Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2827

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Environmental and Ecological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2827 Culvert Blockage Evaluation Using Australian Rainfall And Runoff 2019

Authors: Rob Leslie, Taher Karimian

Abstract:

The blockage of cross drainage structures is a risk that needs to be understood and managed or lessened through the design. A blockage is a random event, influenced by site-specific factors, which needs to be quantified for design. Under and overestimation of blockage can have major impacts on flood risk and cost associated with drainage structures. The importance of this matter is heightened for those projects located within sensitive lands. It is a particularly complex problem for large linear infrastructure projects (e.g., rail corridors) located within floodplains where blockage factors can influence flooding upstream and downstream of the infrastructure. The selection of the appropriate blockage factors for hydraulic modeling has been subject to extensive research by hydraulic engineers. This paper has been prepared to review the current Australian Rainfall and Runoff 2019 (ARR 2019) methodology for blockage assessment by applying this method to a transport corridor brownfield upgrade case study in New South Wales. The results of applying the method are also validated against asset data and maintenance records. ARR 2019 – Book 6, Chapter 6 includes advice and an approach for estimating the blockage of bridges and culverts. This paper concentrates specifically on the blockage of cross drainage structures. The method has been developed to estimate the blockage level for culverts affected by sediment or debris due to flooding. The objective of the approach is to evaluate a numerical blockage factor that can be utilized in a hydraulic assessment of cross drainage structures. The project included an assessment of over 200 cross drainage structures. In order to estimate a blockage factor for use in the hydraulic model, a process has been advanced that considers the qualitative factors (e.g., Debris type, debris availability) and site-specific hydraulic factors that influence blockage. A site rating associated with the debris potential (i.e., availability, transportability, mobility) at each crossing was completed using the method outlined in ARR 2019 guidelines. The hydraulic results inputs (i.e., flow velocity, flow depth) and qualitative factors at each crossing were developed into an advanced spreadsheet where the design blockage level for cross drainage structures were determined based on the condition relating Inlet Clear Width and L10 (average length of the longest 10% of the debris reaching the site) and the Adjusted Debris Potential. Asset data, including site photos and maintenance records, were then reviewed and compared with the blockage assessment to check the validity of the results. The results of this assessment demonstrate that the estimated blockage factors at each crossing location using ARR 2019 guidelines are well-validated with the asset data. The primary finding of the study is that the ARR 2019 methodology is a suitable approach for culvert blockage assessment that has been validated against a case study spanning a large geographical area and multiple sub-catchments. The study also found that the methodology can be effectively coded within a spreadsheet or similar analytical tool to automate its application.

Keywords: Methodology, culverts, blockage, ARR 2019

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2826 The Effect of Filter Cake Powder on Soil Stability Enhancement in Active Sand Dunes, In the Long and Short Term

Authors: Irit Rutman Halili, Tehila Zvulun, Natali Elgabsi, Revaya Cohen, Shlomo Sarig

Abstract:

Active sand dunes (ASD) may cause significant damage to field crops and livelihood, and therefore, it is necessary to find a treatment that would enhance ADS soil stability. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) contain microorganisms on the soil surface. Metabolic polysaccharides secreted by biocrust cyanobacteria glue the soil particles into aggregates, thereby stabilizing the soil surface. Filter cake powder (FCP) is a waste by-product in the final stages of the production of sugar from sugarcane, and its disposal causes significant environmental pollution. FCP contains high concentrations of polysaccharides and has recently been shown to be soil stability enhancing agent in ASD. It has been reported that adding FCP to the ASD soil surface by dispersal significantly increases the level of penetration resistance of soil biocrust (PRSB) nine weeks after a single treatment. However, it was not known whether a similar effect could be obtained by administering the FCP in liquid form by means of spraying. It has now been found that spraying a water solution of FCP onto the ASD soil surface significantly increased the level of penetration resistance of soil biocrust (PRSB) three weeks after a single treatment. These results suggest that FCP spraying can be used as a short-term soil stability-enhancing agent for ASD, while administration by dispersal might be more efficient over the long term. Finally, an additional benefit of using FCP as a soil stabilizer, either by dispersal or by spraying, is the reduction in environmental pollution that would otherwise result from the disposal of FCP solid waste.

Keywords: active sand dunes, filter cake powder, biological soil crusts, penetration resistance of soil biocrust

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2825 Sustainable Development Goals 2030: A Case of Malaysian Priorities from the Perspectives of Undergraduate Students

Authors: Zurina Mahadi, Hukil Sino

Abstract:

United Nations resolved 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 to complete what Millennium Development Goals did not achieve. Accommodating 17 goals and 169 targets, Sustainable Development Goals are designated to be achieved over the next 15 years. A survey was conducted in July 2019 among the undergraduate students of a public university in Selangor, Malaysia, to learn their selection over Sustainable Development Goals, which they think is the most critical in the Malaysian scenario. This study adopted a qualitative approach, and data is gathered from a single instruction questionnaire administered to a purposive sample of participants. 13 goals were selected by the participants which are Goal 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16 and 17 while none has selected Goal 7, 9, 14 and 15 which are ‘Affordable and Clean Energy’; ‘Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure’; ‘Life Below Water’ and ‘Life On Land’ respectively. The selected goals are then ranked according to the number of participants who chose that particular goal. Goal 8 is found to be at the highest position of the ranking while Goal 5, 6, 10, and 13 accommodating the lowest position. Goal 8, which is ‘Decent Work and Economic Growth’ is chosen by 13 participants as the most critical goal in Malaysia while Goal 5,6 10, and 13, which are ‘Gender Equality’; ‘Clean Water and Sanitation’; ‘Reduced Inequalities’ and ‘Climate Action’ respectively, are chosen by only one participant each. Issues highlighted by the participants are themed into 10 themes, which are job availability, cost of living, well-being, corruption, education, environment, gender, development planning, consumption, and partnership. The theme of the cost of living has the highest number of issues, followed by the theme of job availability and the environment. The theme of gender has the least number of issues, followed by the theme of corruption and development planning. In principle, these findings, therefore, conclude that from a public university students’ point of view, the most critical sustainable development goal is decent work and economic growth while the most concerning issue is the cost of living. The implications of these findings are students’ knowledge towards the current issues of development, and their views of future sustainable development are considerably high. This study, therefore, suggests their views be inculcated into local, sustainable development frameworks to increase the inclusiveness of the young generation as they are the future SDGs stakeholders.

Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals, Inclusiveness, cost of living, job availability

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2824 Irrigation Water Quality Evaluation Based on Multivariate Statistical Analysis: A Case Study of Jiaokou Irrigation District

Authors: Panpan Xu, Qiying Zhang, Hui Qian

Abstract:

Groundwater is main sources of water supply in the Guanzhong Basin, China. To investigate the quality of groundwater for agricultural purposes in Jiaokou Irrigation District located in the east of the Guanzhong Basin, 141 groundwater samples were collected for analysis of major ions (K⁺, Na⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, SO₄²⁻, Cl⁻, HCO₃⁻, and CO₃²-), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS). Sodium percentage (Na%), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard (MH), and potential salinity (PS) were applied for irrigation water quality assessment. In addition, the multivariate statistical techniques were used to identify the underlying hydrogeochemical processes. Results show that the content of TDS mainly depends on Cl⁻, Na⁺, Mg²⁺, and SO₄²⁻, and the HCO₃⁻ content is generally high except for the eastern sand area. These are responsible for complex hydrogeochemical processes, such as dissolution of carbonate minerals (dolomite and calcite), gypsum, halite, and silicate minerals, the cation exchange, as well as evaporation and concentration. The average evaluation levels of Na%, RSC, MH, and PS for irrigation water quality are doubtful, good, unsuitable, and injurious to unsatisfactory, respectively. Therefore, it is necessary for decision-makers to comprehensively consider the indicators and thus reasonably evaluate the irrigation water quality.

Keywords: Groundwater, multivariate statistical analysis, irrigation water quality, hydrogeochemical process

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2823 A Machine Learning Approach on Environmental Internet of Things Platform for Civil and Industrial Wastewater Quality Analysis with Alert Detection

Authors: Giovanni Cicceri, Roberta Maisano, Nathalie Morey, Salvatore Distefano

Abstract:

The purification system in Calabria, South of Italy, and therefore the water protection sector, together with the waste cycle, has been in critical condition for years. The control and monitoring systems for the management and operation of the plants, which today affects only a small part of the purification plants in the region, need to be strengthened. The Gramb project was born for the development of an integrated territorial system for the real-time monitoring and control of the quality of water, including wastewater, and to constitute a new model to support actor decisions responsible for controlling the territory and the possible quality of purification processes. As an Environmental Internet of Things (EIoT) system, Gramb makes it possible to overcome the current lack of available information on water quality at the territorial and marine-coastal level and to alert, through early warning algorithms, the actors in charge of control to the exceeding of predefined thresholds. This study aims to present the characteristics and technologies applied in the innovative platform. The initial pilot-prototype combines the Internet of Things (IoT) and algorithms of Machine Learning (ML) inside a WebGIS system to help the authority responsible for the hydraulic system and moreover, on wastewater purification process to handle functions of programming, organize and control on the activity of integrated hydraulic service. We use advanced time series forecasting ML techniques to support decision making for those qualified for monitoring and controlling water quality to speed up the processes of environmental purification of water and manage alert in case of pollution detection. The dataset comes from a network of IoT devices (Gramb meter network). In particular, we have built and tested three different models ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average), LSTM (Long Short Term Memory Neural Network), and Facebook Prophet (FP), to forecast major water pollution features by monitoring time series values. We have trained and tested the models obtaining good levels of accuracy. The results show us the validity of our approach showing that the innovative techniques of ML are a good solution for the efficiency and effectiveness of monitoring and control of environmental wastewater purification processes.

Keywords: Machine Learning, time series forecasting, environment monitoring, environmental internet of things, EIoT

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2822 Simulations with Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry of Hourly PM₂.₅ Concentrations over the Metropolitan Area of Lima-Callao, Peru

Authors: Odon Sanchez, Alan Llacza, Paula Castesana, Angel Vara-Vela, Marcelo Alonso, Guy Brasseur

Abstract:

In this study, the (version 4.0) Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate hourly PM₂.₅ concentrations during February 2018 in the Metropolitan Area of Lima-Callao (MALC). Moreover, the simulations were contrasted with in-situ observations. The domain in the MALC is horizontally divided into a 5 x 5 km² grid. The number of vertical grids used was 32, and the number of horizontal grids was 50 points x 50 points. Initial and boundary meteorological conditions were obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Final Analysis (FNL) data set with 0.250 of grid spacing, 26 vertical levels, and are available every six hours: 00:00, 06:00, 12:00, 18:00 UTC. A vehicular emission model was applied to simulate on-road transportation emissions in MALC, the main PM₂.₅ source in the city. Model results reasonably reproduce the temporal hourly variability and PM₂.₅ levels registered by Ate's Air Pollution Monitoring Station (located in the eastern area of MALC). However, model results obtained for San Borja's Air Pollution Monitoring Station (located downtown Lima) and Puente Piedra's Air Pollution Monitoring Station (located in the northern area of MALC) locations were 96.7% and 42.5% higher than the average levels measured by these monitoring stations, respectively.

Keywords: Air Pollution Monitoring, Meteorological Conditions, simulate, vehicular emission model

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2821 Prioritizing Ecosystem Services for South-Central Regions of Chile: An Expert-Based Spatial Multi-Criteria Approach

Authors: Jo Dewulf, Yenisleidy Martinez Martinez, Yannay Casas-Ledon

Abstract:

The ecosystem services (ES) concept has contributed to draw attention to the benefits ecosystems generate for people and how necessary natural resources are for human well-being. The identification and prioritization of the ES constitute the first steps to undertake conservation and valuation initiatives on behalf of people. Additionally, mapping the supply of ES is a powerful tool to support decision making regarding the sustainable management of landscape and natural resources. In this context, the present study aimed to identify, prioritize and map the primary ES in Biobio and Nuble regions using a methodology that combines expert judgment, multi-attribute evaluation methods, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Firstly, scores about the capacity of different land use/cover types to supply ES and the importance attributed to each service were obtained from experts and stakeholders via an online survey. Afterward, the ES assessment matrix was constructed, and the weighted linear combination (WLC) method was applied to mapping the overall capacity of supply of provisioning, regulating and maintenance, and cultural services. Finally, prioritized ES for the study area were selected and mapped. The results suggest that native forests, wetlands, and water bodies have the highest supply capacities of ES, while urban and industrial areas and bare areas have a very low supply of services. On the other hand, fourteen out of twenty-nine services were selected by experts and stakeholders as the most relevant for the regions. The spatial distribution of ES has shown that the Andean Range and part of the Coastal Range have the highest ES supply capacity, mostly regulation and maintenance and cultural ES. This performance is related to the presence of native forests, water bodies, and wetlands in those zones. This study provides specific information about the most relevant ES in Biobio and Nuble according to the opinion of local stakeholders and the spatial identification of areas with a high capacity to provide services. These findings could be helpful as a reference by planners and policymakers to develop landscape management strategies oriented to preserve the supply of services in both regions.

Keywords: ecosystem services, Mapping, multi-criteria decision making, Prioritization, expert judgment

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2820 The Adsorption of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Coconut Shell Activated Carbons

Authors: Premrudee Kanchanapiya, Supachai Songngam, Thanapol Tantisattayakul

Abstract:

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is one of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) that have increasingly attracted concerns due to their global distribution in environment, persistence, high bioaccumulation, and toxicity. It is important to study the effective treatment to remove PFOA from contaminated water. The feasibility of using commercial coconut shell activated carbon produced in Thailand to remove PFOA from water was investigated with regard to their adsorption kinetics and isotherms of powder activated carbon (PAC-325) and granular activated carbon (GAC-20x50). Adsorption kinetic results show that the adsorbent size significantly affected the adsorption rate of PFOA, and GAC-20x50 required at least 100 h to achieve the equilibrium, much longer than 3 h for PAC-325. Two kinetic models were fitted to the experimental data, and the pseudo-second-order model well described the adsorption of PFOA on both PAC-325 and GAC-20x50. PAC-325 trended to adsorb PFOA faster than GAC-20x50, and testing with the shortest adsorption times (5 min) still yielded substantial PFOA removal (~80% for PAC-325). The adsorption isotherms show that the adsorption capacity of PAC-325 was 0.80 mmol/g, which is 83 % higher than that for GAC-20x50 (0.13 mmol/g), according to the Langmuir fitting.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Adsorption, PFOA, perfluorooctanoic acid, coconut shell activated carbons

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2819 Growing Evaluation Process in Chamaedorea Linearis with Humus from Biosolids of the Wastewater Treatment Plant, Nueva Granada Military University Cajica

Authors: J. González, C. Isaza, P. Jimenez

Abstract:

Palms have different characteristics that make them vulnerable; that is the case of the Chamaedorea linearis, with the presence of solitary stems of small diameter and medium leaves, culturally harvested, and in religious festivities used. Additionally, they present a weak apical meristem as the only emergency point, slow development and growth, and an affectation due to the high rate of deforestation in Colombia. Propagation of this species can improve the pressure on wild populations and help their survival in the environment. In this study was used in 177 plants biosolids humus from the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), located at the UMNG Campus Cajica (Cundinamarca, Colombia). The experiment used a control and two treatments with 10% and 20% of humus. During the process, the variables evaluated were number of leaves, percentage of chlorophyll, stem length, and estimated leaf area. The data set were taking during 14 weeks before the reproductive maturity, evidencing that the most representative development of the palms was in the treatment of 20%, plants in this treatment presented major number of leaves, larger stems, a high quantity of chlorophyll, and was a first treatment that present pinnate leaves them represent an important point in maturity process. The research gives an opportunity to improve times of growth in another species of palms and plants (Product result from INV ING 2986 UMNG).

Keywords: Growth, Biosolids, wastewater treatment plant, WWTP, humus, palms

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2818 Provision of Basic Water and Sanitation Services in South Africa through the Municipal Infrastructure Grant Programme

Authors: Elkington Sibusiso Mnguni

Abstract:

Although South Africa has made good progress in providing basic water and sanitation services to all its citizens, there is still a large section of the population that has no access to water and sanitation services. This paper reviews the performance of the government’s municipal infrastructure grant programme in providing these services which are part of the constitutional requirements to the citizens. The method used to gather data and information will be a desk top study which will seek to review the progress made in rolling out the programme. The successes and challenges will be highlighted with a view to proposing possible solutions that can accelerate the reduction of the backlogs and improve the level of service to the citizens.

Keywords: Services, Water, Sanitation, Municipal Infrastructure, grant

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2817 Comparative Study on Hydrothermal Carbonization as Pre- and Post-treatment of Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Sludge: Focus on Energy Recovery, Resources Transformation and Hydrochar Utilization

Authors: Mahmood Al Ramahi, G. Keszthelyi-Szabo, S. Beszedes

Abstract:

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical reaction that utilizes saturated water and vapor pressure to convert waste biomass to C-rich products This work evaluated the effect of HTC as a pre- and post-treatment technique to anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy sludge, as information in this field is still in its infancy, with many research and methodological gaps. HTC effect was evaluated based on energy recovery, nutrients transformation, and sludge biodegradability. The first treatment approach was executed by applying hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) under a range of temperatures, prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy sludge. Results suggested an optimal pretreatment temperature at 210 °C for 30 min. HTC pretreatment increased methane yield and chemical oxygen demand removal. The theoretical model based on Boyle’s equation had a very close match with the experimental results. On the other hand, applying HTC subsequent to AD increased total energy production, as additional energy yield was obtained by the solid fuel (hydrochar) beside the produced biogas. Furthermore, hydrothermal carbonization of AD digestate generated liquid products (HTC digestate) with improved chemical characteristics suggesting their use as liquid fertilizers.

Keywords: Biogas, Energy Balance, Anaerobic Digestion, hydrothermal carbonization, sludge biodegradability

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2816 Investigation of Mangrove Area Effects on Hydrodynamic Conditions of a Tidal Dominant Strait Near the Strait of Hormuz

Authors: Maryam Hajibaba, Mohsen Soltanpour, Mehrnoosh Abbasian, S. Abbas Haghshenas

Abstract:

This paper aims to evaluate the main role of mangroves forests on the unique hydrodynamic characteristics of the Khuran Strait (KS) in the Persian Gulf. Investigation of hydrodynamic conditions of KS is vital to predict and estimate sedimentation and erosion all over the protected areas north of Qeshm Island. KS (or Tang-e-Khuran) is located between Qeshm Island and the Iranian mother land and has a minimum width of approximately two kilometers. Hydrodynamics of the strait is dominated by strong tidal currents of up to 2 m/s. The bathymetry of the area is dynamic and complicated as 1) strong currents do exist in the area which lead to seemingly sand dune movements in the middle and southern parts of the strait, and 2) existence a vast area with mangrove coverage next to the narrowest part of the strait. This is why ordinary modeling schemes with normal mesh resolutions are not capable for high accuracy estimations of current fields in the KS. A comprehensive set of measurements were carried out with several components, to investigate the hydrodynamics and morpho-dynamics of the study area, including 1) vertical current profiling at six stations, 2) directional wave measurements at four stations, 3) water level measurements at six stations, 4) wind measurements at one station, and 5) sediment grab sampling at 100 locations. Additionally, a set of periodic hydrographic surveys was included in the program. The numerical simulation was carried out by using Delft3D – Flow Module. Model calibration was done by comparing water levels and depth averaged velocity of currents against available observational data. The results clearly indicate that observed data and simulations only fit together if a realistic perspective of the mangrove area is well captured by the model bathymetry data. Generating unstructured grid by using RGFGRID and QUICKIN, the flow model was driven with water level time-series at open boundaries. Adopting the available field data, the key role of mangrove area on the hydrodynamics of the study area can be studied. The results show that including the accurate geometry of the mangrove area and consideration of its sponge-like behavior are the key aspects through which a realistic current field can be simulated in the KS.

Keywords: current, Persian Gulf, Delft3D, Khuran Strait, tide

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2815 Demographic Impact on Wastewater: A Systemic Analysis of Human Impact on Wastewater Quality in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Dewan Hasin Mahtab, Farzana Sadia

Abstract:

At present, wastewater treatment has become essential to maintain a constant supply of safe water as well as to protect the environment. Due to overpopulation and overconsumption, the water quality from various surface water sources is degrading every day. Being one of the megacities in the world, Dhaka City, is going through rapid industrialization and urbanization. The effluents from these industries and factories are mostly discharged directly into the rivers without any treatment. As such, the quality of water of Buriganga is being afflicted with a noisome problem of pollution. The water of the Buriganga River has become detrimental to humans, animals, and the environment. It has become crucial to conserve the environment so that we can save both ourselves and the environment. The first step towards it should be analyzing the wastewater to decide the further steps of the treatment process. Increased population and increased consumption both contribute to water pollution. Mohammadpur is a developing area of Dhaka City, and Kamrangirchar is one of the largest slum areas in Dhaka City. The total study area is 6.13 sq. Km of Dhaka city with a population of 4,73,310 people. Of them, 86.47% had their own latrine, 47% were directly connected to the drain, 55% had septic tanks, and 70.09% of them cleaned their septic tank once a year. The pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Total Dissolved Solid, Total Suspended and total coliforms of wastewater from two samples of both Mohammadpur and Kamrangirchar was analyzed. The DO level from the water bodies of Kamrangirchar was found very low, making the water bodies inhabitable for aquatic plants and animals. The BOD and COD level was extremely high from samples collected from Mohammadpur. The total coliforms count was found too high during the wet season, making it a potential health concern in the wet season in these two areas.

Keywords: wastewater, Sanitation, Dhaka, environmental conservation rule

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2814 Re-Examining the Distinction between Odour Nuisance and Health Impact: A Community’s Campaign against Landfill Gas Exposure in Shongweni, South Africa

Authors: Colin David La Grange, Lisa Frost Ramsay

Abstract:

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a minor component of landfill gas, but significant in its distinct odorous quality and its association with landfill-related community complaints. The World Health Organisation (WHO) provides two guidelines for H2S: a health guideline at 150 µg/m3 on a 24-hour average, and a nuisance guideline at 7 µg/m3 on a 30-minute average. Albeit a practical distinction for impact assessment, this paper highlights the danger of the apparent dualism between nuisance and health impact, particularly when it is used to dismiss community concerns of perceived health impacts at low concentrations of H2S, as in the case of a community battle against the impacts of a landfill in Shongweni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Here community members reported, using a community developed mobile phone application, a range of health symptoms that coincided with, or occurred subsequent to, odour events and localised H2S peaks. Local doctors also documented increased visits for symptoms of respiratory distress, eye and skin irritation, and stress after such odour events. Objectively measured H2S and other pollutant concentrations during these events, however, remained below WHO health guidelines. This case study highlights the importance of the physiological link between the experience of environmental nuisance and overall health and wellbeing, showing these to be less distinct than the WHO guidelines would suggest. The potential mechanisms of impact of an odorous plume, with key constituents at concentrations below traditional health thresholds, on psychologically and/or physiologically sensitised individuals are described. In the case of psychological sensitisation, previously documented mechanisms such as aversive conditioning and odour-triggered panic are relevant. Physiological sensitisation to environmental pollutants, evident as a seemingly disproportionate physical (allergy-type) response to either low concentrations or a short duration exposure of a toxin or toxins, remains extensively examined but still not well understood. The links between a heightened sensitivity to toxic compounds, accumulation of some compounds in the body, and a pre-existing or associated immunological stress disorder are presented as a possible explanation.

Keywords: immunological stress disorder, landfill odour, odour nuisance, odour sensitisation, toxin accumulation

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2813 Use of Waste Active Sludge for Reducing Fe₂O₃

Authors: A. Parra Parra, M. Vlasova, P. A. Marquez, M. Kakazey, M. C. Resendiz Gonzalez

Abstract:

The work of water treatment plants from various sources of pollution includes a biological treatment stage using activated sludge. Due to the large volume of toxic activated sludge waste (WAS) generated and soil contamination during its storage, WAS disposal technologies are being continuously developed. The most common is the carbonization of WAS. The carbonization products are various forms of ordered and disordered carbon material having different reactivity. The aim of this work was to study the reduction process of Fe₂O₃ mixed with activated sludge waste (WAS). It could be assumed that the simultaneous action of the WAS thermal decomposition process, accompanied by the formation of reactive nano-carbon, with carbothermal reduction of the Fe₂O₃, will permit intensify reduction of metal oxide up to stage of metal and iron carbide formation. The studies showed that the temperature treatment in the region of (800-1000) °C for 1 hour under conditions of oxygen deficiency is accompanied by the occurrence of reactions: Fe₂O₃ → Fe₃O₄ → FeO → Fe, which are typical for the metallurgical process of iron smelting, but less energy-intensive. Depending on the ratio of the WAS - Fe₂O₃ components and the temperature-time regime of reduction of iron oxide, it is possible to distinguish the stages of the predominant formation of ferromagnetic compounds, cast iron, and iron carbide. The results indicated the promise of using WAS as a metals oxide reducing agent and obtaining of ceramic-based on metal carbides.

Keywords: Fe2O3, carbothermal reduction, FeₓOᵧ-C, waste activated sludge

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2812 Bacterial Diversity Reports Contamination around the Ichkeul Lake in Tunisia

Authors: Zeina Bourhane, Anders Lanzen, Christine Cagnon, Olfa Ben Said, Cristiana Cravo-Laureau, Robert Duran

Abstract:

The anthropogenic pressure in coastal areas increases dramatically with the exploitation of environmental resources. Biomonitoring coastal areas are crucial to determine the impact of pollutants on bacterial communities in soils and sediments since they provide important ecosystem services. However, relevant biomonitoring tools allowing fast determination of the ecological status are yet to be defined. Microbial ecology approaches provide useful information for developing such microbial monitoring tools reporting on the effect of environmental stressors. Chemical and microbial molecular approaches were combined in order to determine microbial bioindicators for assessing the ecological status of soil and river ecosystems around the Ichkeul Lake (Tunisia), an area highly impacted by human activities. Samples were collected along soil/river/lake continuums in three stations around the Ichkeul Lake influenced by different human activities at two seasons (summer and winter). Contaminant pressure indexes (PI), including PAHs (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), alkanes, and OCPs (Organochlorine pesticides) contents, showed significant differences in the contamination level between the stations with seasonal variation. Bacterial communities were characterized by 16S ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) gene metabarcoding. Although microgAMBI indexes, determined from the sequencing data, were in accordance with contaminant contents, they were not sufficient to fully explain the PI. Therefore, further microbial indicators are still to be defined. The comparison of bacterial communities revealed the specific microbial assemblage for soil, river, and lake sediments, which were significantly correlated with contaminant contents and PI. Such observation offers the possibility to define a relevant set of bioindicators for reporting the effects of human activities on the microbial community structure. Such bioindicators might constitute useful monitoring tools for the management of microbial communities in coastal areas.

Keywords: Human Impacts, Biomonitoring, Contamination, bacterial communities, microbial bioindicators

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2811 Electronic Waste Analysis And Characterization Study: Management Input For Highly Urbanized Cities

Authors: Jilbert Novelero, Oliver Mariano

Abstract:

In a world where technological evolution and competition to create innovative products are at its peak, problems on Electronic Waste (E-Waste) are now becoming a global concern. E-waste is said to be any electrical or electronic devices that have reached the terminal of its useful life. The major issue are the volume and the raw materials used in crafting E-waste which is non-biodegradable and contains hazardous substances that are toxic to human health and the environment. The objective of this study is to gather baseline data in terms of the composition of E-waste in the solid waste stream and to determine the top 5 E-waste categories in a highly urbanized city. Recommendations in managing these wastes for its reduction were provided which may serve as a guide for acceptance and implementation in the locality. Pasig City was the chosen beneficiary of the research output and through the collaboration of the City Government of Pasig and its Solid Waste Management Office (SWMO); the researcher successfully conducted the Electronic Waste Analysis and Characterization Study (E-WACS) to achieve the objectives. E-WACS that was conducted on April 2019 showed that E-waste ranked 4th which comprises the 10.39% of the overall solid waste volume. Out of 345, 127.24kg which is the total daily domestic waste generation in the city, E-waste covers 35,858.72kg. Moreover, an average of 40 grams was determined to be the E-waste generation per person per day. The top 5 E-waste categories were then classified after the analysis. The category which ranked first is the office and telecommunications equipment that contained the 63.18% of the total generated E-waste. Second in ranking was the household appliances category with 21.13% composition. Third was the lighting devices category with 8.17%. Fourth on ranking was the consumer electronics and batteries category which was composed of 5.97% and fifth was the wires and cables category where it comprised the 1.41% of the average generated E-waste samples. One of the recommendations provided in this research is the implementation of the Pasig City Waste Advantage Card. The card can be used as a privilege card and earned points can be converted to avail of and enjoy services such as haircut, massage, dental services, medical check-up, and etc. Another recommendation raised is for the LGU to encourage a communication or dialogue with the technology and electronics manufacturers and distributors and international and local companies to plan the retrieval and disposal of the E-wastes in accordance with the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) policy where producers are given significant responsibilities for the treatment and disposal of post-consumer products.

Keywords: E-Waste, Electronic Waste, E-WACS, E-waste characterization, electronic waste analysis

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2810 Application of Advanced Remote Sensing Data in Mineral Exploration in the Vicinity of Heavy Dense Forest Cover Area of Jharkhand and Odisha State Mining Area

Authors: Hemant Kumar, A. P. Krishna, R. N. K. Sharma

Abstract:

The study has been carried out on the Saranda in Jharkhand and a part of Odisha state. Geospatial data of Hyperion, a remote sensing satellite, have been used. This study has used a wide variety of patterns related to image processing to enhance and extract the mining class of Fe and Mn ores.Landsat-8, OLI sensor data have also been used to correctly explore related minerals. In this way, various processes have been applied to increase the mineralogy class and comparative evaluation with related frequency done. The Hyperion dataset for hyperspectral remote sensing has been specifically verified as an effective tool for mineral or rock information extraction within the band range of shortwave infrared used. The abundant spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images enables the differentiation of different objects of any object into targeted applications for exploration such as exploration detection, mining.

Keywords: Sensor, Hyperspectral, hyperion, Landsat-8

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2809 Spatial Variability of Brahmaputra River Flow Characteristics

Authors: Hemant Kumar

Abstract:

Brahmaputra River is known according to the Hindu mythology the son of the Lord Brahma. According to this name, the river Brahmaputra creates mass destruction during the monsoon season in Assam, India. It is a state situated in North-East part of India. This is one of the essential states out of the seven countries of eastern India, where almost all entire Brahmaputra flow carried out. The other states carry their tributaries. In the present case study, the spatial analysis performed in this specific case the number of MODIS data are acquired. In the method of detecting the change, the spray content was found during heavy rainfall and in the flooded monsoon season. By this method, particularly the analysis over the Brahmaputra outflow determines the flooded season. The charged particle-associated in aerosol content genuinely verifies the heavy water content below the ground surface, which is validated by trend analysis through rainfall spectrum data. This is confirmed by in-situ sampled view data from a different position of Brahmaputra River. Further, a Hyperion Hyperspectral 30 m resolution data were used to scan the sediment deposits, which is also confirmed by in-situ sampled view data from a different position.

Keywords: Aerosol, Spatial analysis, Trend Analysis, change detection

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2808 European Environmental Policy for Road Transport: Analysis of the Perverse Effects Generated and Proposals for a Good Practice Guide

Authors: Pedro Pablo Ramirez Sanchez, Alassane Balle Ndiaye, Roberto Rendeiro Martin-Cejas

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to analyse the different environmental policies adopted in Europe for car emissions, to comment on some of the possible perverse effects generated and point out these policies which are considered more efficient under the environmental perspective. This paper is focused on passenger cars as this category is the most significant in road transport. The utility of this research lies in this being the first step or basis to improve and optimise actual policies. The methodology applied in this paper refers to a comparative analysis from a practical and theoretical point of view of European environmental policies in road transport. This work describes an overview of the road transport industry in Europe pointing out some relevant aspects such as the contribution of road transport to total emissions and the vehicle fleet in Europe. Additionally, we propose a brief practice guide with the combined policies in order to optimise their aim.

Keywords: Climate Change, Air quality, Environment, Emission, Road Transport, perverse effect, tax policy

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2807 Evaluating Water Quality Index of Euphrates River South-West Part of Iraq, Najaf, Alhadaria by Using GIS Technique

Authors: Ali Abojassim, Nabeel Kadhim, Adil Jaber, Ali Hussein

Abstract:

Water quality index (WQI) is valuable and unique rating to depict the total water quality status in a single term that is helpful for the selection of appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues. Fifteen surface water samples were collected from the Euphrates river within AlHaydria is sub district of AL-Najaf (Iraq). The quality of surface water were evaluated by testing various physicochemical parameters such as pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), , Calcium, Chloride, Sulphate and Electrical conductivity. The WQI for all samples were found in the range of 25.92 to 47.22. The highest value of WQI was observed in the Ali Hajj Hassan(SW4,SW8), El Haj Abdel Sayed (SW 10 to SW 12)and Hasan alsab(SW 14) sampling locations. Most of the water samples within study area were found good to moderate categories. most of the water samples for study area were found good as well as moderate categories

Keywords: GIS, water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iraq Standards for irrigation purpose 2012

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2806 Variation in Wood Anatomical Properties of Acacia seyal var. seyal Tree Species Growing in Different Zones in Sudan

Authors: Hanadi Mohamed Shawgi Gamal, Ashraf Mohamed Ahmed Abdalla

Abstract:

Sudan is endowed by a great diversity of tree species; nevertheless, the utilization of wood resources has traditionally concentrated on a few number of species. With the great variation in the climatic zones of Sudan, great variations are expected in the anatomical properties between and within species. This variation needs to be fully explored in order to suggest the best uses for the species. Modern research on wood has substantiated that the climatic condition where the species grow has significant effect on wood properties. Understanding the extent of variability of wood is important because the uses for each kind of wood are related to its characteristics; furthermore, the suitability or quality of wood for a particular purpose is determined by the variability of one or more of these characteristics. The present study demonstrates the effect of rainfall zones in some anatomical properties of Acacia seyal var. seyal growing in Sudan. For this purpose, twenty healthy trees were collected randomly from two zones (ten trees per zone). One zone with relatively low rainfall (273mm annually) which represented by North Kordofan state and White Nile state and the second with relatively high rainfall (701 mm annually) represented by Blue Nile state and South Kordofan state. From each sampled tree, a stem disc (3 cm thick) was cut at 10% from stem height. One radius was obtained in central stem dices. Two representative samples were taken from each disc, one at 10% distance from pith to bark, the second at 90% in order to represent the juvenile and mature wood. The investigated anatomical properties were fibers length, fibers and vessels diameter, lumen diameter, and wall thickness as well as cell proportions. The result of the current study reveals significant differences between zones in mature wood vessels diameter and wall thickness, as well as juvenile wood vessels, wall thickness. The higher values were detected in the drier zone. Significant differences were also observed in juvenile wood fiber length, diameter as well as wall thickness. Contrary to vessels diameter and wall thickness, the fiber length, diameter as well as wall thickness were decreased in the drier zone. No significant differences have been detected in cell proportions of juvenile and mature wood. The significant differences in some fiber and vessels dimension lead to expect significant differences in wood density. From these results, Acacia seyal var. seyal seems to be well adapted with the change in rainfall and may survive in any rainfall zone.

Keywords: Variation, anatomical properties, Acacia seyal var. seyal, rainfall zones

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2805 Validation of the X-Ray Densitometry Method for Radial Density Pattern Determination of Acacia seyal var. seyal Tree Species

Authors: Hanadi Mohamed Shawgi Gamal, Claus Thomas Bues

Abstract:

Wood density is a variable influencing many of the technological and quality properties of wood. Understanding the pattern of wood density radial variation is important for its end-use. The X-ray technique, traditionally applied to softwood species to assess the wood quality properties, due to its simple and relatively uniform wood structure. On the other hand, very limited information is available about the validation of using this technique for hardwood species. The suitability of using the X-ray technique for the determination of hardwood density has a special significance in countries like Sudan, where only a few timbers are well known. This will not only save the time consumed by using the traditional methods, but it will also enhance the investigations of the great number of the lesser known species, the thing which will fill the huge cap of lake information of hardwood species growing in Sudan. The current study aimed to evaluate the validation of using the X-ray densitometry technique to determine the radial variation of wood density of Acacia seyal var. seyal. To this, a total of thirty trees were collected randomly from four states in Sudan. The wood density radial trend was determined using the basic density as well as density obtained by the X-ray densitometry method in order to assess the validation of X-ray technique in wood density radial variation determination. The results showed that the pattern of radial trend of density obtained by X-ray technique is very similar to that achieved by basic density. These results confirmed the validation of using the X-ray technique for Acacia seyal var. seyal density radial trend determination. It also promotes the suitability of using this method in other hardwood species.

Keywords: wood density, X-ray densitometry, Acacia seyal var. seyal, radial variation

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2804 Quantifying Wave Attenuation over an Eroding Marsh through Numerical Modeling

Authors: Donald G. Danmeier, Gian Marco Pizzo, Matthew Brennan

Abstract:

Although wetlands have been proposed as a green alternative to manage coastal flood hazards because of their capacity to adapt to sea level rise and provision of multiple ecological and social co-benefits, they are often overlooked due to challenges in quantifying the uncertainty and naturally, variability of these systems. This objective of this study was to quantify wave attenuation provided by a natural marsh surrounding a large oil refinery along the US Gulf Coast that has experienced steady erosion along the shoreward edge. The vegetation module of the SWAN was activated and coupled with a hydrodynamic model (DELFT3D) to capture two-way interactions between the changing water level and wavefield over the course of a storm event. Since the marsh response to relative sea level rise is difficult to predict, a range of future marsh morphologies is explored. Numerical results were examined to determine the amount of wave attenuation as a function of marsh extent and the relative contributions from white-capping, depth-limited wave breaking, bottom friction, and flexing of vegetation. In addition to the coupled DELFT3D-SWAN modeling of a storm event, an uncoupled SWAN-VEG model was applied to a simplified bathymetry to explore a larger experimental design space. The wave modeling revealed that the rate of wave attenuation reduces for higher surge but was still significant over a wide range of water levels and outboard wave heights. The results also provide insights to the minimum marsh extent required to fully realize the potential wave attenuation so the changing coastal hazards can be managed.

Keywords: wetland, Green Infrastructure, wave attenuation, wave modeling

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2803 Biodegradation Study of a Biocomposite Material Based on Sunflower Oil and Alfa Fibers as Natural Resources

Authors: Sihem Kadem, Ratiba Irinislimane, Naima Belhaneche

Abstract:

The natural resistance to biodegradation of polymeric materials prepared from petroleum-based source and the management of their wastes in the environment are the driving forces to replace them by other biodegradable materials from renewable resources. For that, in this work new biocomposites materials have been synthesis from sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus) and alfa plants (Stipatenacissima) as natural based resources. The sunflower oil (SFO) was chemically modified via epoxidation then acrylation reactions to obtain acrylated epoxidized sunflower oil resin (AESFO). The AESFO resin was then copolymerized with styrene as co-monomer in the presence of boron trifluoride (BF3) as cationic initiator and cobalt octoate (Co) as catalyst. The alfa fibers were treated with alkali treatment (5% NaOH) before been used as bio-reinforcement. Biocomposites were prepared by mixing the resin with untreated and treated alfa fibers at different percentages. A biodegradation study was carried out for the synthesized biocomposites in a solid medium (burial in the soil) by evaluated, first, the loss of mass, the results obtained were reached between 7.8% and 11% during one year. Then an observation under an optical microscope was carried out, after one year of burial in the soil, microcracks, brown and black spots were appeared on the samples surface. This results shows that the synthesized biocomposites have a great aptitude for biodegradation.

Keywords: Soil, biodegradation, biocomposite, sunflower oil, alfa fiber

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2802 Beyond Voluntary Corporate Social Responsibility: Examining the Impact of the New Mandatory Community Development Agreement in the Mining Sector of Sierra Leone

Authors: Wusu Conteh

Abstract:

Since the 1990s, neo-liberalization has become a global agenda. The free market ushered in an unprecedented drive by Multinational Corporations (MNCs) to secure mineral rights in resource-rich countries. Several governments in the Global South implemented a liberalized mining policy with support from the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). MNCs have maintained that voluntary Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has engendered socio-economic development in mining-affected communities. However, most resource-rich countries are struggling to transform the resources into sustainable socio-economic development. They are trapped in what has been widely described as the ‘resource curse.’ In an attempt to address this resource conundrum, the African Mining Vision (AMV) of 2009 developed a model on resource governance. The advent of the AMV has engendered the introduction of mandatory community development agreement (CDA) into the legal framework of many countries in Africa. In 2009, Sierra Leone enacted the Mines and Minerals Act that obligates mining companies to invest in Primary Host Communities. The study employs interviews and field observation techniques to explicate the dynamics of the CDA program. A total of 25 respondents -government officials, NGOs/CSOs and community stakeholders were interviewed. The study focuses on a case study of the Sierra Rutile CDA program in Sierra Leone. Extant scholarly works have extensively explored the resource curse and voluntary CSR. There are limited studies to uncover the mandatory CDA and its impact on socio-economic development in mining-affected communities. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explicate the impact of the CDA in Sierra Leone. Using the theory of change helps to understand how the availability of mandatory funds can empower communities to take an active part in decision making related to the development of the communities. The results show that the CDA has engendered a predictable fund for community development. It has also empowered ordinary members of the community to determine the development program. However, the CDA has created a new ground for contestations between the pre-existing local governance structure (traditional authority) and the newly created community development committee (CDC) that is headed by an ordinary member of the community.

Keywords: Participation, Impact, mandatory, community development agreement

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2801 Does Trade and Institutional Quality Play Any Significant Role on Environmental Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa?

Authors: Luqman Afolabi

Abstract:

This paper measures the impacts of trade and institutions on environmental quality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To examine the direction and the magnitude of the effects, the study employs the pooled mean group (PMG) estimation technique on the panel data obtained from the World Bank’s World Development and Governance Indicators, between 1996 and 2018. The empirical estimates validate the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis (EKC) for the region, even though there have been inconclusive results on the environment – growth nexus. Similarly, a positive coefficient is obtained on the impact of trade on the environment, while the impact of the institutional indicators produce mixed results. A significant policy implication is that the governments of the SSA countries pursue policies that tend to increase economic growth, so that pollutants may be reduced. Such policies may include the provision of incentives for sustainable growth-driven industries in the region. In addition, the governance infrastructures should be improved in such a way that appropriate penalties are imposed on the pollutants, while advanced technologies that have the potentials to reduce environmental degradation should be encouraged. Finally, it is imperative from these findings that the governments of the region should promote their trade relations and the competitiveness of their local industries in order to keep pace with the global markets.

Keywords: Trade, Environmental Quality, institutional quality sustainable development goals

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2800 Cleaner Production Options for Fishery Wastes around Lake Tana-Ethiopia

Authors: Demisash, Abate Getnet, Gudisa, Ababo Geleta, Daba, Berhane Olani

Abstract:

As consumption trends of fish are rising in Ethiopia, assessment of the environmental performance of Fisheries becomes vital. Hence, Cleaner Production Assessment was conducted on Lake Tana No.1 Fish Supply Association. This paper focuses on determining the characteristics, quantity, and setting up cleaner production options for the site with the experimental investigation. The survey analysis showed that illegal waste dumping in Lake Tana is common practice in the area, and some of the main reasons raised were they have no option than doing this for dis-charging fish wastes. Quantifying a fish waste by examination of records at the point of generation resulted in a generation rate of 72,822.61 kg per year, which is a significant amount of waste and needs management system. The result of the proximate analysis showed high free fat content of about 12.33%, and this was a good candidate for the production of biodiesel that has been set as an option for fish waste utilization. Among the different waste management options, waste reduction by product optimization, which involves biodiesel production, was chosen as a potential method. Laboratory scale experiments were performed to produce a renewable energy source from the wastes. The resulting biodiesel was characterized and found to have a density of 0.756kg/L, viscosity 0.24p, and 153°C flashpoints, which shows the product has values in compliance with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Waste Management, Cleaner Production, Biodiesel

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2799 Heat and Mass Transfer Modelling of Industrial Sludge Drying at Different Pressures and Temperatures

Authors: L. Al Ahmad, C. Latrille, D. Hainos, D. Blanc, M. Clausse

Abstract:

A two-dimensional finite volume axisymmetric model is developed to predict the simultaneous heat and mass transfers during the drying of industrial sludge. The simulations were run using COMSOL-Multiphysics 3.5a. The input parameters of the numerical model were acquired from a preliminary experimental work. Results permit to establish correlations describing the evolution of the various parameters as a function of the drying temperature and the sludge water content. The selection and coupling of the equation are validated based on the drying kinetics acquired experimentally at a temperature range of 45-65 °C and absolute pressure range of 200-1000 mbar. The model, incorporating the heat and mass transfer mechanisms at different operating conditions, shows simulated values of temperature and water content. Simulated results are found concordant with the experimental values, only at the first and last drying stages where sludge shrinkage is insignificant. Simulated and experimental results show that sludge drying is favored at high temperatures and low pressure. As experimentally observed, the drying time is reduced by 68% for drying at 65 °C compared to 45 °C under 1 atm. At 65 °C, a 200-mbar absolute pressure vacuum leads to an additional reduction in drying time estimated by 61%. However, the drying rate is underestimated in the intermediate stage. This rate underestimation could be improved in the model by considering the shrinkage phenomena that occurs during sludge drying.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Mathematical Modelling, mass transfer, industrial sludge drying

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2798 Super Mario Guide: An Updated Roadmap on Research with Travel Subjective Well-Being

Authors: Wu Hu

Abstract:

There is an increasing amount of research bridging the gap between transportation and subjective well-being (SWB). However, travel SWB research in this area is still sporadic. Therefore, we are in need of a more systematic body of work that examines travel SWB considering various work occupations, working conditions, commuting variabilities, and other related variables, and develops updated qualitative and quantitative methods to inform the transportation design. In this Super Mario Guide, the author reflects on the related elements involved with travel SWB under four categories (having Super Mario as the protagonist): 1. the starting point including variables like living conditions; 2. the commuter including the commuter’s age, gender, occupation, and others; 3. the commuting including commuting environment, vehicles, commuting time, commuting vehicles flexibility and variability and others; 4. destination including the workplace conditions, the corporate culture on working flexibility, the employer supportiveness and others. In addition, with the rise of new vehicles such as auto-driving, this research can play a significant role to better understand travel SWB and to guide the design of more efficient travelling systems so as to improve worker performance and general SWB. The author also shares thoughts on promising areas for future research.

Keywords: Transportation, Happiness, commuting, subjective well-being (SWB)

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