Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2677

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Environmental and Ecological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2677 Monsoon Controlled Mercury Transportation in Ganga Alluvial Plain, Northern India and Its Implication on Global Mercury Cycle

Authors: Anjali Singh, Ashwani Raju, Vandana Devi, Mohmad Mohsin Atique, Satyendra Singh, Munendra Singh

Abstract:

India is the biggest consumer of mercury and, consequently, a major emitter too. The increasing mercury contamination in India’s water resources has gained widespread attention and, therefore, atmospheric deposition is of critical concern. However, little emphasis was placed on the role of precipitation in the aquatic mercury cycle of the Ganga Alluvial Plain which provides drinking water to nearly 7% of the world’s human population. A majority of the precipitation here occurs primarily in 10% duration of the year in the monsoon season. To evaluate the sources and transportation of mercury, water sample analysis has been conducted from two selected sites near Lucknow, which have a strong hydraulic gradient towards the river. 31 groundwater samples from Jehta village (26°55’15’’N; 80°50’21’’E; 119 m above mean sea level) and 31 river water samples from the Behta Nadi (a tributary of the Gomati River draining into the Ganga River) were collected during the monsoon season on every alternate day between 01 July to 30 August 2019. The total mercury analysis was performed by using Flow Injection Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)-Mercury Hybride System, and daily rainfall data was collected from the India Meteorological Department, Amausi, Lucknow. The ambient groundwater and river-water concentrations were both 2-4 ng/L as there is no known geogenic source of mercury found in the area. Before the onset of the monsoon season, the groundwater and the river-water recorded mercury concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than the ambient concentrations, indicating the regional transportation of the mercury from the non-point source into the aquatic environment. Maximum mercury concentrations in groundwater and river-water were three orders of magnitude higher than the ambient concentrations after the onset of the monsoon season characterizing the considerable mobilization and redistribution of mercury by monsoonal precipitation. About 50% of both of the water samples were reported mercury below the detection limit, which can be mostly linked to the low intensity of precipitation in August and also with the dilution factor by precipitation. The highest concentration ( > 1200 ng/L) of mercury in groundwater was reported after 6-days lag from the first precipitation peak. Two high concentration peaks (>1000 ng/L) in river-water were separately correlated with the surface flow and groundwater outflow of mercury. We attribute the elevated mercury concentration in both of the water samples before the precipitation event to mercury originating from the extensive use of agrochemicals in mango farming in the plain. However, the elevated mercury concentration during the onset of monsoon appears to increase in area wetted with atmospherically deposited mercury, which migrated down from surface water to groundwater as downslope migration is a fundamental mechanism seen in rivers of the alluvial plain. The present study underscores the significance of monsoonal precipitation in the transportation of mercury to drinking water resources of the Ganga Alluvial Plain. This study also suggests that future research must be pursued for a better understand of the human health impact of mercury contamination and for quantification of the role of Ganga Alluvial Plain in the Global Mercury Cycle.

Keywords: drinking water resources, Ganga alluvial plain, india, mercury

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2676 Data Management System for Environmental Remediation

Authors: Elizaveta Petelina, Anton Sizo

Abstract:

Environmental remediation projects deal with a wide spectrum of data, including data collected during site assessment, execution of remediation activities, and environmental monitoring. Therefore, an appropriate data management is required as a key factor for well-grounded decision making. The Environmental Data Management System (EDMS) was developed to address all necessary data management aspects, including efficient data handling and data interoperability, access to historical and current data, spatial and temporal analysis, 2D and 3D data visualization, mapping, and data sharing. The system focuses on support of well-grounded decision making in relation to required mitigation measures and assessment of remediation success. The EDMS is a combination of enterprise and desktop level data management and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools assembled to assist to environmental remediation, project planning, and evaluation, and environmental monitoring of mine sites. EDMS consists of seven main components: a Geodatabase that contains spatial database to store and query spatially distributed data; a GIS and Web GIS component that combines desktop and server-based GIS solutions; a Field Data Collection component that contains tools for field work; a Quality Assurance (QA)/Quality Control (QC) component that combines operational procedures for QA and measures for QC; Data Import and Export component that includes tools and templates to support project data flow; a Lab Data component that provides connection between EDMS and laboratory information management systems; and a Reporting component that includes server-based services for real-time report generation. The EDMS has been successfully implemented for the Project CLEANS (Clean-up of Abandoned Northern Mines). Project CLEANS is a multi-year, multimillion-dollar project aimed at assessing and reclaiming 37 uranium mine sites in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The EDMS has effectively facilitated integrated decision-making for CLEANS project managers and transparency amongst stakeholders.

Keywords: data management, environmental remediation, geographic information system, GIS, decision making

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2675 Assessing the Impact of Human Behaviour on Water Resource Systems Performance: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: N. J. Shanono, J. G. Ndiritu

Abstract:

The poor performance of water resource systems (WRS) has been reportedly linked to not only climate variability and the water demand dynamics but also human behaviour-driven unlawful activities. Some of these unlawful activities that have been adversely affecting water sector include unauthorized water abstractions, water wastage behaviour, refusal of water re‐use measures, excessive operational losses, discharging untreated or improperly treated wastewater, over‐application of chemicals by agricultural users and fraudulent WRS operation. Despite advances in WRS planning, operation, and analysis incorporating such undesirable human activities to quantitatively assess their impact on WRS performance remain elusive. This study was then inspired by the need to develop a methodological framework for WRS performance assessment that integrates the impact of human behaviour with WRS performance assessment analysis. We, therefore, proposed a conceptual framework for assessing the impact of human behaviour on WRS performance using the concept of socio-hydrology. The framework identifies and couples four major sources of WRS-related values (water values, water systems, water managers, and water users) using three missing links between human and water in the management of WRS (interactions, outcomes, and feedbacks). The framework is to serve as a database for choosing relevant social and hydrological variables and to understand the intrinsic relations between the selected variables to study a specific human-water problem in the context of WRS management.

Keywords: conceptual framework, human behaviour; socio-hydrology; water resource systems

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2674 Assessment of the Effectiveness of the Anti-Debris Flow Engineering Constructed to Reduce the Risk of Expected Debris Flow in the River Mletiskhevi by Computer Program RAMMS

Authors: Sopio Gogilava, Goga Chakhaia, Levan Tsulukidze, Zurab Laoshvili, Irina Khubulava, Shalva Bosikashvili, Teimuraz Gugushvili

Abstract:

Geoinformatics systems (GIS) integrated computer program RAMMS is widely used for forecasting debris flows and accordingly for the determination of anticipating risks with 85% accuracy. In view of the above, the work introduces new capabilities of the computer program RAMMS, which evaluates the effectiveness of anti-debris flow engineering construction, namely: the possibility of decreasing the expected velocity, kinetic energy, and output cone volume in the Mletiskhevi River. As a result of research has been determined that the anti-debris flow engineering construction designed to reduce the expected debris flow risk in the Mletiskhevi River is an effective environmental protection technology, that's why its introduction is promising.

Keywords: construction, debris flow, geoinformatics systems, program RAMMS

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2673 Gendered Water Insecurity: a Structural Equation Approach for Female-Headed Households in South Africa

Authors: Saul Ngarava, Leocadia Zhou, Nomakhaya Monde

Abstract:

Water crises have the fourth most significant societal impact after weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and extreme weather conditions, ahead of natural disasters. Intricacies between women and water are central to achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The majority of the 1.2 billion poor people worldwide, with two-thirds being women, and mostly located in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) and South Asia, do not have access to safe and reliable sources of water. There exist gendered differences in water security based on the division of labour associating women with water. Globally, women and girls are responsible for water collection in 80% of the households which have no water on their premises. Women spend 16 million hours a day collecting water, while men and children spend 6 million and 4 million per day, respectively, which is time foregone in the pursuit of other livelihood activities. Due to their proximity and activities concerning water, women are vulnerable to water insecurity through exposures to water-borne diseases, fatigue from physically carrying water, and exposure to sexual and physical harassment, amongst others. Proximity to treated water and their wellbeing also has an effect on their sensitivity and adaptive capacity to water insecurity. The great distances, difficult terrain and heavy lifting expose women to vulnerabilities of water insecurity. However, few studies have quantified the vulnerabilities and burdens on women, with a few taking a phenomenological qualitative approach. Vulnerability studies have also been scanty in the water security realm, with most studies taking linear forms of either quantifying exposures, sensitivities or adaptive capacities in climate change studies. The current study argues for the need for a water insecurity vulnerability assessment, especially for women into research agendas as well as policy interventions, monitoring, and evaluation. The study sought to identify and provide pathways through which female-headed households were water insecure in South Africa, the 30th driest country in the world. This was through linking the drinking water decision as well as the vulnerability frameworks. Secondary data collected during the 2016 General Household Survey (GHS) was utilised, with a sample of 5928 female-headed households. Principal Component Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling were used to analyse the data. The results show dynamic relationships between water characteristics and water treatment. There were also associations between water access and wealth status of the female-headed households. Association was also found between water access and water treatment as well as between wealth status and water treatment. The study concludes that there are dynamic relationships in water insecurity (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity) for female-headed households in South Africa. The study recommends that a multi-prong approach is required in tackling exposures, sensitivities, and adaptive capacities to water insecurity. This should include capacitating and empowering women for wealth generation, improve access to water treatment equipment as well as prioritising the improvement of infrastructure that brings piped and safe water to female-headed households.

Keywords: gender, principal component analysis, structural equation modelling, vulnerability, water insecurity

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2672 Understanding the Common Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistant-Bacterial Load in the Textile Industrial Effluents

Authors: Afroza Parvin, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Rokunozzaman, Papon Debnath

Abstract:

The effluents of textile industries have considerable amounts of heavy metals, causing potential microbial metal loads if discharged into the environment without treatment. Aim: In this present study, both lactose and non-lactose fermenting bacterial isolates were isolated from textile industrial effluents of a specific region of Bangladesh, named Savar, to compare and understand the load of heavy metals in these microorganisms determining the effects of heavy metal resistance properties on antibiotic resistance. Methods: Five different textile industrial canals of Savar were selected, and effluent samples were collected in 2016 between June to August. Total bacterial colony (TBC) was counted for day 1 to day 5 for 10-6 dilution of samples to 10-10 dilution. All the isolates were isolated and selected using 4 differential media, and tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of heavy metals and antibiotic susceptibility test with plate assay method and modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, respectively. To detect the combined effect of heavy metals and antibiotics, a binary exposure experiment was performed, and to understand the plasmid profiling plasmid DNA was extracted by alkaline lysis method of some selective isolates. Results: Most of the cases, the colony forming units (CFU) per plate for 50 ul diluted sample were uncountable at 10-6 dilution, however, countable for 10-10 dilution and it didn’t vary much from canal to canal. A total of 50 Shigella, 50 Salmonella, and 100 E.coli (Escherichia coli) like bacterial isolates were selected for this study where the MIC was less than or equal to 0.6 mM for 100% Shigella and Salmonella like isolates, however, only 3% E. coli like isolates had the same MIC for nickel (Ni). The MIC for chromium (Cr) was less than or equal to 2.0 mM for 16% Shigella, 20% Salmonella, and 17% E. coli like isolates. Around 60% of both Shigella and Salmonella, but only 20% of E.coli like isolates had a MIC of less than or equal to 1.2 mM for lead (Pb). The most prevalent resistant pattern for azithromycin (AZM) for Shigella and Salmonella like isolates was found 38% and 48%, respectively; however, for E.coli like isolates, the highest pattern (36%) was found for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT). In the binary exposure experiment, antibiotic zone of inhibition was mostly increased in the presence of heavy metals for all types of isolates. The highest sized plasmid was found 21 Kb and 14 Kb for lactose and non-lactose fermenting isolates, respectively. Conclusion: Microbial resistance to antibiotics and metal ions, has potential health hazards because these traits are generally associated with transmissible plasmids. Microorganisms resistant to antibiotics and tolerant to metals appear as a result of exposure to metal-contaminated environments.

Keywords: antibiotics, effluents, heavy metals, minimum inhibitory concentration, resistance

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2671 Prediction of Binding Free Energies for Dyes Removal Using Computational Chemistry

Authors: R. Chanajaree, D. Luanwiset, K. Pongpratead

Abstract:

Dye removal is an environmental concern because the textile industries have been increasing by world population and industrialization. Adsorption is the technique to find adsorbents to remove dyes from wastewater. This method is low-cost and effective for dye removal. This work tries to develop effective adsorbents using the computational approach because it will be able to predict the possibility of the adsorbents for specific dyes in terms of binding free energies. The computational approach is faster and cheaper than the experimental approach in case of finding the best adsorbents. All starting structures of dyes and adsorbents are optimized by quantum calculation. The complexes between dyes and adsorbents are generated by the docking method. The obtained binding free energies from docking are compared to binding free energies from the experimental data. The calculated energies can be ranked as same as the experimental results. In addition, this work also shows the possible orientation of the complexes. This work used 2 experimental groups of the complexes of the dyes and adsorbents. In the first group, there are chitosan (adsorbent) and 2 dyes (reactive red (RR) and direct sun yellow (DY)). In the second group, there are Poly(1,2-epoxy-3-phenoxy) propane (PEPP), which is the adsorbent, and 2 dyes of bromocresol green (BCG) and alizarin yellow (AY).

Keywords: dyes removal, binding free energies, quantum calculation, docking

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2670 Application and Regeneration of CuMnCeO Catalyst Supporting K₂CO₃ Sorbent Adapted to CO Oxidation and CO₂ Absorption

Authors: Jin Lin, Shouxiang Lu, Kim Meow Liew

Abstract:

The requirement for the long-term mission of the submarine and spacecraft has made the removal of CO₂ and trace CO the critical technology to ensure the health and life of the crews. In this work, CuMnCe, a metal oxide catalyst, supporting K₂CO₃ sorbent was prepared by the wet-solid state impregnation method to realize the integrated CO and CO₂ removal, which might also reduce the volume/mass load of the purification units in the limited space. The as-prepared samples with different addition amount of K₂CO₃ were tested using the fixed bed reactor to reveal the CO oxidation and CO₂ absorption behavior. And the regeneration and stability experiments were also conducted. The results showed that the samples realized the catalyst and sorbent integration to capture CO and CO₂ at the same time. The addition amount of the sorbent had a weak influence on the CO oxidation performance. While the addition amount affected the CO₂ sorption efficiency and capacity significantly. Meanwhile, the presence of water vapor could reduce the CO oxidation activity of the samples similarly, whether with K2CO3 sorbent addition or not. Furtherly, regeneration and stability experiment results showed that the samples after 3-5 times regeneration exhibited almost the same performance of CO and CO₂ removal. Summarily, CuMnCe catalyst supporting K₂CO₃ sorbent could be a good attempt to control CO and CO₂ pollutants generated from the daily equipment running and staff breathing in the confined space such as submarine and spacecraft.

Keywords: CO oxidation, CO₂ absorptio, potassium carbonate, CuMnCe metal oxide, confined space

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2669 Barriers and Enablers to Climate and Health Adaptation Planning in Small Urban Areas in the Great Lakes Region

Authors: Elena Cangelosi, Wayne Beyea

Abstract:

This research expands the resilience planning literature by exploring the barriers and enablers to climate and health adaptation planning for small urban, coastal Great Lakes communities. With funding from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Climate Ready City and States Initiative, this research took place during a 3-year pilot intervention project which integrates urban planning and public health. The project used the CDC’s Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework to prevent or reduce the human health impacts from climate change in Marquette County, Michigan. Using a deliberation with the analysis planning process, interviews, focus groups, and community meetings with over 25 stakeholder groups and over 100 participants identified the area’s climate-related health concerns and adaptation interventions to address those concerns. Marquette County, on the shores of Lake Superior, the largest of the Great Lakes, was selected for the project based on their existing adaptive capacity and proactive approach to climate adaptation planning. With Marquette County as the context, this study fills a gap in the adaptation literature, which currently heavily emphasizes large-urban or agriculturally-based rural areas, and largely neglects small urban areas. This research builds on the qualitative case-study, survey, and interview approach established by previous researchers on contextual barriers and enablers for adaptation planning. This research uses a case study approach, including surveys and interviews of public officials, to identify the barriers and enablers for climate and health adaptation planning for small-urban areas within a large, non-agricultural, Great Lakes county. The researchers hypothesize that the barriers and enablers will, in some cases, overlap those found in other contexts, but in many cases, will be unique to a rural setting. The study reveals that funding, staff capacity, and communication across a large, rural geography act as the main barriers, while strong networks and collaboration, interested leaders, and community interest through a strong human-land connection act as the primary enablers. Challenges unique to rural areas are revealed, including weak opportunities for grant funding, large geographical distances, communication challenges with an aging and remote population, and the out-migration of education residents. Enablers that may be unique to rural contexts include strong collaborative relationships across jurisdictions for regional work and strong connections between residents and the land. As the factors that enable and prevent climate change planning are highly contextual, understanding, and appropriately addressing the unique factors at play for small-urban communities is key for effective planning in those areas. By identifying and addressing the barriers and enablers to climate and health adaptation planning for small-urban, coastal areas, this study can help Great Lakes communities appropriately build resilience to the adverse impacts of climate change. In addition, this research expands the breadth of research and understanding of the challenges and opportunities planners confront in the face of climate change.

Keywords: climate adaptation and resilience, climate change adaptation, climate change and urban resilience, governance and urban resilience

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2668 Utilization of Fishbone for the Removal of Nickel Ions from Aqueous Media

Authors: Bukunola A.Oguntade, Abdul- Azeez A. Oderinde

Abstract:

Fishbone is a type of waste generated from food and food processing industries. Fishbone wastes are usually treated as the source of organic matter for the by-production. It is a rich source of hydroxyapatite (HAP). In this study, the adsorption behavior of fishbone was examined in a batch system as an economically viable adsorbent for the removal of Ni⁺² ions from aqueous solution. The powdered fishbone was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron microscope (SEM). The study investigated the influence of adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration on the removal of Nickel (II) ions at room temperature. The batch kinetics study showed that the optimum adsorption of Ni(II) was 98% at pH 7, metal ion concentration of 30 mg/L. The results obtained from the experimental work showed that fishbone can be used as an adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

Keywords: adsorption, aqueous media, fishbone, kinetic study

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2667 Mitigation of Indoor Human Exposure to Traffic-Related Fine Particulate Matter (PM₂.₅)

Authors: Ruchi Sharma, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Motor vehicles emit a number of air pollutants, among which fine particulate matter (PM₂.₅) is of major concern in cities with high population density due to its negative impacts on air quality and human health. Typically, people spend more than 80% of their time indoors. Consequently, human exposure to traffic-related PM₂.₅ in indoor environments has received considerable attention. Most of the public residential buildings in tropical countries are designed for natural ventilation, where indoor air quality tends to be strongly affected by the migration of air pollutants of outdoor origin. However, most of the previously reported traffic-related PM₂.₅ exposure assessment studies relied on ambient PM₂.₅ concentrations, and thus, the health impact of traffic-related PM₂.₅ on occupants in naturally ventilated buildings remains largely unknown. Therefore, a systematic field study was conducted to assess indoor human exposure to traffic-related PM₂.₅ with and without mitigation measures in a typical naturally ventilated residential apartment situated near a road carrying a large volume of traffic. Three PM₂.₅ exposure scenarios were simulated in this study i.e., Case 1: keeping all windows open with a ceiling fan on as per the usual practice, Case 2: keeping all windows fully closed as a mitigation measure, and Case 3: keeping all windows fully closed with the operation of a portable indoor air cleaner as an additional mitigation measure. The indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios for PM₂.₅ mass concentrations were assessed and the effectiveness of using the indoor air cleaner was quantified. Additionally, potential human health risk based on the bioavailable fraction of toxic trace elements was also estimated for the three cases in order to identify a suitable mitigation measure for reducing PM₂.₅ exposure indoors. Traffic-related PM₂.₅ levels indoors exceeded the air quality guidelines (12 µg/m3) in Case 1, i.e., under natural ventilation conditions due to advective flow of outdoor air into the indoor environment. However, while using the indoor air cleaner, a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the PM₂.₅ exposure levels was noticed indoors. Specifically, the effectiveness of the air cleaner in terms of reducing indoor PM₂.₅ exposure was estimated to be about 74%. Moreover, potential human health risk assessment also indicated a substantial reduction in potential health risk while using the air cleaner. This is the first study of its kind that evaluated the indoor human exposure to traffic-related PM₂.₅ and identified a suitable exposure mitigation measure that can be implemented in densely populated cities to realize health benefits.

Keywords: fine particulate matter, indoor air cleaner, potential human health risk, vehicular emissions

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2666 The Nexus between Climate Change and Criminality: The Nigerian Experience

Authors: Dagaci Aliyu Manbe, Anthony Abah Ebonyi

Abstract:

The increase in global temperatures is worsened by frequent natural events and human activities. Climate change has taken a prominent space in the global discourse on crime and criminality. Compared to when the subject centred around the discussion on the depletion of the ozone layer and global warming, today, the narrative revolves around the implications of changes in weather and climatic conditions in relations to violent crimes or conflict that traverse vast social, economic, and political spaces in different countries. Global warming and climate change refer to an increase in average global temperatures in the Earth’s near-surface air and oceans, which occurs due to human activities such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuel such as gas flaring. The trend is projected to continue, if unchecked. This paper seeks to explore the nexus between climate change and criminality in Nigeria. It further examines the main ecological changes that predispose conflict dynamics of security threats factored by climate change to peaceful co-existence in Nigeria. It concludes with some recommendations on the way forward.

Keywords: conflict, climate change, criminality, global warning, peace

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2665 Empirical Modeling and Spatial Analysis of Heat-Related Morbidity in Maricopa County, Arizona

Authors: Chuyuan Wang, Nayan Khare, Lily Villa, Patricia Solis, Elizabeth A. Wentz

Abstract:

Maricopa County, Arizona, has a semi-arid hot desert climate that is one of the hottest regions in the United States. The exacerbated urban heat island (UHI) effect caused by rapid urbanization has made the urban area even hotter than the rural surroundings. The Phoenix metropolitan area experiences extremely high temperatures in the summer from June to September that can reach the daily highest of 120 °F (48.9 °C). Morbidity and mortality due to the environmental heat is, therefore, a significant public health issue in Maricopa County, especially because it is largely preventable. Public records from the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) revealed that between 2012 and 2016, there were 10,825 incidents of heat-related morbidity incidents, 267 outdoor environmental heat deaths, and 173 indoor heat-related deaths. A lot of research has examined heat-related death and its contributing factors around the world, but little has been done regarding heat-related morbidity issues, especially for regions that are naturally hot in the summer. The objective of this study is to examine the demographic, socio-economic, housing, and environmental factors that contribute to heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. We obtained heat-related morbidity data between 2012 and 2016 at census tract level from MCDPH. Demographic, socio-economic, and housing variables were derived using 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-year estimate from the U.S. Census. Remotely sensed Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI satellite images and Level-1 products were acquired for all the summer months (June to September) from 2012 and 2016. The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2016 percent tree canopy and percent developed imperviousness data were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). We used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis to examine the empirical relationship between all the independent variables and heat-related morbidity rate. Results showed that higher morbidity rates are found in census tracts with higher values in population aged 65 and older, population under poverty, disability, no vehicle ownership, white non-Hispanic, population with less than high school degree, land surface temperature, and surface reflectance, but lower values in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and housing occupancy. The regression model can be used to explain up to 59.4% of total variation of heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. The multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) technique was then used to examine the spatially varying relationships between heat-related morbidity rate and all the significant independent variables. The R-squared value of the MGWR model increased to 0.691, that shows a significant improvement in goodness-of-fit than the global OLS model, which means that spatial heterogeneity of some independent variables is another important factor that influences the relationship with heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. Among these variables, population aged 65 and older, the Hispanic population, disability, vehicle ownership, and housing occupancy have much stronger local effects than other variables.

Keywords: census, empirical modeling, heat-related morbidity, spatial analysis

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2664 Transformation of Iopromide Due to Redox Gradients in Sediments of the Hyporheic Zone

Authors: Niranjan Mukherjee, Burga Braun, Ulrich Szewzyk

Abstract:

Recalcitrant pharmaceuticals are increasingly found in urban water systems forced by demographic changes. The groundwater-surface water interface, or the hyporheic zone, is known for its impressive self-purification capacity of water bodies. Redox gradients present in this zone provide a wide range of electron acceptors and harbour diverse microbial communities. Biotic transformations of pharmaceuticals in this zone have been demonstrated, but not much information is available on the kind of communities bringing about these transformations. Therefore, bioreactors using sediment from the hyporheic zone of a river in Berlin were set up and fed with iopromide, a recalcitrant iodinated X-ray contrast medium. Iopromide, who’s many oxic and anoxic transformation products have been characterized, was shown to be transformed in such a bioreactor as it passes along the gradient. Many deiodinated transformation products of iopromide could be identified at the outlet of the reactor. In our experiments, it was seen that at the same depths of the column, the transformation of iopromide increased over time. This could be an indication of the microbial communities in the sediment adapting to iopromide. The hyporheic zone, with its varying redox conditions, mainly due to the upwelling and downwelling of surface and groundwater levels, could potentially provide microorganisms with conditions for the complete transformation of recalcitrant pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: iopromide, hyporheic zone, recalcitrant pharmaceutical, redox gradients

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2663 Building Climate Resilience in the Health Sector in Developing Countries: Experience from Tanzania

Authors: Hussein Lujuo Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Public health has always been influenced by climate and weather. Changes in climate and climate variability, particularly changes in weather extremes affect the environment that provides people with clean air, food, water, shelter, and security. Tanzania is not an exception to the threats of climate change. The health sector is mostly affected due to emergence and proliferation of infectious diseases, thereby affecting health of the population and thus impacting achievement of sustainable development goals. Methodology: A desk review on documented issues pertaining to climate change and health in Tanzania was done using Google search engine. Keywords included climate change, link, health, climate initiatives. In cases where information was not available, documents from Ministry of Health, Vice Presidents Office-Environment, Local Government Authority, Ministry of Water, WHO, research, and training institutions were reviewed. Some of the reviewed documents from these institutions include policy brief papers, fieldwork activity reports, training manuals, and guidelines. Results: Six main climate resilience activities were identified in Tanzania. These were development and implementation of climate resilient water safety plans guidelines both for rural and urban water authorities, capacity building of rural and urban water authorities on implementation of climate-resilient water safety plans, and capacity strengthening of local environmental health practitioners on mainstreaming climate change and health into comprehensive council health plans. Others were vulnerability and adaptation assessment for the health sector, mainstreaming climate change in the National Health Policy, and development of risk communication strategy on climate. In addition information, education, and communication materials on climate change and to create awareness were developed aiming to sensitize and create awareness among communities on climate change issues and its effect on public health. Conclusion: Proper implementation of these interventions will help the country become resilient to many impacts of climate change in the health sector and become a good example for other least developed countries.

Keywords: climate, change, Tanzania, health

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2662 Impact of Emerging Nano-Agrichemicals on the Simultaneous Control of Arsenic and Cadmium in Rice Paddies

Authors: Xingmao Ma, Wenjie Sun

Abstract:

Rice paddies are frequently co-contaminated by arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd), both of which demonstrate a high propensity for accumulation in rice grains and cause global food safety and public health concern. Even though different agricultural management strategies have been explored for their simultaneous control in rice grains, a viable solution is yet to be developed. Interestingly, several nanoagrichemicals, such as the zinc nanofertilizer and copper nanopesticide have displayed strong potential to reduce As or Cd accumulation in rice tissues. In order to determine whether these nanoagrichemicals can lower the accumulation of both As and Cd in rice, a series of bench studies were performed. Our results show that zinc oxide nanoparticles at 100 mg/Kg significantly lowered both As, and Cd in rice roots and shoots in flood irrigated rice seedlings, while equivalent amount of zinc ions only reduced As concentration in rice shoots. Zinc ions significantly increased Cd concentration in rice shoots by almost 30%. The results demonstrate a unique 'nano-effect' of zinc oxide nanoparticles, which is ascribed to the slow releasing of zinc ions from nanoparticles and the formation of different transformation products in these two treatments. We also evaluated the effect of nanoscale soil amendment, silicon oxide nanoparticles (SiO₂NPs) on the simultaneous reduction in both flooding and alternate wet and dry irrigation scheme. The effect of SiO₂NPs on As and Cd accumulation in rice tissues was strongly affected by the irrigation scheme. While 2000 mg/kg of SiO₂NPs significantly reduced As in rice roots and insignificantly reduced As in rice shoots in flooded rice, it increased As concentration in rice shoots in alternate wet and dry irrigation. In both irrigation scenarios, SiO₂NPs significantly reduced Cd concentration in rice roots, but only reduced Cd concentration in rice shoots in alternate wet and dry irrigation. Our results demonstrate a marked effect of nanoagrichemicals on the accumulation of As and Cd in rice and can be a potential solution to simultaneously control both in certain conditions.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, rice, nanoagrichemicals

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2661 Comparing the Influence/Role of Regional Climate Models and Their Driving Global Circulation Models in the Quality of Dynamically Downscaled Rainfall Data: From Cordex-Africa Domain over the Eastern Nile Basin

Authors: Sadame M. Yimer, Abderrazak Bouanani, Navneet Kumar, Bernhard Tischbein, Christian Borgemeister

Abstract:

The highly marked consequences of climate change on the different regionally important sector has made it to be at the epicenter of global interest. Climate modelers continued their endeavors of understanding how the climate system operates for a more reliable future climate projection. Despite the gradual improvement in representing the climate system by climate models, as one of the most complex processes in the earth system, its representation by climate models is still very limited. Due to the use of different algorithms in different climate models and downscaling techniques, they cannot provide a unique climate projection, which emphasized the need for climate model evaluation as a way forward to their improvement. As a result, this study attempted to evaluate the influence and/or role of different regional climate models (RCMs) and their driving global circulation models (GCMs) in the quality of downscaled rainfall over the Eastern Nile basin. Dynamically downscaled rainfall data from seventeen different GCM-RCM combinations were collected from the CORDEX-Africa domain data archives, while observed data were obtained from the National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia. The evaluation was done at basin and grid level. The basin level comparison includes mean annual rainfall, inter and intra-annual variability while the grid level comparison was considered to evaluate models skill in capturing the spatial variability of rainfall, and Taylor diagram was employed in this regard. The evaluation was first between models with similar RCMs but different GCMs while the second was between models with similar driving GCMs but different RCMs. As the RCMs evaluation result shows, there is a considerable difference in RCMs downscaling skill to the given GCMs. From all the five RCMs, climate models with the use of REMO2009 and CCLM4 in their downscaling outperformed the other climate models in all evaluation metrics considered. Although climate models with the use of SMHI-RCA4 for downscaling took the lion share in the CORDEX dataset, it has a relatively poor performance under almost all driving GCMs. The two least performing climate models were the ones that used HIRHAM5 for downscaling. Interestingly, as the RCMs influenced the quality of downscaled data from the given GCMs, the driving data from GCMs were also found with more or less an equally important role in determining the quality of downscaled rainfall dataset with the given RCMs. In the datasets used in this study, nine GCMs were involved for downscaling, and climate models with the use of driving data from MPI-ESM-LR were found to have an outstanding skill. It is interesting that one of the best performing RCM (REMO2009) and the most influential GCM (MPI-ESM-LR) were developed in the same institute in Germany. From the individual climate model’s skill explicit to GCMs and RCMs, it would be fair to say that they have to be acknowledged equally. Therefore, as far as knowledge sharing is concerned, it is very much important for climate modelers to investigate the difference in climate model configuration, which will allow them to understand the possible reason behind the weakness and strength of GCMs and RCMs performance.

Keywords: climate change, CORDEX, GCMs, RCMs

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2660 Evaluation of the Quality of Groundwater in the Zone of the Irrigated Perimeter Guelma-Bouchegouf, Northeast of Algeria

Authors: M. Benhamza, M. Touati, M. Aissaoui

Abstract:

The Guelma-Bouchegouf irrigated area is located in the north-east of the country; it extends about 80 km. It was commissioned in 1996, with an irrigable area of 9250 ha, it spreads on both banks of the Seybouse Wadi and it is subdivided into five autonomous distribution sectors. In order to assess the state of groundwater quality, physico-chemical and organic analyzes were carried out during the low water period in November 2017, at the level of fourteen wells in the Guelma-Bouchegouf irrigation area. The interpretation of the results of the chemical analyzes shows that the waters of the study area belong to two dominant chemical facies: sulphated-chlorinated-calcium and Sulfated-chlorinated-sodium. The mineral quality of the groundwater in the study area shows that Ca²⁺, Cl⁻ and SO₄²⁻ indicate little to significant pollution, Na⁺ and Mg²⁺ show moderate to significant mineralization of water, closely correlated with very high conductivities. NO₃⁻ and NH⁴⁺ show little to significant pollution throughout the study area. Phosphate represents a significant pollution, with excessive values exceeding the allowable standard. Phosphate concentrations indicate pollution caused by agricultural practices in the irrigated area, following the use of phosphates in the form of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

Keywords: Algeria, groundwater, irrigated perimeter, pollution

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2659 Uptake of Co(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Low-Cost Biopolymers and Their Hybrid

Authors: Kateryna Zhdanova, Evelyn Szeinbaum, Michelle Lo, Yeonjae Jo, Abel E. Navarro

Abstract:

Alginate hydrogel beads (AB), spent peppermint leaf (PM), and a hybrid adsorbent of these two materials (ABPM) were studied as potential biosorbents of Cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solutions. Cobalt ion is a commonly underestimated pollutant that is responsible for several health problems. Discontinuous batch experiments were conducted at room temperature to evaluate the effect of solution acidity, mass of adsorbent on the adsorption of Co(II) ions. The interfering effect of salinity, the presence of surfactants, an organic dye, and Pb(II) ions were also studied to resemble the application of these adsorbents in real wastewater. Equilibrium results indicate that Co(II) uptake is maximized at pH values higher than 5, with adsorbent doses of 200 mg, 200 mg, and 120 mg for AB, PM, and ABPM, respectively. Co(II) adsorption followed the trend AB > ABPM > PM with Adsorption percentages of 77%, 71% and 64%, respectively. Salts had a strong negative effect on the adsorption due to the increase of the ionic strength and the competition for adsorption sites. The presence of Pb(II) ions, surfactant, and dye BY57 had a slightly negative effect on the adsorption, apparently due to their interaction with different adsorption sites that do not interfere with the removal of Co(II). A polar-electrostatic adsorption mechanism is proposed based on the experimental results. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that adsorbent has appropriate morphological and textural properties, and also that ABPM encapsulated most of the PM inside of the hydrogel beads. These experimental results revealed that AB, PM, and ABPM are promising adsorbents for the elimination of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. These biopolymers are proposed as eco-friendly alternatives for the removal of heavy metal ions at lower costs than the conventional techniques.

Keywords: adsorption, Co(II) ions, alginate hydrogel beads, spent peppermint leaf, pH

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2658 A Greener Approach for the Recovery of Proteins from Meat Industries

Authors: Jesus Hernandez, Zead Elzoeiry, Md. S. Islam, Abel E. Navarro

Abstract:

The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human hemoglobin (Hb) on naturally-occurring adsorbents was studied to evaluate the potential recovery of proteins from meat industry residues. Spent peppermint tea (PM), powdered purple corn cob (PC), natural clay (NC) and chemically-modified clay (MC) were investigated to elucidate the effects of pH, adsorbent dose, initial protein concentration, presence of salts and heavy metals. Equilibrium data were fitted according to isotherm models, reporting a maximum adsorption capacity at pH 8 of 318 and 344 mg BSA/g of PM and NC, respectively. Moreover, Hb displayed maximum adsorption capacity at pH 5 of 125 and 143 mg/g of PM and PC, respectively. Hofmeister salt effect was only observed for PM/Hb system. Salts tend to decrease protein adsorption, and the presence of Cu(II) ions had negligible impacts on the adsorption onto NC and PC. Desorption experiments confirmed that more than 85% of both proteins can be recovered with diluted acids and bases. SEM, EDX, and TGA analyses demonstrated that the adsorbents have favorable morphological and mechanical properties. The long-term goal of this study aims to recover soluble proteins from industrial wastewaters to produce animal food or any protein-based product.

Keywords: adsorption, albumin, clay, hemoglobin, spent peppermint leaf

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2657 Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solutions by Leaf and Stem Biochar Derived from Lantana camara: Adsorption Kinetics, Equilibrium, Thermodynamics and Possible Mechanism

Authors: Deepa Kundu, Prabhakar Sharma, Sayan Bhattacharya, Jianying Shang

Abstract:

The discharge of dye-containing effluents in the water bodies has raised concern due to the potential hazards related to their toxicity in the environment. There are various treatment technologies available for the removal of dyes from wastewaters. The use of biosorbent to remove dyes from wastewater is one of the effective and inexpensive techniques. In the study, the adsorption of phenothiazine dye methylene blue onto biosorbent prepared from Lantana camara L. has been studied in aqueous solutions. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted and the effects of various parameters such as pH (3-12), contact time, adsorbent dose (100-400 mg/L), initial dye concentration (5-20 mg/L), and temperature (303, 313 and 323 K) were investigated. The prepared leaf (BCL600) and shoot (BCS600) biochar of Lantana were characterized using FTIR, SEM, elemental analysis, and zeta potential (pH~7). A comparison between the adsorption potential of both the biosorbent was also evaluated. The results indicated that the amount of methylene blue dye (mg/g) adsorbed onto the surface of biochar was highly dependent on the pH of the dye solutions as it increased with an increase in pH from 3 to 12. It was observed that the dye treated with BCS600 and BCL600 attained an equilibrium within 60 and 100 minutes, respectively. The rate of the adsorption process was determined by performing the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics. It was found that dye treated with both BCS600 and BCL600 followed pseudo-second-order kinetics implying the multi-step nature of the adsorption process involving external adsorption and diffusion of dye molecules into the interior of the adsorbents. The data obtained from batch experiments were fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms (R² > 0.98) to indicate the multilayer adsorption of dye over the biochar surfaces. The thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process is favourable, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature. Based on the results, the inexpensive and easily available Lantana camara biomass can be used to remove methylene blue dye from wastewater. It can also help in managing the growth of the notorious weed in the environment.

Keywords: adsorption kinetics, biochar, Lantana camara, methylene blue dye, possible mechanism, thermodynamics

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2656 Assessment of Hydrologic Response of a Naturalized Tropical Coastal Mangrove Ecosystem Due to Land Cover Change in an Urban Watershed

Authors: Bryan Clark B. Hernandez, Eugene C. Herrera, Kazuo Nadaoka

Abstract:

Mangrove forests thriving in intertidal zones in tropical and subtropical regions of the world offer a range of ecosystem services including carbon storage and sequestration. They can regulate the detrimental effects of climate change due to carbon releases two to four times greater than that of mature tropical rainforests. Moreover, they are effective natural defenses against storm surges and tsunamis. However, their proliferation depends significantly on the prevailing hydroperiod at the coast. In the Philippines, these coastal ecosystems have been severely threatened with a 50% decline in areal extent observed from 1918 to 2010. The highest decline occurred in 1950 - 1972 when national policies encouraged the development of fisheries and aquaculture. With the intensive land use conversion upstream, changes in the freshwater-saltwater envelope at the coast may considerably impact mangrove growth conditions. This study investigates a developing urban watershed in Kalibo, Aklan province with a 220-hectare mangrove forest replanted for over 30 years from coastal mudflats. Since then, the mangrove forest was sustainably conserved and declared as protected areas. Hybrid land cover classification technique was used to classify Landsat images for years, 1990, 2010, and 2017. Digital elevation model utilized was Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) with a 5-meter resolution to delineate the watersheds. Using numerical modelling techniques, the hydrologic and hydraulic analysis of the influence of land cover change to flow and sediment dynamics was simulated. While significant land cover change occurred upland, thereby increasing runoff and sediment loads, the mangrove forests abundance adjacent to the coasts for the urban watershed, was somehow sustained. However, significant alteration of the coastline was observed in Kalibo through the years, probably due to the massive land-use conversion upstream and significant replanting of mangroves downstream. Understanding the hydrologic-hydraulic response of these watersheds to change land cover is essential to helping local government and stakeholders facilitate better management of these mangrove ecosystems.

Keywords: coastal mangroves, hydrologic model, land cover change, Philippines

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2655 Exposure Risk to Human by Trace Metals in Road Dust and Roadside Soil in Urban Park Sites of Delhi City, India

Authors: Zainab Siddiqui, P.S. Khillare

Abstract:

This study investigates the trace metal composition and health risk assessment of road dust and roadside soil in Delhi(India), a rapidly urbanising city, where industrial activities, vehicular traffic, and population load strongly affect pollutant distribution. The scarcity of the land available and privation of planning of the same in the urban cities results in a mixed pattern of land use. Most of the urban parks in Delhi are generally built-in proximity to major roads or industrial areas, where they are likely to have many potential pollution sources. In this study, road dust and roadside soil samples were collected from the city parks in the winter season of the year 2018. Before analysis, all samples were processed, homogenised, and subsequently subjected to acid assisted Microwave digestion. The total trace metal analysis was carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results indicate that the distribution patterns of the trace metals in road dust are almost similar to the roadside soils and are in the trend of decreasing order as Fe> Mn > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Pb > Co. Pollution indices like the Contamination factor (CF) and Geo accumulation index (I

Keywords: carcinogenic risk, road dust, roadside soil, parks, population

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2654 Microalgae Bacteria Granules, an Alternative Technology to the Conventional Wastewater Treatment: Structural and Metabolic Characterization

Authors: M. Nita-Lazar, E. Manea, C. Bumbac, A. Banciu, C. Stoica

Abstract:

The population and economic growth have generated a significant new number of pollutant compounds which have to be degraded before reaching the environment. The wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been the last barrier between the domestic and/or industrial wastewaters and the environment. At present, the conventional WWTPs have very high operational costs, most of them linked to the aeration process (60-65% from total energy costs related to wastewater treatment). In addition, they have had a low efficiency in pollutants removal such as pharmaceutical and other resilient anthropogenic compounds. In our study, we have been focused on new wastewater treatment strategies to enhance the efficiency of pollutants removal and decrease the wastewater treatment operational costs. The usage of mixed microalgae-bacteria granules technology generated high efficiency and low costs by a better harvesting and less expensive aeration. The intertrophic relationships between microalgae and bacteria have been characterized by the structure of the population community to their metabolic relationships. The results, obtained by microscopic studies, showed well-organized and stratified microalgae-bacteria granules where bacteria have been enveloped in the microalgal structures. Moreover, their population community structure has been modulated as well as their nitrification, denitrification processes (analysis based on qPCR genes expression) by the type of the pollutant compounds and amounts. In conclusion, the understanding and modulation of intertrophic relationships between microalgae and bacteria could be an economical and technological viable alternative to the conventional wastewater treatment. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by grant PN-III-P4-ID-PCE-2016-0865 from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation CNCS/CCCDI-UEFISCDI.

Keywords: activated sludge, bacteria, granules, microalgae

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2653 Analysis of Weather Radar Data for the Cloud Seeding in Korea, 2018

Authors: Yonghun Ro, Joo-Wan Cha, Sanghee Chae, Areum Ko, Woonseon Jung, Jong-Chul Ha

Abstract:

National Institute of Meteorological Science (NIMS) in South Korea has performed the cloud seeding to support the field of cloud physics. This is to determine the precipitation occurrence analyzing the changes in the microphysical schemes of clouds. NIMS conducted 12 times of cloud seeding in the lower height of the troposphere at Kangwon and Kyunggi provinces throughout 2018. The change in the reflectivity of the weather radar was analyzed to verify the enhancement of precipitation according to the cloud seeding in this study. First, the natural system in the near of the target area was separated to clear the seeding effect. The radar reflectivity in the point of ground gauge station was extracted in every 10 minutes and the increased values during the reaction time of cloud particles and seeding materials were estimated as a seeding effect considering the cloud temperature, wind speed and direction, and seeding line that the aircraft had passed by. The radar reflectivity affected by seeding materials was showed an increment of 5 to 10 dBZ, and enhanced precipitation cloud was also detected in the 11 cases of cloud seeding experiments.

Keywords: cloud seeding, reflectivity, weather radar, seeding effect

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2652 Sustainable Manufacturing Industries and Energy-Water Nexus Approach

Authors: Shahbaz Abbas, Lin Han Chiang Hsieh

Abstract:

The significant population growth and climate change issues have contributed to the natural resources depletion and their sustainability in the future. Manufacturing industries have a substantial impact on every country’s economy, but the sustainability of the industrial resources is challenging, and the policymakers have been developing the possible solutions to manage the sustainability of industrial resources such as raw material, energy, water, and industrial supply chain. In order to address these challenges, nexus approach is one of the optimization and modelling techniques in the recent sustainable environmental research. The interactions between the nexus components acknowledge that all components are dependent upon each other, and they are interrelated; therefore, their sustainability is also associated with each other. In addition, the nexus concept does not only provide the resources sustainability but also environmental sustainability can be achieved through nexus approach by utilizing the industrial waste as a resource for the industrial processes. Based on energy-water nexus, this study has developed a resource-energy-water for the sugar industry to understand the interactions between sugarcane, energy, and water towards the sustainable sugar industry. In particular, the focus of the research is the Taiwanese sugar industry; however, the same approach can be adapted worldwide to optimize the sustainability of sugar industries. It has been concluded that there are significant interactions between sugarcane, energy consumption, and water consumption in the sugar industry to manage the scarcity of resources in the future. The interactions between sugarcane and energy also deliver a mechanism to reuse the sugar industrial waste as a source of energy, consequently validating industrial and environmental sustainability. The desired outcomes from the nexus can be achieved with the modifications in the policy and regulations of Taiwanese industrial sector.

Keywords: energy-water nexus, environmental sustainability, industrial sustainability, natural resource management

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2651 Organic Contaminant Degradation Using H₂O₂ Activated Biochar with Enhanced Persistent Free Radicals

Authors: Kalyani Mer

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Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) is one of the most efficient and commonly used oxidants in in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants. In the present study, we investigated the activation of H₂O₂ by heavy metal (nickel and lead metal ions) loaded biochar for phenol degradation in an aqueous solution (concentration = 100 mg/L). It was found that H₂O₂ can be effectively activated by biochar, which produces hydroxyl (•OH) radicals owing to an increase in the formation of persistent free radicals (PFRs) on biochar surface. Ultrasound treated (30s duration) biochar, chemically activated by 30% phosphoric acid and functionalized by diethanolamine (DEA) was used for the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. It was found that modified biochar could remove almost 60% of nickel in eight hours; however, for lead, the removal efficiency reached up to 95% for the same time duration. The heavy metal loaded biochar was further used for the degradation of phenol in the absence and presence of H₂O₂ (20 mM), within 4 hours of reaction time. The removal efficiency values for phenol in the presence of H₂O₂ were 80.3% and 61.9%, respectively, by modified biochar loaded with nickel and lead metal ions. These results suggested that the biochar loaded with nickel exhibits a better removal capacity towards phenol than the lead loaded biochar when used in H₂O₂ based oxidation systems. Meanwhile, control experiments were set in the absence of any activating biochar, and the removal efficiency was found to be 19.1% when only H₂O₂ was added in the reaction solution. Overall, the proposed approach serves a dual purpose of using biochar for heavy metal ion removal and treatment of organic contaminants by further using the metal loaded biochar for H₂O₂ activation in ISCO processes.

Keywords: biochar, ultrasound, heavy metals, in-situ chemical oxidation, chemical activation

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2650 Climate Change and Livelihoods: The Case of the Kariba REDD+ Project in Hurungwe District, Zimbabwe

Authors: Lindiwe Mangwanya, Vupenyu Dzingirai

Abstract:

Climate change in Zimbabwe has been evident in rainfall variability, warming trends and extreme events, such as the recent Cyclone Idai. These conditions pose a major threat not only to the macro-economy of the country but more so, to the rural poor at micro-level, who have low adaptive capacity and whose livelihoods depend essentially on rain-fed agriculture. Like any affected country, Zimbabwe has made some attempts to mitigate the effects of climate change. One such attempt has been the Kariba Carbon REDD+ project, a privately run initiative, which promotes massive afforestation in order to sequenter carbon in large amounts and sell it through offset schemes on the international market. The project permits developed countries to give financial rewards to developing countries for conserving forests to offset carbon emissions. The project has so far been initiated in four districts, Hurungwe, Binga, Mbire and Nyaminyami, where calls have been made for communities to preserve their forests in support of the initiative. In return, it promises, among other things, funding for community development projects aimed at poverty alleviation through sustainable livelihoods. This paper concerns itself with this objective of the project: community development and poverty alleviation and seeks to understand the community’s perceptions on the project and how it has impacted on their existing livelihoods. To answer this question, the paper uses the project site in Hurungwe District, where participatory methods including interviews, a seasonal calendar and focus group discussions were held with participants and project architects to ascertain the community’s views and perceptions on the project. It also draws from secondary sources, including online project documents. Results show that the project has been a disillusionment to the community. Firstly, although there have been some developments at community level, no tangible benefits have been forthcoming to the basic unit of consumption, the household. Secondly, the project has disenfranchised the community through criminalisation of livelihoods by limiting farming land and prohibiting access to forest products, both of which have been at the centre of local livelihoods for many years. Lastly, this being a tsetse fly zone, the proliferation of vegetation will foster a conducive environment for the fly, thereby promoting diseases, a situation which is likely to further constrain livelihoods. The paper concludes that failure by the project to meet household needs threatens its goal of mitigating climate change as the community is set to resist or sabotage the afforestation drive. The paper recommends that, in order to succeed, projects designed to mitigate climate change must be sensitive to - and be organised around - the prevailing livelihood activities of the hosting communities. The paper also calls for a state-induced national framework to govern such initiatives in order to promote accountability and protect local communities. The framework should also compel local companies to purchase carbon credits with funds obtained therefrom being channelled back to the upkeep of the communities involved.

Keywords: climate change, disease, livelihoods, mitigation

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2649 Planning for Location and Distribution of Regional Facilities Using Central Place Theory and Location-Allocation Model

Authors: Danjuma Bawa

Abstract:

This paper aimed at exploring the capabilities of Location-Allocation model in complementing the strides of the existing physical planning models in the location and distribution of facilities for regional consumption. The paper was designed to provide a blueprint to the Nigerian government and other donor agencies especially the Fertilizer Distribution Initiative (FDI) by the federal government for the revitalization of the terrorism ravaged regions. Theoretical underpinnings of central place theory related to spatial distribution, interrelationships, and threshold prerequisites were reviewed. The study showcased how Location-Allocation Model (L-AM) alongside Central Place Theory (CPT) was applied in Geographic Information System (GIS) environment to; map and analyze the spatial distribution of settlements; exploit their physical and economic interrelationships, and to explore their hierarchical and opportunistic influences. The study was purely spatial qualitative research which largely used secondary data such as; spatial location and distribution of settlements, population figures of settlements, network of roads linking them and other landform features. These were sourced from government ministries and open source consortium. GIS was used as a tool for processing and analyzing such spatial features within the dictum of CPT and L-AM to produce a comprehensive spatial digital plan for equitable and judicious location and distribution of fertilizer deports in the study area in an optimal way. Population threshold was used as yardstick for selecting suitable settlements that could stand as service centers to other hinterlands; this was accomplished using the query syntax in ArcMapTM. ArcGISTM’ network analyst was used in conducting location-allocation analysis for apportioning of groups of settlements around such service centers within a given threshold distance. Most of the techniques and models ever used by utility planners have been centered on straight distance to settlements using Euclidean distances. Such models neglect impedance cutoffs and the routing capabilities of networks. CPT and L-AM take into consideration both the influential characteristics of settlements and their routing connectivity. The study was undertaken in two terrorism ravaged Local Government Areas of Adamawa state. Four (4) existing depots in the study area were identified. 20 more depots in 20 villages were proposed using suitability analysis. Out of the 300 settlements mapped in the study area about 280 of such settlements where optimally grouped and allocated to the selected service centers respectfully within 2km impedance cutoff. This study complements the giant strides by the federal government of Nigeria by providing a blueprint for ensuring proper distribution of these public goods in the spirit of bringing succor to these terrorism ravaged populace. This will ardently at the same time help in boosting agricultural activities thereby lowering food shortage and raising per capita income as espoused by the government.

Keywords: central place theory, GIS, location-allocation, network analysis, urban and regional planning, welfare economics

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2648 Study of the Persian Gulf’s and Oman Sea’s Numerical Tidal Currents

Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Sharifi

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In this research, a barotropic model was employed to consider the tidal studies in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, where the only sufficient force was the tidal force. To do that, a finite-difference, free-surface model called Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), was employed on the data over the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. To analyze flow patterns of the region, the results of limited size model of The Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) were appropriated. The two points were determined since both are one of the most critical water body in case of the economy, biology, fishery, Shipping, navigation, and petroleum extraction. The OSU Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS) tide and observation data validated the modeled result. Next, tidal elevation and speed, and tidal analysis were interpreted. Preliminary results determine a significant accuracy in the tidal height compared with observation and OTPS data, declaring that tidal currents are highest in Hormuz Strait and the narrow and shallow region between Iranian coasts and Islands. Furthermore, tidal analysis clarifies that the M_2 component has the most significant value. Finally, the Persian Gulf tidal currents are divided into two branches: the first branch converts from south to Qatar and via United Arab Emirate rotates to Hormuz Strait. The secondary branch, in north and west, extends up to the highest point in the Persian Gulf and in the head of Gulf turns counterclockwise.

Keywords: numerical model, barotropic tide, tidal currents, OSU tidal prediction software, OTPS

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