Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 467

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Marine and Environmental Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

467 Title: Hydrodynamic Characterisation of a Hydraulic Flume with Sheared Flow

Authors: Daniel Rowe, Christopher R. Vogel, Richard H.J. Willden


The University of Oxford's recirculating water flume is a combined wave and current test tank with a 1 m deep, 1.1 m wide, and 10 m long working section, and is capable of speeds up to 1 m/s. This study documents the hydrodynamics characteristics of the facility in preparation for horizontal axis tidal stream turbine experiments. The turbine to be tested has a rotor diameter of 0.6 m and is a modified version of one of two model-scale turbines tested in previous experimental campaigns. An Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) was used to measure the flow at high temporal resolution at various locations throughout the flume, enabling the spatial uniformity and turbulence flow parameters to be investigated. The mean velocity profiles exhibited high levels of spatial uniformity across a range of reference velocities, with variations in the three-dimensional velocity components <1% at the 95% confidence level, along with a modest streamwise acceleration through the measurement domain, a target 5 m working section of the flume. A high degree of uniformity was also apparent for the turbulence intensity, with values ranging between 1-2% across the intended swept area of the turbine rotor. The integral scales of turbulence exhibited a far higher degree of variation through the water column, particularly in the streamwise and vertical directions, where the dominant length scales at the intended rotor plane were found to be in the same order of magnitude as the characteristic dimension of the model-scale rotor, which, despite the differences in channel dynamics, aligns closely with field observations. To achieve more realistic levels of vertical velocity shear in the tank, a simple procedure to practically generate target vertical shear profiles in open-channel flows is described. Here, the authors arranged a series of non-uniformly spaced parallel bars placed across the width of the flume and normal to the onset flow. By adjusting the resistance grading across the working section, the downstream profiles could be modified accordingly, characterised by changes in the velocity profile power law exponent, n. Considering the significant temporal variation in a tidal channel, the choice of exponents, n = 6 and n = 9, effectively equates to a tolerance band for the much-cited value of n = 7. The resulting flow profiles, which we intend to use in future turbine tests, have been characterised in detail. The experimental tests are well-defined and repeatable and serve as a reference for other researchers who wish to undertake similar investigations.

Keywords: acoustic doppler Velocimeter, experimental hydrodynamics, open-channel flow, shear profiles, tidal stream turbines

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466 Marine Weather Challenges in the Cruise Industry: Leveraging Existing and Building New Maritime Meteorological Tools to Improve Voyage Success

Authors: Craig Setzer


Royal Caribbean Group (RCG), the corporation that oversees 5 separate cruise line brands with a total of 63 ships located around the globe, faces unique marine forecasting challenges on a daily basis. Cruise ships, unlike maritime shipping vessels, by their nature, cater to vacationing guests, not containers or cargo. Because of this, thresholds for wave heights and wind speeds are much more tied to passenger comfort and minimal vessel rolling and pitching. This paper will explore the interesting challenges of transporting people by sea and the tools and methods created to guide decision makers regarding route avoidance and port cancellation due to weather.

Keywords: maritime meteorology, extreme ocean weather, cruise industry, voyage weather, port weather

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465 Heavy Metal Contamination In Ship Breaking Yard, A Case Study In Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Mosaddik Rahman


This study embarks on an exploratory journey to assess the pervasive issue of heavy metal contamination in the water bodies along Chittagong Coast, Bangladesh. Situated along the mesmerizing Bay of Bengal, known for its potential as an emerging tourist haven, economic zone, ship breaking yard, confronts significant environmental hurdles. The core of these challenges lies in the contamination from heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, which detrimentally impact both the ecological integrity and public health of the region. This contamination primarily stems from industrial activities, particularly those involving metallurgical and chemical processes, which release these metals into the environment, leading to their accumulation in soil and water bodies. The study's primary aim is to conduct a thorough assessment of heavy metal pollution levels, alongside an analysis of nutrient variations, focusing on nitrates and nitrites. Methodologically, the study leverages systematic sampling and advanced analytical tools like the Hach 3900 spectrophotometer to ensure precise and reliable data collection. The implications of heavy metal presence are multifaceted, affecting microbial and aquatic life, and posing severe health risks to the local population, including respiratory problems, neurological disorders, and an increased risk of cancer. The results of this study highlight the urgent need for effective mitigation strategies and regulatory measures to address this critical issue. By providing a comprehensive understanding of the environmental and public health implications of heavy metal contamination in Chittagong Coast, this research endeavours to serve as a catalyst for change, emphasising the need for pollution control and advancements in water management policies. It is envisioned that the outcomes of this study will guide stakeholders in collaborating to develop and implement sustainable solutions, ultimately safeguarding the region’s environment and public health.

Keywords: heavy metal, environmental health, pollution control policies, shipbreaking yard

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464 A Focused, High-Intensity Spread-Spectrum Ultrasound Solution to Prevent Biofouling

Authors: Alan T. Sassler


Biofouling is a significant issue for ships, especially those based in warm water ports. Biofouling damages hull coatings, degrades platform hydrodynamics, blocks cooling water intakes, and returns, reduces platform range and speed, and increases fuel consumption. Although platforms are protected to some degree by antifouling paints, these paints are much less effective on stationary platforms, and problematic biofouling can occur on antifouling paint-protected stationary platforms in some environments in as little as a matter of weeks. Remediation hull cleaning operations are possible, but they are very expensive, sometimes result in damage to the vessel’s paint or hull and are generally not completely effective. Ultrasound with sufficient intensity focused on specific frequency ranges can be used to prevent the growth of biofouling organisms. The use of ultrasound to prevent biofouling isn't new, but systems to date have focused on protecting platforms by shaking the hull using internally mounted transducers similar to those used in ultrasonic cleaning machines. While potentially effective, this methodology doesn't scale well to large platforms, and there are significant costs associated with installing and maintaining these systems, which dwarf the initial purchase price. An alternative approach has been developed, which uses highly directional pier-mounted transducers to project high-intensity spread-spectrum ultrasonic energy into the water column focused near the surface. This focused energy has been shown to prevent biofouling at ranges of up to 50 meters from the source. Spreading the energy out over a multi-kilohertz band makes the system both more effective and more environmentally friendly. This system has been shown to be both effective and inexpensive in small-scale testing and is now being characterized on a larger scale in selected marinas. To date, test results have been collected in Florida marinas suggesting that this approach can be used to keep ensonified areas of thousands of square meters free from biofouling, although care must be taken to minimize shaded areas.

Keywords: biofouling, ultrasonic, environmentally friendly antifoulant, marine protection, antifouling

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463 Composition and Distribution of Seabed Marine Litter Along Algerian Coast (Western Mediterranean)

Authors: Ahmed Inal, Samir Rouidi, Samir Bachouche


The present study is focused on the distribution and composition of seafloor marine litter associated to trawlable fishing areas along Algerian coast. The sampling was done with a GOC73 bottom trawl during four (04) demersal resource assessment cruises, respectively, in 2016, 2019, 2021 and 2022, carried out on board BELKACEM GRINE R/V. A total of 254 fishing hauls were sampled for the assessment of marine litter. Hauls were performed between 22 and 600 m of depth, the duration was between 30 and 60 min. All sampling was conducted during daylight. After the haul, marine litter was sorted and split from the catch. Then, according to the basis of the MEDITS protocol, litters were sorted into six different categories (plastic, rubber, metal, wood, glass and natural fiber). Thereafter, all marine litter were counted and weighed separately to the nearest 0.5 g. The results shows that the maximums of marine litter densities in the seafloor of the trawling fishing areas along Algerian coast are, respectively, 1996 item/km2 in 2016, 5164 item/km2 in 2019, 2173 item/km2 in 2021 and 7319 item/km2 in 2022. Thus, the plastic is the most abundant litter, it represent, respectively, 46% of marine litter in 2016, 67% in 2019, 69% in 2021 and 74% in 2022. Regarding the weight of the marine litter, it varies between 0.00 and 103 kg in 2016, between 0.04 and 81 kg in 2019, between 0.00 and 68 Kg in 2021 and between 0.00 and 318 kg in 2022. Thus, the maximum rate of marine litter compared to the total catch approximate, respectively, 66% in 2016, 90% in 2019, 65% in 2021 and 91% in 2022. In fact, the average loss in catch is estimated, respectively, at 7.4% in 2016, 8.4% in 2019, 5.7% in 2021 and 6.4% in 2022. However, the bathymetric and geographical variability had a significant impact on both density and weight of marine litter. Marine litter monitoring program is necessary for offering more solution proposals.

Keywords: composition, distribution, seabed, marine litter, algerian coast

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462 Environmental Impact Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Site in Shahrood City

Authors: Mehri Bagherkazemi, Naser Hafezi Moghaddas


This study investigates the environmental impact of the disposal site located in Shahrood city, focusing on the geological characteristics of the region. Shahrood's disposal site primarily consists of limestone bedrock, overlaid by substantial alluvial deposits. The area's highly permeable soil is anticipated to have a significant influence on groundwater pollution. Spanning 52 hectares, the Shahrood disposal site is situated in the eastern sector of the city. Historically, waste disposal took place on the surface, but recent practices involve on-site trenching. This research involved the collection of soil and water samples near the disposal site, with subsequent analysis of 11 soil samples and 3 water samples. The soil's particle size distribution was determined, and comprehensive analyses were conducted for 35 elements in the soil and 42 elements in water. The study combines the results of these tests with field investigations to evaluate the landfill's impact on the surrounding soil and groundwater contamination.

Keywords: environmental geology, environmental impact assessment, disposal site, heavy metals contamination

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461 The Potential Effectiveness of Marine Algae in Removal of Heavy Metal from Aqueous Medium

Authors: Wed Albalawi, Ebtihaj Jambi, Maha Albazi, Shareefa AlGhamdi


Heavy metal pollution has become a hard threat to marine ecosystems alongside extremely industrialized and urban (urbanized) zones because of their toxicity, resolution, and non-biodegradable nature. Great interest has been given to a new technique -biosorption- which exploits the cell envelopes of organisms to remove metals from water solutions. The main objective of the present study is to explore the potential of marine algae from the Red Sea for the removal of heavy metals from an aqueous medium. The subsequent objective is to study the effect of pH and agitation time on the adsorption capacity of marine algae. Randomly chosen algae from the Red Sea (Jeddah) with known altitude and depth were collected. Analysis of heavy metal ion concentration was measured by ICP-OES (Inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry) using air argon gas. A standard solution of heavy metal ions was prepared by diluting the original standard solution with ultrapure water. Types of seaweed were used to study the effect of pH on the biosorption of different heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of Cr is significantly lower in Padina Pavonica (P.P) compared to the biosorption capacity in Sargassum Muticum (S.M). The S.M exhibited significantly higher in Cr removal than the P.P at pH 2 and pH 7. However, the P.P exhibited significantly higher in Cr removal than the S.M at pH 3, pH 4, pH 5, pH 6, and pH 8. In conclusion, the dried cells of algae can be used as an effective tool for the removal of heavy metals.

Keywords: biosorption, heavy metal, pollution, pH value, brown algae

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460 Hydrodynamic Analysis of Fish Fin Kinematics of Oreochromis Niloticus Using Machine Learning and Image Processing

Authors: Paramvir Singh


The locomotion of aquatic organisms has long fascinated biologists and engineers alike, with fish fins serving as a prime example of nature's remarkable adaptations for efficient underwater propulsion. This paper presents a comprehensive study focused on the hydrodynamic analysis of fish fin kinematics, employing an innovative approach that combines machine learning and image processing techniques. Through high-speed videography and advanced computational tools, we gain insights into the complex and dynamic motion of the fins of a Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) fish. This study was initially done by experimentally capturing videos of the various motions of a Tilapia in a custom-made setup. Using deep learning and image processing on the videos, the motion of the Caudal and Pectoral fin was extracted. This motion included the fin configuration (i.e., the angle of deviation from the mean position) with respect to time. Numerical investigations for the flapping fins are then performed using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver. 3D models of the fins were created, mimicking the real-life geometry of the fins. Thrust Characteristics of separate fins (i.e., Caudal and Pectoral separately) and when the fins are together were studied. The relationship and the phase between caudal and pectoral fin motion were also discussed. The key objectives include mathematical modeling of the motion of a flapping fin at different naturally occurring frequencies and amplitudes. The interactions between both fins (caudal and pectoral) were also an area of keen interest. This work aims to improve on research that has been done in the past on similar topics. Also, these results can help in the better and more efficient design of the propulsion systems for biomimetic underwater vehicles that are used to study aquatic ecosystems, explore uncharted or challenging underwater regions, do ocean bed modeling, etc.

Keywords: biomimetics, fish fin kinematics, image processing, fish tracking, underwater vehicles

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459 Effect of Feed Additives, Allium sativum and Argana spinosa Oil on the Growth of Rainbow Trout Fingerlings (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Authors: El Hassan Abba, Touria Hachi, Mhamed Khaffou, Nezha El Adel, Abdelkhalek Zraouti, Hassan ElIdrissi


The present study has the overall objective of studying the effect of garlic and Argan oil on the growth of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings at the Ras El Ma (Azrou) salmon farming station during the 2023 production period. The fingerlings were distributed in seven tanks at a rate of 1000 per lot. The first control tank (B0) received only the feed without additives. Tanks B1, B2, B3, and B4 received garlic as a feed additive at a rate of 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% respectively. The fingerlings in tanks B5 and B6, in addition to 2.5% garlic, received 5 and 10ml argon oil, respectively. During this two-month experiment, the weight growth of the fingerlings and the physico-chemical parameters of the water that are favorable for fry rearing (hydrogen potential, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity) were monitored. The weight growth of fingerlings receiving garlic was positive (mean weight: 4.95g, 5.43g, 5.13g, and 5.06g) compared with control fingerlings (mean weight: 3.88g). The maximum average weight was obtained with 1.5% garlic (average weight: 5.43g). The addition of 5 and 10ml of argon oil to B5 and B6 resulted in a slight increase in weight for the B5 fingerlings (5.37g) compared with the B4 control fingerlings (mean weight: 5.06g) but a minor decrease for the B6 batch (4.73g). The experimental results showed that the use of these feed additives had a positive effect on growth and yield, regardless of the quantities used.

Keywords: Oncorhychus mykiss, fry, feed additive, garlic, argon oil, weight growth

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458 Hypothesis on Annual Sea Level Variation and Increased Volume Transport in Korea Strait

Authors: Young-Taeg Kim, Gwang Ho Seo, Hyungju Oh, Ho Kyung Ha, Kuk Jin Kim


Kim et al., hypothesized an increase in volume transport in the Korea Strait based on the concurrent increase in water temperature and mean sea level observed by the Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Agency (KHOA) in the vicinity of the Korea Strait from 2000 to 2009. Since then, to our best knowledge, no definitive studies have been reported on the increase in volume transport through the Korea Strait, but the observed water temperature (2000-2021) and sea level (1989-2021) in the Korea Strait and East Sea have been found to be increasing. In particular, the rapid increase rate in the mean sea level rise (2.55~3.53 mm/y) in these areas cannot be explained by only steric effect due to the increased water temperature. It is more reasonable interpretation that the sea level rise is due to an increase in the volume transport of warm and salty currents. If the increase in the volume transport is explained by the geostrophic equation without considering the sea level rise in the Korea Strait, the current velocity should increase. However, up to now, there are no reports of an increase in current velocity from direct observations using ADCP (e.g., observations of Camellia) or from various numerical models. Therefore, the increase in volume transport cannot be explained by the geostrophic equation. Another possible explanation for the increase in the volume transport is the effect of wind. Although Korea is dominated by monsoon, it is affected by winds according to El Niño and La Niña, which have a cycle of about 3 to 4 years. During El Niño (La Niña), northerly winds (southerly winds) prevail in Korea. Consequently, it is inferred that the transported volume in the Korea Strait slowly increases interannually. However, in this study, it was difficult to find a clear correlation between annually-averaged mean sea level and El Niño (or La Niña) during 1989-2021. This is probably due to the interactions of the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation) and AO (Arctic Oscillation) along with the ENSO (El niño-Southern Oscillation). However, it is clear that the interannual variability of winds is affecting the volume transport in the Korean Strait. On the other hand, the effect of global sea level rise on the volume transport in the Korea Strait is small compared to the interannual variability of the volume transport, but it seems to play a constant role.

Keywords: mean sea level, volume transport, El nino, La nina

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457 Microclimate Impacts on Solar Panel Power Generation in Midlands Area, UK

Authors: Stamatis Zoras, Boris Ceranic, Ashley Redfern


Green House Gas emissions from domestic properties currently account for a substantial part of the total UK’s carbon emissions and is a priority area for UK to reach zero carbon emissions. However, GHG emissions of urban complexes depend on building, road, structural developments etc surfaces that form urban microclimate. This in turn may further influence renewable energy system power generation that depend on solar or wind potential. Moreover, urban climatic conditions are also influenced by the installation of those power generation systems that may impact their own power generation efficiency. Increased air temperature is attributed to densely installed roof based solar panels that consequently impact their own production efficiency. Installation of roof based solar panels requires adequate guidance to enable housing businesses, councils and organisations to implement sufficient measures for improved power generation in relation to local urban microclimate. How microclimate is affected and how, in return, it affects solar power productivity. Derby Council & Derby Homes have been collecting solar panel power generation data for a large number of properties. The different building areas and system operation performance will be studied against microclimate conditions through time. It is envisaged that the outcomes of the study will support a working up strategy for Derby city to ensure that owned homes would be able to access information and data of solar photo voltaic PV and solar thermal panels potential on social housing, helping residents on low incomes create their own green energy to power their homes and heat their homeshot water.

Keywords: microclimate, solar power, urban climatology, urban morphology

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456 Water, Hygiene, and Sanitation in Senegal’s School Environment: A Study of the Performance of a Reed Bed Filter Installed at Gandiol School for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse

Authors: Abdou Khafor Ndiaye


The article examines clean water and sanitation in Saint-Louis region schools. It finds that 59% have clean water, with disparities between departments, urban/rural areas, and school types. Podor and Dagana lack water due to distance and costs. 70% have sanitation, but rural schools lack it due to low investment. Podor and Dagana suffer the most. Many sanitation facilities need renovation. Wastewater treatment is effective, reducing pollutants and nitrogen, but adjustments are needed for nitrates. Treated water meets Senegalese standards and can be used for irrigation but needs monitoring for strict standards. In conclusion, the wastewater system is good for regions with limited water. Meeting stricter European standards and monitoring for health and environmental standards are needed.

Keywords: water, constructed wetland, sanitation, hygiene

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455 Studying the Value-Added Chain for the Fish Distribution Process at Quang Binh Fishing Port in Vietnam

Authors: Van Chung Nguyen


The purpose of this study is to study the current status of the value chain for fish distribution at Quang Binh Fishing Port with 360 research samples in which the research subjects are fishermen, traders, retailers, and businesses. The research uses the approach of applying the value chain theoretical framework of Kaplinsky and Morris to quantify and describe market channels and actors participating in the value chain and analyze the value-added process of these companies according to market channels. The analysis results show that fishermen directly catch fish with high economic efficiency, but processing enterprises and, especially retailers, are the agents to obtain higher added value. Processing enterprises play a role that is not really clear due to outdated processing technology; in contrast, retailers have the highest added value. This shows that the added value of the fish supply chain at Quang Binh fishing port is still limited, leading to low output quality. Therefore, the selling price of fish to the market is still high compared to the abundant fish resources, leading to low consumption and limiting exports due to the quality of processing enterprises. This reduces demand and fishing capacity, and productivity is lower than potential. To improve the fish value chain at fishing ports, it is necessary to focus on improving product quality, strengthening linkages between actors, building brands and product consumption markets at the same time, improving the capacity of export processing enterprises.

Keywords: Quang Binh fishing port, value chain, market, distributions channel

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454 Natural Gas Flow Optimization Using Pressure Profiling and Isolation Techniques

Authors: Syed Tahir Shah, Fazal Muhammad, Syed Kashif Shah, Maleeha Gul


In recent days, natural gas has become a relatively clean and quality source of energy, which is recovered from deep wells by expensive drilling activities. The recovered substance is purified by processing in multiple stages to remove the unwanted/containments like dust, dirt, crude oil and other particles. Mostly, gas utilities are concerned with essential objectives of quantity/quality of natural gas delivery, financial outcome and safe natural gas volumetric inventory in the transmission gas pipeline. Gas quantity and quality are primarily related to standards / advanced metering procedures in processing units/transmission systems, and the financial outcome is defined by purchasing and selling gas also the operational cost of the transmission pipeline. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited) Pakistan has a wide range of diameters of natural gas transmission pipelines network of over 9125 km. This research results in answer a few of the issues in accuracy/metering procedures via multiple advanced gadgets for gas flow attributes after being utilized in the transmission system and research. The effects of good pressure management in transmission gas pipeline network in contemplation to boost the gas volume deposited in the existing network and finally curbing gas losses UFG (Unaccounted for gas) for financial benefits. Furthermore, depending on the results and their observation, it is directed to enhance the maximum allowable working/operating pressure (MAOP) of the system to 1235 PSIG from the current round about 900 PSIG, such that the capacity of the network could be entirely utilized. In gross, the results depict that the current model is very efficient and provides excellent results in the minimum possible time.

Keywords: natural gas, pipeline network, UFG, transmission pack, AGA

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453 Influence of Ride Control Systems on the Motions Response and Passenger Comfort of High-Speed Catamarans in Irregular Waves

Authors: Ehsan Javanmardemamgheisi, Javad Mehr, Jason Ali-Lavroff, Damien Holloway, Michael Davis


During the last decades, a growing interest in faster and more efficient waterborne transportation has led to the development of high-speed vessels for both commercial and military applications. To satisfy this global demand, a wide variety of arrangements of high-speed crafts have been proposed by designers. Among them, high-speed catamarans have proven themselves to be a suitable Roll-on/Roll-off configuration for carrying passengers and cargo due to widely spaced demi hulls, a wide deck zone, and a high ratio of deadweight to displacement. To improve passenger comfort and crew workability and enhance the operability and performance of high-speed catamarans, mitigating the severity of motions and structural loads using Ride Control Systems (RCS) is essential.In this paper, a set of towing tank tests was conducted on a 2.5 m scaled model of a 112 m Incat Tasmania high-speed catamaran in irregular head seas to investigate the effect of different ride control algorithms including linear and nonlinear versions of the heave control, pitch control, and local control on motion responses and passenger comfort of the full-scale ship. The RCS included a centre bow-fitted T-Foil and two transom-mounted stern tabs. All the experiments were conducted at the Australian Maritime College (AMC) towing tank at a model speed of 2.89 m/s (37 knots full scale), a modal period of 1.5 sec (10 sec full scale) and two significant wave heights of 60 mm and 90 mm, representing full-scale wave heights of 2.7 m and 4 m, respectively. Spectral analyses were performed using Welch’s power spectral density method on the vertical motion time records of the catamaran model to calculate heave and pitch Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs). Then, noting that passenger discomfort arises from vertical accelerations and that the vertical accelerations vary at different longitudinal locations within the passenger cabin due to the variations in amplitude and relative phase of the pitch and heave motions, the vertical accelerations were calculated at three longitudinal locations (LCG, T-Foil, and stern tabs). Finally, frequency-weighted Root Mean Square (RMS) vertical accelerations were calculated to estimate Motion Sickness Dose Value (MSDV) of the ship based on ISO 2631-recommendations. It was demonstrated that in small seas, implementing a nonlinear pitch control algorithm reduces the peak pitch motions by 41%, the vertical accelerations at the forward location by 46%, and motion sickness at the forward position by around 20% which provides great potential for further improvement in passenger comfort, crew workability, and operability of high-speed catamarans.

Keywords: high-speed catamarans, ride control system, response amplitude operators, vertical accelerations, motion sickness, irregular waves, towing tank tests.

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452 Integrated Gas Turbine Performance Diagnostics and Condition Monitoring Using Adaptive GPA

Authors: Yi-Guang Li, Suresh Sampath


Gas turbine performance degrades over time, and the degradation is greatly affected by environmental, ambient, and operating conditions. The engines may degrade slowly under favourable conditions and result in a waste of engine life if a scheduled maintenance scheme is followed. They may also degrade fast and fail before a scheduled overhaul if the environmental, ambient, and operating conditions are unfavourable, resulting in serious secondary damage, loss of engine availability, and increased maintenance costs. To overcome these problems, gas turbine owners are gradually moving from scheduled maintenance to condition-based maintenance, where condition monitoring is one of the key supporting technologies. This paper presents an integrated adaptive GPA diagnostic approach and performance monitoring system developed at Cranfield University for gas turbine gas path condition monitoring. It has the capability to predict the performance degradation of major gas path components of gas turbine engines, such as compressors, combustors, and turbines, using gas path measurement data. At the same time, it is also able to predict important engine performance parameters for condition monitoring, such as turbine entry temperature that can not be directly measured. The developed technology has been implemented into digital twin computer Software, Pythia, to support the condition monitoring of gas turbine engines. The capabilities of the integrated gas path condition monitoring system are demonstrated in a case study of gas path condition monitoring using a model gas turbine engine similar to the GE aero-derivative LM2500 engine widely used in power generation and marine propulsion. It shows that when the compressor of the model engine degrades, the adaptive GPA is able to predict the degradation and the changing engine performance accurately using gas path measurements. Such a presented technology and software are generic, can be applied to different types of gas turbine engines, and provide crucial engine health and performance information to support condition monitoring and condition-based maintenance.

Keywords: gas turbine, performance, diagnostics, condition monitoring, adaptive GPA, degradation

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451 Determination of Measurement Uncertainty of the Diagnostic Meteorological Model CALMET

Authors: Nina Miklavčič, Urška Kugovnik, Natalia Galkina, Primož Ribarič, Rudi Vončina


Today, the need for weather predictions is deeply rooted in the everyday life of people as well as it is in industry. The forecasts influence final decision-making processes in multiple areas, from agriculture and prevention of natural disasters to air traffic regulations and solutions on a national level for health, security, and economic problems. Namely, in Slovenia, alongside other existing forms of application, weather forecasts are adopted for the prognosis of electrical current transmission through powerlines. Meteorological parameters are one of the key factors which need to be considered in estimations of the reliable supply of electrical energy to consumers. And like for any other measured value, the knowledge about measurement uncertainty is also critical for the secure and reliable supply of energy. The estimation of measurement uncertainty grants us a more accurate interpretation of data, a better quality of the end results, and even a possibility of improvement of weather forecast models. In the article, we focused on the estimation of measurement uncertainty of the diagnostic microscale meteorological model CALMET. For the purposes of our research, we used a network of meteorological stations spread in the area of our interest, which enables a side-by-side comparison of measured meteorological values with the values calculated with the help of CALMET and the measurement uncertainty estimation as a final result.

Keywords: uncertancy, meteorological model, meteorological measurment, CALMET

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450 Seafarers Safety, Watch-Keeping and Navigation

Authors: Sunday Moses Ojelabi


Safety is the protection of the crew, passenger and equipment itself, as well as those living and working near bodies of water, from hazardous situations. To assure safety, watch keeping is paramount because neglecting your watchkeeping can lead to hazardous situations. Navigation is the assignment of a sailor to a specific route on a vessel to operate. Navigation is the process of planning, managing, and directing a vessel safely to the desired destination with the aid of intense and efficient watch keeping. Safety, i,e, all measures done to preserve the welfare of marine life, maritime infrastructure, facilities, ships, offshore installations, crew, and passengers, as well as the preservation of navigation and the ease of maritime trade, are referred to as safety measures;. When it comes to health, the absence of a proper first aid kit will affect injured sailors and passengers. Not using goggles while shipping, ear muffs, etc., in the course of maintenance can be hazardous. Watchkeeping: i.e the specific dutiies assigned to a personnel in a vessel to see to its continous smooth functionality. Your lookout or watch officer [officer on navigational duty] must be active at all times in the course of duty. Navigation refers to the technique of precisely determining a craft or vehicle's position and directing its motion along a particular course. The seafarers are not being put through regular seminars, training, and orientations. In parts of West Africa, sailors go to school without being able to secure jobs until their papers expire. For that, they won’t go for another Standard Trainning Certification and Watch keeping for Seafarers to upgrade their certificate. In light of this, they are not familiar with the new vessels in the country, and for this, they can`t meet the safety, watch keeping, and navigation standards. Also, shipping companies and ship owners are being selfish by not putting the proper things needed onboard regarding safety, watchkeeping, and navigational equipment. The questions raised in these presentations are the breakdown of the safety activities, watch keeping effectiveness, and navigational accuracy. All safety and watch keeping regulations should be applied efficiently. The problem identified includes a lack of safety instruments onboard vessels in African waters. Also, inadequate proper watchkeeping due to the excess workload on the seafarers can lead to an improper lookout, which gives room to collision, hijacking, and piracy. The impact of this research is to inform African seafarers, shipping companies, and ship owners of the necessary information concerning the safety of their lives and that of their passengers, cargo, and equipment.

Keywords: standard of training, certification, watch keeping for seafarers, navigation, safety, watchkeeping

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449 Optimization of Marine Waste Collection Considering Dynamic Transport and Ship’s Wake Impact

Authors: Guillaume Richard, Sarra Zaied


Marine waste quantities increase more and more, 5 million tons of plastic waste enter the ocean every year. Their spatiotemporal distribution is never homogeneous and depends mainly on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the environment, as well as the size and location of the waste. As part of optimizing collect of marine plastic wastes, it is important to measure and monitor their evolution over time. In this context, diverse studies have been dedicated to describing waste behavior in order to identify its accumulation in ocean areas. None of the existing tools which track objects at sea had the objective of tracking down a slick of waste. Moreover, the applications related to marine waste are in the minority compared to rescue applications or oil slicks tracking applications. These approaches are able to accurately simulate an object's behavior over time but not during the collection mission of a waste sheet. This paper presents numerical modeling of a boat’s wake impact on the floating marine waste behavior during a collection mission. The aim is to predict the trajectory of a marine waste slick to optimize its collection using meteorological data of ocean currents, wind, and possibly waves. We have made the choice to use Ocean Parcels which is a Python library suitable for trajectoring particles in the ocean. The modeling results showed the important role of advection and diffusion processes in the spatiotemporal distribution of floating plastic litter. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on real data collected from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). The results of the evaluation in Cape of Good Hope (South Africa) prove that the proposed approach can effectively predict the position and velocity of marine litter during collection, which allowed for optimizing time and more than $90\%$ of the amount of collected waste.

Keywords: marine litter, advection-diffusion equation, sea current, numerical model

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448 Climate Trends, Variability, and Impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on Rainfall Amount in Ethiopia

Authors: Zerihun Yohannes Amare, Belayneh Birku Geremew, Nigatu Melise Kebede, Sisaynew Getahun Amera


In Ethiopia, agricultural production is predominantly rainfed. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the driver of climate variability, which affects the agricultural production system in the country. This paper aims to study trends, variability of rainfall, and impacts of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on rainfall amount. The study was carried out in Ethiopia's Western Amhara National Regional State, which features a variety of seasons that characterize the nation. Monthly rainfall data were collected from fifteen meteorological stations of Western Amhara. Selected El Niño and La Niña years were also extracted from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) from 1986 to 2015. Once the data quality was checked and inspected, the monthly rainfall data of the selected stations were arranged in Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet and analyzed using XLSTAT software. The coefficient of variation and the Mann-Kendall non-parametric statistical test was employed to analyze trends and variability of rainfall and temperature. The long-term recorded annual rainfall data indicated that there was an increasing trend from 1986 to 2015 insignificantly. The rainfall variability was less (Coefficient of Variation, CV = 8.6%); also, the mean monthly rainfall of Western Amhara decreased during El Niño years and increased during La Niña years, especially in the rainy season (JJAS) over 30 years. This finding will be useful to suggest possible adaptation strategies and efficient use of resources during planning and implementation.

Keywords: rainfall, Mann-Kendall test, El Niño, La Niña, Western Amhara, Ethiopia

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447 The Role of the Gut Microbiome of Marine Invertebrates in the Degradation of Complex Algal Substrates

Authors: Yuchen LI, Martyn Kurr, Peter Golyshin


Biological invasion is a global problem. Invasive species can threaten local ecosystems by competing for resources, consuming local species, and reproducing faster than natives. Sargassum muticum is an invasive algae in the UK. It negatively impacts local algae through overshading and can cause reductions in local biodiversity. One possibility for its success is herbivore release. According to the Enemy Release Hypothesis, invasives are less impacted by local herbivores than natives. In many species, gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbes have been found as a key factor in food preference and similar mechanisms may exist in the relationship between local consumers and S. muticum. Some populations of native Littorina snails accept S. muticum as a food source, while others avoid it. This project aims to establish the relationship between GI tract microbes and the feeding preferences of L. littorea, when offered both native algae and S. muticum. Individuals of L. littorea from a site invaded by S. muticum around 18 years ago were compared to those from an un-invaded site nearby. Sargassum-experienced snails are more likely to consume it than those naïve, and pronounced differences were found in the GI-tract microbial communities through 16S (prokaryote) and 18S (eukaryote) sequencing. Sargassum-naïve snails were then exposed to a faecal pellets from experienced snails to ‘inoculate’ them with microbes from the exposed snails. Preliminary results suggest these faecal-pellet-exposed but otherwise Sargassum-naïve snails subsequently begun consuming S. muticum. It is unclear if these results are due to genuine changes in GI-tract microbes or through some other mechanism, such as behavioural responses to chemical cues in the faecal pellets, but these results are nevertheless of significance for invasive ecology, suggesting that foraging preferences for an invasive prey type are malleable and possibly programmable in laboratory settings.

Keywords: invasive algae, sea snails, gut microbiome, biocontrol

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446 Neural Network Approaches for Sea Surface Height Predictability Using Sea Surface Temperature

Authors: Luther Ollier, Sylvie Thiria, Anastase Charantonis, Carlos E. Mejia, Michel Crépon


Sea Surface Height Anomaly (SLA) is a signature of the sub-mesoscale dynamics of the upper ocean. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is driven by these dynamics and can be used to improve the spatial interpolation of SLA fields. In this study, we focused on the temporal evolution of SLA fields. We explored the capacity of deep learning (DL) methods to predict short-term SLA fields using SST fields. We used simulated daily SLA and SST data from the Mercator Global Analysis and Forecasting System, with a resolution of (1/12)◦ in the North Atlantic Ocean (26.5-44.42◦N, -64.25–41.83◦E), covering the period from 1993 to 2019. Using a slightly modified image-to-image convolutional DL architecture, we demonstrated that SST is a relevant variable for controlling the SLA prediction. With a learning process inspired by the teaching-forcing method, we managed to improve the SLA forecast at five days by using the SST fields as additional information. We obtained predictions of a 12 cm (20 cm) error of SLA evolution for scales smaller than mesoscales and at time scales of 5 days (20 days), respectively. Moreover, the information provided by the SST allows us to limit the SLA error to 16 cm at 20 days when learning the trajectory.

Keywords: deep-learning, altimetry, sea surface temperature, forecast

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445 Assessment of Availability and Factors Associated with Improved Sanitation Facilities in Urban Kebeles of Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia in 2022

Authors: Meki Detamo, Ahmed


Access to improved sanitation facilities is crucial for promoting community sanitation worldwide. In Ethiopia, however, sanitation remains a major development challenge despite growing attention and efforts by governments and donors. This study aimed to assess the availability of improved sanitation facilities and associated factors in urban kebeles of Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia, in 2022. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 6 to 30, 2022, using a multi-stage sampling technique to select 508 households. Data was collected through structured and pre-tested questionnaires using face-to-face interviews and observations and analyzed using SPSS Version 23. The availability of improved sanitation facilities was found to be remarkably high at 98.2% (95% CI: 97.0, 99.2), with 60.8% of households having a handwashing facility in or around the latrine, 86.0% using soap and water, and 89.0% using an improved water source for drinking. Logistic regression analysis revealed that households with a family size of less than four, those who owned their own house, and those who had self-initiated latrine construction were significantly associated with the availability of improved sanitation facilities. The study recommends the implementation of continuous refreshment training to emphasize the benefits of improved sanitation facilities in the urban community and family planning. This study provides valuable insights into the high availability of improved sanitation facilities in urban areas of Ethiopia and can inform future efforts to improve community sanitation.

Keywords: sanitation facilities, availability, improved, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

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444 Gonadal Maturation in Pen Shells Pinna Rudis and Pinna Nobilis Stimulated by Reproductive Neuropeptides

Authors: Ntalamagka N., Sanchis-Benlloch P. J., Mayoral-Serrano R., Tena-Medialdea J., García-March J. R.


The pen shell Pinna nobilis population has declined dramatically since 2016 due to die-off events observed in the whole extent of the Mediterranean Sea associated with the protozoan Haplosporidium pinnae. As of 2019, it is considered a critically endangered species. Due to its ecological importance and its endangered status, several initiatives have been developed for its salvation and recovery. This research is an effort to understand and control its reproduction under captivity. As a limited number of Pinna nobilis individuals could be used for experimentation, the possibility of using the Pinna rudis as a model animal was explored. The molecular mechanism that regulates the reproduction of both species is unknown; consequently, transcriptomic analysis was performed to identify neuropeptides that are expressed in the key regulatory tissues of the visceral ganglia and gonads of both species. Neuropeptides form an important group of signaling peptides that regulate reproductive, behavioral and physiological functions in molluscs. In total, 17 neuropeptide precursors were identified in P. nobilis and 14 in P. rudis transcriptomes; 14 of them were identical in both species. This affinity verified the genetic similarity of these species at the reproduction level. APGWamide, buccalin, ELH and GnRH were tested in P. rudis and demonstrated their capacity to advance gonadal maturation and trigger spawning while spawning was recorded in P. nobilis after the usage of APGWamide and buccalin. The neuropeptides were administered using intramuscular injection and cholesterol implants following relative literature as well as a new method was developed for external administration without the use of anesthesia using a mathematical model. The know-how of this research will not only lead to the survival of the species but also will narrow the horizons of broodstock conditioning of other similar species.

Keywords: neuropeptides, Pinna nobilis, reproduction, transcriptomics

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443 Water Safety Strategies by Service: A Study of Implementation Studies

Authors: Prince Amartey


Water is critical to public health, quality of life, environmental preservation, economic activity, and long-term growth. In this environment, it is critical to ensure the ongoing improvement of all processes and practices that contribute to the quality and safety of water. Water safety plans (WSPs) developed by water companies are an essential public policy instrument for achieving these objectives. This manuscript examines international evidence of water safety planning adoption and implementation and reports on the current situation in Portugal as part of the necessary adaptation of the national legal framework to the publication of the Directive on water quality for human consumption. The goal is to take lessons from various successful WSP projects throughout the world while writing new legislation in Ghana and elsewhere. According to the findings, four crucial aspects and key factors of success in establishing and implementing WSPs exist commitment from leadership, technical proficiency, administration, and cooperation among agencies.

Keywords: safe drinking, risk, policy, implementation

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442 Improving Sanitation and Hygiene Using a Behavioral Change Approach in Public and Private Schools in Kampala, Uganda

Authors: G. Senoga, D. Nakimuli, B. Ndagire, B. Lukwago, D. Kyamagwa


Background: The COVID-19 epidemic affected the education sector, with some private schools closing while other children missed schooling for fear contracting COVID-19. Post COVID-19, PSIU in collaborated with Kampala City Council Authority Directorate of Education and Social Science, Water and Sanitation department, and Directorate of Public Health and Environment to improve sanitation and hygiene among pupils and staff in 50 public and private school system in Kampala city. The “Be Clean, Stay Healthy Campaign” used a behavioral change approach in educating, reinforcing and engaging learners on proper hand washing behaviors, proper toilet usage and garbage disposal. In April 2022, 40 Washa lots were constructed, to reduce the pupil - hand wash station ratio; distributed KCCA approved printed materials; oriented 50 teachers, WASH committees to execute and implement hygiene promotion. To ensure sustainability, WASH messages were memorized and practiced through hand washing songs, Pledge, prayer, Poems, Skits, Music, dance and drama, coupled with participatory, practical demonstrations using peer to peer approach, guest speakers at assemblies and in classes. This improved hygiene and sanitation practices. Premised on this, PSI conducted an end line assessment to explore the impact of a hand washing campaign in regards to improvements in hand washing practices and hand hygiene among pupils, accessibility, functionality and usage of the constructed hygiene and sanitation facilities. Method: A cross-sectional post intervention assessment using a mixed methods approach, targeting headteachers, wash committee members and pupils less <17 years was used. Quantitative approaches with a mix of open-ended questions were used in purposively selected respondents in 50 schools. Primary three to primary seven pupils were randomly selected, data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) Outcomes and Findings: 46,989 pupils (51% female), 1,127 and 524 teaching and non-teaching staff were reached by the intervention, respectively. 96% of schools trained on sanitation, sustainable water usage and hygiene constituted 17-man school WASH committees with teacher, parents and pupils representatives. (31%) of the WASH committees developed workplans, (78%) held WASH meetings monthly. This resulted into improved sanitation, water usage, waste management, proper use of toilets, and improved pupils’ health with reduced occurrences of stomach upsets, diarrhoea initially attributed to improper use of latrines and general waste management. Teachers reported reduced number of school absenteeism due to improved hygiene and general waste management at school, especially proper management of sanitary pads. School administrations response rate in purchase of hygiene equipment’s and detergents like soap improved. Regular WASH meetings in classes, teachers and community supervision ensured WASH facilities are used appropriately. Conclusion and Recommendations: Practical behaviour change innovations improves pupil’s knowledge and understanding of hygiene messages and usage. Over 70% of pupils had clear recall of key WASH Messages. There is need for continuous water flow in the Washa lots, harvesting rain water would reduce water bills while complementing National water supply coupled with increasing on Washa lots in densely populated schools.

Keywords: handwashing, hygyiene, sanitation, behaviour change

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441 Assessment of Chromium Concentration and Human Health Risk in the Steelpoort River Sub-Catchment of the Olifants River Basin, South Africa

Authors: Abraham Addo-Bediako


Many freshwater ecosystems are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural, industrial and mining. Trace metal pollution in freshwater ecosystems has become an issue of public health concern due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment. Trace elements pose a serious risk not only to the environment and aquatic biota but also humans. Chromium is one of such trace elements and its pollution in surface waters and groundwaters represents a serious environmental problem. In South Africa, agriculture, mining, industrial and domestic wastes are the main contributors to chromium discharge in rivers. The common forms of chromium are chromium (III) and chromium (VI). The latter is the most toxic because it can cause damage to human health. The aim of the study was to assess the contamination of chromium in the water and sediments of two rivers in the Steelpoort River sub-catchment of the Olifants River Basin, South Africa and human health risk. The concentration of Cr was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The concentration of the metal was found to exceed the threshold limit, mainly in areas of high human activities. The hazard quotient through ingestion exposure did not exceed the threshold limit of 1 for adults and children and cancer risk for adults and children computed did not exceed the threshold limit of 10-4. Thus, there is no potential health risk from chromium through ingestion of drinking water for now. However, with increasing human activities, especially mining, the concentration could increase and become harmful to humans who depend on rivers for drinking water. It is recommended that proper management strategies should be taken to minimize the impact of chromium on the rivers and water from the rivers should properly be treated before domestic use.

Keywords: land use, health risk, metal pollution, water quality

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440 Climate Teleconnections and Their Influence on the Spread of Dengue

Authors: Edilene Machado, Carolina Karoly, Amanda Britz, Luciane Salvi, Claudineia Brazil


Climate teleconnections refer to the climatic relationships between geographically distant regions, where changes in one location can influence weather patterns in another. These connections can occur through atmospheric and oceanic processes, leading to variations in temperature, precipitation, and other climatic elements. Studying teleconnections is crucial for better understanding the mechanisms that govern global climate and the potential consequences of climate change. A notable example of a teleconnection is the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which involves the interaction between the Equatorial Pacific Ocean and the atmosphere. During El Niño episodes, there is anomalous warming of the surface waters in the Equatorial Pacific, resulting in significant changes in global climate patterns. These changes can affect rainfall distribution, wind patterns, and temperatures in different parts of the world. The cold phase of ENSO, known as La Niña, is often associated with reduced precipitation and below-average temperatures in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Therefore, the objective of this research is to identify patterns between El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in their different phases and dengue transmission. Meteorological data and dengue case records for the city of Porto Alegre, in the southern region of Brazil, were used for the development of this research. The study highlighted that the highest incidence of dengue cases occurred during the cold phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

Keywords: climate patterns, climate teleconnections, climate variability, dengue, El Niño-Southern oscillation

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439 Hypothesis about the Origin of the Lighting

Authors: Igor Kuzminov


Till now, the nature of lightning is not established. A hypothesis of the origin of lightning is proposed. The lightning charge is formed by electromagnetic induction. The role of the conductor is performed by the air mass of the cloud. This conductor moves in the Earth's magnetic field. The upper and lower edges of the cloud are the plates of the capacitor. Lightning is a special case of electromagnetic processes in an atmosphere. The category of lightning occurs in the process of accumulation of a charge. The process of accumulation goes constantly, but the charge is not fixed. Naturally, the hypothesis demands the carrying out of additional experiments and official acknowledgement. As the proof of a hypothesis can serve that the maximal lighting activity in an equatorial zone where cosφ it is close to 1. An experiment conducted privately showed that there is a potential difference in the atmosphere at different levels. The probability of applied value development of power installation is great.

Keywords: electromagnetic induction, Earth's magnetic field, plates of the capacitors, charge accumulation

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438 Estimating Precipitable Water Vapour Using the Global Positioning System and Radio Occultation over Ethiopian Regions

Authors: Asmamaw Yehun, Tsegaye Gogie, Martin Vermeer, Addisu Hunegnaw


The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based radio positioning system, which is capable of providing continuous position, velocity, and time information to users anywhere on or near the surface of the Earth. The main objective of this work was to estimate the integrated precipitable water vapour (IPWV) using ground GPS and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Radio Occultation (RO) to study spatial-temporal variability. For LEO-GPS RO, we used Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) datasets. We estimated the daily and monthly mean of IPWV using six selected ground-based GPS stations over a period of range from 2012 to 2016 (i.e. five-years period). The main perspective for selecting the range period from 2012 to 2016 is that, continuous data were available during these periods at all Ethiopian GPS stations. We studied temporal, seasonal, diurnal, and vertical variations of precipitable water vapour using GPS observables extracted from the precise geodetic GAMIT-GLOBK software package. Finally, we determined the cross-correlation of our GPS-derived IPWV values with those of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-40 Interim reanalysis and of the second generation National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) model ensemble Forecast System Reforecast (GEFS/R) for validation and static comparison. There are higher values of the IPWV range from 30 to 37.5 millimetres (mm) in Gambela and Southern Regions of Ethiopia. Some parts of Tigray, Amhara, and Oromia regions had low IPWV ranges from 8.62 to 15.27 mm. The correlation coefficient between GPS-derived IPWV with ECMWF and GEFS/R exceeds 90%. We conclude that there are highly temporal, seasonal, diurnal, and vertical variations of precipitable water vapour in the study area.

Keywords: GNSS, radio occultation, atmosphere, precipitable water vapour

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