Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2954

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Environmental and Ecological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2954 Effect of Electromagnetic Fields at 27 GHz on Sperm Quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis

Authors: Carmen Sica, Elena M. Scalisi, Sara Ignoto, Ludovica Palmeri, Martina Contino, Greta Ferruggia, Antonio Salvaggio, Santi C. Pavone, Gino Sorbello, Loreto Di Donato, Roberta Pecoraro, Maria V. Brundo


Recently, a rise in the use of wireless internet technologies such as Wi-Fi and 5G routers/modems have been demonstrated. These devices emit a considerable amount of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), which could interact with the male reproductive system either by thermal or non-thermal mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct in vitro influence of 5G radiation on sperm quality in Mytilus galloprovincialis, considered an excellent model for reproduction studies. The experiments at 27 GHz were conducted by using a no commercial high gain pyramidal horn antenna. To evaluate the specific absorption rate (SAR), a numerical simulation has been performed. The resulting incident power density was significantly lower than the power density limit of 10 mW/cm2 set by the international guidelines as a limit for nonthermal effects above 6 GHz. However, regarding temperature measurements of the aqueous sample, it has been verified an increase of 0.2°C, compared to the control samples. This very low-temperature increase couldn’t interfere with experiments. For experiments, sperm samples taken from sexually mature males of Mytilus galloprovincialis were placed in artificial seawater, salinity 30 + 1% and pH 8.3 filtered with a 0.2 m filter. After evaluating the number and quality of spermatozoa, sperm cells were exposed to electromagnetic fields a 27GHz. The effect of exposure on sperm motility and quality was evaluated after 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes with a light microscope and also using the Eosin test to verify the vitality of the gametes. All the samples were performed in triplicate and statistical analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Turkey test for multiple comparations of means to determine differences of sperm motility. A significant decrease (30%) in sperm motility was observed after 10 minutes of exposure and after 30 minutes, all sperms were immobile and not vital. Due to little literature data about this topic, these results could be useful for further studies concerning a great diffusion of these new technologies.

Keywords: mussel, spermatozoa, sperm motility, millimeter waves

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2953 Noninvasive Technique for Measurement of Heartbeat in Zebrafish Embryos Exposed to Electromagnetic Fields at 27 GHz

Authors: Sara Ignoto, Elena M. Scalisi, Carmen Sica, Martina Contino, Greta Ferruggia, Antonio Salvaggio, Santi C. Pavone, Gino Sorbello, Loreto Di Donato, Roberta Pecoraro, Maria V. Brundo


The new fifth generation technology (5G), which should favor high data-rate connections (1Gbps) and latency times lower than the current ones (<1ms), has the characteristic of working on different frequency bands of the radio wave spectrum (700 MHz, 3.6-3.8 GHz and 26.5-27.5 GHz), thus also exploiting higher frequencies than previous mobile radio generations (1G-4G). The higher frequency waves, however, have a lower capacity to propagate in free space and therefore, in order to guarantee the capillary coverage of the territory for high reliability applications, it will be necessary to install a large number of repeaters. Following the introduction of this new technology, there has been growing concern in recent years about the possible harmful effects on human health and several studies were published using several animal models. This study aimed to observe the possible short-term effects induced by 5G-millimeter waves on heartbeat of early life stages of Danio rerio using DanioScope software (Noldus). DanioScope is the complete toolbox for measurements on zebrafish embryos and larvae. The effect of substances can be measured on the developing zebrafish embryo by a range of parameters: earliest activity of the embryo’s tail, activity of the developing heart, speed of blood flowing through the vein, length and diameters of body parts. Activity measurements, cardiovascular data, blood flow data and morphometric parameters can be combined in one single tool. Obtained data are elaborate and provided by the software both numerical as well as graphical. The experiments were performed at 27 GHz by a no commercial high gain pyramidal horn antenna. According to OECD guidelines, exposure to 5G-millimeter waves was tested by fish embryo toxicity test within 96 hours post fertilization, Observations were recorded every 24h, until the end of the short-term test (96h). The results have showed an increase of heartbeat rate on exposed embryos at 48h hpf than control group, but this increase has not been shown at 72-96 h hpf. Nowadays, there is a scant of literature data about this topic, so these results could be useful to approach new studies and also to evaluate potential cardiotoxic effects of mobile radiofrequency.

Keywords: Danio rerio, DanioScope, cardiotoxicity, millimeter waves.

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2952 Demulsification of Oil from Produced water Using Fibrous Coalescer

Authors: Nutcha Thianbut


In the petroleum drilling industry, besides oil and gas, water is also produced from petroleum production. which will have oil droplets dispersed in the water as an emulsion. Commonly referred to as produced water, most industrial water-based produced water methods use the method of pumping water back into wells or catchment areas. because it cannot be utilized further, but in the compression of water each time, the cost is quite high. And the survey found that the amount of water from the petroleum production process has increased every year. In this research, we would like to study the removal of oil in produced water by the Coalescer device using fibers from agricultural waste as an intermediary. As an alternative to reduce the cost of water management in the petroleum drilling industry. The objectives of this research are 1. To study the fiber pretreatment by chemical process for the efficiency of oil-water separation 2. To study and design the fiber-packed coalescer device to destroy the emulsion of crude oil in water. 3. To study the working conditions of coalescer devices in emulsion destruction. using a fiber medium. In this research, the experiment was divided into two parts. The first part will study the absorbency of fibers. It compares untreated fibers with chemically treated alkaline fibers that change over time as well as adjusting the amount of fiber on the absorbency of the fiber and the second part will study the separation of oil from produced water by Coalescer equipment using fiber as medium to study the optimum condition of coalescer equipment for further development and industrial application.

Keywords: produced water, fiber, surface modification, coalescer

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2951 The Highly Dispersed WO3-x Photocatalyst over the Confinement Effect of Mesoporous SBA-15 Molecular Sieves for Photocatalytic Nitrogen Reduction

Authors: Xiaoling Ren, Guidong Yang


As one of the largest industrial synthetic chemicals in the world, ammonia has the advantages of high energy density, easy liquefaction, and easy transportation, which is widely used in agriculture, chemical industry, energy storage, and other fields. The industrial Haber-Bosch method process for ammonia synthesis is generally conducted under severe conditions. It is essential to develop a green, sustainable strategy for ammonia production to meet the growing demand. In this direction, photocatalytic nitrogen reduction has huge advantages over the traditional, well-established Haber-Bosch process, such as the utilization of natural sun light as the energy source and significantly lower pressure and temperature to affect the reaction process. However, the high activation energy of nitrogen and the low efficiency of photo-generated electron-hole separation in the photocatalyst result in low ammonia production yield. Many researchers focus on improving the catalyst. In addition to modifying the catalyst, improving the dispersion of the catalyst and making full use of active sites are also means to improve the overall catalytic activity. Few studies have been carried out on this, which is the aim of this work. In this work, by making full use of the nitrogen activation ability of WO3-x with defective sites, small size WO3-x photocatalyst with high dispersibility was constructed, while the growth of WO3-x was restricted by using a high specific surface area mesoporous SBA-15 molecular sieve with the regular pore structure as a template. The morphology of pure SBA-15 and WO3-x/SBA-15 was characterized byscanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared with pure SBA-15, some small particles can be found in the WO3-x/SBA-15 material, which means that WO3-x grows into small particles under the limitation of SBA-15, which is conducive to the exposure of catalytically active sites. To elucidate the chemical nature of the material, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted. The observed diffraction pattern inWO3-xis in good agreement with that of the JCPDS file no.71-2450. Compared with WO3-x, no new peaks appeared in WO3-x/SBA-15.It can be concluded that WO3-x/SBA-15 was synthesized successfully. In order to provide more active sites, the mass content of WO3-x was optimized. Then the photocatalytic nitrogen reduction performances of above samples were performed with methanol as a hole scavenger. The results show that the overall ammonia production performance of WO3-x/SBA-15 is improved than pure bulk WO3-x. The above results prove that making full use of active sites is also a means to improve overall catalytic activity.This work provides material basis for the design of high-efficiency photocatalytic nitrogen reduction catalysts.

Keywords: ammonia, photocatalytic, nitrogen reduction, WO3-x, high dispersibility

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2950 Spring Water Quality Appraisement for Drinking and Irrigation Application in Nigeria: A Muliti-Criteria Approach

Authors: Hillary Onyeka Abugu, Valentine Chinakwugwo Ezea, Janefrances Ngozi Ihedioha, Nwachukwu Romanus Ekere


The study assessed the spring water quality in Igbo-Etiti, Nigeria, for drinking and irrigation application using Physico-chemical parameters, water quality index, mineral and trace elements, pollution indices and risk assessment. Standard methods were used to determine the physicochemical properties of the spring water in rainy and dry seasons. Trace metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that most of the physicochemical properties studied were within the guideline values set by Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ), WHO and US EPA for drinking water purposes. However, pH of all the spring water (4.27- 4.73; and 4.95- 5.73), lead (Pb) (0.01-1.08 mg/L) and cadmium (Cd) (0.01-0.15 mg/L) concentrations were above the guideline values in both seasons. This could be attributed to the lithography of the study area, which is the Nsukka formation. Leaching of lead and sulphides from the embedded coal deposits could have led to the increased lead levels and made the water acidic. Two-way ANOVA showed significant differences in most of the parameters studied in dry and rainy seasons. Pearson correlation analysis and cluster analysis showed strong significant positive and negative correlations in some of the parameters studied in both seasons. The water quality index showed that none of the spring water had excellent water status. However, one spring (Iyi Ase) had poor water status in dry season and is considered unsafe for drinking. Iyi Ase was also considered not suitable for irrigation application as predicted by most of the pollution indices, while others were generally considered suitable for irrigation application. Probable cancer and non-cancer risk assessment revealed a probable risk associated with the consumption of the spring in the Igbo-Ettiti area, Nigeria.

Keywords: water quality, pollution index, risk assessment, physico-chemical parameters

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2949 Urban River As Living Infrastructure: Tidal Flooding And Sea Level Rise In A Working Waterway In Hampton Roads, Virginia

Authors: William Luke Hamel


Existing conceptions of urban flooding caused by tidal fluctuations and sea-level rise have been inadequately conceptualized by metrics of resilience and methods of flow modeling. While a great deal of research has been devoted to the effects of urbanization on pluvial flooding, the kind of tidal flooding experienced by locations like Hampton Roads, Virginia, has not been adequately conceptualized as being a result of human factors such as urbanization and gray infrastructure. Resilience from sea level rise and its associated flooding has been pioneered in the region with the 2015 Norfolk Resilience Plan from 100 Resilient Cities as well as the 2016 Norfolk Vision 2100 plan, which envisions different patterns of land use for the city. Urban resilience still conceptualizes the city as having the ability to maintain an equilibrium in the face of disruptions. This economic and social equilibrium relies on the Elizabeth River, narrowly conceptualized. Intentionally or accidentally, the river was made to be a piece of infrastructure. Its development was meant to serve the docks, shipyards, naval yards, and port infrastructure that gives the region so much of its economic life. Inasmuch as it functions to permit the movement of cargo; the raising and lowering of ships to be repaired, commissioned, or decommissioned; or the provisioning of military vessels, the river as infrastructure is functioning properly. The idea that the infrastructure is malfunctioning when high tides and sea-level rise create flooding is predicated on the idea that the infrastructure is truly a human creation and can be controlled. The natural flooding cycles of an urban river, combined with the action of climate change and sea-level rise, are only abnormal so much as they encroach on the development that first encroached on the river. The urban political ecology of water provides the ability to view the river as an infrastructural extension of urban networks while also calling for its emancipation from stationarity and human control. Understanding the river and city as a hydrosocial territory or as a socio-natural system liberates both actors from the duality of the natural and the social while repositioning river flooding as a normal part of coexistence on a floodplain. This paper argues for the adoption of an urban political ecology lens in the analysis and governance of urban rivers like the Elizabeth River as a departure from the equilibrium-seeking and stability metrics of urban resilience.

Keywords: urban flooding, political ecology, Elizabeth river, Hampton roads

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2948 Development of Nanostructured Materials for the Elimination of Emerging Pollutants in Water through Adsorption Processes

Authors: J. Morillo, Otal E., A. Caballero, R. M. Pereñiguez, J. Usero


The present work shows in the first place, the manufacture of the perovskitic material used as adsorbent, by means of two different methods to obtain two types of perovskites (LaFeO₃ and BiFeO₃). The results of this work show the characteristics of this manufactured material, as well as the synthesis yields obtained, achieving a better result for the self-combustion synthesis. Secondly, from the manufactured perovskites, an adsorption system has been developed, at the laboratory level, for the adsorption of the emerging pollutants Trimethoprim, Ciprofloxacin and Ibuprofen.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, emerging pollutants, water, adsorption processes

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2947 Drawing Building Blocks in Existing Neighborhoods: An Automated Pilot Tool for an Initial Approach Using GIS and Python

Authors: Konstantinos Pikos, Dimitrios Kaimaris


Although designing building blocks is a procedure used by many planners around the world, there isn’t an automated tool that will help planners and designers achieve their goals with lesser effort. The difficulty of the subject lies in the repeating process of manually drawing lines, while not only it is mandatory to maintain the desirable offset but to also achieve a lesser impact to the existing building stock. In this paper, using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the Python programming language, an automated tool integrated into ArcGIS PRO, is being presented. Despite its simplistic enviroment and the lack of specialized building legislation due to the complex state of the field, a planner who is aware of such technical information can use the tool to draw an initial approach of the final building blocks in an area with pre-existing buildings in an attempt to organize the usually sprawling suburbs of a city or any continuously developing area. The tool uses ESRI’s ArcPy library to handle the spatial data, while interactions with the user is made throught Tkinter. The main process consists of a modification of building edgescoordinates, using NumPy library, in an effort to draw the line of best fit, so the user can get the optimal results per block’s side. Finally, after the tool runs successfully, a table of primary planning information is shown, such as the area of the building block and its coverage rate. Regardless of the primary stage of the tool’s development, it is a solid base where potential planners with programming skills could invest, so they can make the tool adapt to their individual needs. An example of the entire procedure in a test area is provided, highlighting both the strengths and weaknesses of the final results.

Keywords: arcPy, GIS, python, building blocks

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2946 Decoding the Natural Hazards: The Data Paradox, Juggling Data Flows, Transparency and Secrets, Analysis of Khuzestan and Lorestan Floods of Iran

Authors: Kiyanoush Ghalavand


We have a complex paradox in the agriculture and environment sectors in the age of technology. In the one side, the achievements of the science and information ages are shaping to come that is very dangerous than ever last decades. The progress of the past decades is historic, connecting people, empowering individuals, groups, and states, and lifting a thousand people out of land and poverty in the process. Floods are the most frequent natural hazards damaging and recurring of all disasters in Iran. Additionally, floods are morphing into new and even more devastating forms in recent years. Khuzestan and Lorestan Provinces experienced heavy rains that began on March 28, 2019, and led to unprecedented widespread flooding and landslides across the provinces. The study was based on both secondary and primary data. For the present study, a questionnaire-based primary survey was conducted. Data were collected by using a specially designed questionnaire and other instruments, such as focus groups, interview schedules, inception workshops, and roundtable discussions with stakeholders at different levels. Farmers in Khuzestan and Lorestan provinces were the statistical population for this study. Data were analyzed with several software such as ATLASti, NVivo SPSS Win, ،E-Views. According to a factorial analysis conducted for the present study, 10 groups of factors were categorized climatic, economic, cultural, supportive, instructive, planning, military, policymaking, geographical, and human factors. They estimated 71.6 percent of explanatory factors of flood management obstacles in the agricultural sector in Lorestan and Khuzestan provinces. Several recommendations were finally made based on the study findings.

Keywords: chaos theory, natural hazards, risks, environmental risks, paradox

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2945 Gis-Based Water Pollution Assesment of Buriganga River, Bangladesh

Authors: Nur-E-Jannat Tinu


Water is absolutely vital not only for the survival of human beings but also for plants, animals, and all other living organisms. Water bodies, such as lakes, rivers, ponds, and estuaries, are the source of water supply in domestic, industrial, agriculture, and aquaculture purposes. The Buriganga River flows through the south and west of Dhaka city. The water quality of this river has become a matter of concern due to anthropogenic intervention of vital pollutants such as industrial effluents, urban sewage, and solid wastes in this area. Buriganga River is at risk to contamination from untreated municipal wastes, industrial discharges, runoff from organic and inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, and oil emission around the river. The residential and commercial establishments along the river discharge wastewater either directly into the river or through drains and canals into the river. However, several regulatory measures and policies have been enforced by the Government to protect the river Buriganga from pollution, in most cases to no affect. Water quality assessment reveals that the water is also not appropriate for irrigation purposes. The physical parameters (pH, TDS, EC, Temperature, DO, COD, BOD) indicated that the water is too poor to be useable for agricultural, drinking, or other purposes. Chemical concentrations showed significant seasonal variations with high-level concentrations during the monsoon season, presumably due to extreme seasonal surface runoff. A comparative study of Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) indicated a considerable increase over the last five years A change in trend was observed from 2020 June-July, probably due to monsoon and post-monsoon. EC values decreased from 775 to 665 mmho/cm during this period. DO increased significantly from the mid-post-monsoon months to the early monsoon period. The pH value of river water is strongly alkaline, ranging between 6.5 and 7.79. This indicates that ecological organic compounds cause the water to become alkaline after the monsoon and monsoon seasons. As the water pollution level is very high, an effective remediation and pollution control plan should be considered.

Keywords: precipitation, spatial distribution, effluent, remediation

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2944 The Sustainable Governance of Aquifer Injection Using Treated Coal Seam Gas Water in Queensland, Australia: Lessons for Integrated Water Resource Management

Authors: Jacqui Robertson


The sustainable governance of groundwater is of the utmost importance in an arid country like Australia. Groundwater has been relied on by our agricultural and pastoral communities since the State was settled by European colonialists. Nevertheless, the rapid establishment of a coal seam gas (CSG) industry in Queensland, Australia, has had extensive impacts on the pre-existing groundwater users. Managed aquifer recharge of important aquifers in Queensland, Australia, using treated coal seam gas produced water has been used to reduce the impacts of CSG development in Queensland Australia. However, the process has not been widely adopted. Negative environmental outcomes are now acknowledged as not only engineering, scientific or technical problems to be solved but also the result of governance failures. An analysis of the regulatory context for aquifer injection using treated CSG water in Queensland, Australia, using Ostrom’s Common Pool Resource (CPR) theory and a ‘heat map’ designed by the author, highlights the importance of governance arrangements. The analysis reveals the costs and benefits for relevant stakeholders of artificial recharge of groundwater resources in this context. The research also reveals missed opportunities to further active management of the aquifer and resolve existing conflicts between users. The research illustrates the importance of strategically and holistically evaluating innovations in technology that impact water resources to reveal incentives that impact resource user behaviors. The paper presents a proactive step that can be adapted to support integrated water resource management and sustainable groundwater development.

Keywords: managed aquifer recharge, groundwater regulation, common-pool resources, integrated water resource management, Australia

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2943 Construction of a Supply Chain Model Using the PREVA Method: The Case of Innovative Sargasso Recovery Projects in Ther Lesser Antilles

Authors: Maurice Bilioniere, Katie Lanneau


Suddenly appeared in 2011, invasions of sargasso seaweeds Fluitans and Natans are a climatic hazard which causes many problems in the Caribbean. Faced with the growth and frequency of the phenomenon of massive sargasso stranding on their coasts, the French West Indies are moving towards the path of industrial recovery. In this context of innovative projects, we will analyze the necessary requirements for the management and performance of the supply chain, taking into account the observed volatility of the sargasso input. Our prospective approach will consist in studying the theoretical framework of modeling a hybrid supply chain by coupling the discreet event simulation (DES) with a valuation of the process costs according to the "activity-based costing" method (ABC). The PREVA approach (PRocess EVAluation) chosen for our modeling has the advantage of evaluating the financial flows of the logistic process using an analytical model chained with an action model for the evaluation or optimization of physical flows.

Keywords: sargasso, PREVA modeling, supply chain, ABC method, discreet event simulation (DES)

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2942 Green Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Zinc Oxide and Silver Oxide Nonparticipants

Authors: Nassima Khanfri, Ali Boucenna


As metallic nanoparticles are increasingly used in many economic sectors, there is interest in the biological and environmental safety of their production. The main methods of synthesizing nanoparticales are chemical and physical approaches that are often expensive and potentially harmful to the environment. The present study is devoted to the possibility of the synthesis of silver nanoparticales and zinc oxide from silver nitrate and zinc acetate using basilica plant extracts. The products obtained are characterized by various analysis techniques, such as UV/V, XRD, MEB-EDX, FTIR, and RAMAN. These analyzes confirm the crystalline nature of AgNps and ZnONps. These crystalline powders having effective biological activities regarding the antioxidant and antibacterial, which could be used in several biological applications.

Keywords: green synthesis, bio-reduction, metals nan Oparticales, Plants extracts

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2941 An Alternative to Resolve Land use Conflicts: the Rétköz Lake Project

Authors: Balázs Kulcsár


Today, there is no part of the world that does not bear the mark of man in some way. This process seems unstoppable. So perhaps the best thing we can do is to touch that handprint gently and with the utmost care. There are multiple uses for the same piece of land, the coordination of which requires careful and sustainable spatial planning. The case study of the Rétközlake in north-eastern Hungary illustrates a habitat rehabilitation project in which a number of human uses were coordinated with the conservation and restoration of the natural environment. Today, the good condition of the habitat can only be maintained artificially, but the project has paid particular attention to finding a sustainable solution. The rehabilitation of Lake Rétköz is considered good practice in resolving land-use conflicts.

Keywords: sustainability, ecosystem service, land use conflict, landscape utilization

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2940 Settlement Network Supplying Energy

Authors: Balázs Kulcsár


Few people now doubt the future of the global energy transition. The only question is whether the pace of renewables' penetration will be sufficient to compete with the rate of warming. Dynamic changes are also taking place in the Hungarian electricity system. In addition to nuclear power, which provides the basic electricity supply, the most dynamic is solar power, which is largely small-scale and residential. The emergence of solar power is outlining the emergence of energy production and supply fabric of municipalities. This creates the potential for over-producing municipalities to supply the electricity needs of neighboring settlements with lower production beyond renewables. By taking advantage of this energy sharing, electricity supply based on pure renewables can be achieved more quickly.

Keywords: renewable energy, energy geography, self-sufficiency, energy transition

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2939 Lung Function, Urinary Heavy Metals And ITS Other Influencing Factors Among Community In Klang Valley

Authors: Ammar Amsyar Abdul Haddi, Mohd Hasni Jaafar


Heavy metals are elements naturally presented in the environment that can cause adverse effect to health. But not much literature was found on effects toward lung function, where impairment of lung function may lead to various lung diseases. The objective of the study is to explore the lung function impairment, urinary heavy metal level, and its associated factors among the community in Klang valley, Malaysia. Sampling was done in Kuala Lumpur suburb public and housing areas during community events throughout March 2019 till October 2019. respondents who gave the consent were given a questionnaire to answer and was proceeded with a lung function test. Urine samples were obtained at the end of the session and sent for Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis for heavy metal cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentration. A total of 200 samples were analysed, and of all, 52% of respondents were male, Age ranging from 18 years old to 74 years old with a mean age of 38.44. Urinary samples show that 12% of the respondent (n=22) has Cd level above than average, and 1.5 % of the respondent (n=3) has urinary Pb at an above normal level. Bivariate analysis show that there was a positive correlation between urinary Cd and urinary Pb (r= 0.309; p<0.001). Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between urinary Cd level and full vital capacity (FVC) (r=-0.202, p=0.004), Force expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) (r = -0.225, p=0.001), and also with Force expiratory flow between 25-75% FVC (FEF25%-75%) (r= -0.187, p=0.008). however, urinary Pb did not show any association with FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, or FEF25%-75%. Multiple linear regression analysis shows that urinary Cd remained significant and negatively affect FVC% (p=0.025) and FEV1% (p=0.004) achieved from the predicted value. On top of that, other factors such as education level (p=0.013) and duration of smoking(p=0.003) may influencing both urinary Cd and performance in lung function as well, suggesting Cd as a potential mediating factor between smoking and impairment of lung function. however, there was no interaction detected between heavy metal or other influencing factor in this study. In short, there is a negative linear relationship detected between urinary Cd and lung function, and urinary Cd is likely to affects lung function in a restrictive pattern. Since smoking is also an influencing factor for urinary Cd and lung function impairment, it is highly suggested that smokers should be screened for lung function and urinary Cd level in the future for early disease prevention.

Keywords: lung function, heavy metals, community

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2938 Evaluation Synthesis of Private Sector Engagement in International Development

Authors: Valerie Habbel, Magdalena Orth, Johanna Richter, Steffen Schimko


Cooperation between development actors and the private sector is becoming increasingly important, as it is expected to mobilize additional resources to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), among other things. However, whether the goals of cooperation are achieved has so far only been explored in evaluations and studies of individual projects and instruments. The evaluation synthesis attempts to close this gap by systematically analyzing existing evidence (evaluations and academic studies) from national and international development cooperation on private sector engagement. Overall, the evaluations and studies considered report mainly positive effects on investors and donors, intermediaries, partner countries, and target groups. However, various analyses, including on the quality of the evaluations, point to a positive bias in the results. The evaluation synthesis makes recommendations on the definition of indicators, the measurement and evaluation of impacts and additionality, knowledge management, and the consideration of transaction costs in cooperation with private actors.

Keywords: evaluation synthesis, private sector engagement, international development, sustainable development

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2937 Predicting the Frequencies of Tropical Cyclone-Induced Rainfall Events in the US Using a Machine-Learning Model

Authors: Elham Sharifineyestani, Mohammad Farshchin


Tropical cyclones are one of the most expensive and deadliest natural disasters. They cause heavy rainfall and serious flash flooding that result in billions of dollars of damage and considerable mortality each year in the United States. Prediction of the frequency of tropical cyclone-induced rainfall events can be helpful in emergency planning and flood risk management. In this study, we have developed a machine-learning model to predict the exceedance frequencies of tropical cyclone-induced rainfall events in the United States. Model results show a satisfactory agreement with available observations. To examine the effectiveness of our approach, we also have compared the result of our predictions with the exceedance frequencies predicted using a physics-based rainfall model by Feldmann.

Keywords: flash flooding, tropical cyclones, frequencies, machine learning, risk management

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2936 Riparian Buffer Strips’ Capability of E. coli Removal in New York Streams

Authors: Helen Sanders, Joshua Cousins


The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether riparian buffer strips could be used to reduce Escherichia Coli (E. coli) runoff into streams in Central New York. Mainstream methods currently utilized to reduce E. coli runoff include fencing and staggered fertilizing plans for agriculture. These methods still do not significantly limit E. coli and thus, pose a serious health risk to individuals who swim in contaminated waters or consume contaminated produce. One additional method still in research development involves the planting of vegetated riparian buffers along waterways. Currently, riparian buffer strips are primarily used for filtration of nitrate and phosphate runoff to slow erosion, regulate pH and, improve biodiversity within waterways. For my research, four different stream sites were selected for the study, in which rainwater runoff was collected at both the riparian buffer and the E. coli sourced runoff upstream. Preliminary results indicate that there is an average 70% decrease in E. coli content in streams at the riparian buffer strips compared to upstream runoff. This research could be utilized to include vegetated buffer planting as a method to decrease manure runoff into essential waterways.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, riparian buffer strips, vegetated riparian buffers, runoff, filtration

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2935 Filtration Efficacy of Reusable Full-Face Snorkel Masks for Personal Protective Equipment

Authors: Adrian Kong, William Chang, Rolando Valdes, Alec Rodriguez, Roberto Miki


The Pneumask consists of a custom snorkel-specific adapter that attaches a snorkel-port of the mask to a 3D-printed filter. This full-face snorkel mask was designed for use as personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic when there was a widespread shortage of PPE for medical personnel. Various clinical validation tests have been conducted, including the sealing capability of the mask, filter performance, CO2 buildup, and clinical usability. However, data regarding the filter efficiencies of Pneumask and multiple filter types have not been determined. Using an experimental system, we evaluated the filtration efficiency across various masks and filters during inhalation. Eighteen combinations of respirator models (5 P100 FFRs, 4 Dolfino Masks) and filters (2091, 7093, 7093CN, BB50T) were evaluated for their exposure to airborne particles sized 0.3 - 10.0 microns using an electronic airborne particle counter. All respirator model combinations provided similar performance levels for 1.0-micron, 3.0-micron, 5.0-micron, 10.0-microns, with the greatest differences in the 0.3-micron and 0.5-micron range. All models provided expected performances against all particle sizes, with Class P100 respirators providing the highest performance levels across all particle size ranges. In conclusion, the modified snorkel mask has the potential to protect providers who care for patients with COVID-19 from increased airborne particle exposure.

Keywords: COVID-19, PPE, mask, filtration, efficiency

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2934 Comparison of Air Quality in 2019 and 2020 in the Campuses of the University of the Basque Country

Authors: Elisabete Alberdi, Irantzu Álvarez, Nerea Astigarraga, Heber Hernández


The purpose of this research work is to study the emissions of certain substances that contribute to air pollution and, as far as possible, to try to eliminate or reduce them, to avoid damage to both health and the environment. This work focuses on analyzing and comparing air quality in 2019 and 2020 in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, especially near the UPV/EHU campuses. We use Geostatistics to develop a spatial model and to analyse the levels of pollutants in those areas where the scope of the monitoring stations is limited. Finally, different more sustainable transport alternatives for users have been proposed.

Keywords: air quality, pollutants, monitoring stations, environment, geostatistics

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2933 Traffic Study and Proposal for a Bike Lane for the University of the Basque Country

Authors: Elisabete Alberdi, Irantzu Álvarez, Laura Girón


The objective of this work is to propose a cycle path or network of paths to the UPV/EHU Campus in Leioa. The proposal will be presented from the point of view of sustainability. In order to achieve this, the roads that are already built will be used, and the road or network will be proposed to be built with the least amount of money possible. To select the most suitable route for the bike lane, various sources of information have been used. Through this data, we analyse the transport infrastructure and the mobility around the UPV/EHU Campus in Leioa. This work aims to satisfy the mobility needs of users on the University Campus to contribute to the sustainability of the campus.

Keywords: cycle lane, sustainability, accessibility, transport, agenda 2030

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2932 Availability of Safety Measures and Knowledge Towards Hazardous Waste Management among Workers in Scientific Laboratories of Two Universities in Lebanon

Authors: Inaam Nasrallah, Pascale Salameh, Abbas El-Outa, Assem Alkak, Rihab Nasr, Wafa Toufic Bawab


Background: Hazardous Waste Management(HWM). is critical to human health outcomes and environmental protection. This study evaluated the knowledge regarding safety measures to be applied when collecting and storing waste in scientific laboratories of two universities in Lebanon.Method: A survey-based observational study was conducted in scientific laboratories of the public university and that of a private university, where a total of 309 participants were recruited.Result: The mean total knowledge score on safety measures of HWM was 9.02±4.34 (maximum attainable score, 13). Significant association (p<0.05) was found between knowledge score and job function, years of experience, educational level, professional status, work schedule, and training on proper HWM. Participants had adequate perceptions regarding the impact of HWM on health and the environment. Linear regression modeling revealed that knowledge score was significantly higher among bachelor level lab workers compared to those with doctoral degrees (p=0.043), full-time schedule workers versus part-timers (p=0.03), and among public university participants as compared to those of the private university (p<0.001).Conclusion: This study showed good knowledge concerning HWM in the scientific laboratoriesof the studied universities in Lebanon and a good awareness of the HWM on health and the environment. It highlights the importance of culture, attitude, and practice on proper HWM in the academic scientific laboratory.

Keywords: hasardous waste, safety measures, waste management, knwoledge score, scientific laboratory workers

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2931 Analysis of Nitrogenase Fe Protein Activity in Transplastomic Tobacco

Authors: Jose A. Aznar-Moreno, Xi Jiang, Stefan Burén, Luis M. Rubio


Integration of prokaryotic nitrogen fixation (nif) genes into the plastid genome for expression of functional nitrogenase components could render plants capable of assimilating atmospheric N2 making their crops less dependent of nitrogen fertilizers. The nitrogenase Fe protein component (NifH) has been used as proxy for expression and targeting of Nif proteins within plant and yeast cells. Here we use tobacco plants with the Azotobacter vinelandii nifH and nifM genes integrated into the plastid genome. NifH and its maturase NifM were constitutively produced in leaves, but not roots, during light and dark periods. Nif protein expression in transplastomic plants was stable throughout development. Chloroplast NifH was soluble, but it only showed in vitro activity when isolated from leaves collected at the end of the dark period. Exposing the plant extracts to elevated temperatures precipitated NifM and apo-NifH protein devoid of [Fe4S4] clusters, dramatically increasing the specific activity of remaining NifH protein. Our data indicate that the chloroplast endogenous [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis was insufficient for complete NifH maturation, albeit a negative effect on NifH maturation due to excess NifM in the chloroplast cannot be excluded. NifH and NifM constitutive expression in transplastomic plants did not affect any of the following traits: seed size, germination time, germination ratio, seedling growth, emergence of the cotyledon and first leaves, chlorophyll content and plant height throughout development.

Keywords: NifH, chloroplast, nitrogen fixation, crop improvement, transplastomic plants, fertilizer, biotechnology

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2930 Using MALDI-TOF MS to Detect Environmental Microplastics (Polyethylene, Polyethylene Terephthalate, and Polystyrene) within a Simulated Tissue Sample

Authors: Kara J. Coffman-Rea, Karen E. Samonds


Microplastic pollution is an urgent global threat to our planet and human health. Microplastic particles have been detected within our food, water, and atmosphere, and found within the human stool, placenta, and lung tissue. However, most spectrometric microplastic detection methods require chemical digestion which can alter or destroy microplastic particles and makes it impossible to acquire information about their in-situ distribution. MALDI TOF MS (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) is an analytical method using a soft ionization technique that can be used for polymer analysis. This method provides a valuable opportunity to both acquire information regarding the in-situ distribution of microplastics and also minimizes the destructive element of chemical digestion. In addition, MALDI TOF MS allows for expanded analysis of the microplastics including detection of specific additives that may be present within them. MALDI TOF MS is particularly sensitive to sample preparation and has not yet been used to analyze environmental microplastics within their specific location (e.g., biological tissues, sediment, water). In this study, microplastics were created using polyethylene gloves, polystyrene micro-foam, and polyethylene terephthalate cable sleeving. Plastics were frozen using liquid nitrogen and ground to obtain small fragments. An artificial tissue was created using a cellulose sponge as scaffolding coated with a MaxGel Extracellular Matrix to simulate human lung tissue. Optimal preparation techniques (e.g., matrix, cationization reagent, solvent, mixing ratio, laser intensity) were first established for each specific polymer type. The artificial tissue sample was subsequently spiked with microplastics, and specific polymers were detected using MALDI-TOF-MS. This study presents a novel method for the detection of environmental polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene microplastics within a complex sample. Results of this study provide an effective method that can be used in future microplastics research and can aid in determining the potential threats to environmental and human health that they pose.

Keywords: environmental plastic pollution, MALDI-TOF MS, microplastics, polymer identification

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2929 Assessing the Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Waste Management Workers in Ghana

Authors: Mensah-Akoto Julius, Kenichi Matsui


This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on waste management workers in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 60 waste management workers in Accra metropolis, the capital region of Ghana, to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on waste generation, workers’ safety in collecting solid waste, and service delivery. To find out correlations between the pandemic and safety of waste management workers, a regression analysis was used. Regarding waste generation, the results show the pandemic led to the highest annual per capita solid waste generation, or 3,390 tons, in 2020. Regarding the safety of workers, the regression analysis shows a significant and inverse association between COVID-19 and waste management services. This means that contaminated wastes may infect field workers with COVID-19 due to their direct exposure. A rise in new infection cases would have a negative impact on the safety and service delivery of the workers. The result also shows that an increase in economic activities negatively impacts waste management workers. The analysis, however, finds no statistical relationship between workers’ service deliveries and employees’ salaries. The study then discusses how municipal waste management authorities can ensure safe and effective waste collection during the pandemic.

Keywords: Covid-19, waste management worker, waste collection, Ghana

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2928 Evaluation And New Modeling Improvement Of Water Quality

Authors: Sebahat Seker


Since there is a parallel connection between drinking water quality and public health, studies on drinking and domestic water are of vital importance. Ardahan Province is one of the provinces located in the Northeast Anatolian Region, where animal husbandry and agriculture are carried out economically. City mains water uses underground spring water as a source and is chlorinated and given to the city center by gravity. However, mains water cannot be used outside the central district of the city, and the majority of the people meet their drinking and utility water needs from the wells they have opened individually. The water element, which is vital for all living things, is the most important substance that sustains life for humans. Under normal conditions, a healthy person consumes approximately 1.8-2 liters of water. The quality and use of potable water is one of the most important issues in terms of health. The quality parameters of drinking and utility water have been revealed by the scientific world. Scientific studies on drinking water quality in the world and its impact on public health are among the most popular topics. Although our country is surrounded by water on three sides, potable water resources are very few. In the Eastern Anatolia Region, it is difficult for the public to access drinking and utility water due to the difficult conditions both climatically and geographically. In this study, samples taken from drinking and utility water at certain intervals from the stations determined, and water quality parameters will be determined. The fact that such a study has not been carried out in the region before and the knowledge of the local people about water quality is very important in terms of its original and widespread effect.

Keywords: water quality, modelling, evaluation, northeastern anatolia

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2927 Data Analysis Tool for Predicting Water Scarcity in Industry

Authors: Nicolas Gillard, Tassadit Issaadi Hamitouche, Jean Petit, Valérie Lavaste, Céline Mayousse


Water is a fundamental resource for the industry. It is taken from the environment either from municipal distribution networks or from various natural water sources such as the sea, ocean, rivers, aquifers, etc. Once used, water is discharged into the environment, reprocessed at the plant or treatment plants. These withdrawals and discharges have a direct impact on natural water resources. These impacts can apply to the quantity of water available, the quality of the water used, or to impacts that are more complex to measure and less direct, such as the health of the population downstream from the watercourse, for example. Based on the analysis of data (meteorological, river characteristics, Physico-chemical substances), we wish to predict water stress episodes and anticipate prefectoral decrees, which can impact the performance of plants and propose improvement solutions, help industrialists in their choice of location for a new plant, visualize possible interactions between companies to optimize exchanges and encourage the pooling of water treatment solutions, and set up circular economies around the issue of water. The development of a solution for the prediction of water flux often needs a great knowledge of the upstream terrain in order to simulate the water stream from where the river takes its source. This constraint limits the possibility of making a general algorithm for the prediction of water flux. In addition, manufacturers need to have "near-real-time" processing of information in order to be able to make the best decisions (to be rapidly notified of an event that would have a significant impact on water resources). This “near-real-time” constraint limits the simulation of complex terrain to a simplified version which, in turn, limits the quality of the prediction. In this study, we use a neural network in order to predict water flux in real-time without the need for terrain knowledge and with the possibility to quickly adapt to new terrain. The terrain knowledge is learned by the algorithm during training on past data and the adaptability is inherited from the use of transfer learning. The robust architecture and the methodology used have demonstrated their effectiveness in the study case of learning the flux of a river with a 3-day horizon. The management of water and of the activities within the plants - which depend on this resource - should be considerably improved thanks, on the one hand, to the learning that allows the anticipation of periods of water stress, and on the other hand, to the information system that is able to warn decision-makers with alerts created from the formalization of prefectoral decrees.

Keywords: data mining, industry, machine Learning, shortage, water resources

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2926 To Improve or Not to Improve Reflections from Jerash Urban Improvement Project, Jordan

Authors: Dina Dahood Dabash


Palestine Refugee Camps have never been settings that can be overlooked; they even became (as physical settings) a cornerstone topic of negotiations whenever Palestinian matters are on the table (specifically in Jordan). Consequently, maintaining the familiar face of the camp with its dilapidated shelters and narrow streets that rarely allowed its residents to extinguish a fire or evacuate a building safely has become a fundamental method to protect the “right of the return” from the perspective of various stakeholders. When the Infrastructure and Camp Improvement Programme (ICIP) was established in 2007 as an additional UNRWA program, some concerns were raised around the newly established section, mainly due to its direct impact on the “image” of the camp through a provision of a relatively nonconventional service that differs from what the Agency used to provide in the past seventy years. By presenting the Urban Improvement Project in Jerash camp (UIP) -Jordan, this paper aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion around enduring the improvement of Palestine refugee camps “programmatically” in UNRWA or not. The UIP as a co-product by UNRWA and the camp’s community within one of the most vulnerable refugee camps in Jordan offers a remarkable opportunity to excerpt lessons that can contribute to the strategic shaping of the ICIP. The paper concludes with five mine uptakes mainly related to community engagement, power structures and UNRWA's role in camps.

Keywords: camp improvement program, Jerash camp, Palestine refugee camps, UNRWA.

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2925 Floating Populations, Rooted Networks Tracing the Evolution of Russeifa City in Relation to Marka Refugee Camp

Authors: Dina Dahood Dabash


Refugee camps are habitually defined as receptive sites, transient spaces of exile and nondescript depoliticized places of exception. However, such arguments form partial sides of reality, especially in countries that are geopolitically challenged and rely immensely on international aid. In Jordan, the dynamics brought with the floating population of refugees (Palestinian amongst others) have resulted in spatial after-effects that cannot be easily overlooked. For instance, Palestine refugee camps have turned by time into socioeconomic centers of gravity and cores of spatial evolution. Yet, such a position is not instantaneous. Amongst various reasons, it can be related, according to this paper, to a distinctive institutional climate that has been co-produced by the refugees, host community and the state. This paper aims to investigate the evolution of urban and spatial regulations in Jordan between 1948 and 1995, more specifically, state regulations, community regulations and refugee-self-regulation that all dynamically interacted that period. The paper aims to unpack the relations between refugee camps and their environs to further explore the agency of such floating populations in establishing rooted networks that extended the time and place boundaries. The paper’s argument stems from the fact that the spatial configuration of urban systems is not only an outcome of a historical evolutionary process but is also a result of interactions between the actors. The research operationalizes Marka camp in Jordan as a case study. Marka Camp is one of the six "emergency" camps erected in 1968 to shelter 15,000 Palestine refugees and displaced persons who left the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Nowadays, camp shelters more than 50,000 refugees in the same area of land. The camp is located in Russeifa, a city in Zarqa Governorate in Jordan. Together with Amman and Zarqa, Russeifa is part of a larger metropolitan area that acts as a home to more than half of Jordan’s businesses. The paper aspires to further understand the post-conflict strategies which were historically applied in Jordan and can be employed to handle more recent geopolitical challenges such as the Syrian refugee crisis. Methodological framework: The paper traces the evolution of the refugee-camp regulating norms in Jordan, parallel with the horizontal and vertical evolution of the Marka camp and its surroundings. Consequently, the main methods employed are historical and mental tracing, Interviews, in addition to using available Aerial and archival photos of the Marka camp and its surrounding.

Keywords: forced migration, Palestine refugee camps, spatial agency, urban regulations

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