Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 398

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Marine and Environmental Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

398 Causes and Countermeasures of Sand Depositions at an Upstream and a Downstream of a Movable Weir

Authors: Kai Ozaki, Nana Yanagi, Ryosuke Hagiwara, Ken-ichi Uzaki

Abstract:

A movable weir is an important facility to prevent the sedimentation at an upstream side of a fixed weir. In Japan, many movable weirs have been constructed, such as the Nagaragawa River Movable Weir. However, sand and moth depositions occurred at several movable weirs, such as the Heisei Ozeki Movable Weir, which was located 4.0 km upstream from the river mouth of the Yamakuni River in Oita Prefecture, Kyushu Island. The yearly sand discharge of this river is estimated approximately 240,000 m³/yr by using the Ashida-Okumura (19bo74), and amounts of dredging was approximately 28,000 m3 at the upstream side in 2016 and 16,000 m³ at the downstream side in 2015, so that both amounts of dredging were a slightly severe values because they were approximately 1% of the yearly sand discharge of this river. At the downstream side, the vegetation grows, and it becomes a threat for the river management. Furthermore, coarse sands are deposited, so that citizens expect to re-use them as bottom sediments of the Nakatsu Intertidal Flat located at the outside of the river mouth of the Yamakuni River because it was pointed out that coarse sands were very important for clams at the flat. In this study, causes and countermeasures of sedimentation at the upstream and the downstream of the Heisei Ozeki Movable Weir were investigated by using movable bed experiments and numerical simulations focusing on the effects of the initial dredging of riverbed, those of gate controls and those of the bed protection roughness. In conclusions, according to the gate control, depositions at the upstream side occurred, especially in the cases of large discharges, because of the unbalance of the input and output traction forces, and depositions at the downstream side also occurred because of the undular hydraulic jump. Because of the increase of gate opening with the increase of discharge rate, such an unbalance between the input and the output traction forces occurred by the increase of input traction force due to the increase of discharge rate and the approximately constant of output traction force which estimated under the gate. However, in the cases of large discharge rates, dunes grew and were moved toward the gate, and overtop flows of the dunes caused periodic decreases of surface elevations. Super-critical flows due to such overtop flows eroded dunes and surface elevations recovered with sub-critical flows on the flat bed. Details of such phenomena were mentioned in the full paper. Effects of the bed protection roughness were confirmed in the cases of small discharge rates. However, actual floods have hydrographs, so that the small discharge flow must occur in every flood. Details of effects of the bed protection roughness and the initial dredging of the riverbed were discussed in the full paper or at the conference. 458

Keywords: movable weir, erosion and deposition, hydraulic jump, super- and sub-critical flows

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397 Investigations of Movements of a Fluvial Bar at a River Confluence

Authors: Wako Takami, Tsubasa Miyoshi, Hanning Zhang, Yutaro Takeda, Ken-Ichi Uzaki

Abstract:

Movements of a fluvial bar at a river confluence are very complex, and to clarify the mechanism of their movements and to forecast them are very important on the river management. At the Yatta-jima Water Level Gauging Station, which is located at the downstream of the river confluence of Tone Rive and Karasu, Kanna River in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, the water level gauge located at the lefthand bank was submerged by the elongation of left bank bar due to floods of T1112,13 in 2011 for the first time since 1883. Although a new gauge was constructed at the righthand bank by MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism), it was also destroyed due to the flood T1919 in 2019. As mentioned above, this WLGS is important because it is located at the river confluence of Tone River Basin, which is the largest river basin in Japan and located around the Tokyo metropolitan, so that it is very important to clarify the mechanism of their movements and to forecast their behaviors in order to maintain the WLG and to propose countermeasures for a flow attacking on a revetment. Thus, in this study, movable bed experiments and numerical simulations were conducted and the mechanism of fluvial bar movements at a river confluence was discussed. In conclusions, hydrological data indicated the increase of yearly maximum discharges of Yattajima WLGS and the rapid change of yearly maximum discharge ratio r = yearly maximum discharge of Tone River / yearly maximum discharge of Karasu River especially after about 2000. The Tone River flows from the lefthand bank and the Karasu River including the Kanna River from the righthand bank. Aerophotos around this river confluence since 1947 which was the year of the Kathleen Typhoon indicated that the left bank bar elongation was recognized especially after about 2000. It was well agreed with the discharge ratio change mentioned above. Movable bed experiments were conducted focusing on the discharge ratio and the yearly maximum discharge. From experimental results, movements of left bank bar were qualitatively reproduced with analytical results of aerophotos. In the case of Tone Impact, which was the case of r > 1.0, the left bank bar extended in the downstream and lateral directions. After the change to r < 1.0, the left bank bar elongated and sharpened well agree with analytical results of aerophotos. Experimental results focusing on the yearly maximum discharge will be explained in the full paper or at the conference. From these results, it was suggested that the change of the discharge ratio caused the extend of the left bank bar, and the increase of number of middle-class floods also elongated but sharpened the left bank bar. Numerical simulations by using iRIC were conducted and numerical results could reproduce flow fields qualitatively to explain such movements of left bank bar. These results will be also discussed at the conference.

Keywords: fluvial bar, river confluence, discharge rario, yearly maximum discharge

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396 Bayesian Inference of Physicochemical Quality Elements of Tropical Lagoon Nokoué (Benin)

Authors: Hounyèmè Romuald, Maxime Logez, Mama Daouda, Argillier Christine

Abstract:

In view of the very strong degradation of aquatic ecosystems, it is urgent to set up monitoring systems that are best able to report on the effects of the stresses they undergo. This is particularly true in developing countries, where specific and relevant quality standards and funding for monitoring programs are lacking. The objective of this study was to make a relevant and objective choice of physicochemical parameters informative of the main stressors occurring on African lakes and to identify their alteration thresholds. Based on statistical analyses of the relationship between several driving forces and the physicochemical parameters of the Nokoué lagoon, relevant Physico-chemical parameters were selected for its monitoring. An innovative method based on Bayesian statistical modeling was used. Eleven Physico-chemical parameters were selected for their response to at least one stressor and their threshold quality standards were also established: Total Phosphorus (<4.5mg/L), Orthophosphates (<0.2mg/L), Nitrates (<0.5 mg/L), TKN (<1.85 mg/L), Dry Organic Matter (<5 mg/L), Dissolved Oxygen (>4 mg/L), BOD (<11.6 mg/L), Salinity (7.6 .), Water Temperature (<28.7 °C), pH (>6.2), and Transparency (>0.9 m). According to the System for the Evaluation of Coastal Water Quality, these thresholds correspond to” good to medium” suitability classes, except for total phosphorus. One of the original features of this study is the use of the bounds of the credibility interval of the fixed-effect coefficients as local weathering standards for the characterization of the Physico-chemical status of this anthropized African ecosystem.

Keywords: driving forces, alteration thresholds, acadjas, monitoring, modeling, human activities

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395 From Responses of Macroinvertebrate Metrics to the Definition of Reference Thresholds

Authors: Hounyèmè Romuald, Mama Daouda, Argillier Christine

Abstract:

The present study focused on the use of benthic macrofauna to define the reference state of an anthropized lagoon (Nokoué-Benin) from the responses of relevant metrics to proxies. The approach used is a combination of a joint species distribution model and Bayesian networks. The joint species distribution model was used to select the relevant metrics and generate posterior probabilities that were then converted into posterior response probabilities for each of the quality classes (pressure levels), which will constitute the conditional probability tables allowing the establishment of the probabilistic graph representing the different causal relationships between metrics and pressure proxies. For the definition of the reference thresholds, the predicted responses for low-pressure levels were read via probability density diagrams. Observations collected during high and low water periods spanning 03 consecutive years (2004-2006), sampling 33 macroinvertebrate taxa present at all seasons and sampling points, and measurements of 14 environmental parameters were used as application data. The study demonstrated reliable inferences, selection of 07 relevant metrics and definition of quality thresholds for each environmental parameter. The relevance of the metrics as well as the reference thresholds for ecological assessment despite the small sample size, suggests the potential for wider applicability of the approach for aquatic ecosystem monitoring and assessment programs in developing countries generally characterized by a lack of monitoring data.

Keywords: pressure proxies, bayesian inference, bioindicators, acadjas, functional traits

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394 Catastrophic Burden and Impoverishment Effect of WASH Diseases: A Ground Analysis of Bhadohi District Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Jyoti Pandey, Rajiv Kumar Bhatt

Abstract:

In the absence of proper sanitation, people suffered from high levels of infectious diseases leading to high incidences of morbidity and mortality. This directly affected the ability of a country to maintain an efficient economy and implied great personal suffering among infected individuals and their families. This paper aims to estimate the catastrophic expenditure of households in terms of direct and indirect losses which a person has to face due to the illness of WASH diseases; the severity of the scenario is answered by finding out the impoverishment effect. We used the primary data survey for the objective outlined. Descriptive and analytical research types are used. The survey is done with the questionnaire formulated precisely, taking care of the inclusion of all the variables and probable outcomes. A total of 300 households is covered under this study. In order to pursue the objectives outlined, multistage random sampling of households is used. In this study, the cost of illness approach is followed for accessing economic impact. The study brought out the attention that a significant portion of the total consumption expenditure is going lost for the treatment of water and sanitation related diseases. The infectious and water vector-borne disease can be checked by providing sufficient required sanitation facility, and that 2.02% loss in income can be gained if the mechanisms of the pathogen is checked.

Keywords: water, sanitation, impoverishment, catastrophic expenditure

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393 The Aggregation of Lutjanus (Snapper) Species on Shipwrecks in Colombo, Sri Lanka

Authors: Anjleen Hannak, Nishan Perera

Abstract:

The application of artificial reefs as a tool for fisheries management and habitat restoration is a common practice, whereas the role of shipwrecks as ‘accidental’ artificial reefs remains an ongoing point of discussion and needs to be considered in the development of marine resource management strategies. Shipwrecks have been previously recognized as habitats for marine communities, and this pilot study presents the first efforts to quantify the aggregation of associated fish assemblages on shipwrecks in Colombo, Sri Lanka. A unique feature of Sri Lanka is the high concentration of shipwrecks around the island’s coastline. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of shipwrecks as artificial reef structures and generate a database of species inhabiting the wrecks. The structural complexity of study sites was ‘graded’ through visual assessments to additionally test for the effect of the increased complexity of shipwrecks as a determining factor for species habitat preference. To identify the fish assemblages and determine the role of shipwrecks in the marine environment, diver-operated video (DOV) surveys were conducted along 25-meter transects across six selected study sites: three natural sandstone reefs and three shipwreck sites, with the natural reefs functioning as the control sites for this study. Factors such as depth and distance to shore were accounted for when selecting the study sites, and the shipwrecks are within 15 year submerged period to each other. Video transects were evaluated in SeaGIS EventMeasure, with three species of Lutjanus identified on the study sites (fulvus, lutjanus, quinquelineatus). Statistical analysis indicated significant differences to be limited to certain sites, and the species composition presented a larger abundance of snappers on the shipwreck sites. The data also highlighted the differences in schooling patterns and fish behavior between species, with L. lutjanus and quinquelineatus aggregating in larger schools than L. fulvus. Preliminary results of this pilot study suggest that the concentrated habitat area of the shipwrecks, in comparison to the wider available space on natural reefs, yields a larger aggregation of Lutjanus species. Shipwrecks allow for targeted fishing of species while their structure restricts the use of destructive net fishing techniques for larger catch sizes. The structural complexity of the shipwrecks may be a determining factor in their function as artificial reefs for species recruitment; however, further research is required to investigate this relationship. Future research will also focus on the secondary productivity of economically valuable species on shipwrecks and the improvement of survey methodology on the complex topography of wrecks.

Keywords: shipwrecks, artificial reefs, fisheries management, Sri Lanka

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392 Experimental Investigation of Hull Form for Electric Driven Ferry

Authors: Vasilij Djackov, Tomas Zapnickas, Evgenii Iamshchikov, Lukas Norkevicius, Rima Mickeviciene, Larisa Vasiljeva

Abstract:

In this paper, the resistance and pitching values of the test of an electric ferry are presented. The research was carried out in the open flow channel of Klaipėda University with a multi-axis dynamometer. The received model resistance values were recalculated to the real vessel and the preliminary chosen propulsion unit power was compared. After analyzing the results of the pitching of the model, it was concluded that the shape of the hull needs to be further improved, taking into account the possible uneven weight distribution at the ends of the ferry. Further investigation of the hull of the electric ferry is recommended, including experiments with various water depths and activation of propulsion units.

Keywords: electrical ferry, model tests, open flow channel, pitching, resistance

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391 Investigating the Nature of Transactions Behind Violations Along Bangalore’s Lakes

Authors: Sakshi Saxena

Abstract:

Bangalore is an IT industry-based metropolitan city in the state of Karnataka in India. It has experienced tremendous urbanization at the expense of the environment. The reasons behind development over and near ecologically sensitive areas have been raised by several instances of disappearing lakes. Lakes in Bangalore can be considered commons on both a local and a regional scale and these water bodies are becoming less interconnected because of encroachment in the catchment area. Other sociocultural environmental risks that have led to social issues are now a source of concern. They serve as an example of the transformations in commons, a dilemma that as is transformed from rural to urban areas, as well as the complicated institutional issues associated with governance. According to some scholarly work and ecologists, a nexus of public and commercial institutions is primarily responsible for the depletion of water tanks and the inefficiency of the planning process. It is said that Bangalore's growth as an urban centre, together with the demands it created, particularly on land and water, resulted in the emergence of a middle and upper class that was demanding and self-assured. For the report in focus, it is evident to understand the issues and problems which led to these encroachments and captured violations if any around these lakes and tanks which arose during these decades. To claim watersheds and lake edges as properties, institutional arrangements (organizations, laws, and policies) intersect with planning authorities. Because of unregulated or indiscriminate forms of urbanization, it is claimed that the engagement of actors and negotiations of the process, including government ignorance, are allowing this problem to flourish. In general, the governance of natural resources in India is largely state-based. This is due to the constitutional scheme, which since the Government of India Act, of 1935 has in principle given the power to the states to legislate in this area. Thus, states have the exclusive power to regulate water supplies, irrigation and canals, drainage and embankments, water storage, hydropower, and fisheries. Thus, The main aim is to understand institutional arrangements and the master planning processes behind these arrangements. To understand the ambiguity through an example, it is noted that, Custodianship alone is a role divided between two state and two city-level bodies. This creates regulatory ambiguity and the effects on the environment are such as changes in city temperature, urban flooding, etc. As established, the main kinds of issues around lakes/tanks in Bangalore are encroachment and depletion. This study will further be enhanced by doing a physical survey of three of these lakes focusing on the Bellandur site and the stakeholders involved. According to the study's findings thus far, corrupt politicians and dubious land transaction tools are involved in the real estate industry. It appears that some destruction could have been stopped or at least mitigated in this case if there had been a robust system of urban planning processes involved along with strong institutional arrangements to protect lakes.

Keywords: wetlands, lakes, urbanization, bangalore, politics, reservoirs, municipal jurisdiction, lake connections, institutions

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390 Thermodynamics of the Local Hadley Circulation Over Central Africa

Authors: Landry Tchambou Tchouongsi, Appolinaire Derbetini Vondou

Abstract:

This study describes the local Hadley circulation (HC) during the December-February (DJF) and June-August (JJA) seasons, respectively, in Central Africa (CA) from the divergent component of the mean meridional wind and also from a new method called the variation of the ψ vector. Historical data from the ERA5 reanalysis for the period 1983 to 2013 were used. The results show that the maximum of the upward branch of the local Hadley circulation in the DJF and JJA seasons is located under the Congo Basin (CB). However, seasonal and horizontal variations in the mean temperature gradient and thermodynamic properties are largely associated with the distribution of convection and large-scale upward motion. Thus, temperatures beneath the CB show a slight variation between the DJF and JJA seasons. Moreover, energy transport of the moist static energy (MSE) adequately captures the mean flow component of the HC over the tropics. By the way, the divergence under the CB is enhanced by the presence of the low pressure of western Cameroon and the contribution of the warm and dry air currents coming from the Sahara.

Keywords: Circulation, reanalysis, thermodynamic, local Hadley.

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389 The Contribution of the Lomé Charter to Combating Trafficking in Arms at Sea: Nigerian and South African Legal Perspectives

Authors: Obinna Emmanuel Nkomadu

Abstract:

Many illegal activities take place on the sea, including trafficking in arms, which constitutes one of the major threats to maritime security. Indeed, the dissemination of arms has hampered the peaceful settlement of many States in Africa, fuelled disputes into armed conflicts, and contributed to the prolongation of armed conflicts in many African States. The absence of international standards on the importation, exportation, and transfer of conventional arms is a contributory factor to conflict, displacement of people, crime, and terrorism on the continent of Africa, which in turn undermines peace, safety, security, stability, and sustainable development. South Africa and Nigeria have taken steps to address the illicit arms, but, despite those steps, arms trafficking at sea continues. To suppress the illicit arms and to combat a number of other threats to maritime security around the continent of Africa, the majority of AU members in 2016 adopted the African Charter on Maritime Security and Safety and Development in Africa (“the Lomé Charter”). However, the Lomé Charter is yet to come into force. This paper set out the pre-existing international legal instruments on arms to ascertain the domestic laws of South Africa and Nigeria relating to arms with the relevant provisions of the Charter in order to establish whether any legal steps are required to ensure that South Africa and Nigeria comply with its obligations under the Lomé Charter should it decide to ratify it. The legal steps include cooperating in establishing policies, as well as a regional and continental institution, and ensuring the implementation of such policies. The paper concludes ratifying the Lomé Charter is a step in the right direction in suppressing arms trafficking at sea, in addition to filling those gaps or limitations in their relevant legislation.

Keywords: cooperation against arms trafficking at sea, Lomé Charter, maritime security, Nigerian and South Africa legislation on arms

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388 A Basic Concept for Installing Cooling and Heating System Using Seawater Thermal Energy from the West Coast of Korea

Authors: Jun Byung Joon, Seo Seok Hyun, Lee Seo Young

Abstract:

As carbon dioxide emissions increase due to rapid industrialization and reckless development, abnormal climates such as floods and droughts are occurring. In order to respond to such climate change, the use of existing fossil fuels is reduced, and the proportion of eco-friendly renewable energy is gradually increasing. Korea is an energy resource-poor country that depends on imports for 93% of its total energy. As the global energy supply chain instability experienced due to the Russia-Ukraine crisis increases, countries around the world are resetting energy policies to minimize energy dependence and strengthen security. Seawater thermal energy is a renewable energy that replaces the existing air heat energy. It uses the characteristic of having a higher specific heat than air to cool and heat main spaces of buildings to increase heat transfer efficiency and minimize power consumption to generate electricity using fossil fuels, and Carbon dioxide emissions can be minimized. In addition, the effect on the marine environment is very small by using only the temperature characteristics of seawater in a limited way. K-water carried out a demonstration project of supplying cooling and heating energy to spaces such as the central control room and presentation room in the management building by acquiring the heat source of seawater circulated through the power plant's waterway by using the characteristics of the tidal power plant. Compared to the East Sea and the South Sea, the main system was designed in consideration of the large tidal difference, small temperature difference, and low-temperature characteristics, and its performance was verified through operation during the demonstration period. In addition, facility improvements were made for major deficiencies to strengthen monitoring functions, provide user convenience, and improve facility soundness. To spread these achievements, the basic concept was to expand the seawater heating and cooling system with a scale of 200 USRT at the Tidal Culture Center. With the operational experience of the demonstration system, it will be possible to establish an optimal seawater heat cooling and heating system suitable for the characteristics of the west coast ocean. Through this, it is possible to reduce operating costs by KRW 33,31 million per year compared to air heat, and through industry-university-research joint research, it is possible to localize major equipment and materials and develop key element technologies to revitalize the seawater heat business and to advance into overseas markets. The government's efforts are needed to expand the seawater heating and cooling system. Seawater thermal energy utilizes only the thermal energy of infinite seawater. Seawater thermal energy has less impact on the environment than river water thermal energy, except for environmental pollution factors such as bottom dredging, excavation, and sand or stone extraction. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the sense of speed in project promotion by innovatively simplifying unnecessary licensing/permission procedures. In addition, support should be provided to secure business feasibility by dramatically exempting the usage fee of public waters to actively encourage development in the private sector.

Keywords: seawater thermal energy, marine energy, tidal power plant, energy consumption

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387 Assessing the Indicators Influencing Port Resilience: A Comprehensive Literature Review

Authors: Guo Rui, Cao Xinhu

Abstract:

In recent decades, the world has endured severe challenges in light of climate change, epidemics, geopolitics, terrorism, economic uncertainties, as well as regional conflicts and rivalries. The appropriate use of critical infrastructures (Cis) is confronted. Ports, as typical Cis cover more than 80% of the global freight movement. Within this context, even the minimal disruption of port operations could cause malfunction of the holistic supply chain network and substantial economic losses. Hence, it is crucial to evaluate port performance from the perspective of resilience. Research on resilience and risk/safety management has been increasing, however, it needs more attention, as it could prevent potential socio-economic losses and inspire decision-makers to make resilience-based decisions to answer the challenges, such as COVID-19. To facilitate better moves from decision-makers, ports need to identify proper factors influencing port resilience. Inappropriately influenced factor selection could have a cascading effect on undesirable port performances. Thus, a systematic evaluation of factors is essential to stimulate the improvement process of port resilience investigation. This study zooms into container ports considering their critical role in international trade and global supply chains. 440 articles are selected after relevance ranking, and consequently, 62 articles are scrutinized after the title and abstract screening. Forty-one articles are included for bibliographic analysis in the end. It is found that there is no standardized index system to measure port resilience. And most studies evaluate port resilience merely in the recovery phase. Only two articles cover absorption, adaption and recovery state. However, no literature involves the prevention state. Hence, a uniform resilience index system is expected with a clear resilience definition. And port safety and security should also be considered while evaluating port resilience.

Keywords: port resilience, port safety and security, literature review, index system, port performance

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386 Bioecological Assessment of Cage Farming on the Soft Bottom Benthic Communities of the Vlora Gulf (Albania)

Authors: Ina Nasto, Denada Sota, Pudrila Haskoçelaj, Mariola Ismailaj, Hajdar Kicaj

Abstract:

Most of the fishing areas of the Mediterranean Sea are considered to be overfished, consequently fishing has decreased or is static. Considering the continuous increase in demand for fish, the option of aquaculture production has had a growing development in recent decades. The environmental impact of aquaculture in the marine ecosystem has been a subject of study for several years in the Mediterranean. In the case of the Albanian waters, and in particular the Gulf of Vlora, have had a progressive growing of aquaculture activity in the last twenty years. Given the convenient and secluded location for tourist activities, the bay of Ragusa was considered as the most suitable area to install the aquaculture cage system for the breeding of sea bass and sea bream. The impact of aquaculture in on the soft bottom benthic communities has been assessed at the biggest commercial fish farm (Alb-Adriatico Sh.P.K) established in coastal waters of Ragusa bay 30–50 m deep, in the southern part of the Gulf of Vlora. In order to determine if there is a possible impact on the aquaculture cage in benthic communities, a comparative analysis was undertaken between transects and samples with differences in distances between them and with a gradient of distance from the fish cages. A total of 275 taxa were identified (1 Foraminifera, 1 Porifera, 3 Cnidaria, 2 Platyhelminthes, 2 Nemertea, 1 Bryozoa, 171 Mollusca, 39 Annelida, 35 Crustacea, 14 Echinodermata, 1 Hemichordata, and 5 Tunicata). The anaysis showed three main habitats in the area: biocoenosis of terrigenous mud, residual areas with Possidonia oceanica and also residual assemblages of algal coralligenous. Four benthic biotic indexes were calculated (Shannon H ’, BENTIX, Simpson's Diversity and Peilou’s J’) also benthic indicators as total abundance, number of taxa and species frequency to evaluate possible ecological impact of fish cages in Ragusa bay.

Keywords: Bentix index, Benthic community, invertebrates, aquaculture, Raguza bay

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385 Numerical Modeling of Structural Failure of a Ship During the Collision Event

Authors: Adjal Yassine, Semmani Amar

Abstract:

During the last decades, The risk of collision has been increased, especially in high maritime traffic. As the consequence, the demand is required for safety at sea and environmental protection. For this purpose, the consequences prediction of ship collisions is recommended in order to minimize structural failure. additionally, at the design stage of the ship, damage generated during the collision event must be taken into consideration. This structural failure, in some cases, can develop into the progressive collapse of other structural elements and generate catastrophic consequences. The present study investigates the progressive collapse of ships damaged by collisions using the Non -linear finite element method. The failure criteria are taken into account. The impacted area has a refined mesh in order to have more reliable results. Finally, a parametric study was conducted in this study to highlight the effect of the ship's speed, as well as the different impacted areas of double-bottom ships.

Keywords: collsion, strucural failure, ship, finite element analysis

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384 Understanding Chromosome Movement in Starfish Oocytes

Authors: Bryony Davies

Abstract:

Many cell and tissue culture practices ignore the effects of gravity on cell biology, and little is known about how cell components may move in response to gravitational forces. Starfish oocytes provide an excellent model for interrogating the movement of cell components due to their unusually large size, ease of handling, and high transparency. Chromosomes from starfish oocytes can be visualised by microinjection of the histone-H2B-mCherry plasmid into the oocytes. The movement of the chromosomes can then be tracked by live-cell fluorescence microscopy. The results from experiments using these methods suggest that there is a replicable downward movement of centrally located chromosomes at a median velocity of 0.39 μm/min. Chromosomes nearer the nuclear boundary showed more restricted movement. Chromosome density and shape could also be altered by microinjection of restriction enzymes, primarily Alu1, before imaging. This was found to alter the speed of chromosome movement, with chromosomes from Alu1-injected nuclei showing a median downward velocity of 0.60 μm/min. Overall, these results suggest that there is a non-negligible movement of chromosomes in response to gravitational forces and that this movement can be altered by enzyme activity. Future directions based on these results could interrogate if this observed downward movement extends to other cell components and to other cell types. Additionally, it may be important to understand whether gravitational orientation and vertical positioning of cell components alter cell behaviour. The findings here may have implications for current cell culture practices, which do not replicate cell orientations or external forces experienced in vivo. It is possible that a failure to account for gravitational forces in 2D cell culture alters experimental results and the accuracy of conclusions drawn from them. Understanding possible behavioural changes in cells due to the effects of gravity would therefore be beneficial.

Keywords: starfish, oocytes, live-cell imaging, microinjection, chromosome dynamics

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383 Impact of Reclamation on the Water Exchange in Bohai Bay

Authors: Luyao Liu, Dekui Yuan, Xu Li

Abstract:

As one of the most important bays of China, the water exchange capacity of Bohai Bay can influence the economic development and urbanization of surrounding cities. However, the rapid reclamation has influenced the weak water exchange capacity of this semi-enclosed bay in recent years. This paper sets two hydrodynamic models of Bohai Bay with two shorelines before and after reclamation. The mean value and distribution of turn-over time, the distribution of residual current, and the feature of the tracer path are compared. After comparison, it is found that Bohai Bay keeps these characteristics; the spending time of water exchange in the northern is longer than southern, and inshore is longer than offshore. However, the mean water exchange time becomes longer after reclamation. In addition, the material spreading is blocked because of the inwardly extending shorelines, and the direction changed from along the shoreline to towards the center after reclamation.

Keywords: Bohai Bay, water exchange, reclamation, turn-over time

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382 Assessment of Marine Diversity on Rocky Shores of Triporti, Vlore, Albania

Authors: Ina Nasto, Denada Sota, Kerol Sacaj, Brunilda Veshaj, Hajdar Kicaj

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Rocky shores are often used as models to describe the dynamics of biodiversity around the world, making them one of the most studied marine habitats and their communities. The variability in the number of species and the abundance of hard-bottom benthic animal communities on the coast of Triporti, north of the Bay of Vlora, Albania is described in relation to environmental variables using multivariate analysis. The purpose of this study is to monitor the species composition, quantitative characteristics, and seasonal variations of the benthic macroinvertebrate populations of the shallow rocky shores of the Triportit-Vlora area, as well as the assessment of the ecological condition of these populations. The rocky coast of Triport, with a length of 7 km, was divided into three sampling stations, with three transects each of 50m. The monitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates in these areas was carried out in two seasons, spring and summer (June and August 2021). In each station and sampling season, estimates of the total and average density for each species, the presence constant, and the assessment of biodiversity were calculated using the Shannon–Wiener and the Simpson index. The species composition, the quantitative characteristics of the populations, and the indicators mentioned above were analyzed in a comparative way, both between the seasons within one station and between the three stations with each other. Statistical processing of the data was carried out to analyze the changes between the seasons and between the sampling stations for the species composition, population density, as well as correlation between them. A total of 105 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were found, dominated by Molluscs, Annelids, and Arthropods. The small density of species and the low degree of stability of the macrozoobenthic community are indicators of the poor ecological condition and environmental impact in the studied areas. Algal cover, the diversity of coastal microhabitats, and the degree of coastal exposure to waves play an important role in the characteristics of macrozoobenthos populations in the studied areas. Also, the rocky shores are of special interest because, in the infralittoral of these areas, there are dense kelp forests with Gongolaria barbata, Ericaria crinita as well as fragmented areas with Posidonia oceanica that reach the coast, priority habitats of special conservation importance in the Mediterranean.

Keywords: Macrozoobenthic communities, Shannon–Wiener, Triporti, Vlore, rocky shore

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381 Comprehensive, Up-to-Date Climate System Change Indicators, Trends and Interactions

Authors: Peter Carter

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Comprehensive climate change indicators and trends inform the state of the climate (system) with respect to present and future climate change scenarios and the urgency of mitigation and adaptation. With data records now going back for many decades, indicator trends can complement model projections. They are provided as datasets by several climate monitoring centers, reviewed by state of the climate reports, and documented by the IPCC assessments. Up-to-date indicators are provided here. Rates of change are instructive, as are extremes. The indicators include greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (natural and synthetic), cumulative CO2 emissions, atmospheric GHG concentrations (including CO2 equivalent), stratospheric ozone, surface ozone, radiative forcing, global average temperature increase, land temperature increase, zonal temperature increases, carbon sinks, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, ocean heat content, ocean acidification, ocean oxygen, glacier mass, Arctic temperature, Arctic sea ice (extent and volume), northern hemisphere snow cover, permafrost indices, Arctic GHG emissions, ice sheet mass, sea level rise, and stratospheric and surface ozone. Global warming is not the most reliable single metric for the climate state. Radiative forcing, atmospheric CO2 equivalent, and ocean heat content are more reliable. Global warming does not provide future commitment, whereas atmospheric CO2 equivalent does. Cumulative carbon is used for estimating carbon budgets. The forcing of aerosols is briefly addressed. Indicator interactions are included. In particular, indicators can provide insight into several crucial global warming amplifying feedback loops, which are explained. All indicators are increasing (adversely), most as fast as ever and some faster. One particularly pressing indicator is rapidly increasing global atmospheric methane. In this respect, methane emissions and sources are covered in more detail. In their application, indicators used in assessing safe planetary boundaries are included. Indicators are considered with respect to recent published papers on possible catastrophic climate change and climate system tipping thresholds. They are climate-change-policy relevant. In particular, relevant policies include the 2015 Paris Agreement on “holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels” and the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate change, which has “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.”

Keywords: climate change, climate change indicators, climate change trends, climate system change interactions

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380 Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrological Droughts in the Limpopo River Basin

Authors: Nokwethaba Makhanya, Babatunde J. Abiodun, Piotr Wolski

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Climate change possibly intensifies hydrological droughts and reduces water availability in river basins. Despite this, most research on climate change effects in southern Africa has focused exclusively on meteorological droughts. This thesis projects the potential impact of climate change on the future characteristics of hydrological droughts in the Limpopo River Basin (LRB). The study uses regional climate model (RCM) measurements (from the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment, CORDEX) and a combination of hydrological simulations (using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool Plus model, SWAT+) to predict the impacts at four global warming levels (GWLs: 1.5℃, 2.0℃, 2.5℃, and 3.0℃) under the RCP8.5 future climate scenario. The SWAT+ model was calibrated and validated with a streamflow dataset observed over the basin, and the sensitivity of model parameters was investigated. The performance of the SWAT+LRB model was verified using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Percent Bias (PBIAS), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and coefficient of determination (R²). The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) have been used to detect meteorological droughts. The Soil Water Index (SSI) has been used to define agricultural drought, while the Water Yield Drought Index (WYLDI), the Surface Run-off Index (SRI), and the Streamflow Index (SFI) have been used to characterise hydrological drought. The performance of the SWAT+ model simulations over LRB is sensitive to the parameters CN2 (initial SCS runoff curve number for moisture condition II) and ESCO (soil evaporation compensation factor). The best simulation generally performed better during the calibration period than the validation period. In calibration and validation periods, NSE is ≤ 0.8, while PBIAS is ≥ ﹣80.3%, RMSE ≥ 11.2 m³/s, and R² ≤ 0.9. The simulations project a future increase in temperature and potential evapotranspiration over the basin, but they do not project a significant future trend in precipitation and hydrological variables. However, the spatial distribution of precipitation reveals a projected increase in precipitation in the southern part of the basin and a decline in the northern part of the basin, with the region of reduced precipitation projected to increase with GWLs. A decrease in all hydrological variables is projected over most parts of the basin, especially over the eastern part of the basin. The simulations predict meteorological droughts (i.e., SPEI and SPI), agricultural droughts (i.e., SSI), and hydrological droughts (i.e., WYLDI, SRI) would become more intense and severe across the basin. SPEI-drought has a greater magnitude of increase than SPI-drought, and agricultural and hydrological droughts have a magnitude of increase between the two. As a result, this research suggests that future hydrological droughts over the LRB could be more severe than the SPI-drought projection predicts but less severe than the SPEI-drought projection. This research can be used to mitigate the effects of potential climate change on basin hydrological drought.

Keywords: climate change, CORDEX, drought, hydrological modelling, Limpopo River Basin

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379 Econometric Analysis of West African Countries’ Container Terminal Throughput and Gross Domestic Products

Authors: Kehinde Peter Oyeduntan, Kayode Oshinubi

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The west African ports have been experiencing large inflow and outflow of containerized cargo in the last decades, and this has created a quest amongst the countries to attain the status of hub port for the sub-region. This study analyzed the relationship between the container throughput and Gross Domestic Products (GDP) of nine west African countries, using Simple Linear Regression (SLR), Polynomial Regression Model (PRM) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) with a time series of 20 years. The results showed that there exists a high correlation between the GDP and container throughput. The model also predicted the container throughput in west Africa for the next 20 years. The findings and recommendations presented in this research will guide policy makers and help improve the management of container ports and terminals in west Africa, thereby boosting the economy.

Keywords: container, ports, terminals, throughput

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378 Ocean Planner: A Web-Based Decision Aid to Design Measures to Best Mitigate Underwater Noise

Authors: Thomas Folegot, Arnaud Levaufre, Léna Bourven, Nicolas Kermagoret, Alexis Caillard, Roger Gallou

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Concern for negative impacts of anthropogenic noise on the ocean’s ecosystems has increased over the recent decades. This concern leads to a similar increased willingness to regulate noise-generating activities, of which shipping is one of the most significant. Dealing with ship noise requires not only knowledge about the noise from individual ships, but also how the ship noise is distributed in time and space within the habitats of concern. Marine mammals, but also fish, sea turtles, larvae and invertebrates are mostly dependent on the sounds they use to hunt, feed, avoid predators, during reproduction to socialize and communicate, or to defend a territory. In the marine environment, sight is only useful up to a few tens of meters, whereas sound can propagate over hundreds or even thousands of kilometers. Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of June 17, 2008 called the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) require the Member States of the European Union to take the necessary measures to reduce the impacts of maritime activities to achieve and maintain a good environmental status of the marine environment. The Ocean-Planner is a web-based platform that provides to regulators, managers of protected or sensitive areas, etc. with a decision support tool that enable to anticipate and quantify the effectiveness of management measures in terms of reduction or modification the distribution of underwater noise, in response to Descriptor 11 of the MSFD and to the Marine Spatial Planning Directive. Based on the operational sound modelling tool Quonops Online Service, Ocean-Planner allows the user via an intuitive geographical interface to define management measures at local (Marine Protected Area, Natura 2000 sites, Harbors, etc.) or global (Particularly Sensitive Sea Area) scales, seasonal (regulation over a period of time) or permanent, partial (focused to some maritime activities) or complete (all maritime activities), etc. Speed limit, exclusion area, traffic separation scheme (TSS), and vessel sound level limitation are among the measures supported be the tool. Ocean Planner help to decide on the most effective measure to apply to maintain or restore the biodiversity and the functioning of the ecosystems of the coastal seabed, maintain a good state of conservation of sensitive areas and maintain or restore the populations of marine species.

Keywords: underwater noise, marine biodiversity, marine spatial planning, mitigation measures, prediction

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377 Study of Large-Scale Atmospheric Convection over the Tropical Indian Ocean and Its Association with Oceanic Variables

Authors: Supriya Manikrao Ovhal

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In India, the summer monsoon rainfall occurs owing to large scale convection with reference to continental ITCZ. It was found that convection over tropical ocean increases with SST from 26 to 28 degree C, and when SST is above 29 degree C, it sharply decreases for warm pool areas of Indian and for monsoon areas of West Pacific Ocean. The reduction in convection can be influenced by large scale subsidence forced by nearby or remotely generated deep convection, thus it was observed that under the influence of strong large scale rising motion, convection does not decreases but increases monotonically with SST even if SST value is higher than 29.5 degree C. Since convection is related to SST gradient, that helps to generate low level moisture convergence and upward vertical motion in the atmosphere. Strong wind fields like cross equatorial low level jet stream on equator ward side of the warm pool are produced due to convection initiated by SST gradient. Areas having maximum SST have low SST gradient, and that result in feeble convection. Hence it is imperative to mention that the oceanic role (other than SST) could be prominent in influencing large Scale Atmospheric convection. Since warm oceanic surface somewhere or the other contributes to penetrate the heat radiation to the subsurface of the ocean, and as there is no studies seen related to oceanic subsurface role in large Scale Atmospheric convection, in the present study, we are concentrating on the oceanic subsurface contribution in large Scale Atmospheric convection by considering the SST gradient, mixed layer depth (MLD), thermocline, barrier layer. The present study examines the probable role of subsurface ocean parameters in influencing convection.

Keywords: sst, d20, olr, wind

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376 Phytochemical Composition and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds of the Green Seaweed Ulva lactuca: A Phytotherapeutic Approach

Authors: Mariame Taibi, Marouane Aouiji, Rachid Bengueddour

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The Moroccan coastline is particularly rich in algae and constitutes a reserve of species with considerable economic, social and ecological potential. This work focuses on the research and characterization of algae bioactive compounds that can be used in pharmacology or phytopathology. The biochemical composition of the green alga Ulva lactuca (Ulvophyceae) was studied by determining the content of moisture, ash, phenols, flavonoids, total tannins, and chlorophyll. Seven solvents: distilled water, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene, petroleum ether, and hexane, were tested for their effectiveness in recovering chemical compounds. The identification of functional groupings, as well as the bioactive chemical compounds, was determined by FT-IR and GC-MS. The moisture content of the alga was 77%, while the ash content was 15%. Phenol content differed from one solvent studied to another, while chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll were determined at 14%, 9.52%, and 25%, respectively. Carotenoid was present in a considerable amount (8.17%). The experimental results show that methanol is the most effective solvent for recovering bioactive compounds, followed by water. Moreover, the green alga Ulva lactuca is characterized by a high level of total polyphenols (45±3.24 mg GAE/gDM), average levels of total tannins and flavonoids (22.52±8.23 mg CE/gDM, 15.49±0.064 mg QE/gDM) respectively. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of alcohol/phenol and amide functions in Ulva lactuca. The GC-MS analysis gave precisely the compounds contained in the various extracts, such as phenolic compounds, fatty acids, terpenoids, alcohols, alkanes, hydrocarbons, and steroids. All these results represent only a first step in the search for biologically active natural substances from seaweed. Additional tests are envisaged to confirm the bioactivity of seaweed.

Keywords: algae, Ulva lactuca, phenolic compounds, FTIR, GC-MS

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375 The Behavior of O3 and Its Nitrogen and Sulfur Precursors in Sea Breeze Scenarios on the Coast of Gabès (Tunisia)

Authors: Allagui Mohamed

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The study of the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants is analyzed during two days of sea breeze (April 26, 2010, and January 11, 2008) on the Mediterranean coasts, just in front of Gabès (33 ° 53 'N, 10 ° 07' E), Tunisia. During these two cases, we found that Gabès was contaminated by a coastal sea breeze. On April 26, 2010, the terrestrial synoptic wind admitted a maximum speed of about 6 m / s and was approximately perpendicular to the coast and making the breeze easier. On January 11, 2008, the terrestrial wind was local. Under these conditions, O3 and, therefore, the concentrations were multiplied by the factors 0.1 and 2, respectively. The episodes of ozone concentrations faithfully follow the sea breeze circulation. These sea breeze events can be responsible for high concentrations of NO, NO2, and SO2 as air pollutants in this area.

Keywords: sea breeze, O3, cost town, air quality

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374 Investigation of Potential Groundwater Zones in Fractured Aquifers Using Magnetic and Electrical Resistivity Methods: A Case Study of Ncera, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Gbenga Olamide Adesola, Oswald Gwavava, Asanda Ntunja

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Geophysical surveys involving magnetic and electrical resistivity methods were conducted at the Ncera, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to locate potential groundwater zones for borehole siting. The magnetic survey was carried out using a G-857 magnetometer, while the electrical resistivity survey was conducted using ABEM SAS 1000 Terrameter. The reduced pole map produced in Geosoft was used to interpret the magnetic data. The major structures identified on the map trend in the NW-SE and N-E directions. The high gradient zones on this map represent possible fault zones. Four (4) vertical electrical sounding surveys were carried out using the Schlumberger array of AB/2, ranging from 1.5 to 150 m. The results from 1-D modeling using WINRESIST software indicated that the vertical electrical sounding curves are composed of HA curve types, consisting of four geoelectric layers. The first layer consists of dry topsoil with resistivity values ranging from 19 to 61 Ωm and thickness values varying from 1 – 1.4 m. The second layer consists of clay with a thickness varying from about 3.2 to 9.9 m and low resistivity values ranging from about 5 to 15 Ωm. The third layer consists of sandstone, which is weathered in VES station 3, having resistivity values varying from 159 to 244 Ωm and thickness varying a 21 to 44 m. The last layer consists of dry sandstone with resistivity values varying between 384 to 767 Ωm. The study reveals that weathered sandstone constitutes the productive water-bearing zones regarded as good potential groundwater aquifers. Sustainable boreholes should be sited at VES stations 3 and 2 with a thickness of about 44 and 26 m, respectively. Thus, this study contributes to a better understanding of using magnetic and electrical resistivity methods to locate potential groundwater zones in fractured aquifers.

Keywords: aquifer, basement rock, fault zones, groundwater, vertical electrical sounding

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373 Effect of Light Spectra, Light Intensity, and HRT on the Co-Production of Phycoerythrin and Exopolysaccharides from Poprhyridium Marinum

Authors: Rosaria Tizzani, Tomas Morosinotto, Fabrizio Bezzo, Eleonora Sforza

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Red microalga Porphyridium marinum CCAP 13807/10 has the potential to produce a broad range of commercially valuable chemicals such as PhycoErytrin (PE) and sulphated ExoPolySaccharides (EPS). Multiple abiotic factors influence the growth of Porphyridium sp., e.g. the wavelength of the light source and different cultivation strategies (one or two steps, batch, semi-, and continuous regime). The microalga of interest is cultivated in a two-step system. First, the culture grows photoautotrophically in a controlled bioreactor with pH-dependent CO2 injection, temperature monitoring, light intensity, and LED wavelength remote control in a semicontinuous mode. In the second step, the harvested biomass is subjected to mixotrophic conditions to enhance further growth. Preliminary tests have been performed to define the suitable media, salinity, pH, and organic carbon substrate to obtain the highest biomass productivity. Dynamic light and operational conditions (e.g. HRT) are evaluated to achieve high biomass production, high PE accumulation in the biomass, and high EPS release in the medium. Porphyridium marinum is able to chromatically adapt the photosynthetic apparatus to efficiently exploit the full light spectra composition. The effect of specific narrow LED wavelengths (white W, red R, green G, blue B) and a combination of LEDs (WR, WB, WG, BR, BG, RG) are identified to understand the phenomenon of chromatic adaptation under photoautotrophic conditions. The effect of light intensity, residence time, and light quality are investigated to define optimal operational strategies for full scale commercial applications. Production of biomass, phycobiliproteins, PE, EPS, EPS sulfate content, EPS composition, Chlorophyll-a, and pigment content are monitored to determine the effect of LED wavelength on the cultivation Porphyridium marinum in order to optimize the production of these multiple, highly valuable bioproducts of commercial interest.

Keywords: red microalgae, LED, exopolysaccharide, phycoerythrin

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372 Inference for Compound Truncated Poisson Lognormal Model with Application to Maximum Precipitation Data

Authors: M. Z. Raqab, Debasis Kundu, M. A. Meraou

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In this paper, we have analyzed maximum precipitation data during a particular period of time obtained from different stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network of the USA. One important point to mention is that some stations are shut down on certain days for some reason or the other. Hence, the maximum values are recorded by excluding those readings. It is assumed that the number of stations that operate follows zero-truncated Poisson random variables, and the daily precipitation follows a lognormal random variable. We call this model a compound truncated Poisson lognormal model. The proposed model has three unknown parameters, and it can take a variety of shapes. The maximum likelihood estimators can be obtained quite conveniently using Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. Approximate maximum likelihood estimators are also derived. The associated confidence intervals also can be obtained from the observed Fisher information matrix. Simulation results have been performed to check the performance of the EM algorithm, and it is observed that the EM algorithm works quite well in this case. When we analyze the precipitation data set using the proposed model, it is observed that the proposed model provides a better fit than some of the existing models.

Keywords: compound Poisson lognormal distribution, EM algorithm, maximum likelihood estimation, approximate maximum likelihood estimation, Fisher information, skew distribution

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371 Sertraline Chronic Exposure: Impact on Reproduction and Behavior on the Key Benthic Invertebrate Capitella teleta

Authors: Martina Santobuono, Wing Sze Chan, Elettra D'Amico, Henriette Selck

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Chemicals in modern society are fundamental in many different aspects of daily human life. We use a wide range of substances, including polychlorinated compounds, pesticides, plasticizers, and pharmaceuticals, to name a few. These compounds are excessively produced, and this has led to their introduction to the environment and food resources. Municipal and industrial effluents, landfills, and agricultural runoffs are a few examples of sources of chemical pollution. Many of these compounds, such as pharmaceuticals, have been proven to mimic or alter the performance of the hormone system, thus disrupting its normal function and altering the behavior and reproductive capability of non-target organisms. Antidepressants are pharmaceuticals commonly detected in the environment, usually in the range of ng L⁻¹ and µg L⁻¹. Since they are designed to have a biological effect at low concentrations, they might pose a risk to the native species, especially if exposure lasts for long periods. Hydrophobic antidepressants, like the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Sertraline, can sorb to the particles in the water column and eventually accumulate in the sediment compartment. Thus, deposit-feeding organisms may be at particular risk of exposure. The polychaete Capitella teleta is widespread in estuarine organically enriched sediments, being a key deposit-feeder involved in geochemistry processes happening in sediments. Since antidepressants are neurotoxic chemicals and endocrine disruptors, the aim of this work was to test if sediment-associated Sertraline impacts burrowing- and feeding behavior as well as reproduction capability in Capitella teleta in a chronic exposure set-up, which could better mimic what happens in the environment. 7 days old juveniles were selected and exposed to different concentrations of Sertraline for an entire generation until the mature stage was reached. This work was able to show that some concentrations of Sertraline altered growth and the time of first reproduction in Capitella teleta juveniles, potentially disrupting the population’s capability of survival. Acknowledgments: This Ph.D. position is part of the CHRONIC project “Chronic exposure scenarios driving environmental risks of Chemicals”, which is an Innovative Training Network (ITN) funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions (MSCA).

Keywords: antidepressants, Capitella teleta, chronic exposure, endocrine disruption, sublethal endpoints, neurotoxicity

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370 The Modification of Convolutional Neural Network in Fin Whale Identification

Authors: Jiahao Cui

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In the past centuries, due to climate change and intense whaling, the global whale population has dramatically declined. Among the various whale species, the fin whale experienced the most drastic drop in number due to its popularity in whaling. Under this background, identifying fin whale calls could be immensely beneficial to the preservation of the species. This paper uses feature extraction to process the input audio signal, then a network based on AlexNet and three networks based on the ResNet model was constructed to classify fin whale calls. A mixture of the DOSITS database and the Watkins database was used during training. The results demonstrate that a modified ResNet network has the best performance considering precision and network complexity.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, ResNet, AlexNet, fin whale preservation, feature extraction

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369 Climate Adaptation and WASH Behavior Change in the Lake Victoria Basin

Authors: Hannah Marcus

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As climate change disrupts the global hydrological cycle, bringing extremes of flooding and drought, many communities will experience changes in water and sanitation quality and access. These changes will alter water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related behaviors and practices in affected settings, by requiring individuals to adapt their patterns of water use, hygiene care, and sanitation maintenance amidst new disturbances. Some of the strategies employed to cope with WASH impacts of climate change may represent positive adaptations, promoting greater climate resiliency. Other measures may be maladaptive, increasing long-term climate vulnerability. Mapping the adaptation patterns of communities to climate change-driven WASH impacts can help identify strategies on both ends of this spectrum. This study consisted of a response mapping exercise in the Lake Victoria Basin, selected for its climate vulnerability and dual extremes of flooding and drought. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with lakeside residents of Mabinju village, Western Kenya. This enabled the identification of various community-driven adaptation measures, alongside other potentially detrimental coping strategies, which were largely driven by resource-related adaptation constraints. These findings highlight the need for climate adaptation interventions in the WASH sector to simultaneously build on existing resiliency-enhancing measures while addressing root causes of maladaptation.

Keywords: climate adaptation, climate change, drought, flooding, Lake Victoria Basin, WASH

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