Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3553

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Environmental and Ecological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

3553 Methodology for Assessing Spatial Equity of Urban Green Space

Authors: Asna Anchalan, Anjana Bhagyanathan

Abstract:

Urban green space plays an important role in providing health (physical and mental well-being), economic, and environmental benefits for urban residents and neighborhoods. Ensuring equitable distribution of urban green space is vital to ensure equal access to these benefits. This study is developing a methodology for assessing spatial equity of urban green spaces in the Indian context. Through a systematic literature review, the research trends, parameters, data, and tools being used are identified. After 2020, the research in this domain is increasing rapidly, where COVID-19 acted as a catalyst. Indian documents use various terminologies, definitions, and classifications of urban green spaces. The terminology, definition, and classification for this study are done after reviewing several Indian documents, master plans, and research papers. Parameters identified for assessing spatial equity are availability, proximity, accessibility, and socio-economic disparity. Criteria for evaluating each parameter were identified from diverse research papers. There is a research gap identified as a comprehensive approach encompassing all four parameters. The outcome of this study led to the development of a methodology that addresses the gaps, providing a practical tool applicable across diverse Indian cities.

Keywords: urban green space, spatial equity, accessibility, proximity, methodology

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3552 Toxic Metal and Radiological Risk Assessment of Soil, Water and Vegetables around a Gold Mine Turned Residential Area in Mokuro Area of Ile-Ife, Osun State Nigeria: An Implications for Human Health

Authors: Grace O. Akinlade, Danjuma D. Maza, Oluwakemi O. Olawolu, Delight O. Babalola, John A. O. Oyekunle, Joshua O. Ojo

Abstract:

The Mokuro area of Ile-Ife, South West Nigeria, was well known for gold mining in the past (about twenty years ago). However, the place has since been reclaimed and converted to residential area without any environmental risk assessment of the impact of the mining tailings on the environment. Soil, water, and plant samples were collected from 4 different locations around the mine-turned-residential area. Soil samples were pulverized and sieved into finer particles, while the plant samples were dried and pulverized. All the samples were digested and analyzed for As, Pb, Cd, and Zn using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). From the analysis results, the hazard index (HI) was then calculated for the metals. The soil and plant samples were air dried and pulverized, then weighed, after which the samples were packed into special and properly sealed containers to prevent radon gas leakage. After the sealing, the samples were kept for 28 days to attain secular equilibrium. The concentrations of 40K, 238U, and 232Th in the samples were measured using a cesium iodide (CsI) spectrometer and URSA software. The AAS analysis showed that As, Pb, Cd (Toxic metals), and Zn (essential trace metals) are in concentrations lower than permissible limits in plants and soil samples, while the water samples had concentrations higher than permissible limits. The calculated health indices (HI) show that HI for water is >1 and that of plants and soil is <1. Gamma spectrometry result shows high levels of activity concentrations above the recommended limits for all the soil and plant samples collected from the area. Only the water samples have activity concentrations below the recommended limit. Consequently, the absorbed dose, annual effective dose, and excess lifetime cancer risk are all above the recommended safe limit for all the samples except for water samples. In conclusion, all the samples collected from the area are either contaminated with toxic metals or they pose radiological hazards to the consumers. Further detailed study is therefore recommended in order to be able to advise the residents appropriately.

Keywords: toxic metals, gamma spectrometry, Ile-Ife, radiological hazards, gold mining

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3551 Eco-Products in Day-to-Day Life: A Catalyst for Achieving Sustainability

Authors: Rani Fernandez

Abstract:

As global concerns regarding environmental degradation and climate change intensify, the imperative for sustainable living has never been more critical. This research delves into the role of eco-products in everyday life as a pivotal strategy for achieving sustainability. The study investigates the awareness, adoption, and impact of eco-friendly products on individual and community levels. The research employs a mixed-methods approach, combining surveys, interviews, and case studies to explore consumer perceptions, behaviours, and motivations surrounding the use of eco-products. Additionally, life cycle assessments are conducted to evaluate the environmental footprint of selected eco-products, shedding light on their tangible contributions to sustainability. The findings reveal the diverse range of eco-products available in the market, from biodegradable packaging to energy-efficient appliances, and the extent to which consumers integrate these products into their daily routines. Moreover, the research examines the challenges and opportunities associated with widespread adoption, considering factors such as cost, accessibility, and efficacy. In addition to individual consumption patterns, the study investigates the broader societal impact of eco-product integration. It explores the potential for eco-products to drive systemic change by influencing supply chains, corporate practices, and government policies. The research highlights successful case studies of communities or businesses that have effectively incorporated eco-products, providing valuable insights into scalable models for sustainability. Ultimately, this research contributes to the discourse on sustainable living by elucidating the pivotal role of eco-products in shaping environmentally conscious behaviours. By understanding the dynamics of eco-product adoption, policymakers, businesses, and individuals can collaboratively work towards a more sustainable future. The implications of this study extend beyond academia, informing practical strategies for fostering a global shift towards sustainable consumption and production.

Keywords: eco-friendly, sustainablity, environment, climate change

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3550 Sheathed Cotton Fibers: Material for Oil-Spill Cleanup

Authors: Benjamin M Dauda, Esther Ibrahim, Sylvester Gadimoh, Asabe Mustapha, Jiyah Mohammed

Abstract:

Despite diverse optimization techniques on natural hydrophilic fibers, hydrophobic synthetic fibers are still the best oil sorption materials. However, these hydrophobic fibers are not biodegradable, making their disposal problematic. To this end, this work sets out to develop Nonwoven sorbents from epoxy-coated Cotton fibers. As a way of improving the compatibility of the crude oil and reduction of moisture absorption, cotton fibers were coated with epoxy resin by immersion in acetone-thinned epoxy solution. A needle-punching machine was used to convert the fibers into coherent nonwoven sheets. An oil sorption experiment was then carried out. The result indicates that the developed epoxy-modified sorbent has a higher crude oil-sorption capacity compared with those of untreated cotton and commercial polypropylene sorbents. Absorption Curves show that the coated fiber and polypropylene sorbent saturated faster than the uncoated cotton fiber pad. The result also shows that the coated cotton sorbent adsorbed crude faster than the polypropylene sorbent, and the equilibrium exhaustion was also higher. After a simple mechanical squeezing process, the Nonwoven pads could be restored to their original form and repeatedly recycled for oil/water separation. The results indicate that the cotton-coated non-woven pads hold promise for the cleanup of oil spills. Our data suggests that the sorption behaviors of the epoxy-coated Nonwoven pads and their crude oil sorption capacity are relatively stable under various environmental conditions compared to the commercial sheet.

Keywords: oil spill, adsorption, cotton, epoxy, nonwoven

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3549 Study on the Rapid Start-up and Functional Microorganisms of the Coupled Process of Short-range Nitrification and Anammox in Landfill Leachate Treatment

Authors: Lina Wu

Abstract:

The excessive discharge of nitrogen in sewage greatly intensifies the eutrophication of water bodies and poses a threat to water quality. Nitrogen pollution control has become a global concern. Currently, the problem of water pollution in China is still not optimistic. As a typical high ammonia nitrogen organic wastewater, landfill leachate is more difficult to treat than domestic sewage because of its complex water quality, high toxicity, and high concentration.Many studies have shown that the autotrophic anammox bacteria in nature can combine nitrous and ammonia nitrogen without carbon source through functional genes to achieve total nitrogen removal, which is very suitable for the removal of nitrogen from leachate. In addition, the process also saves a lot of aeration energy consumption than the traditional nitrogen removal process. Therefore, anammox plays an important role in nitrogen conversion and energy saving. The process composed of short-range nitrification and denitrification coupled an ammo ensures the removal of total nitrogen and improves the removal efficiency, meeting the needs of the society for an ecologically friendly and cost-effective nutrient removal treatment technology. Continuous flow process for treating late leachate [an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB), anoxic/oxic (A/O)–anaerobic ammonia oxidation reactor (ANAOR or anammox reactor)] has been developed to achieve autotrophic deep nitrogen removal. In this process, the optimal process parameters such as hydraulic retention time and nitrification flow rate have been obtained, and have been applied to the rapid start-up and stable operation of the process system and high removal efficiency. Besides, finding the characteristics of microbial community during the start-up of anammox process system and analyzing its microbial ecological mechanism provide a basis for the enrichment of anammox microbial community under high environmental stress. One research developed partial nitrification-Anammox (PN/A) using an internal circulation (IC) system and a biological aerated filter (BAF) biofilm reactor (IBBR), where the amount of water treated is closer to that of landfill leachate. However, new high-throughput sequencing technology is still required to be utilized to analyze the changes of microbial diversity of this system, related functional genera and functional genes under optimal conditions, providing theoretical and further practical basis for the engineering application of novel anammox system in biogas slurry treatment and resource utilization.

Keywords: nutrient removal and recovery, leachate, anammox, partial nitrification

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3548 A Geospatial Analysis of Diminishing Himalayan Ice Under Influence of Anthropomorphism: A Case Study of Himalayan Ice From 1990 to 2020 in Pakistan

Authors: Ali Akber Khan

Abstract:

In the 21st century, freshwater resources, especially ice cover, would have grave significance as ice carries most of the total freshwater resources in the world. The Himalayas in Pakistan is one of the biggest sources of fresh water for Pakistan. These regions of the Himalayas and neighboring mountains include Swat, Chitral, Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Mardan, Swabi, Haripur, Abbottabad, Muzaffarabad, Neelum, and Mansehra in Pakistan. The study examines ice resources in the years 1990 to 2020 and shows a decrease in snow-shrouded regions, reducing from 72,187.54 sq. km in 1990 to 66,061.17 sq. km in 2020. This indicates a total ice cover loss of 6,126.37 sq. km area in 40 years due to environmental variabilities and climatic changes. From 2010 to 2020 loss of ice-covered area was 3479.24 sq. km. The mean maximum temperature from 2000 to 2010 in December, January and February is 7.4 °C, 4.2 °Cand 7.8 °C respectively, while from 2011 to 2022 mean maximum temperature registered in December, January and February is 6.9°C, 4.1°C and 6.6 °C respectively. Investigation of anthropogenic elements in the region shows population rise. From investigation, 22 cities and towns of the Himalayas region and neighboring mountains showed the highest rise in population, 329.46%, and a minimum rise of 14.39%, while 12 towns have risen in population by more than 100% from 1990 to 2023. This examination adds to a point-by-point comprehension of the connections among normal variables, population dynamics, snow cover variation, evidence strategies, and multipurpose measures for maintained and strong improvement in the districts.

Keywords: snow, ice, Himalayas, Pakistan, climate change, population

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3547 Pollution Challenges in the Akaki Catchment, Upper Awash Basin, Ethiopia: Potential Health Implications for Vegetables

Authors: Minbale Aschale, Bitew K. Dessie, Endaweke Assegide, Yosef Abebe, Tena Alamirew, Claire L. Walsh, Gete Zeleke

Abstract:

The upper Awash Basin faces pollution challenges due to urbanization, population growth, and expanding industries. It receives various pollutants from its catchments. The study aimed to assess the impact of wastewater irrigation on vegetables and inform stakeholders about pollution challenges and consequences. Eighty-two composite samples of matured vegetables were randomly collected from twenty-one agricultural farm sites. These samples were analyzed for potentially toxic elements, including Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg, As, Ni, Sr, B, Co, Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Se. The results indicated significant variations in concentrations across different sites, with localized contributions from various contaminants. Cr, Cd, and Pb concentrations in most vegetables exceeded recommended levels. Pollution levels varied with metals and vegetable types. Different vegetables contribute differently to health risks. The relative contributions of Ethiopian kale, cabbage, red beet, lettuce, Swiss chard, Gurage cabbage, tomato, zucchini, carrot, onion, watermelon, and potato to the aggregated risk were 12.69%, 12.25%, 11.83%, 11.20%, 10.21%, 9.91%, 8.49%, 5.66%, 3.96%, 3.35%, 3.10%, and 2.72%, respectively. Comparison with permissible standards revealed inadequate environmental management by relevant regulatory bodies and industries. Despite good laws and standards at the federal and regional levels, they are ineffectively implemented or enforced to prevent environmental pollution. Mitigation measures are urgently recommended to address the potential health implications of toxic substances.

Keywords: pollution, upper Awash Basin, health risk, Ethiopia

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3546 Assessing Natura 2000 Network Effectiveness in Landscape Conservation: A Case Study in Castile and León, Spain (1990-2018)

Authors: Paula García-Llamas, Polonia Díez González, Angela Taboada

Abstract:

In an era marked by unprecedented anthropogenic alterations to landscapes and biodiversity, the consequential loss of fauna, flora, and habitats poses a grave concern. It is imperative to evaluate our capacity to manage and mitigate such changes effectively. This study aims to scrutinize the efficacy of the Natura 2000 Network (NN2000) in landscape conservation within the autonomous community of Castile and Leon (Spain), spanning from 1990 to 2018. Leveraging land use change maps from the European Corine Land Cover database across four subperiods (1990-2000, 2000-2006, 2006-2012, and 2012-2018), we quantified alterations occurring both within NN2000 protected sites and within a 5km buffer zone. Additionally, we examined the fluxes of various habitat types defined within NN2000. Our findings reveal that the protected areas under NN2000 were particularly susceptible to change, with the most significant transformations observed during the 1990-2000 period. Predominant change processes include secondary succession and scrubland formation due to land use cessation, deforestation, and agricultural intensification. While NN2000 demonstrates efficacy in curtailing urbanization and industrialization within buffer zones, its management measures have proven insufficient in safeguarding landscapes against the dynamic changes witnessed between 1990 and 2018, especially in relation to rural abandonment.

Keywords: Corine land cover, land cover changes, site of community importance, special protection area

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3545 Modeling of Flows in Porous Materials under Pressure Difference

Authors: Nicoleta O. Tanase, Ciprian S. Mateescu

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the numerical study of the flow through porous media. The purpose of this project is to determine the permeability of a medium and its connection to porosity to be able to identify how the permeability of said medium can be altered without changing the porosity. The numerical simulations are performed in 2D flow configurations with the laminar solvers implemented in Workbench - ANSYS Fluent. The direction of flow of the working fluid (water) is axial, from left to right, and in steady-state conditions. The working fluid is water. The 2D geometry is a channel with 300 mm length and 30 mm width, with a different number of circles that are positioned differently, modelling a porous medium. The permeability of a porous medium can be altered without changing the porosity by positioning the circles differently (by missing the same number of circles) in the flow domain, which induces a change in the flow spectrum. The main goal of the paper is to investigate the flow pattern and permeability under controlled perturbations induced by the variation of velocity and porous medium. Numerical solutions provide insight into all flow magnitudes, one of the most important being the WSS distribution on the circles.

Keywords: CFD, porous media, permeability, flow spectrum

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3544 Circular Nitrogen Removal, Recovery and Reuse Technologies

Authors: Lina Wu

Abstract:

The excessive discharge of nitrogen in sewage greatly intensifies the eutrophication of water bodies and threatens water quality. Nitrogen pollution control has become a global concern. The concentration of nitrogen in water is reduced by converting ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen into nitrogen-containing gas through biological treatment, physicochemical treatment and oxidation technology. However, some wastewater containing high ammonia nitrogen including landfill leachate, is difficult to be treated by traditional nitrification and denitrification because of its high COD content. The core process of denitrification is that denitrifying bacteria convert nitrous acid produced by nitrification into nitrite under anaerobic conditions. Still, its low-carbon nitrogen does not meet the conditions for denitrification. Many studies have shown that the natural autotrophic anammox bacteria can combine nitrous and ammonia nitrogen without a carbon source through functional genes to achieve total nitrogen removal, which is very suitable for removing nitrogen from leachate. In addition, the process also saves a lot of aeration energy consumption than the traditional nitrogen removal process. Therefore, anammox plays an important role in nitrogen conversion and energy saving. The short-range nitrification and denitrification coupled with anaerobic ammoX ensures total nitrogen removal. It improves the removal efficiency, meeting the needs of society for an ecologically friendly and cost-effective nutrient removal treatment technology. In recent years, research has found that the symbiotic system has more water treatment advantages because this process not only helps to improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment but also allows carbon dioxide reduction and resource recovery. Microalgae use carbon dioxide dissolved in water or released through bacterial respiration to produce oxygen for bacteria through photosynthesis under light, and bacteria, in turn, provide metabolites and inorganic carbon sources for the growth of microalgae, which may lead the algal bacteria symbiotic system save most or all of the aeration energy consumption. It has become a trend to make microalgae and light-avoiding anammox bacteria play synergistic roles by adjusting the light-to-dark ratio. Microalgae in the outer layer of light particles block most of the light and provide cofactors and amino acids to promote nitrogen removal. In particular, myxoccota MYX1 can degrade extracellular proteins produced by microalgae, providing amino acids for the entire bacterial community, which helps anammox bacteria save metabolic energy and adapt to light. As a result, initiating and maintaining the process of combining dominant algae and anaerobic denitrifying bacterial communities has great potential in treating landfill leachate. Chlorella has a brilliant removal effect and can withstand extreme environments in terms of high ammonia nitrogen, high salt and low temperature. It is urgent to study whether the algal mud mixture rich in denitrifying bacteria and chlorella can greatly improve the efficiency of landfill leachate treatment under an anaerobic environment where photosynthesis is stopped. The optimal dilution concentration of simulated landfill leachate can be found by determining the treatment effect of the same batch of bacteria and algae mixtures under different initial ammonia nitrogen concentrations and making a comparison. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the changes in microbial diversity, related functional genera and functional genes under optimal conditions, providing a theoretical and practical basis for the engineering application of novel bacteria-algae symbiosis system in biogas slurry treatment and resource utilization.

Keywords: nutrient removal and recovery, leachate, anammox, Partial nitrification, Algae-bacteria interaction

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3543 Identification of Suitable Rainwater Harvesting Sites Using Geospatial Techniques with AHP in Chacha Watershed, Jemma Sub-Basin Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

Authors: Abrha Ybeyn Gebremedhn, Yitea Seneshaw Getahun, Alebachew Shumye Moges, Fikrey Tesfay

Abstract:

Rainfed agriculture in Ethiopia has failed to produce enough food, to achieve the increasing demand for food. Pinpointing the appropriate site for rainwater harvesting (RWH) have a substantial contribution to increasing the available water and enhancing agricultural productivity. The current study related to the identification of the potential RWH sites was conducted at the Chacha watershed central highlands of Ethiopia which is endowed with rugged topography. The Geographic Information System with Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to generate the different maps for identifying appropriate sites for RWH. In this study, 11 factors that determine the RWH locations including slope, soil texture, runoff depth, land cover type, annual average rainfall, drainage density, lineament intensity, hydrologic soil group, antecedent moisture content, and distance to the roads were considered. The overall analyzed result shows that 10.50%, 71.10%, 17.90%, and 0.50% of the areas were found under highly, moderately, marginally suitable, and unsuitable areas for RWH, respectively. The RWH site selection was found highly dependent on a slope, soil texture, and runoff depth; moderately dependent on drainage density, annual average rainfall, and land use land cover; but less dependent on the other factors. The highly suitable areas for rainwater harvesting expansion are lands having a flat topography with a soil textural class of high-water holding capacity that can produce high runoff depth. The application of this study could be a baseline for planners and decision-makers and support any strategy adoption for appropriate RWH site selection.

Keywords: runoff depth, antecedent moisture condition, AHP, weighted overlay, water resource

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3542 Algal/Bacterial Membrane Bioreactor for Bioremediation of Chemical Industrial Wastewater Containing 1,4 Dioxane

Authors: Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

Oxidation of 1,4 dioxane produces metabolites by-products involving glycolaldehyde and acids that have geno- and cytotoxicity impact on microbial degradation. Thereby, the incorporation of algae with bacteria in the treatment system would eliminate and overcome the accumulation of metabolites that are utilized as a carbon source for the build-up of biomass. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess the potential of algae/bacteria-based membrane bioreactor (AB-MBR) for biodegradation of 1,4 dioxane-rich wastewater at a high imposed loading rate. Three identical reactors, i.e., AB-MBR1, AB-MBR2, and AB-MBR3, were operated in parallel at 1,4 dioxane loading rates of 641.7, 320.9, and 160.4 mg/L. d., and HRTs of 6.0, 12 and 24 h. respectively. The AB-MBR1 achieved 1,4 dioxane removal rate of 263.7 mg/L.d., where the residual value in the treated effluent amounted to 94.4±22.9 mg/L. Reducing the 1,4 dioxane loading rate (LR) to 320.9 mg/L.d in the AB-MBR2 maximized the removal rate efficiency of 265.9 mg/L.d., with a removal efficiency of 82.8±3.2%. The minimum value of 1,4 dioxane of 17.3±1.8 mg/L in the treated effluent of AB-MBR3 was obtained at an HRT of 24.0 h and loading rate of 160.4 mg/L.d. The mechanism of 1,4 dioxane degradation in AB-MBR was a combination of volatilization (8.03±0.6%), UV oxidation (14.1±0.9%), microbial biodegradation (49.1±3.9%) and absorption/uptake and assimilation by algae (28.8±2.%). Further, the Thioclava, Afipia, and Mycobacterium genera oxidized and produced the required enzymes for hydrolysis and cleavage of the dioxane ring into 2-hydroxy-1,4 dioxane. Moreover, the fungi, i.e., Basidiomycota and Cryptomycota, played a big role in the degradation of the 1,4 dioxane into 2-hydroxy-1,4 dioxane. Xanthobacter and Mesorhizobium were involved in the metabolism process by secreting alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and glycolate oxidase. Bacteria and fungi produced dehydrogenase (DH) for the transformation of 2-hydroxy-1,4 dioxane into 2-hydroxy-ethoxyacetaldehyde. The latter is converted into Ethylene glycol by Aldehyde hydrogenase (ALDH). Ethylene glycol is oxidized into acids using Alcohol hydrogenase (ADH). The Diatomea, Chlorophyta, and Streptophyta utilize the metabolites for biomass assimilation and produce the required oxygen for further oxidation of the dioxane and its metabolites by-products of bacteria and fungi. The major portion of metabolites (ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid were removed due to uptake and absorption by algae (43±4.3%), followed by adsorption (18.4±0.9%). The volatilization and UV oxidation contribution for the degradation of metabolites were 8.7±0.7% and 12.3±0.8%, respectively. The capabilities of genera Defluviimonas, Thioclava, Luteolibacter, and Afipia. The genera of Defluviimonas, Thioclava, Luteolibacter, and Mycobacterium were grown under a high 1,4 dioxane LR of 641.7 mg/L.d. The Chlorophyta (4.1-43.6%), Streptophyta (2.5-21.7%), and Diatomea (0.8-1.4%) phyla were dominant for degradation of 1,4 dioxane. The results of this study strongly demonstrated that the bioremediation and bioaugmentation process can safely remove 1,4 dioxane from industrial wastewater while minimizing environmental concerns and reducing economic costs.

Keywords: wastewater, membrane bioreactor, bacterial community, algal community

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3541 Utilization of Sphagnum Moss as a Jeepney Emission Filter for Smoke Density Reduction

Authors: Monique Joyce L. Disamburum, Nicole C. Faustino, Ashley Angela A. Fazon, Jessie F. Rubonal

Abstract:

Traditional jeepneys contribute significantly to air pollution in the Philippines, negatively affecting both the environment and people. In response, the researchers investigated Sphagnum moss which has high adsorbent properties and can be used as a filter. Therefore, this research aims to create a muffler filter additive to reduce the smoke density emitted by traditional jeepneys. Various materials, such as moss, cornstarch, a metal pipe, bolts, and a papermaking screen frame, were gathered. The moss underwent a blending process with a cornstarch mixture until it achieved a pulp-like consistency, subsequently molded using a papermaking screen frame and left for sun drying. Following this, a metal prototype was created by drilling holes around the tumbler and inserting bolts. The mesh wire containing the filter was carefully placed into the hole, secured by two bolts. In the final phase, there were three setups, each undergoing one trial in the LTO emission testing. Each trial consisted of six rounds of purging, and after that the average smoke density was measured. According to the findings of this study, the filter aided in lowering the average smoke density. The one layer setup produced an average of 1.521, whereas the two layer setup produced an average of 1.082. Using One-Way Anova, it was demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the setups. Furthermore, the Tukey HSD Post Hoc test revealed that Setups A and C differed significantly (p = 0.04604), with Setup C being the most successful in reducing smoke density (mean difference -1.4128). Overall, the researchers came to the conclusion that employing Sphagnum moss as a filter can lower the average smoke density released by traditional jeepneys.

Keywords: sphagnum moss, Jeepney filter, smoke density, Jeepney emission

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3540 Experimental and Computational Investigations on the Mitigation of Air Pollutants Using Pulsed Radio Waves

Authors: Gangadhara Siva Naga Venkata Krishna Satya Narayana Swamy Undi

Abstract:

Particulate matter (PM) pollution in ambient air is a major environmental health risk factor contributing to disease and mortality worldwide. Current air pollution control methods have limitations in reducing real-world ambient PM levels. This study demonstrates the efficacy of using pulsed radio wave technology as a distinct approach to lower outdoor particulate pollution. Experimental data were compared with computational models to evaluate the efficiency of pulsed waves in coagulating and settling PM. Results showed 50%+ reductions in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at the city scale, with particle removal rates exceeding gravity settling by over 3X. Historical air quality data further validated the significant PM reductions achieved in test cases. Computational analyses revealed the underlying coagulation mechanisms induced by the pulsed waves, supporting the feasibility of this strategy for ambient particulate control. The pulsed electromagnetic technology displayed robustness in sustainably managing PM levels across diverse urban and industrial environments. Findings highlight the promise of this advanced approach as a next-generation solution to mitigate particulate air pollution and associated health burdens globally. The technology's scalability and energy efficiency can help address a key gap in current efforts to improve ambient air quality.

Keywords: particulate matter, mitigation technologies, clean air, ambient air pollution

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3539 Study of Halophytic Vegetation of Chott Gamra (Batna, High Plateaus of Eastern Algeria)

Authors: Marref C., Marref S., Melakhssou M. A.

Abstract:

The halophytic vegetation of Chott Gamra (Gadaïne Eco-complex, High Plateaus of Eastern Algeria) is characterized by a very rich cover. It is structured according to the variation in soil salinity and moisture. The objective of this study is to understand the biodiversity, distribution, and classification of halophytic vegetation. This wetland is characterized by a Mediterranean climate in the semi-arid to cool winter stage. The wetland area of the High Plateaus of Eastern Algeria constitutes a biodiversity reservoir. It is considered exceptional, although it remains little explored and documented to date. The study was conducted over consecutive spring seasons (2020/2021). Indeed, the inventory we established includes forty plant species belonging to fourteen different families, the majority of which are resistant to salinity and drought. These halophytic species that thrive there establish themselves in bands according to their tolerance threshold to salinity and their affinity to the hygroscopic level of the soil. Thus, other edaphic factors may come into play in the zonation of halophytes in saline environments. Species belonging to the Juncaceae and Poaceae families dominate by far the non-flooded vegetation cover of this site. These plants are perfectly adapted to saline environments.

Keywords: halophytes, biodiversity, salinity, wetland

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3538 Flood Mapping and Inoudation on Weira River Watershed (in the Case of Hadiya Zone, Shashogo Woreda)

Authors: Alilu Getahun Sulito

Abstract:

Exceptional floods are now prevalent in many places in Ethiopia, resulting in a large number of human deaths and property destruction. Lake Boyo watershed, in particular, had also traditionally been vulnerable to flash floods throughout the Boyo watershed. The goal of this research is to create flood and inundation maps for the Boyo Catchment. The integration of Geographic information system(GIS) technology and the hydraulic model (HEC-RAS) were utilized as methods to attain the objective. The peak discharge was determined using Fuller empirical methodology for intervals of 5, 10, 15, and 25 years, and the results were 103.2 m3/s, 158 m3/s, 222 m3/s, and 252 m3/s, respectively. River geometry, boundary conditions, manning's n value of varying land cover, and peak discharge at various return periods were all entered into HEC-RAS, and then an unsteady flow study was performed. The results of the unsteady flow study demonstrate that the water surface elevation in the longitudinal profile rises as the different periods increase. The flood inundation charts clearly show that regions on the right and left sides of the river with the greatest flood coverage were 15.418 km2 and 5.29 km2, respectively, flooded by 10,20,30, and 50 years. High water depths typically occur along the main channel and progressively spread to the floodplains. The latest study also found that flood-prone areas were disproportionately affected on the river's right bank. As a result, combining GIS with hydraulic modelling to create a flood inundation map is a viable solution. The findings of this study can be used to care again for the right bank of a Boyo River catchment near the Boyo Lake kebeles, according to the conclusion. Furthermore, it is critical to promote an early warning system in the kebeles so that people can be evacuated before a flood calamity happens. Keywords: Flood, Weira River, Boyo, GIS, HEC- GEORAS, HEC- RAS, Inundation Mapping

Keywords: Weira River, Boyo, GIS, HEC- GEORAS, HEC- RAS, Inundation Mapping

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3537 Research on Transverse Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Yangtze River Economic Belt Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

Authors: Tingyu Zhang

Abstract:

The cross-basin ecological compensation mechanism is key to stimulating active participation in ecological protection across the entire basin. This study constructs an evolutionary game model of cross-basin ecological compensation in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB), introducing a central government constraint and incentive mechanism (CGCIM) to explore the conditions for achieving strategies of protection and compensation that meet societal expectations. Furthermore, using a water quality-water quantity model combined with factual data from the YREB in 2020, the amount of ecological compensation is calculated. The results indicate that the stability of the evolutionary game model of the upstream and downstream governments in the YREB is closely related to the CGCIM. When the sum of the central government's reward amount to the upstream government and the penalty amount to both sides simultaneously is greater than 39.948 billion yuan, and the sum of the reward amount to the downstream government and the penalty amount to only the lower reaches is greater than 1.567 billion yuan, or when the sum of the reward amount to the downstream government and the penalty amount to both sides simultaneously is greater than 1.567 billion yuan, and the sum of the reward amount to the upstream government and the penalty amount to only the upstream government is greater than 399.48 billion yuan, the protection and compensation become the only evolutionarily stable strategy for the evolutionary game system composed of the upstream and downstream governments in the YREB. At this point, the total ecological compensation that the downstream government of the YREB should pay to the upstream government is 1.567 billion yuan, with Hunan paying 0.03 billion yuan, Hubei 2.53 billion yuan, Jiangxi 0.18 billion yuan, Anhui 1.68 billion yuan, Zhejiang 0.75 billion yuan, Jiangsu 6.57 billion yuan, and Shanghai 3.93 billion yuan. The research results can provide a reference for promoting the improvement and perfection of the cross-basin ecological compensation system in the YREB.

Keywords: ecological compensation, evolutionary game model, central government constraint and incentive mechanism, Yangtze river economic belt

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3536 Water Resources Green Efficiency in China: Evaluation, Spatial Association Network Structure Analysis, and Influencing Factors

Authors: Tingyu Zhang

Abstract:

This paper utilizes the Super-SBM model to assess water resources green efficiency (WRGE) among provinces in China and investigate its spatial and temporal features, based on the characteristic framework of “economy-environment-society.” The social network analysis is employed to examine the network pattern and spatial interaction of WRGE. Further, the quadratic assignment procedure method is utilized for examining the influencing factors of the spatial association of WRGE regarding “relationship.” The study reveals that: (1) the spatial distribution of WRGE demonstrates a distribution pattern of Eastern>Western>Central; (2) a remarkable spatial association exists among provinces; however, no strict hierarchical structure is observed. The internal structure of the WRGE network is characterized by the feature of "Eastern strong and Western weak". The block model analysis discovers that the members of the “net spillover” and “two-way spillover” blocks are mostly in the eastern and central provinces; “broker” block, which plays an intermediary role, is mostly in the central provinces; and members of the “net beneficiary” block are mostly in the western region. (3) Differences in economic development, degree of urbanization, water use environment, and water management have significant impacts on the spatial connection of WRGE. This study is dedicated to the realization of regional linkages and synergistic enhancement of WRGE, which provides a meaningful basis for building a harmonious society of human and water coexistence.

Keywords: water resources green efficiency, super-SBM model, social network analysis, quadratic assignment procedure

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3535 Application of a Hybrid Modified Blade Element Momentum Theory/Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach for Wine Turbine Aerodynamic Performances Prediction

Authors: Samah Laalej, Abdelfattah Bouatem

Abstract:

In the field of wind turbine blades, it is complicated to evaluate the aerodynamic performances through experimental measurements as it requires a lot of computing time and resources. Therefore, in this paper, a hybrid BEM-CFD numerical technique is developed to predict power and aerodynamic forces acting on the blades. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was conducted to calculate the drag and lift forces through Ansys software using the K-w model. Then an enhanced BEM code was created to predict the power outputs generated by the wind turbine using the aerodynamic properties extracted from the CFD approach. The numerical approach was compared and validated with experimental data. The power curves calculated from this hybrid method were in good agreement with experimental measurements for all velocity ranges.

Keywords: blade element momentum, aerodynamic forces, wind turbine blades, computational fluid dynamics approach

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3534 Urban Hydrology in Morocco: Navigating Challenges and Seizing Opportunities

Authors: Abdelghani Qadem

Abstract:

Urbanization in Morocco has ushered in profound shifts in hydrological dynamics, presenting a spectrum of challenges and avenues for sustainable water management. This abstract delves into the nuances of urban hydrology in Morocco, spotlighting the ramifications of rapid urban expansion, the imprint of climate change, and the imperative for cohesive water management strategies. The swift urban sprawl across Morocco has engendered a surge in impermeable surfaces, reshaping the natural hydrological cycle and amplifying quandaries such as urban inundations and water scarcity. Moreover, the specter of climate change looms large, heralding alterations in precipitation regimes and a heightened frequency of extreme meteorological events, thus compounding the hydrological conundrum. However, amidst these challenges, urban hydrology in Morocco also unfolds vistas of innovation and sustainability. The integration of green infrastructure, encompassing solutions like permeable pavements and vegetated roofs, emerges as a linchpin in ameliorating the hydrological imbalances wrought by urbanization, fostering infiltration, and curbing surface runoff. Additionally, embracing the tenets of water-sensitive urban design promises to fortify water efficiency and resilience in urban landscapes. Effectively navigating urban hydrology in Morocco mandates a cross-disciplinary approach that interweaves urban planning, water resource governance, and climate resilience strategies. A collaborative ethos, bridging governmental entities, academic institutions, and grassroots communities, assumes paramount importance in crafting and executing comprehensive solutions that grapple with the intricate interplay of urbanization, hydrology, and climate dynamics. In summation, confronting the labyrinthine challenges of urban hydrology in Morocco necessitates proactive strides toward fostering sustainable urban growth and bolstering resilience to climate vagaries. By embracing cutting-edge technologies and embracing an ethos of integrated water management, Morocco can forge a path toward a more water-secure and resilient urban future.

Keywords: urban hydrology, Morocco, urbanization, climate change, water management, green infrastructure, sustainable development

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3533 Impacts of Land Use and Land Cover Change on Stream Flow and Sediment Yield of Genale Dawa Dam III Watershed, Ethiopia

Authors: Aklilu Getahun Sulito

Abstract:

Land Use and Land Cover change dynamics is a result of complex interactions betweenseveral bio- physical and socio-economic conditions. The impacts of the landcoverchange on stream flow and sediment yield were analyzed statistically usingthehydrological model, SWAT. Genale Dawa Dam III watershed is highly af ectedbydeforestation, over grazing, and agricultural land expansion. This study was aimedusingSWAT model for the assessment of impacts of land use land cover change on sediment yield, evaluating stream flow on wet &dry seasons and spatial distribution sediment yieldfrom sub-basins of the Genale Dawa Dam III watershed. Land use land cover maps(LULC) of 2000, 2008 and 2016 were used with same corresponding climate data. During the study period most parts of the forest, dense forest evergreen and grass landchanged to cultivated land. The cultivated land increased by 26.2%but forest land, forest evergreen lands and grass lands decreased by 21.33%, 11.59 % and 7.28 %respectively, following that the mean annual sediment yield of watershed increased by 7.37ton/haover16 years period (2000 – 2016). The analysis of stream flow for wet and dry seasonsshowed that the steam flow increased by 25.5% during wet season, but decreasedby29.6% in the dry season. The result an average annual spatial distribution of sediment yield increased by 7.73ton/ha yr -1 from (2000_2016). The calibration results for bothstream flow and sediment yield showed good agreement between observed and simulateddata with the coef icient of determination of 0.87 and 0.84, Nash-Sutclif e ef iciencyequality to 0.83 and 0.78 and percentage bias of -7.39% and -10.90%respectively. Andthe result for validation for both stream flow and sediment showed good result withCoef icient of determination equality to 0.83 and 0.80, Nash-Sutclif e ef iciency of 0.78and 0.75 and percentage bias of 7.09% and 3.95%. The result obtained fromthe model based on the above method was the mean annual sediment load at Genale DawaDamIIIwatershed increase from 2000 to 2016 for the reason that of the land uses change. Sotouse the Genale Dawa Dam III the land use management practices are neededinthefuture to prevent further increase of sediment yield of the watershed.

Keywords: Genale Dawa Dam III watershed, land use land cover change, SWAT, spatial distribution, sediment yield, stream flow

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3532 Modelling the Hydrological Response of Connected Blue-Breen Roofs by HYDRUS-1D

Authors: Mehrnoosh Moghanian, Rodrigo Mora, Colleen Chan

Abstract:

Connected blue-green roofs are novel vegetative roof systems that include a moisture-storage component (soil substrate) and an additional transient storage component (detention-retention layer) underneath, contributing to the roofs’ total water detention and retention capacity. Hydrological models aid in assessing the vegetative roofs' response under various climates and sizing them appropriately. Despite their potential, few studies have modelled the blue-green roofs' hydrological performance. In the present study, collected data from a blue-green roof module, located in Vancouver, BC, from January 2020 until August 2021 is used to fill the modelling knowledge gap of these roofs. HYDRUS-1D, as a physics-based model, was successfully adapted to model blue-green roofs. The accuracy of the model was confirmed after calibration and validation procedures, resulting in simulated runoff and soil moisture content during short-term simulations. Even though the accuracy of the soil water content model predictions was low, the error in the predicted runoff flow rates was acceptable. The predicted flow rates were more accurate in the dry seasons than in the rainy seasons. Further studies are needed to improve the accuracy of the models to support their design and integration into the urban rainwater infrastructure.

Keywords: connected blue-green roofs, hydrological models, HYDRUS-1D model, runoff simulation, soil moisture content prediction, green infrastructure

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3531 Rewilding the River: Assessing the Environmental Effects and Regulatory Influences of the Condit Dam Removal Process

Authors: Neda Safari, Jacob Petersen-Perlman

Abstract:

There are more than two million dams in the United States, and a considerable portion of them are either non-operational or approaching the end of their designed lifespan. However, this emerging trend is new, and the majority of dam sites have not undergone thorough research and assessments after their removal to determine the overall effectiveness of restoration initiatives, particularly in the case of large-scale dams that may significantly impact their surrounding areas. A crucial factor to consider is the lack of specific regulations pertaining to dam removal at the federal level. Consequently, other environmental regulations that were not originally designed with dam removal considerations are used to execute these projects. This can result in delays or challenges for dam removal initiatives. The process of removing dams is usually the most important first step to restore the ecological and biological health of the river, but often there is a lack of measurable indicators to assess if it has achieved its intended objectives. In addition, the majority of studies on dam removal are only short-term and focus on a particular measure of response. Therefore, it is essential to conduct extensive and continuous monitoring to analyze the river's response throughout every aspect. Our study is divided into two sections. The first section of my research will analyze the establishment and utilization of dam removal laws and regulations in the Condit Dam removal process. We will highlight the areas where the frameworks for policy and dam removal projects remain in need of improvement in order to facilitate successful dam removals in the future. In this part, We will review the policies and plans that affected the decision-making process to remove the Condit dam while also looking at how they impacted the physical changes to the river after the dam was removed. In the second section, we will look at the effects of the dam removal over a decade later and attempt to determine how the river's physical response has been impacted by this modification. Our study aims to investigate the Condit dam removal process and its impact on the ecological response of the river. We anticipate identifying areas for improvement in policies pertaining to dam removal projects and exploring ways to enhance them to ensure improved project outcomes in the future.

Keywords: dam removal, ecolocgical change, water related regulation, water resources

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3530 Integration of Agroforestry Shrub for Diversification and Improved Smallholder Production: A Case of Cajanus cajan-Zea Mays (Pigeonpea-Maize) Production in Ghana

Authors: F. O. Danquah, F. Frimpong, E. Owusu Danquah, T. Frimpong, J. Adu, S. K. Amposah, P. Amankwaa-Yeboah, N. E. Amengor

Abstract:

In the face of global concerns such as population increase, climate change, and limited natural resources, sustainable agriculture practices are critical for ensuring food security and environmental stewardship. The study was conducted in the Forest zones of Ghana during the major and minor seasons of 2023 cropping seasons to evaluate maize yield productivity improvement and profitability of integrating Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea) into a maize production system described as a pigeonpea-maize cropping system. This is towards an integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) with a legume shrub pigeonpea for sustainable maize production while improving smallholder farmers' resilience to climate change. A split-plot design with maize-pigeonpea (Pigeonpea-Maize intercrop – MPP and No pigeonpea/ Sole maize – NPP) and inorganic fertilizer rate (250 kg/ha of 15-15-15 N-P2O5-K2O + 250 kg/ha Sulphate of Ammonia (SoA) – Full rate (FR), 125 kg/ha of 15-15-15 N-P2O5-K2O + 125 kg/ha Sulphate of Ammonia (SoA) – Half rate (HR) and no inorganic fertilizer (NF) as control) was used as the main plot and subplot treatments respectively. The results indicated a significant interaction of the pigeonpea-maize cropping system and inorganic fertilizer rate on the growth and yield of the maize with better and similar maize productivity when HR and FR were used with pigeonpea biomass. Thus, the integration of pigeonpea and its biomass would result in the reduction of recommended fertiliser rate to half. This would improve farmers’ income and profitability for sustainable maize production in the face of climate change.

Keywords: agroforestry tree, climate change, integrated soil fertility management, resource use efficiency

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3529 Enhancing Algal Bacterial Photobioreactor Efficiency: Nutrient Removal and Cost Analysis Comparison for Light Source Optimization

Authors: Shahrukh Ahmad, Purnendu Bose

Abstract:

Algal-Bacterial photobioreactors (ABPBRs) have emerged as a promising technology for sustainable biomass production and wastewater treatment. Nutrient removal is seldom done in sewage treatment plants and large volumes of wastewater which still have nutrients are being discharged and that can lead to eutrophication. That is why ABPBR plays a vital role in wastewater treatment. However, improving the efficiency of ABPBR remains a significant challenge. This study aims to enhance ABPBR efficiency by focusing on two key aspects: nutrient removal and cost-effective optimization of the light source. By integrating nutrient removal and cost analysis for light source optimization, this study proposes practical strategies for improving ABPBR efficiency. To reduce organic carbon and convert ammonia to nitrates, domestic wastewater from a 130 MLD sewage treatment plant (STP) was aerated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days. The treated supernatant had an approximate nitrate and phosphate values of 16 ppm as N and 6 ppm as P, respectively. This supernatant was then fed into the ABPBR, and the removal of nutrients (nitrate as N and phosphate as P) was observed using different colored LED bulbs, namely white, blue, red, yellow, and green. The ABPBR operated with a 9-hour light and 3-hour dark cycle, using only one color of bulbs per cycle. The study found that the white LED bulb, with a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) value of 82.61 µmol.m-2 .sec-1 , exhibited the highest removal efficiency. It achieved a removal rate of 91.56% for nitrate and 86.44% for phosphate, surpassing the other colored bulbs. Conversely, the green LED bulbs showed the lowest removal efficiencies, with 58.08% for nitrate and 47.48% for phosphate at an HRT of 5 days. The quantum PAR (Photosynthetic Active Radiation) meter measured the photosynthetic photon flux density for each colored bulb setting inside the photo chamber, confirming that white LED bulbs operated at a wider wavelength band than the others. Furthermore, a cost comparison was conducted for each colored bulb setting. The study revealed that the white LED bulb had the lowest average cost (Indian Rupee)/light intensity (µmol.m-2 .sec-1 ) value at 19.40, while the green LED bulbs had the highest average cost (INR)/light intensity (µmol.m-2 .sec-1 ) value at 115.11. Based on these comparative tests, it was concluded that the white LED bulbs were the most efficient and costeffective light source for an algal photobioreactor. They can be effectively utilized for nutrient removal from secondary treated wastewater which helps in improving the overall wastewater quality before it is discharged back into the environment.

Keywords: algal bacterial photobioreactor, domestic wastewater, nutrient removal, led bulbs

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3528 Generation Transcritical Flow Influenced by Dissipation over a Hole

Authors: Mohammed Daher Albalwi

Abstract:

The transcritical flow of a stratified fluid over an obstacle for negative forcing amplitude (hole) that generation upstream and downstream, connected by an unsteady solution, is examined. In the weakly nonlinear, weakly dispersive regime, the problem is formulated in the forced Korteweg-de Vries–Burgers framework. This is done by including the influence of the viscosity of the fluid beyond the Korteweg–de Vries approximation. The results show that the influence of viscosity is crucial in determining various wave properties, including the amplitudes of solitary waves in the upstream and downstream directions, as well as the widths of the bores. We focused here on weak damping, and the results are presented for transcritical, supercritical, and subcritical flows. In general, the outcomes are not qualitatively similar to those from the forced Korteweg-de–Vries equation when the value of the viscous is small, interesting differences emerge as the magnitude of the value of viscous increases.

Keywords: Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers equation, soliton, transcritical flow, viscous flow

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3527 Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing for Ecology and Conservation: A Fusion of Sentinel-1&2 Time Series Applied to Small Seasonal Ponds in Semiarid Environments

Authors: Francesco Valerio, Sérgio Godinho, Gonçalo Ferraz, Ricardo Pita, João Gameiro, Bruno Silva, Ana Teresa Marques, João Paulo Silva

Abstract:

Remote sensing, particularly Earth Observation Satellites (EOS), provides a cost-effective solution for monitoring water resources over large spatial and temporal scales, making it valuable for systematic conservation planning targeting freshwater ecosystems. Remote sensing research only recently started to infer biophysical characteristics of small water bodies over large areas, with the most advanced techniques involving data-fusion approaches (e.g., Sentinel-1&2), ensuring Multispectral and SAR information at high spatiotemporal resolution. Considering this, an original EOS-based framework within Google Earth Engine (GEE) is presented to allow high-quality and high-frequency Sentinel-1&2 data preparation devoted to detect and monitor water surface within small water bodies. This research specifically focuses on an overlooked aspect regarding the understanding of ecohydrological processes for complex and neglected small water bodies such as ponds, as well as their seasonality in water-stressed regions. To address this gap, Sentinel-1&2-based local surface water (SLSW) models were employed, leveraging Random Forests for time series forecasting at a 15-days frequency (10 m resolution), to infer water surface occurrence and extent. The present study interested 3300 small water bodies (Mdn≈0.031 ha) in three distinct semiarid regions in SW Iberia encompassing Special Protection Areas for conservation, subjected to Mediterranean climates characterized by strong seasonality and bioclimatic changes. The SLSW models were constructed for the period from January 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021, and the results were compared with existing Landsat-based global water (LGSW) models, and separately with validation data. The SLSW models demonstrated that Multispectral and SAR-derived variables were key for water surface detection and monitoring. Considering such small-sized water bodies, classification accuracy was satisfactory in detecting surface water occurrence (μ≈72%), surpassing LGSW in completeness and capturing reconstructed seasonality patterns within and across years. The relationship between SLSW and LGSW was stronger during wet periods (R2=0.38) compared to dry periods (R2=0.05). Moreover, the SLSW models exhibited better alignment with validation data (R2=0.66) compared to LGSW (R2=0.24). This highlights the efficacy of the proposed SLSW approach in delineating dynamic surface water characteristics over extensive areas, capturing very small-sized water bodies, thereby facilitating uninterrupted high spatiotemporal detail in surface water time series data. The present research sheds light on how reconstructing archives of surface water occurrence and extent for small-sized water bodies, such as permanent and temporary ponds, which have been largely neglected despite their ecological significance. This study also contributes to the understanding of how inland freshwater resources support ecological systems and promote human development. The socio-ecological applications of this research can aid in identifying surface water anomalies and contribute to enhancing governance for sustainable water supply, a critical priority in climate change hotspots. Therefore, it is highlighted the potential of the SLSW approach in planning and supporting various activities essential for rural development and biodiversity conservation. This is especially important in areas subjected to agricultural intensification, water constraints, and given the susceptibility of water resources to climate change.

Keywords: multispectral instrument, synthetic aperture radar, surface water occurrence, surface water extent, small water bodies, google earth engine

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3526 Climate Change and Urban Flooding: The Need to Rethinking Urban Flood Management through Resilience

Authors: Suresh Hettiarachchi, Conrad Wasko, Ashish Sharma

Abstract:

The ever changing and expanding urban landscape increases the stress on urban systems to support and maintain safe and functional living spaces. Flooding presents one of the more serious threats to this safety, putting a larger number of people in harm’s way in congested urban settings. Climate change is adding to this stress by creating a dichotomy in the urban flood response. On the one hand, climate change is causing storms to intensify, resulting in more destructive, rarer floods, while on the other hand, longer dry periods are decreasing the severity of more frequent, less intense floods. This variability is creating a need to be more agile and innovative in how we design for and manage urban flooding. Here, we argue that to cope with this challenge climate change brings, we need to move towards urban flood management through resilience rather than flood prevention. We also argue that dealing with the larger variation in flood response to climate change means that we need to look at flooding from all aspects rather than the single-dimensional focus of flood depths and extents. In essence, we need to rethink how we manage flooding in the urban space. This change in our thought process and approach to flood management requires a practical way to assess and quantify resilience that is built into the urban landscape so that informed decision-making can support the required changes in planning and infrastructure design. Towards that end, we propose a Simple Urban Flood Resilience Index (SUFRI) based on a robust definition of resilience as a tool to assess flood resilience. The application of a simple resilience index such as the SUFRI can provide a practical tool that considers urban flood management in a multi-dimensional way and can present solutions that were not previously considered. When such an index is grounded on a clear and relevant definition of resilience, it can be a reliable and defensible way to assess and assist the process of adapting to the increasing challenges in urban flood management with climate change.

Keywords: urban flood resilience, climate change, flood management, flood modelling

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3525 The Paradox of Environmental Social Governance (ESG) in Addressing Environmental Justice

Authors: Barbara Ballan

Abstract:

Environmental Justice (EJ) and Environmental Social Governance (ESG) are trending terms used to address the impacts of corporate actions and environmental and social regulations on the people and the planet. ESG is a private governance invention (though increasingly required by public law) that aims to disclose environmental and social criteria while fostering value for businesses. On the other hand, EJ was borne as a social movement that evolved into a regulatory tool employed by EJ advocates and governmental agencies to assess inequalities in environmental impacts and regulations. However, EJ usage is expanding, and private environmental governance in the form of ESG disclosure frameworks is incorporating EJ criteria, indexes, and tools as part of its metric-driven approach. There is an existing tension between (1) the notion of social justice at the heart of the environmental justice movement and (2) the nature of for-profit corporations which generate value by externalizing costs, translated to environmental injustices. This study aims to explore the paradoxical relation of ESG, including EJ criteria, despite their opposing notions, in response to the need for innovative mechanisms to address today’s pressing social and environmental challenges. To that end, this study will evaluate and critically assess the inclusion of EJ in ESG reporting. Furthermore, it identifies gaps in ESG frameworks and proposes the integration of EJ tools to address these deficiencies. This work is intended to help both businesses looking to expand their ESG frameworks and include EJ criteria to inform corporate decisions and assure long-term corporate viability, as well as EJ supporters in understanding the complex dynamic of ESG disclosure for the pursuit of EJ objectives.

Keywords: environmental justice, ESG, sustainability reporting, corporate law, environmental law, social justice

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3524 Urban Flood Resilience Comprehensive Assessment of "720" Rainstorm in Zhengzhou Based on Multiple Factors

Authors: Meiyan Gao, Zongmin Wang, Haibo Yang, Qiuhua Liang

Abstract:

Under the background of global climate change and rapid development of modern urbanization, the frequency of climate disasters such as extreme precipitation in cities around the world is gradually increasing. In this paper, Hi-PIMS model is used to simulate the "720" flood in Zhengzhou, and the continuous stages of flood resilience are determined with the urban flood stages are divided. The flood resilience curve under the influence of multiple factors were determined and the urban flood toughness was evaluated by combining the results of resilience curves. The flood resilience of urban unit grid was evaluated based on economy, population, road network, hospital distribution and land use type. Firstly, the rainfall data of meteorological stations near Zhengzhou and the remote sensing rainfall data from July 17 to 22, 2021 were collected. The Kriging interpolation method was used to expand the rainfall data of Zhengzhou. According to the rainfall data, the flood process generated by four rainfall events in Zhengzhou was reproduced. Based on the results of the inundation range and inundation depth in different areas, the flood process was divided into four stages: absorption, resistance, overload and recovery based on the once in 50 years rainfall standard. At the same time, based on the levels of slope, GDP, population, hospital affected area, land use type, road network density and other aspects, the resilience curve was applied to evaluate the urban flood resilience of different regional units, and the difference of flood process of different precipitation in "720" rainstorm in Zhengzhou was analyzed. Faced with more than 1,000 years of rainstorm, most areas are quickly entering the stage of overload. The influence levels of factors in different areas are different, some areas with ramps or higher terrain have better resilience, and restore normal social order faster, that is, the recovery stage needs shorter time. Some low-lying areas or special terrain, such as tunnels, will enter the overload stage faster in the case of heavy rainfall. As a result, high levels of flood protection, water level warning systems and faster emergency response are needed in areas with low resilience and high risk. The building density of built-up area, population of densely populated area and road network density all have a certain negative impact on urban flood resistance, and the positive impact of slope on flood resilience is also very obvious. While hospitals can have positive effects on medical treatment, they also have negative effects such as population density and asset density when they encounter floods. The result of a separate comparison of the unit grid of hospitals shows that the resilience of hospitals in the distribution range is low when they encounter floods. Therefore, in addition to improving the flood resistance capacity of cities, through reasonable planning can also increase the flood response capacity of cities. Changes in these influencing factors can further improve urban flood resilience, such as raise design standards and the temporary water storage area when floods occur, train the response speed of emergency personnel and adjust emergency support equipment.

Keywords: urban flood resilience, resilience assessment, hydrodynamic model, resilience curve

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