograms, direction roses, and average speeds using MatLab programs. Finally, ArcGIS and MapInfo soft-wares were used to establish offshore wind maps for better understanding the wind resource distribution, as well as to identify windy sites for wind farm installation and power management. The study pointed out that Cap Carbonara is the windiest site with an average wind speed of 7.26 m/s at 10 m, inducing a power density of 902 W/m², then the site of Cap Caccia with 4.88 m/s inducing a power density of 282 W/m². The average wind speed of 4.83 m/s is occurred for the site of Oran, inducing a power density of 230 W/m². The results indicated also that the dominant wind direction where the frequencies are highest for the site of Cap Carbonara is the West with 34%, an average wind speed of 9.49 m/s, and a power density of 1722 W/m². Then comes the site of Cap Caccia, where the prevailing wind direction is the North-west, about 20% and 5.82 m/s occurring a power density of 452 W/m². The site of Oran comes in third place with the North dominant direction with 32% inducing an average wind speed of 4.59 m/s and power density of 189 W/m². It also shown that the proposed method is either crucial in understanding wind resource distribution for revealing windy sites over a large area and more effective for wind turbines micro-siting.

Keywords: wind ressources, mediterranean sea, offshore, arcGIS, mapInfo, wind maps, wind farms

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312 AI/ML Atmospheric Parameters Retrieval Using the “Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN)”

Authors: Thomas Monahan, Nicolas Gorius, Thanh Nguyen


Exoplanet atmospheric parameters retrieval is a complex, computationally intensive, inverse modeling problem in which an exoplanet’s atmospheric composition is extracted from an observed spectrum. Traditional Bayesian sampling methods require extensive time and computation, involving algorithms that compare large numbers of known atmospheric models to the input spectral data. Runtimes are directly proportional to the number of parameters under consideration. These increased power and runtime requirements are difficult to accommodate in space missions where model size, speed, and power consumption are of particular importance. The use of traditional Bayesian sampling methods, therefore, compromise model complexity or sampling accuracy. The Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN) is a deep convolutional generative adversarial network that improves on the previous model’s speed and accuracy. We demonstrate the efficacy of artificial intelligence to quickly and reliably predict atmospheric parameters and present it as a viable alternative to slow and computationally heavy Bayesian methods. In addition to its broad applicability across instruments and planetary types, ARcGAN has been designed to function on low power application-specific integrated circuits. The application of edge computing to atmospheric retrievals allows for real or near-real-time quantification of atmospheric constituents at the instrument level. Additionally, edge computing provides both high-performance and power-efficient computing for AI applications, both of which are critical for space missions. With the edge computing chip implementation, ArcGAN serves as a strong basis for the development of a similar machine-learning algorithm to reduce the downlinked data volume from the Compact Ultraviolet to Visible Imaging Spectrometer (CUVIS) onboard the DAVINCI mission to Venus.

Keywords: deep learning, generative adversarial network, edge computing, atmospheric parameters retrieval

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311 Derivation of Fragility Functions of Marine Drilling Risers Under Ocean Environment

Authors: Pranjal Srivastava, Piyali Sengupta


The performance of marine drilling risers is crucial in the offshore oil and gas industry to ensure safe drilling operation with minimum downtime. Experimental investigations on marine drilling risers are limited in the literature owing to the expensive and exhaustive test setup required to replicate the realistic riser model and ocean environment in the laboratory. Therefore, this study presents an analytical model of marine drilling riser for determining its fragility under ocean environmental loading. In this study, the marine drilling riser is idealized as a continuous beam having a concentric circular cross-section. Hydrodynamic loading acting on the marine drilling riser is determined by Morison’s equations. By considering the equilibrium of forces on the marine drilling riser for the connected and normal drilling conditions, the governing partial differential equations in terms of independent variables z (depth) and t (time) are derived. Subsequently, the Runge Kutta method and Finite Difference Method are employed for solving the partial differential equations arising from the analytical model. The proposed analytical approach is successfully validated with respect to the experimental results from the literature. From the dynamic analysis results of the proposed analytical approach, the critical design parameters peak displacements, upper and lower flex joint rotations and von Mises stresses of marine drilling risers are determined. An extensive parametric study is conducted to explore the effects of top tension, drilling depth, ocean current speed and platform drift on the critical design parameters of the marine drilling riser. Thereafter, incremental dynamic analysis is performed to derive the fragility functions of shallow water and deep-water marine drilling risers under ocean environmental loading. The proposed methodology can also be adopted for downtime estimation of marine drilling risers incorporating the ranges of uncertainties associated with the ocean environment, especially at deep and ultra-deepwater.

Keywords: drilling riser, marine, analytical model, fragility

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310 Multiclass Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Fish and Shrimp Tissues by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Reza Pashaei, Reda Dzingelevičienė


An efficient, reliable, and sensitive multiclass analytical method has been expanded to simultaneously determine 15 human pharmaceutical residues in fish and shrimp tissue samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The investigated compounds comprise ten classes, namely analgesic, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, cardiovascular, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, penicillins, stimulant, and sulfonamide. A simple liquid extraction procedure based on 0.1% formic acid in methanol was developed. Chromatographic conditions were optimized, and mobile phase namely 0.1 % ammonium acetate (A), and acetonitrile (B): 0 – 2 min, 15% B; 2 – 5 min, linear to 95% B; 5 – 10 min, 95% B; and 10 – 12 min was obtained. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.017 to 1.371 μg/kg and 0.051 to 4.113 μg/kg, respectively. Finally, amoxicillin, azithromycin, caffeine, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, erythromycin, furosemide, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and triclosan were quantifiable in fish and shrimp samples.

Keywords: fish, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, pharmaceuticals, shrimp, solid-phase extraction

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309 Minimizing Ship’S Breakdown Maintenance Due to Rope Entangled In Propeller With “Si Kuman” On Mooring Boat PSC I in Surabaya

Authors: Jogi Prayogo, Dwi Qaqa Prasetyatama, Rahmad Dwi Afandi, Kunto Arief Prasetyo, Viorel Herniza Leksono


PT. Pertamina Trans Kontinental managed a fleet of 364 ships in 2018 - 2020. In that period, there were 8 incidents of ship damage, causing breakdown maintenance on 6 ships belonging to PT Pertamina Trans Kontinental throughout Indonesia's operational areas due to ropes entangled in propellers. The company's losses that were caused by the fouled propellers amounted to 306.35 Million Rupiah. Of the 8 incidents, Mooring Boat PSC I was taken as a pilot project for further analysis considering the location of the ship which is in Surabaya and Mooring Boat PSC I has experienced 2 incidents of rope entanglement that caused the company's losses due to the largest Breakdown Maintenance amounted to 200.99 Million Rupiah. After analyzing the rope entanglement in the ship's propeller based on the data of Mooring Boat PSC I related to the location of propellers that are often fouled in the conventional propulsion system, it was found that there is a suitable location for the implementation of SI KUMAN tool that serves to cut ropes to prevent the occurrence of rope entangled in ship propellers. The determination of SI KUMAN tool is based on the strength of the ship's material to be installed and a suitable design to prevent the occurrence of ropes being entangled in propellers. After the installation of the "SI KUMAN" tool and monitoring carried out for 1 year period (August 2020 - August 2021), it was found that SI KUMAN tool can eliminate the risk of fouled propeller incidents which previously occurred twice in one year so that the company's loss amounted to 200.99 Million Rupiah can be eliminated and SI KUMAN tool can still operate optimally.

Keywords: breakdown maintenance, mooring boat, fleet, fouled propeller, rope entangled, cut

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308 Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Leishmaniasis in Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Layegheh Daliri


Introduction: Leishmaniasis occurs in infectious diseases of Leishmania protozoa in Afghanistan, anthroponotic leishmaniasis and common cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL). Anthroponotic skin leishmania tropica may cause urban diseases and transmitted by Phlebotomus Sergenti. In different parts of Afghanistan, different species of Leishmania are observed. We report the epidemiological characteristics of prevention and treatment in this study. Methods: This study examines the epidemiology and prevention of religious diseases in Afghanistan. Knowledge gaps were analyzed and collected with our own data. Results: In Afghanistan, most of the Lishmania Tropic seekers are Four species of Leishmania in northern Afghanistan, including Leishmania Tropica, L. Major and L. Donovani, cause skin lesions, but L. Donovani and L. infantum are visible. Even combined prevention can significantly reduce the amount of infection. Conclusion: Skinny, as well as visceral leishmaniasis, can occur among the returnees from Afghanistan. Unusual and poor skin lesions can be created by L. Donovani. In most pathogenic areas, the transmission of common diseases between humans and animals. Home dogs are the main reservoir, transferring in some areas such as India and Sudan.

Keywords: leishmania donovani, leishmania tropica, treatment, disease, epidemiology

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307 Drones, Rebels and Bombs: Explaining the Role of Private Security and Expertise in a Post-piratical Indian Ocean

Authors: Jessica Kate Simonds


The last successful hijacking perpetrated by Somali pirates in 2012 represented a critical turning point for the identity and brand of Indian Ocean (IO) insecurity, coined in this paper as the era of the post-piratical. This paper explores the broadening of the PMSC business model to account and contribute to the design of a new IO security environment that prioritises foreign and insurgency drone activity and Houthi rebel operations as the main threat to merchant shipping in the post-2012 era. This study is situated within a longer history of analysing maritime insecurity and also contributes a bespoke conceptual framework that understands the sea as a space that is produced and reproduced relative to existing and emerging threats to merchant shipping based on bespoke models of information sharing and intelligence acquisition. This paper also makes a prominent empirical contribution by drawing on a post-positivist methodology, data drawn from original semi-structured interviews with senior maritime insurers and active merchant seafarers that is triangulated with industry-produced guidance such as the BMP series as primary data sources. Each set is analysed through qualitative discourse and content analysis and supported by the quantitative data sets provided by the IMB Piracy Reporting center and intelligence networks. This analysis reveals that mechanisms such as the IGP&I Maritime Security Committee and intelligence divisions of PMSC’s have driven the exchanges of knowledge between land and sea and thus the reproduction of the maritime security environment through new regulations and guidance to account dones, rebels and bombs as the key challenges in the IO, beyond piracy. A contribution of this paper is the argument that experts who may not be in the highest-profile jobs are the architects of maritime insecurity based on their detailed knowledge and connections to vessels in transit. This paper shares the original insights of those who have served in critical decision making spaces to demonstrate that the development and refinement of industry produced deterrence guidance that has been accredited to the mitigation of piracy, have shaped new editions such as BMP 5 that now serve to frame a new security environment that prioritises the mitigation of risks from drones and WBEID’s from both state and insurgency risk groups. By highlighting the experiences and perspectives of key players on both land and at sea, the key finding of this paper is outlining that as pirates experienced a financial boom by profiteering from their bespoke business model during the peak of successful hijackings, the private security market encountered a similar level of financial success and guaranteed risk environment in which to prospect business. Thus, the reproduction of the Indian Ocean as a maritime security environment reflects a new found purpose for PMSC’s as part of the broader conglomerate of maritime insurers, regulators, shipowners and managers who continue to redirect the security consciousness and IO brand of insecurity.

Keywords: maritime security, private security, risk intelligence, political geography, international relations, political economy, maritime law, security studies

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306 Feedback Matrix Approach for Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches Dynamics in Complex Electric Field Structures

Authors: Egor Stadnichuk


Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREA) are a widely accepted source of thunderstorm gamma-radiation. In regions with huge electric field strength, RREA can multiply via relativistic feedback. The relativistic feedback is caused both by positron production and by runaway electron bremsstrahlung gamma-rays reversal. In complex multilayer thunderstorm electric field structures, an additional reactor feedback mechanism appears due to gamma-ray exchange between separate strong electric field regions with different electric field directions. The study of this reactor mechanism in conjunction with the relativistic feedback with Monte Carlo simulations or by direct solution of the kinetic Boltzmann equation requires a significant amount of computational time. In this work, a theoretical approach to study feedback mechanisms in RREA physics is developed. It is based on the matrix of feedback operators construction. With the feedback matrix, the problem of the dynamics of avalanches in complex electric structures is reduced to the problem of finding eigenvectors and eigenvalues. A method of matrix elements calculation is proposed. The proposed concept was used to study the dynamics of RREAs in multilayer thunderclouds.

Keywords: terrestrial Gamma-ray flashes, thunderstorm ground enhancement, relativistic runaway electron avalanches, gamma-rays, high-energy atmospheric physics, TGF, TGE, thunderstorm, relativistic feedback, reactor feedback, reactor model

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305 Sympatric Calanus Species: A High Temporal Resolution of Reproductive Timing and Stage Composition

Authors: Mads Schultz, Galice Hoarau, Marvin Choquet


Members of the genus Calanus are key species in the North Atlantic and Arctic marine ecosystems due to their vast abundance and their ability to accumulate high amounts of lipid. As a link between primary producers and higher trophic levels, the temporal presence of each Calanus species is important in a time of changing communities and northward distribution shifts. This study focused on the temporal niches of the sympatric species Calanus helgolandicus, Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis, and Calanus hyperboreus in Skjerstad fjord, a Norwegian fjord (67˚14’N, 14 ˚44’E). Three depth intervals were sampled monthly over a year, targeting copepodite stages of the genus Calanus. Species determination was carried out genetically using insertion/deletion markers. In addition, during the reproductive season (Jan-May), weekly samples of the upper 50 meters of the water column targeting nauplii and 5 depth intervals targeting copepodites were collected. Nauplii samples were sorted into two groups (NI-NIII and NIV-NVI), and species were genetically identified. Specimens from stage CIV to adults from each depth interval of copepodite sampling were photographed in order to generate a supporting timeline of visual traits, including gonad maturation stage, presence of stomach content, and total lipid content. The most abundant species were Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus glacialis, followed by Calanus hyperboreus. These species were present in the water column throughout the year, whereas Calanus helgolandicus, the least abundant species, was only present during the summer and autumn period. Each species showed distinct temporal niches, with Calanus finmarchicus occupying the upper 50 meters longer than any of the other species. Calanus hyperboreus dominates in abundance early in the spring but are outnumbered by Calanus glacialis and Calanus finmarchicus after spring bloom sets in. In Skjerstad fjord, Calanus hyperboreus is a clear capital breeder with a long period of nauplii presence before the spring bloom. Calanus glacialis and Calanus finmarchicus both utilize income breeding, with Calanus glacialis developing to the larger nauplii stages quicker than Calanus finmarchicus, but also having a shorter reproduction period. Indeed, the “traditional Arctic” species Calanus hyperboreus and Calanus glacialis appear to end their reproduction period earlier than the North Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus.

Keywords: calanus, depth distribution, reproduction, stage composition, temporal niches

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304 Modeling a Feedback Concept in a Spherical Thundercloud Cell

Authors: Zemlianskaya Daria, Egor Stadnichuk, Ekaterina Svechnikova


Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are generally accepted as a source of thunderstorms gamma-ray radiation. Avalanches' dynamics in the electric fields can lead to their multiplication via gamma-rays and positrons, which is called relativistic feedback. This report shows that a non-uniform electric field geometry leads to the new RREAs multiplication mechanism - “geometric feedback”, which occurs due to the exchange of high-energy particles between different accelerating regions within a thundercloud. This report will present the results of the simulation in GEANT4 of feedback in a spherical cell. Necessary conditions for the occurrence of geometric feedback were obtained from it.

Keywords: electric field, GEANT4, gamma-rays, relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs), relativistic feedback, the thundercloud

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303 The Risk of Occupational Health in the Shipbuilding Industry in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Rashel Sheikh


The shipbuilding industry in Bangladesh had become a fast-growing industry in recent years when it began to export newly built ships. The various activities of shipbuilding industries in their limited, confined spaces added occupational worker exposures to chemicals, dusts, and metal fumes. The aim of this literature search is to identify the potential sources of occupational health hazards in shipyards and to promote the regulation of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for the workers. In shipyards, occupational workers are involved in various activities, such as the manufacture, repair, maintenance, dismantling of boats and ships, building small ocean-going vessels and ferries. The occupational workers in the shipbuilding industry suffer from a number of hazardous issues, such as asthma, dermatitis, hearing deficits, and musculoskeletal disorders. The use of modern technologies, such as underwater plasma welding, electron beam welding, and friction stir welding and laser cutting and welding, and appropriate PPE (i.e., long-sleeved shirt and long pants, shoes plus socks, safety masks, chemical resistant gloves, eyewear, face shield, and respirators) can help reduce the occupational exposure to environmental hazards created by different activities in the shipyards. However, most shipyards in Bangladesh use traditional methods, e.g., flame cutting and arc, that add hazardous waste and pollutants to the environment in and around the shipyard. The safety and security of occupational workers in the shipyard workplace are very important. It is the primary responsibility of employers to ensure the safety and security of occupational workers in the shipyards. Employers must use advanced technologies and supply adequate and appropriate PPE for the workers. There are a number of accidents and illnesses that happen daily in the shipyard industries in Bangladesh due to the negligence and lack of adequate technologies and appropriate PPE. In addition, there are no specific regulations and implementations available to use the PPE. It is essential to have PPE regulations and strict enforcement for the adoption of PPE in the shipbuilding industries in Bangladesh. Along with the adoption of PPE with regular health examinations, health education to the workers regarding occupational hazards and lifestyle diseases are also important and require reinforcement. Monitoring health and safety hazards in shipyards are essential to enhance worker protection, and ensure worker safety, and mitigate workplace injuries and illnesses.

Keywords: shipbuilding Industries, health education, occupational health hazards, personal protective equipment, shipyard workers, occupational workers, shipyards

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302 Investigation of Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction of Gravity Anchor under Liquefaction and Scour

Authors: Vinay Kumar Vanjakula, Frank Adam, Nils Goseberg, Christian Windt


When a structure is installed on a seabed, the presence of the structure will influence the flow field around it. The changes in the flow field include, formation of vortices, turbulence generation, waves or currents flow breaking and pressure differentials around the seabed sediment. These changes allow the local seabed sediment to be carried off and results in Scour (erosion). These are a threat to the structure's stability. In recent decades, rapid developments of research work and the knowledge of scour On fixed structures (bridges and Monopiles) in rivers and oceans has been carried out, and very limited research work on scour and liquefaction for gravity anchors, particularly for floating Tension Leg Platform (TLP) substructures. Due to its importance and need for enhancement of knowledge in scour and liquefaction around marine structures, the MarTERA funded a three-year (2020-2023) research program called NuLIMAS (Numerical Modeling of Liquefaction Around Marine Structures). It’s a group consists of European institutions (Universities, laboratories, and consulting companies). The objective of this study is to build a numerical model that replicates the reality, which indeed helps to simulate (predict) underwater flow conditions and to study different marine scour and Liquefication situations. It helps to design a heavyweight anchor for the TLP substructure and to minimize the time and expenditure on experiments. And also, the achieved results and the numerical model will be a basis for the development of other design and concepts For marine structures. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical model will build in OpenFOAM. A conceptual design of heavyweight anchor for TLP substructure is designed through taking considerations of available state-of-the-art knowledge on scour and Liquefication concepts and references to Previous existing designs. These conceptual designs are validated with the available similar experimental benchmark data and also with the CFD numerical benchmark standards (CFD quality assurance study). CFD optimization model/tool is designed as to minimize the effect of fluid flow, scour, and Liquefication. A parameterized model is also developed to automate the calculation process to reduce user interactions. The parameters such as anchor Lowering Process, flow optimized outer contours, seabed interaction study, and FSSI (Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interactions) are investigated and used to carve the model as to build an optimized anchor.

Keywords: gravity anchor, liquefaction, scour, computational fluid dynamics

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301 Environmental Controls on the Distribution of Intertidal Foraminifers in Sabkha Al-Kharrar, Saudi Arabia: Implications for Sea-Level Changes

Authors: Talha A. Al-Dubai, Rashad A. Bantan, Ramadan H. Abu-Zied, Brian G. Jones, Aaid G. Al-Zubieri


Contemporary foraminiferal samples sediments were collected from the intertidal sabkha of Al-Kharrar Lagoon, Saudi Arabia, to study the vertical distribution of Foraminifera and, based on a modern training set, their potential to develop a predictor of former sea-level changes in the area. Based on hierarchical cluster analysis, the intertidal sabkha is divided into three vertical zones (A, B & C) represented by three foraminiferal assemblages, where agglutinated species occupied Zone A and calcareous species occupied the other two zones. In Zone A (high intertidal), Agglutinella compressa, Clavulina angularis and C. multicamerata are dominant species with a minor presence of Peneroplis planatus, Coscinospira hemprichii, Sorites orbiculus, Quinqueloculina lamarckiana, Q. seminula, Ammonia convexa and A. tepida. In contrast, in Zone B (middle intertidal) the most abundant species are P. planatus, C. hemprichii, S. orbiculus, Q. lamarckiana, Q. seminula and Q. laevigata, while Zone C (low intertidal) is characterised by C. hemprichii, Q. costata, S. orbiculus, P. planatus, A. convexa, A. tepida, Spiroloculina communis and S. costigera. A transfer function for sea-level reconstruction was developed using a modern dataset of 75 contemporary sediment samples and 99 species collected from several transects across the sabkha. The model provided an error of 0.12m, suggesting that intertidal foraminifers are able to predict the past sea-level changes with high precision in Al-Kharrar Lagoon, and thus the future prediction of those changes in the area.

Keywords: Lagoonal foraminifers, intertidal sabkha, vertical zonation, transfer function, sea level

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300 COVID–19 Impact on Passenger and Cargo Traffic: A Case Study

Authors: Maja Čović, Josipa Bojčić, Bruna Bacalja, Gorana Jelić Mrčelić


The appearance of the COVID-19 disease and its fast-spreading brought global pandemic and health crisis. In order to prevent the further spreading of the virus, the governments had implemented mobility restriction rules which left a negative mark on the world’s economy. Although there is numerous research on the impact of COVID-19 on marine traffic around the world, the objective of this paper is to consider the impact of COVID-19 on passenger and cargo traffic in Port of Split, in the Republic of Croatia. Methods used to make the theoretical and research part of the paper are descriptive method, comparative method, compilation, inductive method, deductive method, and statistical method. Paper relies on data obtained via Port of Split Authority and analyses trends in passenger and cargo traffic, including the year 2020, when the pandemic broke. Significant reductions in income, disruptions in transportation and traffic, as well as other maritime services are shown in the paper. This article also observes a significant decline in passenger traffic, cruising traffic and also observes the dynamic of cargo traffic inside the port of Split.

Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, passenger traffic, ports, trends, cargo traffic

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299 Risk Analysis of Leaks from a Subsea Oil Facility Based on Fuzzy Logic Techniques

Authors: Belén Vinaixa Kinnear, Arturo Hidalgo López, Bernardo Elembo Wilasi, Pablo Fernández Pérez, Cecilia Hernández Fuentealba


The expanded use of risk assessment in legislative and corporate decision-making has increased the role of expert judgement in giving data for security-related decision-making. Expert judgements are required in most steps of risk assessment: danger recognizable proof, hazard estimation, risk evaluation, and examination of choices. This paper presents a fault tree analysis (FTA), which implies a probabilistic failure analysis applied to leakage of oil in a subsea production system. In standard FTA, the failure probabilities of items of a framework are treated as exact values while evaluating the failure probability of the top event. There is continuously insufficiency of data for calculating the failure estimation of components within the drilling industry. Therefore, fuzzy hypothesis can be used as a solution to solve the issue. The aim of this paper is to examine the leaks from the Zafiro West subsea oil facility by using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA). As a result, the research has given theoretical and practical contributions to maritime safety and environmental protection. It has been also an effective strategy used traditionally in identifying hazards in nuclear installations and power industries.

Keywords: expert judgment, probability assessment, fault tree analysis, risk analysis, oil pipelines, subsea production system, drilling, quantitative risk analysis, leakage failure, top event, off-shore industry

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298 A Comparative Evaluation of Finite Difference Methods for the Extended Boussinesq Equations and Application to Tsunamis Modelling

Authors: Aurore Cauquis, Philippe Heinrich, Mario Ricchiuto, Audrey Gailler


In this talk, we look for an accurate time scheme to model the propagation of waves. Several numerical schemes have been developed to solve the extended weakly nonlinear weakly dispersive Boussinesq Equations. The temporal schemes used are two Lax-Wendroff schemes, second or third order accurate, two Runge-Kutta schemes of second and third order and a simplified third order accurate Lax-Wendroff scheme. Spatial derivatives are evaluated with fourth order accuracy. The numerical model is applied to two monodimensional benchmarks on a flat bottom. It is also applied to the simulation of the Algerian tsunami generated by a Mw=6 seism on the 18th March 2021. The tsunami propagation was highly dispersive and propagated across the Mediterranean Sea. We study here the effects of the order of temporal discretization on the accuracy of the results and on the time of computation.

Keywords: numerical analysis, tsunami propagation, water wave, boussinesq equations

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297 Improving the Performance of DBE Structure in Pressure Flushing Using Submerged Vanes

Authors: Sepideh Beiramipour, Hadi Haghjouei, Kourosh Qaderi, Majid Rahimpour, Mohammad M. Ahmadi, Sameh A. Kantoush


Reservoir sedimentation is one of the main challenges by which the reservoir behind the dam is filled with sediments transferred through the river flow. Pressure flushing method is an effective way to drain the deposited sediments of the reservoirs through the bottom outlet. So far, several structural methods have been proposed to increase the efficiency of pressure flushing. The aim of this study is to increase the performance of Dendritic Bottomless Extended (DBE) structure on the efficiency of pressurized sediment flushing using submerged vanes. For this purpose, the physical model of the dam reservoir with dimensions of 7.5 m in length, 3.5 m in width, and 1.8 m in height in the hydraulic and water structures research laboratory of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman was used. In order to investigate the influence of submerged vanes on the performance of DBE structure in pressure flushing, the best arrangement and geometric parameters of the vanes were selected and combined with the DBE structure. The results showed that the submerged vanes significantly increased the performance of the DBE structure so that the volume of the sediment flushing cone with the combination of two structures increased by 3.7 times compared to the DBE structure test.

Keywords: dendritic bottomless extended structure, flushing efficiency, sedimentation, sediment flushing

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296 Sentinel-2 Based Burn Area Severity Assessment Tool in Google Earth Engine

Authors: D. Madhushanka, Y. Liu, H. C. Fernando


Fires are one of the foremost factors of land surface disturbance in diverse ecosystems, causing soil erosion and land-cover changes and atmospheric effects affecting people's lives and properties. Generally, the severity of the fire is calculated as the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index. This is performed manually by comparing two images obtained afterward. Then by using the bitemporal difference of the preprocessed satellite images, the dNBR is calculated. The burnt area is then classified as either unburnt (dNBR<0.1) or burnt (dNBR>= 0.1). Furthermore, Wildfire Severity Assessment (WSA) classifies burnt areas and unburnt areas using classification levels proposed by USGS and comprises seven classes. This procedure generates a burn severity report for the area chosen by the user manually. This study is carried out with the objective of producing an automated tool for the above-mentioned process, namely the World Wildfire Severity Assessment Tool (WWSAT). It is implemented in Google Earth Engine (GEE), which is a free cloud-computing platform for satellite data processing, with several data catalogs at different resolutions (notably Landsat, Sentinel-2, and MODIS) and planetary-scale analysis capabilities. Sentinel-2 MSI is chosen to obtain regular processes related to burnt area severity mapping using a medium spatial resolution sensor (15m). This tool uses machine learning classification techniques to identify burnt areas using NBR and to classify their severity over the user-selected extent and period automatically. Cloud coverage is one of the biggest concerns when fire severity mapping is performed. In WWSAT based on GEE, we present a fully automatic workflow to aggregate cloud-free Sentinel-2 images for both pre-fire and post-fire image compositing. The parallel processing capabilities and preloaded geospatial datasets of GEE facilitated the production of this tool. This tool consists of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to make it user-friendly. The advantage of this tool is the ability to obtain burn area severity over a large extent and more extended temporal periods. Two case studies were carried out to demonstrate the performance of this tool. The Blue Mountain national park forest affected by the Australian fire season between 2019 and 2020 is used to describe the workflow of the WWSAT. This site detected more than 7809 km2, using Sentinel-2 data, giving an error below 6.5% when compared with the area detected on the field. Furthermore, 86.77% of the detected area was recognized as fully burnt out, of which high severity (17.29%), moderate-high severity (19.63%), moderate-low severity (22.35%), and low severity (27.51%). The Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forest Park, California, the USA, which is affected by the Cameron peak fire in 2020, is chosen for the second case study. It was found that around 983 km2 had burned out, of which high severity (2.73%), moderate-high severity (1.57%), moderate-low severity (1.18%), and low severity (5.45%). These spots also can be detected through the visual inspection made possible by cloud-free images generated by WWSAT. This tool is cost-effective in calculating the burnt area since satellite images are free and the cost of field surveys is avoided.

Keywords: burnt area, burnt severity, fires, google earth engine (GEE), sentinel-2

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295 Findings on Modelling Carbon Dioxide Concentration Scenarios in the Nairobi Metropolitan Region before and during COVID-19

Authors: John Okanda Okwaro


Carbon (IV) oxide (CO₂) is emitted majorly from fossil fuel combustion and industrial production. The sources of interest of carbon (IV) oxide in the study area are mining activities, transport systems, and industrial processes. This study is aimed at building models that will help in monitoring the emissions within the study area. Three scenarios were discussed, namely: pessimistic scenario, business-as-usual scenario, and optimistic scenario. The result showed that there was a reduction in carbon dioxide concentration by approximately 50.5 ppm between March 2020 and January 2021 inclusive. This is majorly due to reduced human activities that led to decreased consumption of energy. Also, the CO₂ concentration trend follows the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) path. From the models, the pessimistic, business-as-usual, and optimistic scenarios give CO₂ concentration of about 545.9 ppm, 408.1 ppm, and 360.1 ppm, respectively, on December 31st, 2021. This research helps paint the picture to the policymakers of the relationship between energy sources and CO₂ emissions. Since the reduction in CO₂ emission was due to decreased use of fossil fuel as there was a decrease in economic activities, then if Kenya relies more on green energy than fossil fuel in the post-COVID-19 period, there will be more CO₂ emission reduction. That is, the CO₂ concentration trend is likely to follow the optimistic scenario path, hence a reduction in CO₂ concentration of about 48 ppm by the end of the year 2021. This research recommends investment in solar energy by energy-intensive companies, mine machinery and equipment maintenance, investment in electric vehicles, and doubling tree planting efforts to achieve the 10% cover.

Keywords: forecasting, greenhouse gas, green energy, hierarchical data format

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294 Evidence of Microplastics Ingestion in Two Commercial Cephalopod Species: Octopus Vulgaris and Sepia Officinalis

Authors: Federica Laface, Cristina Pedà, Francesco Longo, Francesca de Domenico, Riccardo Minichino, Pierpaolo Consoli, Pietro Battaglia, Silvestro Greco, Teresa Romeo


Plastics pollution represents one of the most important threats to marine biodiversity. In the last decades, different species are investigated to evaluate the extent of the plastic ingestion phenomenon. Even if the cephalopods play an important role in the food chain, they are still poorly studied. The aim of this research was to investigate the plastic ingestion in two commercial cephalopod species from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea: the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris (n=6; mean mantle length ML 10.7 ± 1.8) and the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (n=13; mean ML 13.2 ± 1.7). Plastics were extracted from the filters obtained by the chemical digestion of cephalopods gastrointestinal tracts (GITs), using 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution in a 1:5 (w/v) ratio. Once isolated, particles were photographed, measured, and their size class, shape and color were recorded. A total of 81 items was isolated from 16 of the 19 examined GITs, representing a total occurrence (%O) of 84.2% with a mean value of 4.3 ± 8.6 particles per individual. In particular, 62 plastics were found in 6 specimens of O. vulgaris (%O=100) and 19 particles in 10 S. officinalis (%O=94.7). In both species, the microplastics size class was the most abundant (93.8%). Plastic items found in O. vulgaris were mainly fibers (61%) while fragments were the most frequent in S. officinalis (53%). Transparent was the most common color in both species. The analysis will be completed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy technique in order to identify polymers nature. This study reports preliminary data on plastic ingestion events in two cephalopods species and represents the first record of plastic ingestion by the common octopus. Microplastic items detected in both common octopus and common cuttlefish could derive from secondary and/or accidental ingestion events, probably due to their behavior, feeding habits and anatomical features. Further studies will be required to assess the effect of marine litter pollution in these ecologically and commercially important species.

Keywords: cephalopods, GIT analysis, marine pollution, Mediterranean sea, microplastics

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293 A Microcosm Study on the Response of Phytoplankton and Bacterial Community of the Subarctic Northeast Atlantic Ocean to Oil Pollution under Projected Atmospheric CO₂ Conditions

Authors: Afiq Mohd Fahmi, Tony Gutierrez, Sebastian Hennige


Increasing amounts of CO₂ entering the marine environment, also known as ocean acidification, is documented as having harmful impacts on a variety of marine organisms. When considering the future risk of hydrocarbon pollution, which is generally detrimental to marine life as well, this needs to consider how OA-induced changes to microbial communities will compound this since hydrocarbon degradation is influenced by the community-level microbial response. This study aims to evaluate the effects of increased atmospheric CO₂ conditions and oil enrichment on the phytoplankton-associated bacterial communities. Faroe Shetland Channel (FSC) is a subarctic region in the northeast Atlantic where crude oil extraction has recently been expanded. In the event of a major oil spill in this region, it is vital that we understand the response of the bacterial community and its consequence on primary production within this region—some phytoplankton communities found in the ocean harbor hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria that are associated with its psychosphere. Surface water containing phytoplankton and bacteria from FSC were cultured in ambient and elevated atmospheric CO₂ conditions for 4 days of acclimation in microcosms before introducing 1% (v/v) of crude oil into the microcosms to simulate oil spill conditions at sea. It was found that elevated CO₂ conditions do not significantly affect the chl a concentration, and exposure to crude oil detrimentally affected chl a concentration up to 10 days after exposure to crude oil. The diversity and richness of the bacterial community were not significantly affected by both CO₂ treatment and oil enrichment. The increase in the relative abundance of known hydrocarbon degraders such as Oleispira, Marinobacter and Halomonas indicates potential for biodegradation of crude oil, while the resilience of dominant taxa Colwellia, unclassified Gammaproteobacteria, unclassified Rnodobacteria and unclassified Halomonadaceae could be associated with the recovery of microalgal community 13 days after oil exposure. Therefore, the microbial community from the subsurface of FSC has the potential to recover from crude oil pollution even under elevated CO₂ (750 ppm) conditions.

Keywords: phytoplankton, bacteria, crude oil, ocean acidification

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292 Numerical Calculation of Dynamic Response of Catamaran Vessels Based on 3D Green Function Method

Authors: Md. Moinul Islam, N. M. Golam Zakaria


Seakeeping analysis of catamaran vessels in the earlier stages of design has become an important issue as it dictates the seakeeping characteristics, and it ensures safe navigation during the voyage. In the present paper, a 3D numerical method for the seakeeping prediction of catamaran vessel is presented using the 3D Green Function method. Both steady and unsteady potential flow problem is dealt with here. Using 3D linearized potential theory, the dynamic wave loads and the subsequent response of the vessel is computed. For validation of the numerical procedure catamaran vessel composed of twin, Wigley form demi-hull is used. The results of the present calculation are compared with the available experimental data and also with other calculations. The numerical procedure is also carried out for NPL-based round bilge catamaran, and hydrodynamic coefficients along with heave and pitch motion responses are presented for various Froude number. The results obtained by the present numerical method are found to be in fairly good agreement with the available data. This can be used as a design tool for predicting the seakeeping behavior of catamaran ships in waves.

Keywords: catamaran, hydrodynamic coefficients , motion response, 3D green function

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291 Lagrangian Approach for Modeling Marine Litter Transport

Authors: Sarra Zaied, Arthur Bonpain, Pierre Yves Fravallo


The permanent supply of marine litter implies their accumulation in the oceans, which causes the presence of more compact wastes layers. Their Spatio-temporal distribution is never homogeneous and depends mainly on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the environment and the size and location of the wastes. As part of optimizing collect of marine plastic wastes, it is important to measure and monitor their evolution over time. For this, many research studies have been dedicated to describing the wastes behavior in order to identify their accumulation in oceans areas. Several models are therefore developed to understand the mechanisms that allow the accumulation and the displacements of marine litter. These models are able to accurately simulate the drift of wastes to study their behavior and stranding. However, these works aim to study the wastes behavior over a long period of time and not at the time of waste collection. This work investigates the transport of floating marine litter (FML) to provide basic information that can help in optimizing wastes collection by proposing a model for predicting their behavior during collection. The proposed study is based on a Lagrangian modeling approach that uses the main factors influencing the dynamics of the waste. The performance of the proposed method was assessed on real data collected from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). Evaluation results in the Java Sea (Indonesia) prove that the proposed model can effectively predict the position and the velocity of marine wastes during collection.

Keywords: floating marine litter, lagrangian transport, particle-tracking model, wastes drift

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
290 Exploring an Exome Target Capture Method for Cross-Species Population Genetic Studies

Authors: Benjamin A. Ha, Marco Morselli, Xinhui Paige Zhang, Elizabeth A. C. Heath-Heckman, Jonathan B. Puritz, David K. Jacobs


Next-generation sequencing has enhanced the ability to acquire massive amounts of sequence data to address classic population genetic questions for non-model organisms. Targeted approaches allow for cost effective or more precise analyses of relevant sequences; although, many such techniques require a known genome and it can be costly to purchase probes from a company. This is challenging for non-model organisms with no published genome and can be expensive for large population genetic studies. Expressed exome capture sequencing (EecSeq) synthesizes probes in the lab from expressed mRNA, which is used to capture and sequence the coding regions of genomic DNA from a pooled suite of samples. A normalization step produces probes to recover transcripts from a wide range of expression levels. This approach offers low cost recovery of a broad range of genes in the genome. This research project expands on EecSeq to investigate if mRNA from one taxon may be used to capture relevant sequences from a series of increasingly less closely related taxa. For this purpose, we propose to use the endangered Northern Tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, a non-model organism that inhabits California coastal lagoons. mRNA will be extracted from E. newberryi to create probes and capture exomes from eight other taxa, including the more at-risk Southern Tidewater goby, E. kristinae, and more divergent species. Captured exomes will be sequenced, analyzed bioinformatically and phylogenetically, then compared to previously generated phylogenies across this group of gobies. This will provide an assessment of the utility of the technique in cross-species studies and for analyzing low genetic variation within species as is the case for E. kristinae. This method has potential applications to provide economical ways to expand population genetic and evolutionary biology studies for non-model organisms.

Keywords: coastal lagoons, endangered species, non-model organism, target capture method

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289 An Evaluation on the Methodology of Manufacturing High Performance Organophilic Clay at the Most Efficient and Cost Effective Process

Authors: Siti Nur Izati Azmi, Zatil Afifah Omar, Kathi Swaran, Navin Kumar


Organophilic Clays, also known as Organoclays, is used as a viscosifier in Oil based Drilling fluids. Most often, Organophilic clay are produced from modified Sodium and Calcium based Bentonite. Many studies and data show that Organophilic Clay using Hectorite based clays provide the best yield and good fluid loss properties in an oil-based drilling fluid at a higher cost. In terms of the manufacturing process, the two common methods of manufacturing organophilic clays are a Wet Process and a Dry Process. Wet process is known to produce better performance product at a higher cost while Dry Process shorten the production time. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the various formulation of an organophilic clay and its performance vs. the cost, as well as to determine the most efficient and cost-effective method of manufacturing organophilic clays.

Keywords: organophilic clay, viscosifier, wet process, dry process

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288 Proprietary Blend Synthetic Rubber as Loss Circulation Material in Drilling Operation

Authors: Zatil Afifah Omar, Siti Nur Izati Azmi, Kathi Swaran, Navin Kumar


Lost circulation has always been one of the greatest problems faced by drilling companies during drilling operations due to excessive drilling Fluids losses. Loss of circulation leads to Huge cost and non-productive time. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sealing efficiency of a proprietary blend of synthetic rubber as loss circulation material in comparison with a conventional product such as calcium carbonate, graphite, cellulosic, and nutshells. Sand Bed Tester with a different proprietary blend of synthetic rubber compositions has been used to determine the effectiveness of the LCM in preventing drilling fluids losses in a lab scale. Test results show the proprietary blend of synthetic rubber have good bridging properties and sealing Off fractures of various sizes. The finish product is environmentally friendly with lower production lead time and lower production cost compared to current conventional loss circulation materials used in current drilling operations.

Keywords: loss circulation materials, drilling operation, sealing efficiency, LCM

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287 Alien Plant Invasions Can Influence Global Warming by Accelerating Wetland Methane Emission, Terrestrial Methane Uptake and Terrestrial Nitrous Oxide Emission

Authors: Bahilu Bezabih, Weixin Ding, Junji Yuan, Deyan Liu, Zengming Chen, Jinhyun Kim, Hojeong Kang, Chris Freeman


Approximately 17% of the world's lands are considered highly vulnerable to alien plant invasion, which can dramatically alter carbon and nitrogen cycles and influence greenhouse-gas emissions in terrestrial and wetland ecosystems. Here, a dataset was compiled of 267 paired observational cases from 99 peer-reviewed articles and evaluate the effects of alien plant invasion on methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions using annual global net gas budgets for wetlands, grasslands, and forests. The average annual CH₄ emission rate in natural containing only native plant species was once 225 kg CH₄ ha⁻¹ but has increased to 412 kg CH₄ ha⁻¹ following displacement by invasive plants. The presence of invasive plants has increased annual atmospheric CH₄ uptake significantly from 2.14 kg CH₄ ha⁻¹ to 3.54 kg CH₄ ha⁻¹ in terrestrial ecosystems. Invasive plant species had no significant effect on annual N₂O emission rates from forest and wetland ecosystems but did cause a 70% increase in N₂O emissions from grassland ecosystems. The presence of the exotic plant's Spartina alterniflora, Phragmites australis, and Sonneratia apetala was associated with a severe increase in CH₄ emissions from wetlands. Conversely, Robinia pseudoacacia, Deschampsia flexuosa, and Eucalyptus urophylla were associated with an increase in atmospheric CH₄ uptake from forests, while S. apetala and Solidago canadensis stimulated N₂O emissions in wetlands and grassland ecosystems, respectively. Globally, annual CH₄ emissions from wetlands increased by 3.16 Tg CH₄ and atmospheric CH₄ uptake in forest and grassland ecosystems increased by 0.15 and 0.08 Tg CH₄, respectively, due to invasive plants. The cumulative increase in global annual N₂O emissions from wetland and terrestrial ecosystems under plant invasion is estimated to be 94.17 Tg N₂O. These findings suggest that alien plant invasion of wetland ecosystems would create a major additional source of CH₄ emission, while CH₄ uptake and N₂O emissions would markedly increase from invaded forest and grassland ecosystems, respectively.

Keywords: invasive species, native plant, methane, nitrous oxide, wetland ecosystem, terrestrial ecosystem

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286 Application of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Factor Influencing the Wax Deposition of Malaysian Crude Oil

Authors: Basem Elarbe, Ibrahim Elganidi, Norida Ridzuan, Norhyati Abdullah


Wax deposition in production pipelines and transportation tubing from offshore to onshore is critical in the oil and gas industry due to low-temperature conditions. It may lead to a reduction in production, shut-in, plugging of pipelines and increased fluid viscosity. The most significant popular approach to solve this issue is by injection of a wax inhibitor into the channel. This research aims to determine the amount of wax deposition of Malaysian crude oil by estimating the effective parameters using (Design-Expert version 7.1.6) by response surface methodology (RSM) method. Important parameters affecting wax deposition such as cold finger temperature, inhibitor concentration and experimental duration were investigated. It can be concluded that SA-co-BA copolymer had a higher capability of reducing wax in different conditions where the minimum point of wax reduction was found at 300 rpm, 14℃, 1h, 1200 ppmThe amount of waxes collected for each parameter were 0.12g. RSM approach was applied using rotatable central composite design (CCD) to minimize the wax deposit amount. The regression model’s variance (ANOVA) results revealed that the R2 value of 0.9906, indicating that the model can be clarified 99.06% of the data variation, and just 0.94% of the total variation were not clarified by the model. Therefore, it indicated that the model is extremely significant, confirming a close agreement between the experimental and the predicted values. In addition, the result has shown that the amount of wax deposit decreased significantly with the increase of temperature and the concentration of poly (stearyl acrylate-co-behenyl acrylate) (SABA), which were set at 14°C and 1200 ppm, respectively. The amount of wax deposit was successfully reduced to the minimum value of 0.01 g after the optimization.

Keywords: wax deposition, SABA inhibitor, RSM, operation factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 60