Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 225

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Marine and Environmental Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

225 Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Inducing Coastal Upwelling in the Baltic Sea

Authors: Ewa Bednorz, Marek Polrolniczak, Bartosz Czernecki, Arkadiusz Marek Tomczyk

Abstract:

This study is meant as a contribution to the research of the upwelling phenomenon, which is one of the most pronounced examples of the sea-atmosphere coupling. The aim is to confirm the atmospheric forcing of the sea waters circulation and sea surface temperature along the variously oriented Baltic Sea coasts and to find out macroscale and regional circulation patterns triggering upwelling along different sections of this relatively small and semi-closed sea basin. The mean daily sea surface temperature data from the summer seasons (June–August) of the years 1982–2017 made the basis for the detection of upwelling cases. For the atmospheric part of the analysis, monthly indices of the Northern Hemisphere macroscale circulation patterns were used. Besides, in order to identify the local direction of airflow, the daily zonal and meridional regional circulation indices were constructed and introduced to the analysis. Finally, daily regional circulation patterns over the Baltic Sea region were distinguished by applying the principal component analysis to the gridded mean daily sea level pressure data. Within the Baltic Sea, upwelling is the most frequent along the zonally oriented northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, southern coasts of Sweden, and along the middle part of the western Gulf of Bothnia coast. Among the macroscale circulation patterns, the Scandinavian type (SCAND), with a primary circulation center located over Scandinavia, has the strongest impact on the horizontal flow of surface sea waters in the Baltic Sea, which triggers upwelling. An anticyclone center over Scandinavia in the positive phase of SCAND enhances the eastern airflow, which increases upwelling frequency along southeastern Baltic coasts. It was proved in the study that the zonal circulation has a stronger impact on upwelling occurrence than the meridional one, and it could increase/decrease a chance of upwelling formation by more than 70% in some coastal sections. Positive and negative phases of six distinguished regional daily circulation patterns made 12 different synoptic situations which were analyzed in the terms of their influence on the upwelling formation. Each of them revealed some impact on the frequency of upwelling in some coastal section of the Baltic Sea; however, two kinds of synoptic situations seemed to have the strongest influence, namely, the first kind representing pressure patterns enhancing the zonal flow and the second kind representing synoptic patterns with a cyclone/anticyclone centers over southern Scandinavia. Upwelling occurrence appeared to be particularly strongly reliant on the atmospheric conditions in some specific coastal sections, namely: the Gulf of Finland, the south eastern Baltic coasts (Polish and Latvian-Lithuanian section), and the western part of the Gulf of Bothnia. Concluding, it can be stated that atmospheric conditions strongly control the occurrence of upwelling within the Baltic Sea basin. Both local and macroscale circulation patterns expressed by the location of the pressure centers influence the frequency of this phenomenon; however, the impact strength varies, depending on the coastal region. Acknowledgment: This research was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland, grant number 2016/21/B/ST10/01440.

Keywords: Baltic Sea, circulation patterns, coastal upwelling, synoptic conditions

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224 Comparison of Different Reanalysis Products for Predicting Extreme Precipitation in the Southern Coast of the Caspian Sea

Authors: Parvin Ghafarian, Mohammadreza Mohammadpur Panchah, Mehri Fallahi

Abstract:

Synoptic patterns from surface up to tropopause are very important for forecasting the weather and atmospheric conditions. There are many tools to prepare and analyze these maps. Reanalysis data and the outputs of numerical weather prediction models, satellite images, meteorological radar, and weather station data are used in world forecasting centers to predict the weather. The forecasting extreme precipitating on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea (CS) is the main issue due to complex topography. Also, there are different types of climate in these areas. In this research, we used two reanalysis data such as ECMWF Reanalysis 5th Generation Description (ERA5) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction /National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) for verification of the numerical model. ERA5 is the latest version of ECMWF. The temporal resolution of ERA5 is hourly, and the NCEP/NCAR is every six hours. Some atmospheric parameters such as mean sea level pressure, geopotential height, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, sea surface temperature, etc. were selected and analyzed. Some different type of precipitation (rain and snow) was selected. The results showed that the NCEP/NCAR has more ability to demonstrate the intensity of the atmospheric system. The ERA5 is suitable for extract the value of parameters for specific point. Also, ERA5 is appropriate to analyze the snowfall events over CS (snow cover and snow depth). Sea surface temperature has the main role to generate instability over CS, especially when the cold air pass from the CS. Sea surface temperature of NCEP/NCAR product has low resolution near coast. However, both data were able to detect meteorological synoptic patterns that led to heavy rainfall over CS. However, due to the time lag, they are not suitable for forecast centers. The application of these two data is for research and verification of meteorological models. Finally, ERA5 has a better resolution, respect to NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, but NCEP/NCAR data is available from 1948 and appropriate for long term research.

Keywords: synoptic patterns, heavy precipitation, reanalysis data, snow

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223 A Resilience-Based Approach for Assessing Social Vulnerability in New Zealand's Coastal Areas

Authors: Javad Jozaei, Rob G. Bell, Paula Blackett, Scott A. Stephens

Abstract:

In the last few decades, Social Vulnerability Assessment (SVA) has been a favoured means in evaluating the susceptibility of social systems to drivers of change, including climate change and natural disasters. However, the application of SVA to inform responsive and practical strategies to deal with uncertain climate change impacts has always been challenging, and typically agencies resort back to conventional risk/vulnerability assessment. These challenges include complex nature of social vulnerability concepts which influence its applicability, complications in identifying and measuring social vulnerability determinants, the transitory social dynamics in a changing environment, and unpredictability of the scenarios of change that impacts the regime of vulnerability (including contention of when these impacts might emerge). Research suggests that the conventional quantitative approaches in SVA could not appropriately address these problems; hence, the outcomes could potentially be misleading and not fit for addressing the ongoing uncertain rise in risk. The second phase of New Zealand’s Resilience to Nature’s Challenges (RNC2) is developing a forward-looking vulnerability assessment framework and methodology that informs the decision-making and policy development in dealing with the changing coastal systems and accounts for complex dynamics of New Zealand’s coastal systems (including socio-economic, environmental and cultural). Also, RNC2 requires the new methodology to consider plausible drivers of incremental and unknowable changes, create mechanisms to enhance social and community resilience; and fits the New Zealand’s multi-layer governance system. This paper aims to analyse the conventional approaches and methodologies in SVA and offer recommendations for more responsive approaches that inform adaptive decision-making and policy development in practice. The research adopts a qualitative research design to examine different aspects of the conventional SVA processes, and the methods to achieve the research objectives include a systematic review of the literature and case study methods. We found that the conventional quantitative, reductionist and deterministic mindset in the SVA processes -with a focus the impacts of rapid stressors (i.e. tsunamis, floods)- show some deficiencies to account for complex dynamics of social-ecological systems (SES), and the uncertain, long-term impacts of incremental drivers. The paper will focus on addressing the links between resilience and vulnerability; and suggests how resilience theory and its underpinning notions such as the adaptive cycle, panarchy, and system transformability could address these issues, therefore, influence the perception of vulnerability regime and its assessment processes. In this regard, it will be argued that how a shift of paradigm from ‘specific resilience’, which focuses on adaptive capacity associated with the notion of ‘bouncing back’, to ‘general resilience’, which accounts for system transformability, regime shift, ‘bouncing forward’, can deliver more effective strategies in an era characterised by ongoing change and deep uncertainty.

Keywords: complexity, social vulnerability, resilience, transformation, uncertain risks

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222 Diversity, Biochemical and Genomic Assessment of Selected Benthic Species of Two Tropical Lagoons, Southwest Nigeria

Authors: G. F. Okunade, M. O. Lawal, R. E. Uwadiae, D. Portnoy

Abstract:

The diversity, physico-chemical, biochemical and genomics assessment of Macrofauna species of Ologe and Badagry Lagoons were carried out between August 2016 and July 2018. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cd, Cr, and Pb in water were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Particle size distribution was determined with wet-sieving and sedimentation using hydrometer method. Genomics analyses were carried using 25 P. fusca (quadriseriata) and 25 P.fusca from each lagoon due to abundance in both lagoons all through the two years of collection. DNA was isolated from each sample using the Mag-Bind Blood and Tissue DNA HD 96 kit; a method designed to isolate high quality. The biochemical characteristics were analysed in the dominanat species (P.aurita and T. fuscatus) using ELISA kits. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and TDS were analysed using APHA standard protocols. The Physico-chemical parameters of the water quality recorded with mean values of 32.46 ± 0.66mg/L and 41.93 ± 0.65 for COD, 27.28 ± 0.97 and 34.82 ± 0.1 mg/L for BOD, 0.04 ± 4.71 mg/L for DO, 6.65 and 6.58 for pH in Ologe and Badagry lagoons with significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) across seasons. The mean and standard deviation of salinity for Ologe and Badagry Lagoons ranged from 0.43 ± 0.30 to 0.27 ± 0.09. A total of 4210 species belonging to a phylum, two classes, four families and a total of 2008 species in Ologe lagoon while a phylum, two classes, 5 families and a total of 2202 species in Badagry lagoon. The percentage composition of the classes at Ologe lagoon had 99% gastropod and 1% bivalve, while Gastropod contributed 98.91% and bivalve 1.09% in Badagry lagoon. Particle size was distributed in 0.002mm to 2.00mm, particle size distribution in Ologe lagoon recorded 0.83% gravels, 97.83% sand, and 1.33% silt particles while Badagry lagoon recorded 7.43% sand, 24.71% silt, and 67.86% clay particles hence, the excessive dredging activities going on in the lagoon. Maximum percentage of sand (100%) was seen in station 6 in Ologe lagoon while the minimum (96%) was found in station 1. P. aurita (Ologe Lagoon) and T. fuscastus (Badagry Lagoon) were the most abundant benthic species in which both contributed 61.05% and 64.35%, respectively. The enzymatic activities of P. aurita observed with mean values of 21.03 mg/dl for AST, 10.33 mg/dl for ALP, 82.16 mg/dl for ALT and 73.06 mg/dl for CHO in Ologe Lagoon While T. fuscatus observed mean values of Badagry Lagoon) recorded mean values 29.76 mg/dl, ALP with 11.69mg/L, ALT with 140.58 mg/dl and CHO with 45.98 mg/dl. There were significant variations (P < 0.05) in AST and CHO levels of activities in the muscles of the species.

Keywords: benthos, biochemical responses, genomics, metals, particle size

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221 Effect of Runup over a Vertical Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater and Quarter Circle Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater

Authors: T. J. Jemi Jeya, V. Sriram

Abstract:

Pile Supported Caisson breakwater is an ecofriendly breakwater very useful in coastal zone protection. The model is developed by considering the advantages of both caisson breakwater and pile supported breakwater, where the top portion is a vertical or quarter circle caisson and the bottom portion consists of a pile supported breakwater defined as Vertical Pile Supported Breakwater (VPSCB) and Quarter-circle Pile Supported Breakwater (QPSCB). The study mainly focuses on comparison of run up over VPSCB and QPSCB under oblique waves. The experiments are carried out in a shallow wave basin under different water depths (d = 0.5 m & 0.55 m) and under different oblique regular waves (00, 150, 300). The run up over the surface is measured by placing two run up probes over the surface at 0.3 m on both sides from the centre of the model. The results show that the non-dimensional shoreward run up shows slight decrease with respect to increase in angle of wave attack.

Keywords: Caisson breakwater, pile supported breakwater, quarter circle breakwater, vertical breakwater

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220 Discharge Estimation in a Two Flow Braided Channel Based on Energy Concept

Authors: Amiya Kumar Pati, Spandan Sahu, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

River is our main source of water which is a form of open channel flow and the flow in the open channel provides with many complex phenomena of sciences that needs to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress, and depth-averaged velocity. The development of society, more or less solely depends upon the flow of rivers. The rivers are major sources of many sediments and specific ingredients which are much essential for human beings. A river flow consisting of small and shallow channels sometimes divide and recombine numerous times because of the slow water flow or the built up sediments. The pattern formed during this process resembles the strands of a braid. Braided streams form where the sediment load is so heavy that some of the sediments are deposited as shifting islands. Braided rivers often exist near the mountainous regions and typically carry coarse-grained and heterogeneous sediments down a fairly steep gradient. In this paper, the apparent shear stress formulae were suitably modified, and the Energy Concept Method (ECM) was applied for the prediction of discharges at the junction of a two-flow braided compound channel. The Energy Concept Method has not been applied for estimating the discharges in the braided channels. The energy loss in the channels is analyzed based on mechanical analysis. The cross-section of channel is divided into two sub-areas, namely the main-channel below the bank-full level and region above the bank-full level for estimating the total discharge. The experimental data are compared with a wide range of theoretical data available in the published literature to verify this model. The accuracy of this approach is also compared with Divided Channel Method (DCM). From error analysis of this method, it is observed that the relative error is less for the data-sets having smooth floodplains when compared to rough floodplains. Comparisons with other models indicate that the present method has reasonable accuracy for engineering purposes.

Keywords: critical flow, energy concept, open channel flow, sediment, two-flow braided compound channel

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219 Planktivorous Fish Schooling Responses to Current at Natural and Artificial Reefs

Authors: Matthew Holland, Jason Everett, Martin Cox, Iain Suthers

Abstract:

High spatial-resolution distribution of planktivorous reef fish can reveal behavioural adaptations to optimise the balance between feeding success and predator avoidance. We used a multi-beam echosounder to record bathymetry and the three-dimensional distribution of fish schools associated with natural and artificial reefs. We utilised generalised linear models to assess the distribution, orientation, and aggregation of fish schools relative to the structure, vertical relief, and currents. At artificial reefs, fish schooled more closely to the structure and demonstrated a preference for the windward side, particularly when exposed to strong currents. Similarly, at natural reefs fish demonstrated a preference for windward aspects of bathymetry, particularly when associated with high vertical relief. Our findings suggest that under conditions with stronger current velocity, fish can exercise their preference to remain close to structure for predator avoidance, while still receiving an adequate supply of zooplankton delivered by the current. Similarly, when current velocity is low, fish tend to disperse for better access to zooplankton. As artificial reefs are generally deployed with the goal of creating productivity rather than simply attracting fish from elsewhere, we advise that future artificial reefs be designed as semi-linear arrays perpendicular to the prevailing current, with multiple tall towers. This will facilitate the conversion of dispersed zooplankton into energy for higher trophic levels, enhancing reef productivity and fisheries.

Keywords: artificial reef, current, forage fish, multi-beam, planktivorous fish, reef fish, schooling

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218 Depth-Averaged Velocity Distribution in Braided Channel Using Calibrating Coefficients

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua

Abstract:

Rivers are the backbone of human civilization as well as one of the most important components of nature. In this paper, a method for predicting lateral depth-averaged velocity distribution in a two-flow braided compound channel is proposed. Experiments were conducted to study the boundary shear stress in the tip of the two flow path. The cross-section of the channel is divided into several panels to study the flow phenomenon on both the main channel and the flood plain. It can be inferred from the study that the flow coefficients get affected by boundary shear stress. In this study, the analytical solution of Shiono and knight (SKM) for lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity and bed shear stress has been taken into account. The SKM is based on hydraulic parameters, which signify the bed friction factor (f), lateral eddy viscosity, and depth-averaged flow. While applying the SKM to different panels, the equations are solved considering the boundary conditions between panels. The boundary shear stress data, which are obtained from experimentation, are compared with CES software, which is based on quasi-one-dimensional Reynold's Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach.

Keywords: boundary shear stress, lateral depth-averaged velocity, two-flow braided compound channel, velocity distribution

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217 Studying the Moisture Sources and the Stable Isotope Characteristic of Moisture in Northern Khorasan Province, North-Eastern Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad, Hamid Ghalibaf Mohammadabadi

Abstract:

Iran is a semi-arid and arid country in south-western Asia in the Middle East facing intense climatological drought from the early times. Therefore, studying the precipitation events and the moisture sources and air masses causing precipitation has great importance in this region. In this study, the moisture sources and stable isotope content of precipitation moisture in three main events in 2015 have been studied in North-Eastern Iran. HYSPLIT model backward trajectories showed that the Caspian Sea and the mixture of the Caspian and Mediterranean Seas are dominant moisture sources for the studied events. This showed the role of cP (Siberian) and Mediterranean (MedT) air masses. Stable isotope studies showed that precipitation events originated from the Caspian Sea with lower Sea Surface Temperature (SST) have more depleted isotope values. However, precipitation events sourced from the mixture of the Caspian and the Mediterranean Seas (with higher SST) showed more enriched isotope values.

Keywords: HYSPLIT, Iran, Northern Khorasan, stable isotopes

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216 Strategies for the Optimization of Ground Resistance in Large Scale Foundations for Optimum Lightning Protection

Authors: Oibar Martinez, Clara Oliver, Jose Miguel Miranda

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In this paper, we discuss the standard improvements which can be made to reduce the earth resistance in difficult terrains for optimum lightning protection, what are the practical limitations, and how the modeling can be refined for accurate diagnostics and ground resistance minimization. Ground resistance minimization can be made via three different approaches: burying vertical electrodes connected in parallel, burying horizontal conductive plates or meshes, or modifying the own terrain, either by changing the entire terrain material in a large volume or by adding earth-enhancing compounds. The use of vertical electrodes connected in parallel pose several practical limitations. In order to prevent loss of effectiveness, it is necessary to keep a minimum distance between each electrode, which is typically around five times larger than the electrode length. Otherwise, the overlapping of the local equipotential lines around each electrode reduces the efficiency of the configuration. The addition of parallel electrodes reduces the resistance and facilitates the measurement, but the basic parallel resistor formula of circuit theory will always underestimate the final resistance. Numerical simulation of equipotential lines around the electrodes overcomes this limitation. The resistance of a single electrode will always be proportional to the soil resistivity. The electrodes are usually installed with a backfilling material of high conductivity, which increases the effective diameter. However, the improvement is marginal, since the electrode diameter counts in the estimation of the ground resistance via a logarithmic function. Substances that are used for efficient chemical treatment must be environmentally friendly and must feature stability, high hygroscopicity, low corrosivity, and high electrical conductivity. A number of earth enhancement materials are commercially available. Many are comprised of carbon-based materials or clays like bentonite. These materials can also be used as backfilling materials to reduce the resistance of an electrode. Chemical treatment of soil has environmental issues. Some products contain copper sulfate or other copper-based compounds, which may not be environmentally friendly. Carbon-based compounds are relatively inexpensive and they do have very low resistivities, but they also feature corrosion issues. Typically, the carbon can corrode and destroy a copper electrode in around five years. These compounds also have potential environmental concerns. Some earthing enhancement materials contain cement, which, after installation acquire properties that are very close to concrete. This prevents the earthing enhancement material from leaching into the soil. After analyzing different configurations, we conclude that a buried conductive ring with vertical electrodes connected periodically should be the optimum baseline solution for the grounding of a large size structure installed on a large resistivity terrain. In order to show this, a practical example is explained here where we simulate the ground resistance of a conductive ring buried in a terrain with a resistivity in the range of 1 kOhm·m.

Keywords: grounding improvements, large scale scientific instrument, lightning risk assessment, lightning standards

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215 Mechanical Properties, Vibrational Response and Flow-Field Analysis of Staghorn Coral Skeleton, Acropora cervicornis

Authors: Alejandro Carrasco-Pena, Mahmoud Omer, Nina Orlovskaya

Abstract:

The results of studies of microstructure, mechanical behavior, vibrational response, and flow field analysis of critically endangered staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) skeletons are reported. The CaCO₃ aragonite structure of a chemically-cleaned coral skeleton of A. cervicornis was studied by optical microscopy and computer tomography. The mechanical behavior was studied using uniaxial compression and Vickers hardness technique. The average maximum stress measured during skeleton uniaxial compression was 10.7 ± 2.24 MPa and Vickers hardness was 3.56 ± 0.31 GPa. The vibrational response of the aragonite structure was studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which showed a substantial dependence of the structure on applied compressive stress. The flow-field around a single coral skeleton forming vortices in the wake of the moving skeleton was measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results are important for further analysis of time-dependent mechanical fatigue behavior and predicting the lifetime of staghorn corals.

Keywords: failure, mechanical properties, microstructure, Raman spectroscopy

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214 Verification Protocols for the Lightning Protection of a Large Scale Scientific Instrument in Harsh Environments: A Case Study

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez, Jose Miguel Miranda

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to the study of the most suitable protocols to verify the lightning protection and ground resistance quality in a large-scale scientific facility located in a harsh environment. We illustrate this work by reviewing a case study: the largest telescopes of the Northern Hemisphere Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA-N. This array hosts sensitive and high-speed optoelectronics instrumentation and sits on a clear, free from obstacle terrain at around 2400 m above sea level. The site offers a top-quality sky but also features challenging conditions for a lightning protection system: the terrain is volcanic and has resistivities well above 1 kOhm·m. In addition, the environment often exhibits humidities well below 5%. On the other hand, the high complexity of a Cherenkov telescope structure does not allow a straightforward application of lightning protection standards. CTA-N has been conceived as an array of fourteen Cherenkov Telescopes of two different sizes, which will be constructed in La Palma Island, Spain. Cherenkov Telescopes can provide valuable information on different astrophysical sources from the gamma rays reaching the Earth’s atmosphere. The largest telescopes of CTA are called LST’s, and the construction of the first one was finished in October 2018. The LST has a shape which resembles a large parabolic antenna, with a 23-meter reflective surface supported by a tubular structure made of carbon fibers and steel tubes. The reflective surface has 400 square meters and is made of an array of segmented mirrors that can be controlled individually by a subsystem of actuators. This surface collects and focuses the Cherenkov photons into the camera, where 1855 photo-sensors convert the light in electrical signals that can be processed by dedicated electronics. We describe here how the risk assessment of direct strike impacts was made and how down conductors and ground system were both tested. The verification protocols which should be applied for the commissioning and operation phases are then explained. We stress our attention on the ground resistance quality assessment.

Keywords: grounding, large scale scientific instrument, lightning risk assessment, lightning standards and safety

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213 Static Charge Control Plan for High-Density Electronics Centers

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez, Jose Miguel Miranda

Abstract:

Ensuring a safe environment for sensitive electronics boards in places with high limitations in size poses two major difficulties: the control of charge accumulation in floating floors and the prevention of excess charge generation due to air cooling flows. In this paper, we discuss these mechanisms and possible solutions to prevent them. An experiment was made in the control room of a Cherenkov Telescope, where six racks of 2x1x1 m size and independent cooling units are located. The room is 10x4x2.5 m, and the electronics include high-speed digitizers, trigger circuits, etc. The floor used in this room was antistatic, but it was a raised floor mounted in floating design to facilitate the handling of the cables and maintenance. The tests were made by measuring the contact voltage acquired by a person who was walking along the room with different footwear qualities. In addition, we took some measurements of the voltage accumulated in a person in other situations like running or sitting up and down on an office chair. The voltages were taken in real time with an electrostatic voltage meter and dedicated control software. It is shown that peak voltages as high as 5 kV were measured with ambient humidity of more than 30%, which are within the range of a class 3A according to the HBM standard. In order to complete the results, we have made the same experiment in different spaces with alternative types of the floor like synthetic floor and earthenware floor obtaining peak voltages much lower than the ones measured with the floating synthetic floor. The grounding quality one achieves with this kind of floors can hardly beat the one typically encountered in standard floors glued directly on a solid substrate. On the other hand, the air ventilation used to prevent the overheating of the boards probably contributed in a significant way to the charge accumulated in the room. During the assessment of the quality of the static charge control, it is necessary to guarantee that the tests are made under repeatable conditions. One of the major difficulties which one encounters during these assessments is the fact the electrostatic voltmeters might provide different values depending on the humidity conditions and ground resistance quality. In addition, the use of certified antistatic footwear might mask deficiencies in the charge control. In this paper, we show how we defined protocols to guarantee that electrostatic readings are reliable. We believe that this can be helpful not only to qualify the static charge control in a laboratory but also to asses any procedure oriented to minimize the risk of electrostatic discharge events.

Keywords: electrostatics, ESD protocols, HBM, static charge control

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212 Increasing Abundance of Jellyfish in the Shorelines of Bangladesh: Analyzing the Policy Framework for Facing the Challenges

Authors: Md Mizanur Rahman, M. Aslam Alam, Muhammad Abu Yusuf

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The abundance of Jellyfish across the coasts of the Bay of Bengal is increasing sharply due to marine pollution, increased sea acidification and climate change. Jellyfish draws our attention to address the local and global stressors. This also indicates that something wrong is happening in this bay behind the scenes. This study aimed to investigate how the policy framework governing the sea can be reformed. To do so, this study evaluated the existing policy, regulatory and institutional framework. Empirical data were collected from the middle coastal zone of Bangladesh. The secondary literature on policy, legal documents, and institutional arrangements were reviewed. The causes of poor coordination among different public sectors and non-compliance of laws were identified. The key findings show that despite the existing of Department of Environment, poor coordination with other departments, and lack of logistics and technical staffs have resulted in severe marine pollution and degradation of coastal and marine living resources. The existing policies had no monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Non-compliance of the existing laws has been fueling the problems. This study provides an integrated policy and a guideline for updating the legal and institutional mechanism to manage coastal and marine living resources sustainably in Bangladesh to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 14.

Keywords: legal, institutional, framework, jellyfish

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211 Study of the Environment Problems of Flowers in the World

Authors: Esmaeil Khodadad

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The environment is one of the hotbeds of global politics. It is only necessary to emphasize the human being on this word, and to take it as a serious political-social debate, so as to prevent the collapse of the harmony of the system of nature governing the earth, the landlord and its creatures. Earth, water and humans are three interconnected arms that should be kept in balance and harmony. The collapse of one of these arms disrupts the entire framework of the philosophy of life on earth. Environmental issues were found worldwide in the late 20th century and were given serious attention by experts. At the same time, international environmental issues have brought to the forefront the challenges of international relations. These ideas have introduced environmental issues and some of the main features of the causes and consequences of global environmental change, as well as ways to deal with this change Has been discussed. The objectives of this study are environmental issues in the world and in Iran, and it shows what factors contribute to the formation of spatial systems and its supporting systems, and finally what the goals should be about the ideal state of the future of the global environment and its issues. The information required for this research is a combination of documentary, descriptive-analytical and library methods.

Keywords: environment, environmental issues, flower, oeacen

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210 Chaotic Analysis of Acid Rains with Times Series of pH Degree, Nitrate and Sulphate Concentration on Wet Samples

Authors: Aysegul Sener, Gonca Tuncel Memis, Mirac Kamislioglu

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Chaos theory is one of the new paradigms of science since the last century. After determining chaos in the weather systems by Edward Lorenz the popularity of the theory was increased. Chaos is observed in many natural systems and studies continue to defect chaos to other natural systems. Acid rain is one of the environmental problems that have negative effects on environment and acid rains values are monitored continuously. In this study, we aim that analyze the chaotic behavior of acid rains in Turkey with the chaotic defecting approaches. The data of pH degree of rain waters, concentration of sulfate and nitrate data of wet rain water samples in the rain collecting stations which are located in different regions of Turkey are provided by Turkish State Meteorology Service. Lyapunov exponents, reconstruction of the phase space, power spectrums are used in this study to determine and predict the chaotic behaviors of acid rains. As a result of the analysis it is found that acid rain time series have positive Lyapunov exponents and wide power spectrums and chaotic behavior is observed in the acid rain time series.

Keywords: acid rains, chaos, chaotic analysis, Lypapunov exponents

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209 Introgressive Hybridisation between Two Widespread Sharks in the East Pacific Region

Authors: Diana A. Pazmino, Lynne vanHerwerden, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Claudia Junge, Stephen C. Donnellan, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Clinton A. J. Duffy, Charlie Huveneers, Bronwyn Gillanders, Paul A. Butcher, Gregory E. Maes

Abstract:

With just a handful of documented cases of hybridisation in cartilaginous fishes, shark hybridisation remains poorly investigated. Small amounts of admixture have been detected between Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis) and dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) sharks previously, generating a hypothesis of ongoing hybridisation. We sampled a large number of individuals from areas where both species co-occur (contact zones) across the Pacific Ocean and used both mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded SNPs to examine genetic admixture and introgression between the two species. Using empirical, analytical approaches and simulations, we first developed a set of 1,873 highly informative and reliable diagnostic SNPs for these two species to evaluate the degree of admixture between them. Overall, results indicate a high discriminatory power of nuclear SNPs (FST=0.47, p < 0.05) between the two species, unlike mitochondrial DNA (ΦST = 0.00 p > 0.05), which failed to differentiate between these species. We identified four hybrid individuals (~1%) and detected bi-directional introgression between C. galapagensis and C. obscurus in the Gulf of California along the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas. We emphasize the importance of including a combination of mtDNA and diagnostic nuclear markers to properly assess species identification, detect patterns of hybridisation, and better inform management and conservation of these sharks, especially given the morphological similarities within the genus Carcharhinus.

Keywords: elasmobranchs, single nucleotide polymorphisms, hybridisation, introgression, misidentification

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208 Spatiotemporal Variability in Rainfall Trends over Sinai Peninsula Using Nonparametric Methods and Discrete Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Mosaad Khadr

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Knowledge of the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall trends has been of great concern for efficient water resource planning, management. In this study annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall trends over the Sinai Peninsula were analyzed by using absolute homogeneity tests, nonparametric Mann–Kendall (MK) test and Sen’s slope estimator methods. The homogeneity of rainfall time-series was examined using four absolute homogeneity tests namely, the Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test, Buishand range test, and von Neumann ratio test. Further, the sequential change in the trend of annual and seasonal rainfalls is conducted using sequential MK (SQMK) method. Then the trend analysis based on discrete wavelet transform technique (DWT) in conjunction with SQMK method is performed. The spatial patterns of the detected rainfall trends were investigated using a geostatistical and deterministic spatial interpolation technique. The results achieved from the Mann–Kendall test to the data series (using the 5% significance level) highlighted that rainfall was generally decreasing in January, February, March, November, December, wet season, and annual rainfall. A significant decreasing trend in the winter and annual rainfall with significant levels were inferred based on the Mann-Kendall rank statistics and linear trend. Further, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) analysis reveal that in general, intra- and inter-annual events (up to 4 years) are more influential in affecting the observed trends. The nature of the trend captured by both methods is similar for all of the cases. On the basis of spatial trend analysis, significant rainfall decreases were also noted in the investigated stations. Overall, significant downward trends in winter and annual rainfall over the Sinai Peninsula was observed during the study period.

Keywords: trend analysis, rainfall, Mann–Kendall test, discrete wavelet transform, Sinai Peninsula

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207 Projection of the Drought Index for the Uruguay River Basin

Authors: Jose Leandro Melgar Neris, Claudineia Brazil, Luciane Teresa Salvi, Isabel Cristina Damin

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The effects of climate change warn of a possible increase in extreme weather events around the world; such cyclical factors, in most cases, alter the radiation balance in the climate system and cause great changes in the planet's temperature. The main variable in the hydrological cycle process is rainfall, and its scarcity can lead to drought, which has a significant impact on the socioeconomic, agricultural, and environmental spheres. This study aims to characterize and quantify, based on precipitation climatic projections, the rainy and dry events in the region of the Uruguay River Basin, through the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The database used in this research is part of the Intercomparison of Model Models, Phase 5 (CMIP5), which provides models of climatic projections, organized according to the Representative Routes of Concentration (CPR). Comparing the climatological norms of the defined stations in the Uruguay River Basin through precipitation projections, we can see the increase of seasonal precipitations for all the proposed scenarios, with little tendency of dry climate. From the data of this research, the information may serve as a subsidy for the definition of mitigation measures, if necessary, and the basis for future studies in other river basins.

Keywords: climate change, climatic model, dry events, precipitation projections

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206 Construction and Cross-Linking of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Based on Polysaccharides as Antifouling Coatings

Authors: Wenfa Yu, Thuva Gnanasampanthan, John Finlay, Jessica Clarke, Charlotte Anderson, Tony Clare, Axel Rosenhahn

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Marine biofouling is a worldwide problem at vast economic and ecological costs. Historically it was combated with toxic coatings such as tributyltin. As those coatings being banned nowadays, finding environmental friendly antifouling solution has become an urgent topic. In this study antifouling coatings consisted of natural occurring polysaccharides hyaluronic acid (HA), alginic acid (AA), chitosan (Ch) and polyelectrolyte polyethylenimine (PEI) are constructed into polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) in a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) method. LbL PEM construction is a straightforward way to assemble biomacromolecular coatings on surfaces. Advantages about PEM include ease of handling, highly diverse PEM composition, precise control over the thickness and so on. PEMs have been widely employed in medical application and there are numerous studies regarding their protein adsorption, elasticity and cell adhesive properties. With the adjustment of coating composition, termination layer charge, coating morphology and cross-linking method, it is possible to prepare low marine biofouling coatings with PEMs. In this study, using spin coating technology, PEM construction was achieved at smooth multilayers with roughness as low as 2nm rms and highly reproducible thickness around 50nm. To obtain stability in sea water, the multilayers were covalently cross-linked either thermally or chemically. The cross-linking method affected surface energy, which was reflected in water contact angle, thermal cross-linking led to hydrophobic surfaces and chemical cross-linking generated hydrophilic surfaces. The coatings were then evaluated regarding its protein resistance and biological species resistance. While the hydrophobic thermally cross-linked PEM had low resistance towards proteins, the resistance of chemically cross-linked PEM strongly depended on the PEM termination layer and the charge of the protein, opposite charge caused high adsorption and same charge low adsorption, indicating electrostatic interaction plays a crucial role in the protein adsorption processes. Ulva linza was chosen as the biological species for antifouling performance evaluation. Despite of the poor resistance towards protein adsorption, thermally cross-linked PEM showed good resistance against Ulva spores settlement, the chemically cross-linked multilayers showed poor resistance regardless of the termination layer. Marine species adhesion is a complex process, although it involves proteins as bioadhesives, protein resistance its own is not a fully indicator for its antifouling performance. The species will pre select the surface, responding to cues like surface energy, chemistry, or charge and so on. Thus making it difficult for one single factors to determine its antifouling performance. Preparing PEM coating is a comprehensive work involving choosing polyelectrolyte combination, determining termination layer and the method for cross-linking. These decisions will affect PEM properties such as surface energy, charge, which is crucial, since biofouling is a process responding to surface properties in a highly sensitive and dynamic way.

Keywords: hyaluronic acid, polyelectrolyte multilayers, protein resistance, Ulva linza zoospores

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205 The Spatial Classification of China near Sea for Marine Biodiversity Conservation Based on Bio-Geographical Factors

Authors: Huang Hao, Li Weiwen

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Global biodiversity continues to decline as a result of global climate change and various human activities, such as habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of alien species and overfishing. Although there are connections between global marine organisms more or less, it is better to have clear geographical boundaries in order to facilitate the assessment and management of different biogeographical zones. And so area based management tools (ABMT) are considered as the most effective means for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity. On a large scale, the geographical gap (or barrier) is the main factor to influence the connectivity, diffusion, ecological and evolutionary process of marine organisms, which results in different distribution patterns. On a small scale, these factors include geographical location, geology, and geomorphology, water depth, current, temperature, salinity, etc. Therefore, the analysis on geographic and environmental factors is of great significance in the study of biodiversity characteristics. This paper summarizes the marine spatial classification and ABMTs used in coastal area, open oceans and deep sea. And analysis principles and methods of marine spatial classification based on biogeographic related factors, and take China Near Sea (CNS) area as case study, and select key biogeographic related factors, carry out marine spatial classification at biological region scale, ecological regionals scale and biogeographical scale. The research shows that CNS is divided into 5 biological regions by climate and geographical differences, the Yellow Sea, the Bohai Sea, the East China Sea, the Taiwan Straits, and the South China Sea. And the bioregions are then divided into 12 ecological regions according to the typical ecological and administrative factors, and finally the eco-regions are divided into 98 biogeographical units according to the benthic substrate types, depth, coastal types, water temperature, and salinity, given the integrity of biological and ecological process, the area of the biogeographical units is not less than 1,000 km². This research is of great use to the coastal management and biodiversity conservation for local and central government, and provide important scientific support for future spatial planning and management of coastal waters and sustainable use of marine biodiversity.

Keywords: spatial classification, marine biodiversity, bio-geographical, conservation

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204 A Modelling Study to Compare the Storm Surge along Oman Coast Due to Ashobaa and Nanauk Cyclones

Authors: R. V. Suresh Reddi, Vishnu S. Das, Mathew Leslie

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The weather systems within the Arabian Sea is very dynamic in terms of monsoon and cyclone events. The storms generated in the Arabian Sea are more likely to progress in the north-west or west direction towards Oman. From the database of Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), the number of cyclones that hit the Oman coast or pass within close vicinity is noteworthy and therefore they must be considered when looking at coastal/port engineering design and development projects. This paper provides a case study of two cyclones, i.e., Nanauk (2014) and Ashobaa (2015) to assess the impact on storm surge off the Oman coast. These two cyclones have been selected since they are comparable in terms of maximum wind, cyclone duration, central pressure and month of occurrence. They are of similar strength but differ in track, allowing the impact of proximity to the coast to be considered. Of the two selected cyclones, Ashobaa is the 'extreme' case with close proximity while Nanauk remains further offshore and is considered as a more typical case. The available 'best-track' data from JTWC is obtained for the 2 selected cyclones, and the cyclone winds are generated using a 'Cyclone Wind Generation Tool' from MIKE (modelling software) from DHI (Danish Hydraulic Institute). Using MIKE 21 Hydrodynamic model powered by DHI the storm surge is estimated at selected offshore locations along the Oman coast.

Keywords: costal engineering, cyclone, storm surge, modelling

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203 Overview on Sustainable Coastal Protection Structures

Authors: Suresh Reddi, Mathew Leslie, Vishnu S. Das

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Sustainable design is a prominent concept across all sectors of engineering and its importance is widely recognized within the Arabian Gulf region. Despite that sustainable or soft engineering options are not widely deployed in coastal engineering projects and a preference for utilizing ‘hard engineering’ solutions remain. The concept of soft engineering lies in “working together” with the nature to manage the coastline. This approach allows hard engineering options, such as breakwaters or sea walls, to be minimized or even eliminated altogether. Hard structures provide a firm barrier to wave energy or flooding, but in doing so they often have a significant impact on the natural processes of the coastline. This may affect the area locally or impact on neighboring zones. In addition, they often have a negative environmental impact and may create a sense of disconnect between the marine environment and local users. Soft engineering options, seek to protect the coastline by working in harmony with the natural process of sediment transport/budget. They often consider new habitat creation and creating usable spaces that will increase the sense of connection with nature. Often soft engineering options, where appropriately deployed can provide a low-maintenance, aesthetically valued, natural line of coastal protection. This paper deals with an overview of the following: The widely accepted soft engineering practices across the world; How this approach has been considered by Ramboll in some recent projects in Middle East and Asia; Challenges and barriers to use in using soft engineering options in the region; Way forward towards more widespread adoption.

Keywords: coastline, hard engineering, low maintenance, soft engineering options

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202 Application of a Generalized Additive Model to Reveal the Relations between the Density of Zooplankton with Other Variables in the West Daya Bay, China

Authors: Weiwen Li, Hao Huang, Chengmao You, Jianji Liao, Lei Wang, Lina An

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Zooplankton are a central issue in the ecology which makes a great contribution to maintaining the balance of an ecosystem. It is critical in promoting the material cycle and energy flow within the ecosystems. A generalized additive model (GAM) was applied to analyze the relationships between the density (individuals per m³) of zooplankton and other variables in West Daya Bay. All data used in this analysis (the survey month, survey station (longitude and latitude), the depth of the water column, the superficial concentration of chlorophyll a, the benthonic concentration of chlorophyll a, the number of zooplankton species and the number of zooplankton species) were collected through monthly scientific surveys during January to December 2016. GLM model (generalized linear model) was used to choose the significant variables’ impact on the density of zooplankton, and the GAM was employed to analyze the relationship between the density of zooplankton and the significant variables. The results showed that the density of zooplankton increased with an increase of the benthonic concentration of chlorophyll a, but decreased with a decrease in the depth of the water column. Both high numbers of zooplankton species and the overall total number of zooplankton individuals led to a higher density of zooplankton.

Keywords: density, generalized linear model, generalized additive model, the West Daya Bay, zooplankton

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201 Impacts of Aquaculture Farms on the Mangroves Forests of Sundarbans, India (2010-2018): Temporal Changes of NDVI

Authors: Sandeep Thakur, Ismail Mondal, Phani Bhusan Ghosh, Papita Das, Tarun Kumar De

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Sundarbans Reserve forest of India has been undergoing major transformations in the recent past owing to population pressure and related changes. This has brought about major changes in the spatial landscape of the region especially in the western parts. This study attempts to assess the impacts of the Landcover changes on the mangrove habitats. Time series imageries of Landsat were used to analyze the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) patterns over the western parts of Indian Sundarbans forest in order to assess the heath of the mangroves in the region. The images were subjected to Land use Land cover (LULC) classification using sub-pixel classification techniques in ERDAS Imagine software and the changes were mapped. The spatial proliferation of aquaculture farms during the study period was also mapped. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out between the obtained NDVI values and the LULC classes. Similarly, the observed meteorological data sets (time series rainfall and minimum and maximum temperature) were also statistically correlated for regression. The study demonstrated the application of NDVI in assessing the environmental status of mangroves as the relationship between the changes in the environmental variables and the remote sensing based indices felicitate an efficient evaluation of environmental variables, which can be used in the coastal zone monitoring and development processes.

Keywords: aquaculture farms, LULC, Mangrove, NDVI

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200 Research of Acoustic Propagation within Marine Riser in Deepwater Drilling

Authors: Xiaohui Wang, Zhichuan Guan, Roman Shor, Chuanbin Xu

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Early monitoring and real-time quantitative description of gas intrusion under the premise of ensuring the integrity of the drilling fluid circulation system will greatly improve the accuracy and effectiveness of deepwater gas-kick monitoring. Therefore, in order to study the propagation characteristics of ultrasonic waves in the gas-liquid two-phase flow within the marine riser, in this paper, a numerical simulation method of ultrasonic propagation in the annulus of the riser was established, and the credibility of the numerical analysis was verified by the experimental results of the established gas intrusion monitoring simulation experimental device. The numerical simulation can solve the sound field in the gas-liquid two-phase flow according to different physical models, and it is easier to realize the single factor control. The influence of each parameter on the received signal can be quantitatively investigated, and the law with practical guiding significance can be obtained.

Keywords: gas-kick detection, ultrasonic, void fraction, coda wave velocity

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199 Long-Term Trends of Sea Level and Sea Surface Temperature in the Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Bayoumy Mohamed, Khaled Alam El-Din

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In the present study, 24 years of gridded sea level anomalies (SLA) from satellite altimetry and sea surface temperature (SST) from advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) daily data (1993-2016) are used. These data have been used to investigate the sea level rising and warming rates of SST, and their spatial distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. The results revealed that there is a significant sea level rise in the Mediterranean Sea of 2.86 ± 0.45 mm/year together with a significant warming of 0.037 ± 0.007 °C/year. The high spatial correlation between sea level and SST variations suggests that at least part of the sea level change reported during the period of study was due to heating of surface layers. This indicated that the steric effect had a significant influence on sea level change in the Mediterranean Sea.

Keywords: altimetry, AVHRR, Mediterranean Sea, sea level and SST changes, trend analysis

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198 Statistical Scientific Investigation of Popular Cultural Heritage in the Relationship between Astronomy and Weather Conditions in the State of Kuwait

Authors: Ahmed M. AlHasem

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The Kuwaiti society has long been aware of climatic changes and their annual dates and trying to link them to astronomy in an attempt to forecast the future weather conditions. The reason for this concern is that many of the economic, social and living activities of the society depend deeply on the nature of the weather conditions directly and indirectly. In other words, Kuwaiti society, like the case of many human societies, has in the past tried to predict climatic conditions by linking them to astronomy or popular statements to indicate the timing of climate changes. Accordingly, this study was devoted to scientific investigation based on the statistical analysis of climatic data to show the accuracy and compatibility of some of the most important elements of the cultural heritage in relation to climate change and to relate it scientifically to precise climatic measurements for decades. The research has been divided into 10 topics, each topic has been focused on one legacy, whether by linking climate changes to the appearance/disappearance of star or a popular statement inherited through generations, through explain the nature and timing and thereby statistical analysis to indicate the proportion of accuracy based on official climatic data since 1962. The study's conclusion is that the relationship is weak and, in some cases, non-existent between the popular heritage and the actual climatic data. Therefore, it does not have a dependable relationship and a reliable scientific prediction between both the popular heritage and the forecast of weather conditions.

Keywords: astronomy, cultural heritage, statistical analysis, weather prediction

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197 Informed Urban Design: Minimizing Urban Heat Island Intensity via Stochastic Optimization

Authors: Luis Guilherme Resende Santos, Ido Nevat, Leslie Norford

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The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is characterized by increased air temperatures in urban areas compared to undeveloped rural surrounding environments. With urbanization and densification, the intensity of UHI increases, bringing negative impacts on livability, health and economy. In order to reduce those effects, it is required to take into consideration design factors when planning future developments. Given design constraints such as population size and availability of area for development, non-trivial decisions regarding the buildings’ dimensions and their spatial distribution are required. We develop a framework for optimization of urban design in order to jointly minimize UHI intensity and buildings’ energy consumption. First, the design constraints are defined according to spatial and population limits in order to establish realistic boundaries that would be applicable in real life decisions. Second, the tools Urban Weather Generator (UWG) and EnergyPlus are used to generate outputs of UHI intensity and total buildings’ energy consumption, respectively. Those outputs are changed based on a set of variable inputs related to urban morphology aspects, such as building height, urban canyon width and population density. Lastly, an optimization problem is cast where the utility function quantifies the performance of each design candidate (e.g. minimizing a linear combination of UHI and energy consumption), and a set of constraints to be met is set. Solving this optimization problem is difficult, since there is no simple analytic form which represents the UWG and EnergyPlus models. We therefore cannot use any direct optimization techniques, but instead, develop an indirect “black box” optimization algorithm. To this end we develop a solution that is based on stochastic optimization method, known as the Cross Entropy method (CEM). The CEM translates the deterministic optimization problem into an associated stochastic optimization problem which is simple to solve analytically. We illustrate our model on a typical residential area in Singapore. Due to fast growth in population and built area and land availability generated by land reclamation, urban planning decisions are of the most importance for the country. Furthermore, the hot and humid climate in the country raises the concern for the impact of UHI. The problem presented is highly relevant to early urban design stages and the objective of such framework is to guide decision makers and assist them to include and evaluate urban microclimate and energy aspects in the process of urban planning.

Keywords: building energy consumption, stochastic optimization, urban design, urban heat island, urban weather generator

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196 A Holistic View of Microbial Community Dynamics during a Toxic Harmful Algal Bloom

Authors: Shi-Bo Feng, Sheng-Jie Zhang, Jin Zhou

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The relationship between microbial diversity and algal bloom has received considerable attention for decades. Microbes undoubtedly affect annual bloom events and impact the physiology of both partners, as well as shape ecosystem diversity. However, knowledge about interactions and network correlations among broader-spectrum microbes that lead to the dynamics in a complete bloom cycle are limited. In this study, pyrosequencing and network approaches simultaneously assessed the associate patterns among bacteria, archaea, and microeukaryotes in surface water and sediments in response to a natural dinoflagellate (Alexandrium sp.) bloom. In surface water, among the bacterial community, Gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated in the initial bloom stage, while Alpha-Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria become the most abundant taxa during the post-stage. In the archaea biosphere, it clustered predominantly with Methanogenic members in the early pre-bloom period while the majority of species identified in the later-bloom stage were ammonia-oxidizing archaea and Halobacteriales. In eukaryotes, dinoflagellate (Alexandrium sp.) was dominated in the onset stage, whereas multiply species (such as microzooplankton, diatom, green algae, and rotifera) coexistence in bloom collapse stag. In sediments, the microbial species biomass and richness are much higher than the water body. Only Flavobacteriales and Rhodobacterales showed a slight response to bloom stages. Unlike the bacteria, there are small fluctuations of archaeal and eukaryotic structure in the sediment. The network analyses among the inter-specific associations show that bacteria (Alteromonadaceae, Oceanospirillaceae, Cryomorphaceae, and Piscirickettsiaceae) and some zooplankton (Mediophyceae, Mamiellophyceae, Dictyochophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae) have a stronger impact on the structuring of phytoplankton communities than archaeal effects. The changes in population were also significantly shaped by water temperature and substrate availability (N & P resources). The results suggest that clades are specialized at different time-periods and that the pre-bloom succession was mainly a bottom-up controlled, and late-bloom period was controlled by top-down patterns. Additionally, phytoplankton and prokaryotic communities correlated better with each other, which indicate interactions among microorganisms are critical in controlling plankton dynamics and fates. Our results supplied a wider view (temporal and spatial scales) to understand the microbial ecological responses and their network association during algal blooming. It gives us a potential multidisciplinary explanation for algal-microbe interaction and helps us beyond the traditional view linked to patterns of algal bloom initiation, development, decline, and biogeochemistry.

Keywords: microbial community, harmful algal bloom, ecological process, network

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