Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3145

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Environmental and Ecological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

3145 Glacier Dynamics and Mass Fluctuations in Western Himalayas: A Comparative Analysis of Pir-Panjal and Greater Himalayan Ranges in Jhelum Basin, India

Authors: Syed Towseef Ahmad, Fatima Amin, Pritha Acharya, Anil K. Gupta, Pervez Ahmad

Abstract:

Glaciers being the sentinels of climate change, are the most visible evidence of global warming. Given the unavailability of observed field-based data, this study has focussed on the use of geospatial techniques to obtain information about the glaciers of Pir-Panjal (PPJ) and the Great Himalayan Regions of Jhelum Basin (GHR). These glaciers need to be monitored in line with the variations in climatic conditions because they significantly contribute to various sectors in the region. The main aim of this study is to map the glaciers in the two adjacent regions (PPJ and GHR) in the north-western Himalayas with different topographies and compare the changes in various glacial attributes during two different time periods (1990-2020). During the last three decades, both PPJ as well as GHR regions have observed deglaciation of around 36 and 26 percent, respectively. The mean elevation of GHR glaciers has increased from 4312 to 4390 masl, while the same for PPJ glaciers has increased from 4085 to 4124 masl during the observation period. Using accumulation area ratio (AAR) method, mean mass balance of -34.52 and -37.6 cm.w.e was recorded for the glaciers of GHR and PPJ, respectively. The difference in areal and mass loss of glaciers in these regions may be due to (i) the smaller size of PPJ glaciers which are all smaller than 1 km² and are thus more responsive to climate change (ii) Higher mean elevation of GHR glaciers (iii) local variations in climatic variables in these glaciated regions. Time series analysis of climate variables indicates that both the mean maximum and minimum temperatures of Qazigund station (Tmax= 19.2, Tmin= 6.4) are comparatively higher than the Pahalgam station (Tmax= 18.8, Tmin= 3.2). Except for precipitation in Qazigund (Slope= - 0.3 mm a⁻¹), each climatic parameter has shown an increasing trend during these three decades, and with the slope of 0.04 and 0.03°c a⁻¹, the positive trend in Tmin (pahalgam) and Tmax (qazigund) are observed to be statistically significant (p≤0.05).

Keywords: glaciers, climate change, Pir-Panjal, greater Himalayas, mass balance

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3144 Environmental Forensic Analysis of the Shoreline Microplastics Debris on the Limbe Coastline, Cameroon

Authors: Ndumbe Eric Esongami, Manga Veronica Ebot, Foba Josepha Tendo, Yengong Fabrice Lamfu, Tiku David Tambe

Abstract:

The prevalence and unpleasant nature of plastics pollution constantly observed on beach shore on stormy events has prompt researchers worldwide to thesis on sustainable economic and environmental designs on plastics, especially in Cameroon, a major touristic destination in the Central Africa Region. The inconsistent protocols develop by researchers has added to this burden, thus the morphological nature of microplastic remediation is a call for concerns. The prime aim of the study is to morphologically identify, quantify and forensically understands the distribution of each plastics polymer composition. Duplicates of 2×2 m (4m2) quadrants were sampled in each beach/month over 8 months period across five purposive beaches along the Limbe – Idenau coastline, Cameroon. Collected plastic samples were thoroughly washed and separation done using a 2 mm sieve. Only particles of size, < 2 mm, were considered and forward follow the microplastics laboratory analytical processes. Established step by step methodological procedures of particle filtration, organic matter digestion, density separation, particle extraction and polymer identification including microscope and were applied for the beach microplastics samples. Microplastics were observed in each sample/beach/month with an overall abundance of 241 particles/number weighs 89.15 g in total and with a mean abundance of 2 particles/m2 (0.69 g/m2) and 6 particles/month (2.0 g/m2). The accumulation of beach shoreline MPs rose dramatically towards decreasing size with microbeads and fiber only found in the < 1 mm size fraction. Approximately 75% of beach MPs contamination were found in LDB 2, LDB 1 and IDN beaches/average particles/number while the most dominant polymer type frequently observed also were PP, PE, and PS in all morphologically parameters analysed. Beach MPs accumulation significantly varied temporally and spatially at p = 0.05. ANOVA and Spearman’s rank correlation used shows linear relationships between the sizes categories considered in this study. In terms of polymer MPs analysis, the colour class recorded that white coloured MPs was dominant, 50 particles/number (22.25 g) with recorded abundance/number in PP (25), PE (15) and PS (5). The shape class also revealed that irregularly shaped MPs was dominant, 98 particles/number (30.5 g) with higher abundance/number in PP (39), PE (33), and PS (11). Similarly, MPs type class shows that fragmented MPs type was also dominant, 80 particles/number (25.25 g) with higher abundance/number in PP (30), PE (28) and PS (15). Equally, the sized class forward revealed that 1.5 – 1.99 mm sized ranged MPs had the highest abundance of 102 particles/number (51.77 g) with higher concentration observed in PP (47), PE (41), and PS (7) as well and finally, the weight class also show that 0.01 g weighs MPs was dominated by 98 particles/number (56.57 g) with varied numeric abundance seen in PP (49), PE (29) and PS (13). The forensic investigation of the pollution indicated that majority of the beach microplastic is sourced from the site/nearby area. The investigation could draw useful conclusions regarding the pathways of pollution. The fragmented microplastic, a significant component in the sample, was found to be sourced from recreational activities and partly from fishing boat installations and repairs activities carried out close to the shore.

Keywords: forensic analysis, beach MPs, particle/number, polymer composition, cameroon

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3143 Bio Composites for Substituting Synthetic Packaging Materials

Authors: Menonjyoti Kalita, Pradip Baishya

Abstract:

In recent times, the world has been facing serious environmental concerns and issues, such as sustainability and cost, due to the overproduction of synthetic materials and their participation in degrading the environment by means of industrial waste and non-biodegradable characteristics. As such, biocomposites come in handy to ease such troubles. Bio-based composites are promising materials for future applications for substituting synthetic packaging materials. The challenge of making packaging materials lighter, safer and cheaper leads to investigating advanced materials with desired properties. Also, awareness of environmental issues forces researchers and manufacturers to spend effort on composite and bio-composite materials fields. This paper explores and tests some nature-friendly materials has been done which can replace low-density plastics. The materials selected included sugarcane bagasse, areca palm, and bamboo leaves. Sugarcane bagasse bamboo leaves and areca palm sheath are the primary material or natural fibre for testing. These products were processed, and the tensile strength of the processed parts was tested in Micro UTM; it was found that areca palm can be used as a good building material in replacement to polypropylene and even could be used in the production of furniture with the help of epoxy resin. And for bamboo leaves, it was found that bamboo and cotton, when blended in a 50:50 ratio, it has great tensile strength. For areca, it was found that areca fibres can be a good substitute for polypropylene, which can be used in building construction as binding material and also other products.

Keywords: biodegradable characteristics, bio-composites, areca palm sheath, polypropylene, micro UTM

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3142 Perspectives on the Role of Stakeholder Engagement and Community Participation in River Basin Management in South Africa: A Study of the Hennops River

Authors: Lucien N. James, Mulala D. Simatele

Abstract:

As a country that already faces hydrological and climatological challenges, South Africa’s socio-economic situation only complicates water resource management. This is observable through the state of rivers in the Gauteng Province such as the Hennops and Jukskei which are plagued by pollution from surrounding urban areas. While communities in the Hennops River basin contribute to its degradation, their potential in improved water resource management strategies is yet to be established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the myriad of ways in which stakeholder and community engagement, mobilisation, as well as participation can be harnessed in contested urban spaces to facilitate a sustainable management system for river basins. Through meetings, clean-up campaigns, and a community workshop, the community of Tembisa and several key informants were engaged. The role of communities and their perceptions on an integrated and participatory approach to solving the Hennops River basin’s current pollution crisis were therefore explored. The findings of this study suggest that meaningful participation is tied to the level of awareness within communities as well as the amount of support attributed to active involvement through the initiatives of stakeholders such as NonGovernmental Organisations. For meaningful participation to take place, more needs to be done to shift communities away from a “bystander” position to a more active role. An approach to community engagement is therefore proposed arguing for the further support of stakeholder-driven initiatives and the raising of awareness around environmental challenges in poorer communities. The findings of this study demonstrate the value of engagement with stakeholders and communities, highlighting ways through which better water management and environmental governance can be achieved in South Africa.

Keywords: community participation, integrated water resource management, river basin management, stakeholder engagement

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3141 Flood Monitoring in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta Using Sentinel-1 SAR with Global Flood Mapper

Authors: Ahmed S. Afifi, Ahmed Magdy

Abstract:

Satellite monitoring is an essential tool to study, understand, and map large-scale environmental changes that affect humans, climate, and biodiversity. The Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument provides a high collection of data in all-weather, short revisit time, and high spatial resolution that can be used effectively in flood management. Floods occur when an overflow of water submerges dry land that requires to be distinguished from flooded areas. In this study, we use global flood mapper (GFM), a new google earth engine application that allows users to quickly map floods using Sentinel-1 SAR. The GFM enables the users to adjust manually the flood map parameters, e.g., the threshold for Z-value for VV and VH bands and the elevation and slope mask threshold. The composite R:G:B image results by coupling the bands of Sentinel-1 (VH:VV:VH) reduces false classification to a large extent compared to using one separate band (e.g., VH polarization band). The flood mapping algorithm in the GFM and the Otsu thresholding are compared with Sentinel-2 optical data. And the results show that the GFM algorithm can overcome the misclassification of a flooded area in An Giang, Vietnam.

Keywords: SAR backscattering, Sentinel-1, flood mapping, disaster

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3140 Phytoremediation of Zn-Contaminated Soils by Malva Sylvestris

Authors: Abdelouahab Diafat, Meribai Abdelmalek, Ahmed Bahloul

Abstract:

phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove or degrade organic or inorganic contaminants from soil and water this work aims to study the potential effect of malva sylvestris for the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by Zn. plants were grown in pots containing soil artificially contaminated with Zn at concentrations of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. the results obtained show that the Zn concentrations used have a negative effect on the growth of this plant the search for the metal carried out by the technique of atomic absorption spectrometry shows that this plant accumulates a small quantity of this metal. it can be concluded that the malva sylvestris plant tolerates Zn contaminated soils but it is not considered as a zinc hyperaccumulator plant

Keywords: phytoremidiation, Zn-contaminated soils, Malva Sylvestris, phytoextraction

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3139 Modeling Water Inequality and Water Security: The Role of Water Governance

Authors: Pius Babuna, Xiaohua Yang, Roberto Xavier Supe Tulcan, Bian Dehui, Mohammed Takase, Bismarck Yelfogle Guba, Chuanliang Han, Doris Abra Awudi, Meishui Lia

Abstract:

Water inequality, water security, and water governance are fundamental parameters that affect the sustainable use of water resources. Through policy formulation and decision-making, water governance determines both water security and water inequality. Largely, where water inequality exists, water security is undermined through unsustainable water use practices that lead to pollution of water resources, conflicts, hoarding of water, and poor sanitation. Incidentally, the interconnectedness of water governance, water inequality, and water security has not been investigated previously. This study modified the Gini coefficient and used a Logistics Growth of Water Resources (LGWR) Model to access water inequality and water security mathematically, and discussed the connected role of water governance. We tested the validity of both models by calculating the actual water inequality and water security of Ghana. We also discussed the implications of water inequality on water security and the overarching role of water governance. The results show that regional water inequality is widespread in some parts. The Volta region showed the highest water inequality (Gini index of 0.58), while the central region showed the lowest (Gini index of 0.15). Water security is moderately sustainable. The use of water resources is currently stress-free. It was estimated to maintain such status until 2132 ± 18, when Ghana will consume half of the current total water resources of 53.2 billion cubic meters. Effectively, water inequality is a threat to water security, results in poverty, under-development heightens tensions in water use, and causes instability. With proper water governance, water inequality can be eliminated through formulating and implementing approaches that engender equal allocation and sustainable use of water resources.

Keywords: water inequality, water security, water governance, Gini coefficient, moran index, water resources management

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3138 Performance Evaluation of On-Site Sewage Treatment System (Johkasou)

Authors: Aashutosh Garg, Ankur Rajpal, A. A. Kazmi

Abstract:

The efficiency of an on-site wastewater treatment system named Johkasou was evaluated based on its pollutant removal efficiency over 10 months. This system was installed at IIT Roorkee and had a capacity of treating 7 m3/d of sewage water, sufficient for a group of 30-50 people. This system was fed with actual wastewater through an equalization tank to eliminate the fluctuations throughout the day. Methanol and ammonium chloride was added into this equalization tank to increase the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia content of the influent. The outlet from Johkasou is sent to a tertiary unit consisting of a Pressure Sand Filter and an Activated Carbon Filter for further treatment. Samples were collected on alternate days from Monday to Friday and the following parameters were evaluated: Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Total Nitrogen (TN). The Average removal efficiency for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Total Nitrogen (TN) was observed as 89.6, 97.7, 96, and 80% respectively. The cost of treating the wastewater comes out to be Rs 23/m3 which includes electricity, cleaning and maintenance, chemical, and desludging costs. Tests for the coliforms were also performed and it was observed that the removal efficiency for total and fecal coliforms was 100%. The sludge generation rate is approximately 20% of the BOD removal and it needed to be removed twice a year. It also showed a very good response against the hydraulic shock load. We performed vacation stress analysis on the system to evaluate the performance of the system when there is no influent for 8 consecutive days. From the result of stress analysis, we concluded that system needs a recovery time of about 48 hours to stabilize. After about 2 days, the system returns again to original conditions and all the parameters in the effluent become within the limits of National Green Tribunal (NGT) standards. We also performed another stress analysis to save the electricity in which we turned the main aeration blower off for 2 to 12 hrs a day and the results showed that we can turn the blower off for about 4-6 hrs a day and this will help in reducing the electricity costs by about 25%. It was concluded that the Johkasou system can remove a sufficient amount of all the physiochemical parameters tested to satisfy the prescribed limit set as per Indian Standard.

Keywords: on-site treatment, domestic wastewater, Johkasou, nutrient removal, pathogens removal

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3137 Cyclone Driven Variation of Chlorophyll-a Concentration in Bay of Bengal

Authors: Nowshin Nabila Siddique, S. M. Mustafizur Rahman

Abstract:

There is evidence of cyclonic events in Bay of Bengal (BoB) throughout the year. These cyclones cause a variety of fluctuations along its track including the is the influence in Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration. The main purpose of this paper is to justify this variation pattern. Six Tropical Cyclones (TC) are studied using observational method. The result suggests that there is a noticeable change in productivity after a cyclone passes, when the pre cyclonic and post cyclonic condition is observed. In case of Cyclone Amphan, it shows 1.79 mg/m3 of chlorophyll-a concentration increase after a week of cyclonic occurrence. This change is affected by several attributes such as translation speed, intensity and Ocean Pre-condition, specifically Mixed Layer Depth (MLD). Translation Speed and MLD shows a strong negative correlation with the induced chlorophyll concentration. Whereas the effect of the intensity on a cyclone is not that prominent. It is also found that the period of starting an induction is not same for all cyclone such as in case of Cyclone Amphan, the changes started to occur after one day however for Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Mora it started after three days. Furthermore, a slightly increase in overall productivity is also observed after a cyclone. In the case of Cyclone Amphan, Hudhud, Phailin it shows a rise up to 0.12 mg/m3 in productivity which decreases gradually taking around the period of two months. On a whole this paper signifies the changes in chlorophyll concentration caused by numerous cyclones and its different characteristics that regulates these changes.

Keywords: tropical cyclone, chlorophyll-a concentration, mixed layer depth, translation speed

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3136 Preference and Perspective for Gift Over-packaging Solution: A Case Study of Consumers in Shanghai, China

Authors: Heping Wang

Abstract:

Social interaction has increased as a result of rapid economic expansion. Particularly in China, gift exchanges have developed into a social tradition of showing gratitude. Most gifts, on the other hand, are lavishly presented or overpacked to impress or demonstrate respect to the gift receiver. Overpackaging wastes enormous resources and produces a lot of municipal solid waste (MSW), which can seriously harm the environment if it is not handled properly. The purpose of this study is to investigate consumers' perceptions, preferences, and perspectives regarding gifts overpackaging in order to identify potential solutions for reducing gifts overpackaging to achieve sustainable packaging objectives. The research was conducted by means of an online survey focusing on residents in Shanghai, China, and the data was quantitatively analyzed by SPSS software. According to research, consumers' perception of excessive packaging is approximately 3.5 points out of 5, and this perception has a significant impact on consumers' behavioral intentions; The preferences of givers and receivers for gift packaging are significantly different in three aspects; Customers prefer incentives for eco-packaging when it comes to measures to reduce gift overpackaging. Finally, the study also identifies suitable gift packaging options for customers.

Keywords: gift packaging, consumer perception, consumer preference, consumer perspective, overpackaging, solutions

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3135 A Training Perspective for Sustainability and Partnership to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Nwachukwu M. A., Nwachukwu J. I., Anyanwu J., Emeka U., Okorondu J., Acholonu C.

Abstract:

Actualization of the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) conceived by the United Nations in 2015 is a global challenge that may not be feasible in sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2030, except universities play a committed role. This is because; there is a need to educate the people about the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development in the region to make the desired change. Here is a sensitization paper with a model of intervention and curricular planning to allow advancement in understanding and knowledge of SDGs. This Model Center for Sustainability Studies (MCSS) will enable partnerships with institutions in Africa and in advanced nations, thereby creating a global network for sustainability studies not found in sub-Saharan Africa. MCSS will train and certify public servants, government agencies, policymakers, entrepreneurs and personnel from organizations, and students on aspects of the SDGs and sustainability science. There is a need to add sustainability knowledge into environmental education and make environmental education a compulsory course in higher institutions and a secondary school certificate exam subject in sub-Saharan Africa. MCSS has 11 training modules that can be replicated anywhere in the world.

Keywords: sustainability, higher institutions, training, SDGs, collaboration, sub-Saharan Africa

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3134 Investigation of the Low-Level Jet Role in Transportation of Shamal Dust Storms in Southwest Iran

Authors: Nasim Hossein Hamzeh, Abbas Ranjbar Saadat Abadi, Maggie Chel Gee Ooi, Steven Soon-Kai Kong, Christian Opp

Abstract:

Dust storm is one of the most important natural disasters in the world, where the Middle East suffers frequently due to the existence of the dust belt region. As a country in the Middle East, Iran mostly is affected by the dust storms from some internal and also external dust sources, mostly originating from deserts in Iraq, Syria, and Saudi Arabia. In this study, some severe Shamal dust storms were investigated in Southwest Iran. The measured 〖PM〗_10 reached up to 834 μg m-3 in some stations in west Iran and Iran-Iraq borders, while the measured 〖PM〗_10 reached up to 4947 μg m-3 SW stations in northern shores of the Persian Gulf. During these severe dust storms, a low-level jet was observed at 930hPa atmospheric level in north Iraq and south Iraq. the jet core and its width were about 16 ms-1 and 100 km, respectively, in the cases where it is located in the NW regions of Iraq and northeastern Syria (at 35°N and 40-41°E), So the jet was stronger at higher latitudes (34°N - 35°N) than at lower latitudes (32°N). Therefore, suitable conditions have been created for lifting of dust sources located in northwestern Iraq and northeastern Syria. The topography surrounding the Mesopotamia and north of the Persian Gulf play a major role in the development of the Low-Level Jet through the interaction of meteorological conditions and mountain forcing. Also, the output of CALIPSO satellite images show dust rising to higher than 5 km in these dust cases, that confirming the influence of Shamal wind on the dust storm occurrence.

Keywords: dust storm, shamal wind, the persian gulf, southwest Iran

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3133 Microbial Formation on Different Biomedia Surface for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Khaled Shahot, Azni Idris, Yasir Talab

Abstract:

Commercial plastic media such as Cosmo balls has a limited surface area, which restricts its use when high biofilm growth rates are required. This research aims to study the differences between the microbial formatted on different surface media, the coated and non-coated Cosmo ball. We submerged four activated carbon (AC)-coated Cosmo balls and four non-coated Cosmo balls in a five-liter container filled with domestic wastewater. We use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the morphology of biofilms formed on the coated and non-coated surfaces and apply the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in the ecology of microbially mediated processes. The biofilm formation was evident after Day 11, where the biofilm covered > 95% of the coated media compared to only an estimated 70% coverage of the non-coated media. The research result shows that the surface area of the coated media is four times higher than the uncoated media, which saves up to 50% of the volume of the aeration tank.

Keywords: microbial growth, biomedia surface, wastewater, bacteria

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3132 Integration of Two Thermodynamic Cycles by Absorption for Simultaneous Production of Fresh Water and Cooling

Authors: Javier Delgado-Gonzaga, Wilfrido Rivera, David Juárez-Romero

Abstract:

Cooling and water purification are processes that have contributed to the economic and social development of the modern world. However, these processes require a significant amount of energy globally. Nowadays, absorption heat pumps have been studied with great interest since they are capable of producing cooling and/or purifying water from low-temperature energy sources such as industrial waste heat or renewable energy. In addition, absorption heat pumps require negligible amounts of electricity for their operation and generally use working fluids that do not represent a risk to the environment. The objective of this work is to evaluate a system that integrates an absorption heat transformer and an absorption cooling system to produce fresh water and cooling from a low-temperature heat source. Both cycles operate with the working pair LiBr-H2O. The integration is possible through the interaction of the LiBr-H2O solution streams between both cycles and also by recycling heat from the absorption heat transformer to the absorption cooling system. Mathematical models were developed to compare the performance of four different configurations. The results showed that the configuration in which the hottest streams of LiBr-H2O solution preheated the coldest streams in the economizers of both cycles was one that achieved the best performance. The interaction of the solution currents and the heat recycling analyzed in this work serves as a record of the possibilities of integration between absorption cycles for cogeneration.

Keywords: absorption heat transformer, absorption cooling system, water desalination, integrated system

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3131 Climate Change Scenario Phenomenon in Malaysia: A Case Study in MADA Area

Authors: Shaidatul Azdawiyah Abdul Talib, Wan Mohd Razi Idris, Liew Ju Neng, Tukimat Lihan, Muhammad Zamir Abdul Rasid

Abstract:

Climate change has received great attention worldwide due to the impact of weather causing extreme events. Rainfall and temperature are crucial weather components associated with climate change. In Malaysia, increasing temperatures and changes in rainfall distribution patterns lead to drought and flood events involving agricultural areas, especially rice fields. Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA) is the largest rice growing area among the 10 granary areas in Malaysia and has faced floods and droughts in the past due to changing climate. Changes in rainfall and temperature patter affect rice yield. Therefore, trend analysis is important to identify changes in temperature and rainfall patterns as it gives an initial overview for further analysis. Six locations across the MADA area were selected based on the availability of meteorological station (MetMalaysia) data. Historical data (1991 to 2020) collected from MetMalaysia and future climate projection by multi-model ensemble of climate model from CMIP5 (CNRM-CM5, GFDL-CM3, MRI-CGCM3, NorESM1-M and IPSL-CM5A-LR) have been analyzed using Mann-Kendall test to detect the time series trend, together with standardized precipitation anomaly, rainfall anomaly index, precipitation concentration index and temperature anomaly. Future projection data were analyzed based on 3 different periods; early century (2020 – 2046), middle century (2047 – 2073) and late-century (2074 – 2099). Results indicate that the MADA area does encounter extremely wet and dry conditions, leading to drought and flood events in the past. The Mann-Kendall (MK) trend analysis test discovered a significant increasing trend (p < 0.05) in annual rainfall (z = 0.40; s = 15.12) and temperature (z = 0.61; s = 0.04) during the historical period. Similarly, for both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, a significant increasing trend (p < 0.05) was found for rainfall (RCP 4.5: z = 0.15; s = 2.55; RCP 8.5: z = 0.41; s = 8.05;) and temperature (RCP 4.5: z = 0.84; s = 0.02; RCP 8.5: z = 0.94; s = 0.05). Under the RCP 4.5 scenario, the average temperature is projected to increase up to 1.6 °C in early century, 2.0 °C in the middle century and 2.4 °C in the late century. In contrast, under RCP 8.5 scenario, the average temperature is projected to increase up to 1.8 °C in the early century, 3.1 °C in the middle century and 4.3 °C in late century. Drought is projected to occur in 2038 and 2043 (early century); 2052 and 2069 (middle century); and 2095, 2097 to 2099 (late century) under RCP 4.5 scenario. As for RCP 8.5 scenario, drought is projected to occur in 2021, 2031 and 2034 (early century); and 2069 (middle century). No drought is projected to occur in the late century under the RCP 8.5 scenario. Thus, this information can be used for the analysis of the impact of climate change scenarios on rice growth and yield besides other crops found in MADA area. Additionally, this study, it would be helpful for researchers and decision-makers in developing applicable adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce the impact of climate change.

Keywords: climate projection, drought, flood, rainfall, RCP 4.5, RCP 8.5, temperature

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3130 Effect of Floods on Water Quality: A Global Review and Analysis

Authors: Apoorva Bamal, Agnieszka Indiana Olbert

Abstract:

Floods are known to be one of the most devastating hydro-climatic events, impacting a wide range of stakeholders in terms of environmental, social and economic losses. With difference in inundation durations and level of impact, flood hazards are of different degrees and strength. Amongst various set of domains being impacted by floods, environmental degradation in terms of water quality deterioration is one of the majorly effected but less highlighted domains across the world. The degraded water quality is caused by numerous natural and anthropogenic factors that are both point and non-point sources of pollution. Therefore, it is essential to understand the nature and source of the water pollution due to flooding. The major impact of floods is not only on the physico-chemical water quality parameters, but also on the biological elements leading to a vivid influence on the aquatic ecosystem. This deteriorated water quality is impacting many water categories viz. agriculture, drinking water, aquatic habitat, and miscellaneous services requiring an appropriate water quality to survive. This study identifies, reviews, evaluates and assesses multiple researches done across the world to determine the impact of floods on water quality. With a detailed statistical analysis of top relevant researches, this study is a synopsis of the methods used in assessment of impact of floods on water quality in different geographies, and identifying the gaps for further abridgement. As per majority of the studies, different flood magnitudes have varied impact on the water quality parameters leading to either increased or decreased values as compared to the recommended values for various categories. There is also an evident shift of the biological elements in the impacted waters leading to a change in its phenology and inhabitants of the specified water body. This physical, chemical and biological water quality degradation by floods is dependent upon its duration, extent, magnitude and flow direction. Therefore, this research provides an overview into the multiple impacts of floods on water quality, along with a roadmap of way forward to an efficient and uniform linkage of floods and impacted water quality dynamics.

Keywords: floods, statistical analysis, water pollution, water quality

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3129 Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Nigeria Coastal Waters; lmpacts, Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Efe Ogidiaka-Obende, Gabriel C. C. Ndinwa, John Atadiose, Ewoma O. Oduma

Abstract:

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), which is a native of South America, is believed to have found its way into Nigeria waters through Pot-Novo creek, Benin Republic, in September 1984. This study attempts to review the impacts, challenges, and prospects of water hyacinths in Nigeria's coastal waters. Water hyacinth possesses a very high proliferation rate, and its infestation in Nigeria's coastal waters poses severe problems to the fishing, recreational, transportation, and health sector, amongst other activities. The weed has been reported to disrupt aquatic ecosystems, clog waterways, and create associated problems with water supply, irrigation, and drainage. To curb this menace, a huge amount of money is used yearly for its management, which is not sustainable. There is, however, a positive twist to this plant as it has the potential to be used as fertilizers, feed for fish, craft materials, biogas, and many more. Due to its high population and related economic importance and implications in Nigeria's coastal waters, it is highly recommended that more research works be carried out on the of making optimal use of this plant.

Keywords: waste to wealth, environmental pollution, water hyacinth, biogas, sustainable development goals

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3128 The State-of-the-Art and Future Research Directions on Sacred Forests and Ecosystem Benefits: A Systematic Review

Authors: Alebel Melaku, Juan Pastor Ivars, Mesfin Sahile

Abstract:

A well-functioning natural system and a habitable climate are the foundations of people's good quality of life. Forests play an essential role in social, economic, and ecological dimensions. Evaluating the biocultural benefits of forests is critical to justifying their importance for conserving the ecosystem and its components. Even though numerous research papers and reports have been released on sacred forests and ecosystem services, an up-to-date and global-level synthesis of studies and the implications for future research on sacred forests is lacking. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the literature on the studies about sacred forests and ecosystem services, focussing on cultural ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation and carbon accumulation. A total of 2811 papers were identified from the Scopus database, of which 214 articles were selected for bibliometric analysis and 77 papers that met our inclusion criteria were chosen for detailed analysis. We found that the number of empirical research has been growing substantially in recent decades. Research on the topic is highly skewed toward developing countries. More research on plant species diversity is relatively studied, focusing on the sacred forests in rural landscapes. Even though the overall trend of the studies is growing, quantifying the carbon sequestration and non-material benefits of sacred forests is scarce. Future research should focus on quantifying the regulative services and non-material benefits of sacred forests, especially in urban landscapes, to understand the full benefits and support sustainable human well-being. Such findings are critical in providing evidence to support the recognition of sacred natural sites in land use planning, conservation frameworks, local governance, and management.

Keywords: conservation, ecosystem services, biocultural benefits, biodiversity, culturally protected forests

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3127 Functional Diversity of Pseudomonas: Role in Stimulation of Bean Germination and Common Blight Biocontrol

Authors: Slimane Mokrani, Nabti El hafid

Abstract:

Description of the subject: Currently, several efforts focus on the study of biodiversity, microbial biotechnology, and the use of ecological strategies. Objectives: The aim of this present work is to determine the functional diversity of bacteria in rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils of different plants. Methods: Bacteria were isolated from soil and identified based on physiological and biochemical characters and genotypic taxonomy performed by 16S rDNA and BOX-PCR. As well as the characterization of various PGPR traits. Then, they are tested for their effects on the stimulation of seed germination and the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. As well as their biological control activities with regard to the phytopathogenic bacterial isolate Xapf. Results and Discussion: The biochemical and physiological identification of 75 bacterial isolates made it possible to associate them with the two groups of fluorescent Pseudomonas (74.67%) and non-fluorescent Pseudomonas (25.33%). The identification by 16S rDNA of 27 strains made it possible to attribute the majority of the strains to the genus Pseudomonas (81.48%), Serratia (7.41%) and Bacillus (11.11%). The bacterial strains showed a high capacity to produce IAA, siderophores, HCN and to solubilize phosphate. A significant stimulation of germination and growth was observed by applying the Pseudomonas strains. Furthermore, significant reductions in the severity and intensity of the disease caused caused by Xapf were observed. Conclusion: The bacteria described in this present study endowed with different PGPR activities seem to be very promising for their uses as biological control agents and bio-fertilization.

Keywords: biofertilization, biological control, phaseolus vulgaris L, pseudomonas, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli var. fuscans and common blight

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3126 Mercury (Hg) Concentration in Fish Marketed in the São Luís Fish Market (MA) and Potential Exposure of Consumers

Authors: Luiz Drude de Lacerda, Kevin Luiz Cordeiro Ferrer do Carmo, Victor Lacerda Moura, Rayone Wesley Santos de Oliveira, Moisés Fernandes Bezerra

Abstract:

Fish is a food source well recognized for its health benefits. However, the consumption of fish, especially carnivorous species, is the main path of human exposure to Hg, a widely distributed pollutant on the planet and that accumulates along food chains. Studies on the impacts on public health by fish intake show existing toxic risks even when at low concentrations. This study quantifies, for the first time, the concentrations of Hg in muscle tissue of the nine most commercialized fish species in the fish market of São Luís (MA) in north Brazil and estimates the consequent human exposure through consumption. Concentrations varied according to trophic level, with the highest found in the larger carnivorous species; the Yellow hake (Cynoscion acoupa) (296.4 ± 241.2 ng/g w.w) and the Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) (262.8 ± 89.1 ng/g w.w.), whereas the lowest concentrations were recorded in iliophagous Mullets (Mugil curema) (20.5 ± 9.6 ng/g w.w.). Significant correlations were observed between Hg concentrations and individual length in only two species: the Flaming catfish (Bagre marinus) and the Atlantic bumper (Chloroscombrus crysurus). Given the relatively uniform size of individuals of the other species and/or the small number of samples, this relationship was not found for the other species. The estimated risk coefficients, despite the relatively low concentrations of Hg, suggest that yellow hake and Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri), fish most consumed by the local population, present some risk to human health (> 1) HQ and THQ, depending on the frequency of their consumption.

Keywords: contamination, fish, human exposure, risk assessment

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3125 Geospatial Information for Smart City Development

Authors: Simangele Dlamini

Abstract:

Smart city development is seen as a way of facing the challenges brought about by the growing urban population the world over. Research indicates that cities have a role to play in combating urban challenges like crime, waste disposal, greenhouse gas emissions, and resource efficiency. These solutions should be such that they do not make city management less sustainable but should be solutions-driven, cost and resource-efficient, and smart. This study explores opportunities on how the City of Johannesburg, South Africa, can use Geographic Information Systems, Big Data and the Internet of Things (IoT) in identifying opportune areas to initiate smart city initiatives such as smart safety, smart utilities, smart mobility, and smart infrastructure in an integrated manner. The study will combine Big Data, using real-time data sources to identify hotspot areas that will benefit from ICT interventions. The GIS intervention will assist the city in avoiding a silo approach in its smart city development initiatives, an approach that has led to the failure of smart city development in other countries.

Keywords: smart cities, internet of things, geographic information systems, johannesburg

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3124 The Need to Teach the Health Effects of Climate Change in Medical Schools

Authors: Ábrám Zoltán

Abstract:

Introduction: Climate change is now a major health risk, and its environmental and health effects have become frequently discussed topics. The consequences of climate change are clearly visible in natural disasters and excess deaths caused by extreme weather conditions. Global warming and the increasingly frequent extreme weather events have direct, immediate effects or long-term, indirect effects on health. For this reason, it is a need to teach the health effects of climate change in medical schools. Material and methods: We looked for various surveys, studies, and reports on the main pathways through which global warming affects health. Medical schools face the challenge of teaching the health implications of climate change and integrating knowledge about the health effects of climate change into medical training. For this purpose, there were organised World Café workshops for three target groups: medical students, academic staff, and practising medical doctors. Results: Among the goals of the research is the development of a detailed curriculum for medical students, which serves to expand their knowledge in basic education. At the same time, the project promotes the increase of teacher motivation and the development of methodological guidelines for university teachers; it also provides further training for practicing doctors. The planned teaching materials will be developed in a format suitable for traditional face-to-face teaching, as well as e-learning teaching materials. CLIMATEMED is a project based on the cooperation of six universities and institutions from four countries, the aim of which is to improve the curriculum and expand knowledge about the health effects of climate change at medical universities. Conclusions: In order to assess the needs, summarize the proposals, to develop the necessary strategy, World Café type, one-and-a-half to two-hour round table discussions will take place separately for medical students, academic staff, and practicing doctors. The CLIMATEMED project can facilitate the integration of knowledge about the health effects of climate change into curricula and can promote practical use. The avoidance of the unwanted effects of global warming and climate change is not only a public matter, but it is also a challenge to change our own lifestyle. It is the responsibility of all of us to protect the Earth's ecosystem and the physical and mental health of ourselves and future generations.

Keywords: climate change, health effects, medical schools, World Café, medical students

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3123 Health Risk Assessment and Source Apportionment of Elemental Particulate Contents from a South Asian Future Megacity

Authors: Afifa Aslam, Muhammad Ibrahim, Abid Mahmood, Muhammad Usman Alvi, Fariha Jabeen, Umara Tabassum

Abstract:

Many factors cause air pollution in Pakistan, which poses a significant threat to human health. Diesel fuel and gasoline motor vehicles, as well as industrial companies, pollute the air in Pakistan's cities. The study's goal is to determine the level of air pollution in a Pakistani industrial city and to establish risk levels for the health of the population. We measured the intensity of air pollution by chemical characterization and examination of air samples collected at stationary remark sites. The PM10 levels observed at all sampling sites, including residential, commercial, high-traffic, and industrial areas were well above the limits imposed by Pakistan EPA, the United States EPA, and WHO. We assessed the health risk via chemical factors using a methodology approved for risk assessment. All Igeo index values greater than one were considered moderately contaminated or moderately to severely contaminated. Heavy metals have a substantial risk of acute adverse effects. In Faisalabad, Pakistan, there was an enormously high risk of chronic effects produced by a heavy metal acquaintance. Concerning specified toxic metals, intolerable levels of carcinogenic risks have been determined for the entire population. As a result, in most of the investigated areas of Faisalabad, the indices and hazard quotients for chronic and acute exposure exceeded the permissible level of 1.0. In the current study, re-suspended roadside mineral dust, anthropogenic exhaust emissions from traffic and industry, and industrial dust were identified as major emission sources of elemental particulate contents. Because of the unacceptable levels of risk in the research area, it is strongly suggested that a comprehensive study of the population's health status as a result of air pollution should be conducted for policies to be developed against these risks.

Keywords: elemental composition, particulate pollution, Igeo index, health risk assessment, hazard quotient

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3122 Multiobjective Optimization of Wastwater Treatment by Electrochemical Process

Authors: Malek Bendjaballah, Hacina Saidi, Sarra Hamidoud

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to model and optimize the performance of a new electrocoagulation (E.C) process for the treatment of wastewater as well as the energy consumption in order to extrapolate it to the industrial scale. Through judicious application of an experimental design (DOE), it has been possible to evaluate the individual effects and interactions that have a significant influence on both objective functions (maximizing efficiency and minimizing energy consumption) by using aluminum electrodes as sacrificial anode. Preliminary experiments have shown that the pH of the medium, the applied potential and the treatment time with E.C are the main parameters. A factorial design 33 has been adopted to model performance and energy consumption. Under optimal conditions, the pollution reduction efficiency is 93%, combined with a minimum energy consumption of 2.60.10-3 kWh / mg-COD. The potential or current applied and the processing time and their interaction were the most influential parameters in the mathematical models obtained. The results of the modeling were also correlated with the experimental ones. The results offer promising opportunities to develop a clean process and inexpensive technology to eliminate or reduce wastewater,

Keywords: electrocoagulation, green process, experimental design, optimization

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3121 An Approach for Reliably Transforming Habits Towards Environmental Sustainability Behaviors Among Young Adults

Authors: Dike Felix Okechukwu

Abstract:

Studies and reports from authoritative sources such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have stated that to effectively solve environmental sustainability challenges such as pollution, inappropriate waste disposal, and unsustainable consumption, there is a need for more research to seek solutions towards environmentally sustainable behavior. However, literature thus far reports only sporadic developments of TL in Environmental Sustainability because there are scarce reports showing the reliable process(es) to produce TL - for sustainability projects or otherwise. Nonetheless, a recently published article demonstrates how TL can be used to help young adults gain transformed mindsets and habits toward environmental sustainability behaviors and practices. This study, however, does not demonstrate, on a repeated basis, the dependability of the method or reliability of the procedures in using its proposed methodology to help young adults achieve transformed habits towards environmental sustainability behaviors, especially in diverse contexts. In this study, it is demonstrated, through repeated measures, a reliable process that can be used to achieve transformations in habits and mindsets toward environmental sustainability behaviors. To achieve this, the design adopted is multiple case studies and a thematic analysis techniques. Five cases in diverse contexts were used to analyze pieces of evidence of Transformative Learning Outcomes toward environmentally sustainable behaviors. Results from the study offer fresh perspectives on a reliable methodology that can be adopted to achieve Transformations in Habits and mindsets toward environmental sustainability behaviors.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, transformative learning, behaviour, learning, education

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3120 Low-carbon Footprint Diluents in Solvent Extraction for Lithium-ion Battery Recycling

Authors: Abdoulaye Maihatchi Ahamed, Zubin Arora, Benjamin Swobada, Jean-yves Lansot, Alexandre Chagnes

Abstract:

Lithium-ion battery (LiB) is the technology of choice in the development of electric vehicles. But there are still many challenges, including the development of positive electrode materials exhibiting high cycle ability, high energy density, and low environmental impact. For this latter, LiBs must be manufactured in a circular approach by developing the appropriate strategies to reuse and recycle them. Presently, the recycling of LiBs is carried out by the pyrometallurgical route, but more and more processes implement or will implement the hydrometallurgical route or a combination of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical operations. After producing the black mass by mineral processing, the hydrometallurgical process consists in leaching the black mass in order to uptake the metals contained in the cathodic material. Then, these metals are extracted selectively by liquid-liquid extraction, solid-liquid extraction, and/or precipitation stages. However, liquid-liquid extraction combined with precipitation/crystallization steps is the most implemented operation in the LiB recycling process to selectively extract copper, aluminum, cobalt, nickel, manganese, and lithium from the leaching solution and precipitate these metals as high-grade sulfate or carbonate salts. Liquid-liquid extraction consists in contacting an organic solvent and an aqueous feed solution containing several metals, including the targeted metal(s) to extract. The organic phase is non-miscible with the aqueous phase. It is composed of an extractant to extract the target metals and a diluent, which is usually aliphatic kerosene produced from the petroleum industry. Sometimes, a phase modifier is added in the formulation of the extraction solvent to avoid the third phase formation. The extraction properties of the diluent do not depend only on the chemical structure of the extractant, but it may also depend on the nature of the diluent. Indeed, the interactions between the diluent can influence more or less the interactions between extractant molecules besides the extractant-diluent interactions. Only a few studies in the literature addressed the influence of the diluent on the extraction properties, while many studies focused on the effect of the extractants. Recently, new low-carbon footprint aliphatic diluents were produced by catalytic dearomatisation and distillation of bio-based oil. This study aims at investigating the influence of the nature of the diluent on the extraction properties of three extractants towards cobalt, nickel, manganese, copper, aluminum, and lithium: Cyanex®272 for nickel-cobalt separation, DEHPA for manganese extraction, and Acorga M5640 for copper extraction. The diluents used in the formulation of the extraction solvents are (i) low-odor aliphatic kerosene produced from the petroleum industry (ELIXORE 180, ELIXORE 230, ELIXORE 205, and ISANE IP 175) and (ii) bio-sourced aliphatic diluents (DEV 2138, DEV 2139, DEV 1763, DEV 2160, DEV 2161 and DEV 2063). After discussing the effect of the diluents on the extraction properties, this conference will address the development of a low carbon footprint process based on the use of the best bio-sourced diluent for the production of high-grade cobalt sulfate, nickel sulfate, manganese sulfate, and lithium carbonate, as well as metal copper.

Keywords: diluent, hydrometallurgy, lithium-ion battery, recycling

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3119 Short-Term Effects of Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Organic UV Filters on Signal Crayfish Pacifastacus Leniusculus

Authors: Viktoriia Malinovska, Iryna Kuklina, Katerina Grabicova, Milos Buric, Pavel Kozak

Abstract:

Personal care products, including organic UV filters, are considered emerging contaminants and their toxic effects have been a concern for the last decades. Sunscreen compounds continually enter the surface waters via sewage water treatment due to incomplete removal and during human recreational and laundry activities. Despite the environmental occurrence of organic UV filters in the freshwater environment, little is known about their impacts on aquatic biota. In this study, environmentally relevant concentrations of 5-Benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzenesulfonic acid (BP-4, 2.5 µg/L) and 2-Phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA, 3 µg/L) were used to evaluate the cardiac and locomotor responses of signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus during a short time period. The effects of these compounds were evident in experimental animals. Specimens exposed to both tested compounds exhibited significantly bigger changes in distance moved and time movement than controls. Significant differences in changes in mean heart rate were detected in both PBSA and BP-4 experimental groups compared to control groups. Such behavioral and physiological alterations demonstrate the ecological effects of selected sunscreen compounds during a short time period. Since the evidence of the impacts of sunscreen compounds is scarce, the knowledge of how organic UV filters influence aquatic organisms is of key importance for future research.

Keywords: aquatic pollutants, behavior, freshwaters, heart rate, invertebrate

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3118 Evaluation of Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Dissolved Oxygen for Thames River by Using Stream Water Quality Model

Authors: Ghassan Al-Dulaimi

Abstract:

This paper studied the biochemical parameter (BOD5) and (DO) for the Thames River (Canada-Ontario). Water samples have been collected from Thames River along different points between Chatham to Woodstock and were analysed for various water quality parameters during the low flow season (April). The study involves the application of the stream water quality model QUAL2K model to simulate and predict the dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) profiles for Thames River in a stretch of 251 kilometers. The model output showed that DO in the entire river was within the limit of not less than 4 mg/L. For Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand CBOD, the entire river may be divided into two main reaches; the first one is extended from Chatham City (0 km) to London (150 km) and has a CBOD concentration of 2 mg/L, and the second reach has CBOD range (2–4) mg/L in which begins from London city and extend to near Woodstock city (73km).

Keywords: biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, Thames river, QUAL2K model

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3117 Assessment of Pollution of the Rustavi City’s Atmosphere with Microaerosols

Authors: Natia Gigauri, Aleksandre Surmava

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According to observational data, experimental measurements, and numerical modeling, is assessed pollution of one of the industrial centers of Georgia, Rustavi city’s atmosphere with microaerosols. Monthly, daily and hourly changes of the concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in the city atmosphere are analyzed. It is accepted that PM2.5 concentrations are always lower than PM10 concentrations, but their change curve is the same. In addition, it has been noted that the maximum concentrations of particles in the atmosphere of Rustavi city will be reached at any part of the day, which is determined by the total impact of the traffic flow and industrial facilities. By numerical modeling has calculated the influence of background western light air and gentle and fresh breeze on the distribution of PM particles in the atmosphere. Calculations showed that background light air and gentle breeze lead to an increase the concentrations of microaerosols in the city's atmosphere, while fresh breeze contribute to the dispersion of dusty clouds. As a result, the level of dust in the city is decreasing, but the distribution area is expanding.

Keywords: pollution, modelling, PM2.5, PM10, experimental measurement

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3116 The Study of Tourism Destination Management Factors for Sustainable Tourism: Case Study of Haikou, Hainan Province

Authors: Jiaying Gao, Wilailuk Niyommaneerat

Abstract:

Many organizations have begun to focus on the impact of destination management on sustainable tourism development. Haikou is the capital of Hainan, a major tourism province in China with rich ecotourism resources. The need to strengthen destination management in Haikou provides an important attraction to the sustainable development process of the city. However, Haikou’s current high dependence on tourism resources and the imbalance of centralized consumption patterns have led to ecological and environmental problems in tourism. This study explores which aspects of tourism destination management can promote sustainable tourism in Hainan (Haikou) and analyzes its importance and influencing factors. This study aims to explore how tourism destination management promotes the establishment of sustainable tourism development paths. This study used the Exploratory factor analysis method to extract 6 dimensions (22 factors) for destination management and sustainable tourism development, respectively, Economic Development, Social and Cultural Development, Conservation of Ecosystem, Sustainability Consciousness, Tourism Development Experience, and Tourism Public Infrastructure. In this study, 426 valid questionnaires were distributed online and collected, with a return rate of 94% (the invalid questionnaires with identical answers were deleted). The 426 respondents were 225 tourists, 172 residents, 12 tourism agency personnel, 10 government personnel, 3 self-employed, and 4 others. 62.68% of the respondents had a bachelor’s degree. The structural equation model was established according to the dimensions. The main findings from the survey results: 1. The impact of socio-cultural development of tourism destination management on sustainable tourism was most valued by all respondents, and there was a strong correlation with tourism development experience. The willingness of Haikou tourists and residents to participate in sustainable tourism has been significantly enhanced, like the motivation to participate in tourism-related volunteer work has been significantly enhanced. 2. Tourists were concerned about the impact of price changes on the tourist experience during the peak season. 3. From the perspective of the residents were concerned about the impact of tourism development on household economic income. 4. Tourism agencies have promoted the use of tourism intelligent service systems to add vitality to sustainable tourism development, which can effectively improve tourists’ awareness of eco-environmental protection and motivate them to purchase green tourism products. 5. Furthermore, the government has focused on tourism ecological management for green sustainability innovation and tourism infrastructure maintenance and increased ecotourism planning management and environmental impact assessment efforts to create stable support and confidence for sustainable tourism. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, this study analyzed the multi-level impacts of different factors in Haikou tourism destination management on sustainable tourism and provided some new ideas for further research.

Keywords: exploratory factor analysis, haikou (hainan province), influencing factors, structural equation model, sustainable tourism development, tourism destination management

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