Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 987

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Animal and Veterinary Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

987 Analysis of Fish Preservation Methods for Traditional Fishermen Boat

Authors: Kusno Kamil, Andi Asni, Sungkono


According to a report of the World Food and Agriculture Agency (FAO): the post-harvest fish losses in Indonesia reaches 30 percent from 170 trillion rupiahs of marine fisheries reserves, then the potential loss reaches 51 trillion rupiahs (end of 2016 data). This condition is caused by traditionally vulnerable fish catches damaged due to disruption of the cold chain of preservation. The physical and chemical changes in fish flesh increase rapidly, especially if exposed to the scorching heat in the middle of the sea, exacerbated by the low awareness of catch hygiene; many unclean catches which contain blood are often treated without special attention and mixed with freshly caught fish, thereby increasing the potential for faster fish spoilage. This background encourages research on traditional fisherman catch preservation methods that aim to find the best and most affordable methods and/or combinations of fish preservation methods so that they can help fishermen increase their fishing duration without worrying that their catch will be damaged, thereby reducing their economic value when returning to the beach to sell their catches. This goal is expected to be achieved through experimental methods of treatment of fresh fish catches in containers with the addition of anti-bacterial copper, liquid smoke solution, and the use of vacuum containers. The other three treatments combined the three previous treatment variables with an electrically powered cooler (temperature 0~4 ᵒC). As a control specimen, the untreated fresh fish (placed in the open air and in the refrigerator) were also prepared for comparison for 1, 3, and 6 days. To test the level of freshness of fish for each treatment, physical observations were used, which were complemented by tests for bacterial content in a trusted laboratory. The content of copper (Cu) in fish meat (which is suspected of having a negative impact on consumers) was also part of the examination on the 6th day of experimentation. The results of physical observations on the test specimens (organoleptic method) showed that preservation assisted by the use of coolers was still better for all treatment variables. The specimens, without cooling, sequentially showed that the best preservation effectiveness was the addition of copper plates, the use of vacuum containers, and then liquid smoke immersion. Especially for liquid smoke, soaking for 6 days of preservation makes the fish meat soft and easy to crumble, even though it doesn't have a bad odor. The visual observation was then complemented by the results of testing the amount of growth (or retardation) of putrefactive bacteria in each treatment of test specimens within similar observation periods. Laboratory measurements report that the minimum amount of putrefactive bacteria achieved by preservation treatment combining cooler with liquid smoke (sample A+), then cooler only (D+), copper layer inside cooler (B+), vacuum container inside cooler (C+), respectively. Other treatments in open air produced a hundred times more putrefactive bacteria. In addition, treatment of the copper layer contaminated the preserved fresh fish more than a thousand times bigger compared to the initial amount, from 0.69 to 1241.68 µg/g.

Keywords: fish, preservation, traditional, fishermen, boat

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986 Unconventional Strategies for Combating Multidrug Resistant Bacterial Biofilms

Authors: Soheir Mohamed Fathey


Biofilms are complex biological communities which are hard to be eliminated by conventional antibiotic administration and implemented in eighty percent of humans infections. Green remedies have been used for centuries and have shown obvious effects in hindering and combating microbial biofilm infections. Nowadays, there has been a growth in the number of researches on the anti-biofilm performance of natural agents such as plant essential oil (EOs) and propolis. In this study, we investigated the antibiofilm performance of various natural agents, including four essential oils (EOs), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum), as well as propolis versus the biofilm of both Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa which are major human and animal pathogens rendering a high risk due to their biofilm development ability. The antibiofilm activity of the tested agents was evaluated by crystal violet staining assay and detected by scanning electron and fluorescent microscopy. Antibiofilm performance declared a potent effect of the tested products versus the tested bacterial biofilms.

Keywords: biofilm, essential oils, electron microscopy, fluorescent

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985 Physiological Indicators and Stress Index of Scavenging Chickens at Lafarge and Dangote Cement Factory Areas of Ogun State

Authors: Oluwadele Joshua Femi, Akinlabi Ebenezer Yemi, Onaopemipo Adeitan, Kazeem Bello, Anthony Ekeocha, Miraim Tawose


This study was carried out to determine the physiological and stress index of scavenging chickens in LAFARGE (Ewekoro) and Dangote (Ibese) Cement Factories Area of Ogun State. One hundred adult scavenging chickens comprising of 25 chickens from LAFARGE, Dangote and respective adjourning communities (Imasayi and Wasimi) were used. Experimental birds were caught at night on their perch and kept in cages till the next morning. Data were collected on rectal temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate of the birds. Also, 5ml blood was collected through the wing vein of the chickens in each location using a sterilized needle and syringe and transported to laboratory for analysis. Significant (P<0.05) highest pulse rate (215.64 beat/minute) and respiratory rate (19.90 breaths/minute) were recorded among scavenging chickens at LAFARGE (Ewekoro) Area and the least (198.61 beat/minute and 16.93 breaths/minute, respectively) at Imasayi. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in the rectal temperature of the birds in the study area. Significant (P<0.05) differences were also recorded in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Hemoglobin (Hb), White Blood Cell (WBC), Monocyte, and Glucose level of the chickens in study area with the highest (P<0.05) Packed Cell Volume (28.06%) and Haemoglobin (4.01g/dl) recorded in Ibese and the least Packed Cell Volume (22.00%) and Haemoglobin (288g/dl) in Imasayi. Highest (P<0.05) Monocyte (4.28%) and glucose (256.53g/dl) were recorded among scavenging chickens at Dangote (Ibese) while the least Monocyte (0.00%) and Glucose (194.53g/dl) was recorded among chickens at Wasimi. Highest (P<0.05) White Blood Cell (6488.89×103µl) was recorded among chickens at Ewekoro and the lowest value in Ibese (4388.44×103µl). There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in the Heterophyl, Lymphocyte, Basophyl and Heterophyl/Lymphocyte ratio of the chickens in the study Area. The study concluded that chickens reared at LAFARGE (Ewekoro) were stressed and had comprised welfare and health status compared to Dangote (Ibese) cement area and other agrarian communities. Effective environmental mitigation programme should be put in place to enhance the welfare of the scavenging chickens in LAFARGE Cement Factory Area.

Keywords: blood, chicken, poisonous substances, pack cell volume, communities

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984 Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer Using Synthetic Cationic Peptide

Authors: D. J. Kalita


Cancer is one of the prime causes of early death worldwide. Mutation of the gene involve in DNA repair and damage, like BRCA2 (Breast cancer gene two) genes, can be detected efficiently by PCR-RFLP to early breast cancer diagnosis and adopt the suitable method of treatment. Host Defense Peptide can be used as blueprint for the design and synthesis of novel anticancer drugs to avoid the side effect of conventional chemotherapy and chemo resistance. The change at nucleotide position 392 of a -› c in the cancer sample of dog mammary tumour at BRCA2 (exon 7) gene lead the creation of a new restriction site for SsiI restriction enzyme. This SNP may be a marker for detection of canine mammary tumour. Support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was used to design and predict the anticancer peptide from the mature functional peptide. MTT assay of MCF-7 cell line after 48 hours of post treatment showed an increase in the number of rounded cells when compared with untreated control cells. The ability of the synthesized peptide to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was further investigated by staining the cells with the fluorescent dye Hoechst stain solution, which allows the evaluation of the nuclear morphology. Numerous cells with dense, pyknotic nuclei (the brighter fluorescence) were observed in treated but not in control MCF-7 cells when viewed using an inverted phase-contrast microscope. Thus, PCR-RFLP is one of the attractive approach for early diagnosis, and synthetic cationic peptide can be used for the treatment of canine mammary tumour.

Keywords: cancer, cationic peptide, host defense peptides, Breast cancer genes

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983 Exploring Symptoms, Causes and Treatments of Feline Pruritus Using Thematic Analysis of Pet Owner Social Media Posts

Authors: Sitira Williams, Georgina Cherry, Andrea Wright, Kevin Wells, Taran Rai, Richard Brown, Travis Street, Alasdair Cook


Social media sources (50) were identified, keywords defined by veterinarians and organised into 6 topics known to be indicative of feline pruritus: body areas, behaviors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments. These were augmented using academic literature, a cat owner survey, synonyms, and Google Trends. The content was collected using a social intelligence solution, with keywords tagged and filtered. Data were aggregated and de-duplicated. SL content matching body areas, behaviors and symptoms were reviewed manually, and posts were marked relevant if: posted by a pet owner, identifying an itchy cat and not duplicated. A sub-set of 493 posts published from 2009-2022 was used for reflexive thematic analysis in NVIVO (Burlington, MA) to identify themes. Five themes were identified: allergy, pruritus, additional behaviors, unusual or undesirable behaviors, diagnosis, and treatment. Most (258) posts reported the cat was excessively licking, itching, and scratching. The majority were indoor cats and were less playful and friendly when itchy. Half of these posts did not indicate a known cause of pruritus. Bald spots and scabs (123) were reported, often causing swelling and fur loss, and 56 reported bumps, lumps, and dry patches. Other impacts on the cat’s quality of life were ear mites, cat self-trauma and stress. Seven posts reported their cats’ symptoms caused them ongoing anxiety and depression. Cats with food allergies to poultry (often chicken and beef) causing bald spots featured in 23 posts. Veterinarians advised switching to a raw food diet and/or changing their bowls. Some cats got worse after switching, leaving owners’ needs unmet. Allergic reactions to flea bites causing excessive itching, red spots, scabs, and fur loss were reported in 13 posts. Some (3) posts indicated allergic reactions to medication. Cats with seasonal and skin allergies, causing sneezing, scratching, headshaking, watery eyes, and nasal discharge, were reported 17 times. Eighty-five posts identified additional behaviors. Of these, 13 reported their cat’s burst pimple or insect bite. Common behaviors were headshaking, rubbing, pawing at their ears, and aggressively chewing. In some cases, bites or pimples triggered previously unseen itchiness, making the cat irritable. Twenty-four reported their cat had anxiety: overgrooming, itching, losing fur, hiding, freaking out, breathing quickly, sleeplessness, hissing and vocalising. Most reported these cats as having itchy skin, fleas, and bumps. Cats were commonly diagnosed with an ear infection, ringworm, acne, or kidney disease. Acne was diagnosed in cats with an allergy flare-up or overgrooming. Ear infections were diagnosed in itchy cats with mites or other parasites. Of the treatments mentioned, steroids were most frequently used, then anti-parasitics, including flea treatments and oral medication (steroids, antibiotics). Forty-six posts reported distress following poor outcomes after medication or additional vet consultations. SL provides veterinarians with unique insights. Verbatim comments highlight the detrimental effects of pruritus on pets and owner quality of life. This study demonstrates the need for veterinarians to communicate management and treatment options more effectively to relieve owner frustrations. Data analysis could be scaled up using machine learning for topic modeling.

Keywords: content analysis, feline, itch, pruritus, social media, thematic analysis, veterinary dermatology

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982 Poultry as a Carrier of Chlamydia gallinacea

Authors: Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska, Kinga Zaręba Marchewka, Krzysztof Niemczuk


Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria distributed worldwide in animals and humans. One of them is Chlamydia gallinacea recently discovered. Available data show that C. gallinacea is dominant chlamydial agent found in poultry in European and Asian countries. The aim of the studies was screening of poultry flocks in order to evaluate frequency of C. gallinacea shedding and genetic diversity. Sampling was conducted in different regions of Poland in 2019-2020. Overall, 1466 cloacal/oral swabs were collected in duplicate from 146 apparently healthy poultry flocks including chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese and quails. Dry swabs were used for DNA extraction. DNA extracts were screened using a Chlamydiaceae 23S rRNA real-time PCR assay. To identify Chlamydia species, specific real-time PCR assays were performed. Furthermore, selected samples were used for sequencing based on ompA gene fragment and variable domains (VD1-2, VD3-4). In total, 10.3% of the tested flocks were Chlamydiaceae-positive (15/146 farms). The presence of Chlamydiaceae was confirmed mainly in chickens (13/92 farms) but also in turkey (1/19 farms) and goose (1/26 farms) flock. Eleven flocks were identified as C. gallinacea-positive while four flocks remained unclassified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed at least 16 genetic variants of C. gallinacea. Research showed that Chlamydiaceae occur in poultry flock in Poland. The strains of C. gallinacea as dominant species shows genetic variability.

Keywords: chlamydia gallinacea, emerging agent, poultry, real-time PCR

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981 Isolation and Identification of Sarcocystis suihominis in a Slaughtered Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa) in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: H. I. Obadiah, S. N. Wieser, E. A. Omudu, B. O. Atu, O. Byanet, L. Schnittger, M. Florin-Christensen


Sarcocystis sp. are Apicomplexan protozoan parasites with a life cycle that involves a predator and a prey as final and intermediate hosts, respectively. In tissues of the intermediate hosts, the parasites produce sarcocysts that vary in size and morphology according to the species. When a suitable predator ingests sarcocyst-containing meat, the parasites are released in the intestine and undergo sexual reproduction producing infective sporocysts, which are excreted with the feces into the environment. The cycle is closed when a prey ingests sporocyst-contaminated water or pasture; the parasites gain access to the circulation, and eventually invade tissues and reproduce asexually yielding sarcocysts. Pig farming is a common practice in Nigeria as well as in many countries around the world. In addition to its importance as protein source, pork is also a source of several pathogens relevant to humans. In the case of Sarcocystis, three species have been described both in domestic and wild pigs, namely, S. miescheriana, S. porcifelis and S. suihominis. Humans can act both as final and aberrant intermediate hosts of S. suihominis, after ingesting undercooked sarcocyst-infested pork. Infections are usually asymptomatic but can be associated with inappetence, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, or with muscle pain, fever, eosinophilia and bronchospasm, in humans acting as final or intermediate hosts, respectively. Moreover, excretion of infective forms with human feces leads to further dissemination of the infection. In this study, macroscopic sarcocysts of white color, oval shape and a size range of approximately 3-5 mm were observed in the skeletal muscle of a slaughtered pig in an abattoir in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria, destined to human consumption. Sarcocysts were excised and washed in distilled water, and genomic DNA was extracted using a commercial kit. The near-complete length of the 18S rRNA gene was analyzed after PCR amplification of two overlapping fragments, each of which were submitted to direct sequencing. In addition, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (cox-1) gene was PCR-amplified and directly sequenced. Two phylogenetic trees containing the obtained sequences along with available relevant 18S rRNA and cox-1 sequences were constructed by neighbor joining after alignment, using the corresponding sequences of Toxoplasma gondii as outgroup. The results showed in both cases that the analyzed sequences grouped with S. suihominis with high bootstrap value, confirming the identity of this macroscopic sarcocyst-forming parasite as S. suihominis. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the first demonstration of this parasite in pigs of Nigeria and the largest sarcocysts described so far for S. suihominis. The close proximity between pigs and humans in pig farms, and the frequent poor sanitary conditions in human dwellings strongly suggest that the parasite undergoes the sexual stages of its life cycle in humans as final hosts. These findings provide an important reference for the examination and control of Sarcocystis species in pigs of Nigeria.

Keywords: nigeria, pork, sarcocystis suihominis, zoonotic parasite

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980 Agent-Based Modelling to Improve Dairy-origin Beef Production: Model Description and Evaluation

Authors: Addisu H. Addis, Hugh T. Blair, Paul R. Kenyon, Stephen T. Morris, Nicola M. Schreurs, Dorian J. Garrick


Agent-based modeling (ABM) enables an in silico representation of complex systems and cap-tures agent behavior resulting from interaction with other agents and their environment. This study developed an ABM to represent a pasture-based beef cattle finishing systems in New Zea-land (NZ) using attributes of the rearer, finisher, and processor, as well as specific attributes of dairy-origin beef cattle. The model was parameterized using values representing 1% of NZ dairy-origin cattle, and 10% of rearers and finishers in NZ. The cattle agent consisted of 32% Holstein-Friesian, 50% Holstein-Friesian–Jersey crossbred, and 8% Jersey, with the remainder being other breeds. Rearers and finishers repetitively and simultaneously interacted to determine the type and number of cattle populating the finishing system. Rearers brought in four-day-old spring-born calves and reared them until 60 calves (representing a full truck load) on average had a live weight of 100 kg before selling them on to finishers. Finishers mainly attained weaners from rearers, or directly from dairy farmers when weaner demand was higher than the supply from rearers. Fast-growing cattle were sent for slaughter before the second winter, and the re-mainder were sent before their third winter. The model finished a higher number of bulls than heifers and steers, although it was 4% lower than the industry reported value. Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian–Jersey-crossbred cattle dominated the dairy-origin beef finishing system. Jersey cattle account for less than 5% of total processed beef cattle. Further studies to include re-tailer and consumer perspectives and other decision alternatives for finishing farms would im-prove the applicability of the model for decision-making processes.

Keywords: agent-based modelling, dairy cattle, beef finishing, rearers, finishers

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979 Molecular and Genetic Characterization of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase1 Gene in Sudanese Dairy Cattle Kenana and Butana

Authors: Safa Abusara Mohammed Ali, Mohammed Khair Abdallah, Gurdon A. Brockmann, M. Reissmann


The aim of the study was the characterization of DGAT1 variants in Sudanese dairy cattle breeds. In this study, we examined 94 Kenana and 91 Butana dairy cattle from two regions of Sudan. We genotyped the DGAT1 sequence variant AJ318490.1:g.10433/10434 AA>GC that leads to the Lysine – Alanine substitution at position 232 (K232A) in the protein and the VNTR polymorphism in the promoter region. Genotyping was performed by allele specific PCR and PCR fragment lengths determination, respectively. In both breeds, the DGAT1 Lysine variant (232K) that is associated with high fat and protein content as well as high fat yield in other breeds is the high frequent allele. The frequencies of the 232K allele were 96.3% and 84.6% in Kenana and Butana breeds, respectively. At the DGAT1 promoter VNTR locus, four alleles containing four to seven repeats of the 18 bp motif were found in both breeds. The highest frequent allele was the VNTR allele 3 containing five repeats with 60.4 % and 57.5 % in Kenana and Butana breeds, respectively. In conclusion, the two examined Sudanese dairy cattle breeds do not differ in allele frequencies at the DGAT1 locus.

Keywords: dairy cattle, DGAT1, Kenana, Butana.

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978 Study the Effect of Lipoid Acid as a Protective Against Rheumatoid Arthritis Through Diminishing Pro-inflammatory Markers and Chemokine Expression

Authors: Khairy Mohamed Abdalla Zoheir


One of the most severe complications of Rheumatoid arthritis is delayed recovery. lipoic acid possesses antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the effects of lipoic acid were investigated on the key mediators of Rheumatoid arthritis, namely, CD4+CD25+ T cell subsets, GITR expressing cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, T-helper-17 (Th17) cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α)] through flow-cytometry and qPCR analyses. Lipoic acid-treated mice showed a significant decrease in Rheumatoid arthritis, the frequency of GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-αand Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) compared with positive and negative controlled mice. Lipoic acid treatment also downregulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators compared with the Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model and untreated mice. The number of Tregs was also found to be significantly upregulated in lipoic acid-treated mice. Our results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. This study showed the beneficial role of lipoic acid in promoting a well-balanced tool for the therapy of Rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: lipoic acid, inflammatory markers, rheumatoid arthritis, qPCR

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977 Prediction of Fillet Weight and Fillet Yield from Body Measurements and Genetic Parameters in a Complete Diallel Cross of Three Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Strains

Authors: Kassaye Balkew Workagegn, Gunnar Klemetsdal, Hans Magnus Gjøen


In this study, the first objective was to investigate whether non-lethal or non-invasive methods, utilizing body measurements, could be used to efficiently predict fillet weight and fillet yield for a complete diallel cross of three Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) strains collected from three Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes, Lakes Ziway, Koka and Chamo. The second objective was to estimate heritability of body weight, actual and predicted fillet traits, as well as genetic correlations between these traits. A third goal was to estimate additive, reciprocal, and heterosis effects for body weight and the various fillet traits. As in females, early sexual maturation was widespread, only 958 male fish from 81 full-sib families were used, both for the prediction of fillet traits and in genetic analysis. The prediction equations from body measurements were established by forward regression analysis, choosing models with the least predicted residual error sums of squares (PRESS). The results revealed that body measurements on live Nile tilapia is well suited to predict fillet weight but not fillet yield (R²= 0.945 and 0.209, respectively), but both models were seemingly unbiased. The genetic analyses were carried out with bivariate, multibreed models. Body weight, fillet weight, and predicted fillet weight were all estimated with a heritability ranged from 0.23 to 0.28, and with genetic correlations close to one. Contrary, fillet yield was only to a minor degree heritable (0.05), while predicted fillet yield obtained a heritability of 0.19, being a resultant of two body weight variables known to have high heritability. The latter trait was estimated with genetic correlations to body weight and fillet weight traits larger than 0.82. No significant differences among strains were found for their additive genetic, reciprocal, or heterosis effects, while total heterosis effects were estimated as positive and significant (P < 0.05). As a conclusion, prediction of prediction of fillet weight based on body measurements is possible, but not for fillet yield.

Keywords: additive, fillet traits, genetic correlation, heritability, heterosis, prediction, reciprocal

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976 Antibacterial Activity of Copper Nanoparticles on Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus In Vitro and Animal Models

Authors: Sina Gharevali


Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important factors for nosocomial infections and infections acquired in a hospital setting role as is. Drug-resistant bacteria methicillin, which in 1961 was reported in many parts of the world, Made the role as the last drug, vancomycin, in the treatment of infections caused by the Staphylococcus aureus chain be taken into consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of copper nanoparticles and compared it with antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin in vitro and animal model. In this study, this test was performed, and the most effective antibiotic for vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was determined by disk diffusion method. After various concentrations of copper nanoparticles and antibiotics were prepared and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria with serial dilution method for determining antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrationcopper nanoparticles was performed. The agar dilution method for bacterial growth in different concentrations of copper nanoparticles and antibiotics ciprofloxacin was performed. The agar dilution method for bacterial growth in different concentrations of copper nanoparticles and antibiotics ciprofloxacin was performed. Then the broth dilution method for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, nano-particles, and nano-particles of copper and copper-established antibiotic synergy MIC and MBC were obtained. MBC was obtained from the experimental animal model test method, and the results were compared. The results showed that copper nanoparticles compared with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in vitro and animal model more effective in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin and ciprofloxacin and extent of the impact of the Synthetic effect of lower copper nanoparticles. Which can then be used to treat clinical research as a candidate.

Keywords: nanoparticles, copper, staphylococcus, aureus

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975 Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum–β Lactamase and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales from Tunisian Seafood

Authors: Mehdi Soula, Yosra Mani, Estelle Saras, Antoine Drapeau, Raoudha Grami, Mahjoub Aouni, Jean-Yves Madec, Marisa Haenni, Wejdene Mansour


Multi-resistance to antibiotics in gram-negative bacilli and particularly in enterobacteriaceae, has become frequent in hospitals in Tunisia. However, data on antibiotic resistant bacteria in aquatic products are scarce. The aims of this study are to estimate the proportion of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales in seafood (clams and fish) in Tunisia and to molecularly characterize the collected isolates. Two types of seafood were sampled in unrelated markets in four different regions in Tunisia (641 pieces of farmed fish and 1075 mediterranean clams divided into 215 pools, and each pool contained 5 pieces). Once purchased, all samples were incubated in tubes containing peptone salt broth for 24 to 48h at 37°C. After incubation, overnight cultures were isolated on selective MacConkey agar plates supplemented with either imipenem or cefotaxime, identified using API20E test strips (bioMérieux, Marcy-l’Étoile, France) and confirmed by Maldi-TOF MS. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar plates and results were interpreted according to CA-SFM 2021. ESBL-producing Enterobacterales were detected using the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Carbapenem-resistance was detected using an ertapenem disk and was respectively confirmed using the ROSCO KPC/MBL and OXA-48 Confirm Kit (ROSCO Diagnostica, Taastrup, Denmark). DNA was extracted using a NucleoSpin Microbial DNA extraction kit (Macherey-Nagel, Hoerdt, France), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Resistance genes were determined using the CGE online tools. The replicon content and plasmid formula were identified from the WGS data using PlasmidFinder 2.0.1 and pMLST 2.0. From farmed fishes, nine ESBL-producing strains (9/641, 1.4%) were isolated, which were identified as E. coli (n=6) and K. pneumoniae (n=3). Among the 215 pools of 5 clams analyzed, 18 ESBL-producing isolates were identified, including 14 E. coli and 4 K. pneumoniae. A low isolation rate of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales was detected 1.6% (18/1075) in clam pools. In fish, the ESBL phenotype was due to the presence of the blaCTX-M-15 gene in all nine isolates, but no carbapenemase gene was identified. In clams, the predominant ESBL phenotype was blaCTX-M-1 (n=6/18). blaCPE (NDM1, OXA48) was detected only in 3 isolates ‘K. pneumoniae isolates’. Replicon typing on the strains carring the ESBL and carbapenemase gene revelead that the major type plasmid carried ESBL were IncF (42.3%) [n=11/26]. In all, our results suggest that seafood can be a reservoir of multi-drug resistant bacteria, most probably of human origin but also by the selection pressure of antibiotic. Our findings raise concerns that seafood bought for consumption may serve as potential reservoirs of AMR genes and pose serious threat to public health.

Keywords: BLSE, carbapenemase, enterobacterales, tunisian seafood

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974 Prevalence of Rabbit Coccidia in Medea Province, Algeria

Authors: Mohamed Sadek Bachene, Soraya Temim, Hassina Ainbaziz, Asma Bachene


Coccidiosis has an economic impact for poultry and livestock. The current study examined the prevalence ofEimeria infections in domestic rabbits in Medea province, North of Algeria. A total of 414 faecal samples were collected from 50 farms in six regions of the province. Each faecal sample was subjected to oocyst counting andisolation. The Eimeria species from samples containing isolated and sporulatedoocysts were morphologically identified microscopically. The overall prevalence of coccidial infections was 47.6% (197/414). Weaners had the highest prevalence (77%, 77/100, p<0.0001), followed by growing rabbits (46.8%, 30/64), and the adult rabbits showed the lowest prevalence (36 %, 18/50). In breeding rabbits, females were more infected with a prevalence of40% (p<0.0001). Eleven rabbit Eimeria’s species were present and identified from oocyst positive samples. Eimeriamagna and Eimeria media were the most prevalent species (47.6% and 47.3%). Sulfonamides showed a better protection against rabbit coccidiosis than colistin and trimethoprim association (p< 0.0001, the prevalence of 23.3% vs.65.3%, respectively). These results indicated that the prevalence of coccidiosis is high among the rabbit population inMedea province, North of Algeria. As a conclusion, it seems that the epidemiological situation of rabbit coccidiosisin Medea province must be taken into consideration in order to minimize the economic losses caused by this parasitosis.

Keywords: eimeria, oryctolagus cuniculus, rabbit, sulfonamides

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973 Consumer Health Risk Assessment from Some Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) from Lake Koka, Ethiopia

Authors: Mathewos Temesgen, Lemi Geleta


Lake Koka is one of the Ethiopian Central Rift Valleys lakes, where the absorbance of domestic, agricultural, and industrial waste from the nearby industrial and agro-industrial activities is very common. The aim of this research was to assess the heavy metal bioaccumulation in edible parts of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Koka and the health risks associated with the dietary intake of the fish. Three sampling sites were selected randomly for primary data collection. Physicochemical parameters (pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Dissolved Oxygen and Electrical Conductivity) were measured in-situ. Four heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn) in water and bio-accumulation in the edible parts of the fish were analyzed with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean values of TDS, EC, DO and pH of the lake water were 458.1 mg/L, 905.7 µ s/cm, 7.36 mg/L, and 7.9, respectively. The mean concentrations of Zn, Cr, and Cd in the edible part of fish were also 0.18 mg/kg, ND-0.24 mg/kg, and ND-0.03 mg/kg, respectively. Pb was, however, not identified. The amount of Cr in the examined fish muscle was above the level set by FAO, and the accumulation of the metals showed marked differences between sampling sites (p<0.05). The concentrations of Cd, Pb and were below the maximum permissible limit. The results also indicated that Cr has a high transfer factor value and Zn has the lowest. The carcinogenic hazard ratio values were below the threshold value (<1) for the edible parts of fish. The estimated weekly intake of heavy metals from fish muscles ranked as Cr>Zn>Cd, but the values were lower than the Reference Dose limit for metals. The carcinogenic risk values indicated a low health risk due to the intake of individual metals from fish. Furthermore, the hazard index of the edible part of fish was less than unity. Generally, the water quality is not a risk for the survival and reproduction of fish, and the heavy metal contents in the edible parts of fish exhibited low carcinogenic risk through the food chain.

Keywords: bio-accumulation, cyprinus carpio, hazard index, heavy metals, Lake Koka

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972 Effects of Pharmaceutical Drugs on Fish (koi) Behaviour and Muscle Function

Authors: Gayathri Vijayakumar, Preethi Baskaran


The effluents that are let down by the industries mix with the water bodies and drastically affect the aquatic life, which leads to pollution and bio magnifications. Effluents mostly contain chemicals, heavy metals etc., and cause toxicity to the environment. The pharmaceutical industries too contribute. The by-products and other unwanted waste are discharged without any treatment; these causes DNA damage and affect behavior of aquatic life. The study was conducted on koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) the ornamental variety of common carp. A two week long study was conducted on them using common anti-depressant drug (Diazepam) in various concentrations. These drugs are known to cause behavioral damage and organ malfunctions (muscle twitch). The histopathological study conducted showed permanent muscle twitching and lesions in the fish samples studied. The sociability was also affected in the span of 14 days. Higher concentrations of this drug showed severe damage in the muscle structures. Thus, this drug can cause adverse effects on marine ecosystem and eventually cause bio magnification of drug by running through the food chain.

Keywords: pollution, toxicity, bio-magnifications, koi carp, muscle twitch, diazepam, histopathology

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971 Collection, Cryopreservation, and Fertilizing Potential of Bovine Spermatozoa Collected from the Epididymis Evaluated by Conventional Techniques and by Flow Cytometry

Authors: M. H. Moreira da Silva, L. Valadao, F. Moreira da Silva


In the present study, the fertilizing capacity of bovine spermatozoa was evaluated before and after its cryopreservation. For this, the testicles of 100 bulls slaughtered on Terceira Island were dissected, the epididymal tails were separated, and semen was recovered by the flotation method and then evaluated by phase contrast microscopy and by flow cytometry. For phase contrast microscopy, a drop of semen was used to evaluate the percentage of motile spermatozoa (from 0 to 100%) and motility (from 0 to 5). After determining the concentration and the abnormal forms, semen was diluted to a final concentration of 50 x 106 spz/ml and evaluated by flow cytometer for membrane and acrosome integrity using the conjugation of fluorescent probes propidium iodide (PI) and Arachis hypogea agglutinin (FITC-PNA). Freezing was carried out in a programmable semen freezer, using 0.25 ml straws, in a total of 20 x 106 viable sperm per straw with glycerol as a cryoprotectant in a final concentration of 0.58 M. It was observed that, on average, a total of 7.25 ml of semen was collected from each bull. The viability and vitality rates were respectively 83.22 ± 7.52% and 3.8 ± 0.4 before freezing, decreasing to 58.81 ± 11.99% and 3.6 ± 0.6, respectively, after thawing. Regarding cytoplasmic droplets, it was observed that a high percentage of spermatozoa had medial cytoplasmic droplets (38.47%), with only 3.32% and 0.15% presenting proximal and distal cytoplasmic drops, respectively. By flow cytometry, it was observed that before freezing, the percentage of sperm with the damaged plasma membrane and intact acrosome was 3.61 ± 0.99%, increasing slightly to 4.21 ± 1.86% after cryopreservation (p<0.05). Regarding spermatozoa with damaged plasma membrane and acrosome, the percentage before freezing was 3.37±1.87%, increasing to 4.34 ±1.16% after thawing, and no significant differences were observed between these two values. For the percentage of sperm with the intact plasma membrane and damaged acrosome, this value was 2.04 ± 2.34% before freezing, decreasing to 0.89 ± 0.48% after thawing (p<0.05). The percentage of sperm with the intact plasma membrane and acrosome before freezing was 90.99±2.75%, with a slight decrease to 90.57±3.15% after thawing (p<0.05). From this study, it can be clearly concluded that, after the slaughtering of bulls, the spermatozoa can be recovered from the epididymis and cryopreserved, maintaining an excellent rate of sperm viability and quality after thawing.

Keywords: bovine semen, epididymis, cryopreservation, fertility assessment

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970 Determination of Proximate, Mineral, and Heavy Metal Contents of Fish from the Lower River Niger at Agenebode, Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Agbugui M. O., Inobeme A.


Fish constitutes a vital component of human diets due to their rich nutritional compositions. They serve as a remarkable source of proteins, vitamins, and fatty acids, which are indispensable for the effective growth and development of humans. The need to explore the nutritional compositions of various species of fish in different water bodies becomes paramount. Presently, consumer concern is not just on food's nutritional value but also on the safety level. Environmental contamination by heavy metals has become an issue of pressing concern in recent times. Heavy metals, due to their ubiquitous nature, are found in various water bodies as they are released from various anthropogenic activities. This work investigated the proximate compositions, mineral contents, and heavy metals concentrations of four different species of fish (P. annectens, L. niloticus, G. niloticus, and H. niloticus) collected from the lower Niger at Agenebode using standard procedures. The highest protein contents were in Gymnarchus niloticus (37.32%), while the least was in Heterotis niloticus (20.41%). Protopterus annectens had the highest carbohydrate content (34.55%), while Heterotis niloticus had the least (12.24%). The highest lipid content (14.41%) was in Gymnarchus niloticus. The highest concentration of potassium was 21.00 ppm. The concentrations of heavy metals in ppm ranged from 0.01 – 1.4 (Cd), 0.07 – 2.89 (Pb), 0.02 – 16.4 (Hg), 0.88 – 5.1 (Cu) and 1.2 – 8.23 (Zn). The concentrations of Hg, Cd and Pb in some of the samples investigated were higher than the permissible limits based on international standards. There is a pressing need for further study focusing on various species of animals and plants in the area due to the alarming contents of these metals; remedial measures could also be ensured for safety.

Keywords: trace metals, nutritional value, human health, crude protein, lipid content

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969 Valorization of By-Products through Feed Formulation for Tilapia sp: Zootechnical Performance Study

Authors: Redhouane Benfares, Kamel Boudjemaa, Affaf Kord, Sonia Messis, Linda Farai, Belkacem Guenachi, Kherarba Maha, Jaroslava ŠVarc-Gajić


In recent years valorization of biowaste has attracted a lot of attention worldwide owing to its high nutritional value and low price. In this work, biowaste of animal (sardines) and plant (tomato) biowaste was used to formulate a new feed for red tilapia that showed to be competitive in its price, and zootechnical performance in comparison to commercially available tilapia feeds. Mathematical modelling was used to formulate optimal feed composition with favorable chemical composition and the lowest price. Formulated feed had high protein content (40.76%) and an energy value of 279.6 Kcal/100 g. Optimised feed was manufactured and compared to commercially available reference feed with respect to feeding intake, feed efficiency, the specific growth rate of fingerlings of Tilapia sp, and, most important, zootechnical parameters. With a fish survival rate of 100% calculated feed conversion index for the formulated feed was 2.7.

Keywords: conversion index, fish waste, formulated feed, tomato waste

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968 Molecular Detection of Albendazole-resistance in Teladorsagia Circumcincta in Sheep in Iran and Iraq

Authors: Mohammad Yakhchali, Yousef Mirzaei, Karim Mardani, Bushra Hussain Shnawa


Globally, gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) have a considerable impact on the livestock health worldwide. The infected animals with GIN nematodes mostly need anthelmintic therapy, which leads to anthelmintic drugs’ resistance. The main objective of the current study was to determine the frequency of β-tubulin isotype 1 gene polymorphism in Teladorsagia circumcincta isolated from naturally infected sheep of Iran and Iraq. A total number of 280 slaughtered sheep abomasa were randomly collected. Allele-specific PCR (ASP) was employed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in codon 200 of isotype I β-tubulin gene. Of examined animals of both countries, 57(20.35%) infected sheep abomasa demonstrated T. circumcinctainfection. Frequency of homozygous susceptible (SS), homozygous resistant (rr), and heterozygous susceptible (Sr) were respectively51.72%, 6.90%, and 41.38% in examined Iranian sheep withT. circumcinctainfection. While the frequency of SS, rr, and Sr were 60.9, 0.0%, and 39.1% in the examined T. circumcincta isolates from Iraqi sheep, respectively. From the results of the present study, it was concluded albendazole-resistance alleles were widespread in examinedT. circumcinctaof both countries. Teladorsagia circumcinctaisolates were sensitive to albendazole-resistance alleles; however, mitigation and prevention strategies should be implemented in both regions.

Keywords: albendazole, teladorsagia circumcincta, allele specific PCR, sheep, Iran, Iraq

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967 Polymorphisms in the Prolactin Gene (C576A) and Its Effect on Milk Production Traits in Crossbred Anglo-Nubian Dairy Goats

Authors: Carlo Stephen O. Moneva, Sharon Rose M. Tabugo


The present study aims to assess polymorphism in the prolactin (C576A) gene and determine the influence of different prolactin (PRL) genotypes to milk yield performance in crossbred Anglo-Nubian dairy goats raised from Awang, Opol, Misamis Oriental and Talay, Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental. Genomic DNA was extracted from hair follicles and Polymerase Chain Reaction – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed for the genotyping of the C576A polymorphism located in exon 5 of goats’ prolactin gene using Eco241 restriction enzyme. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of 0.56 for AA, 0.44 for AB, 0.78 for A, and 0.22 for B were recorded. Observed heterozygosity values were higher than the expected heterozygosity. All populations followed the Hardy–Weinberg principle at p>0.05, except for dairy goats from Farm A located in Opol, Misamis Oriental. A two-way factorial (2 x 4) in a Randomized Complete Block Design was used to be able to evaluate the relationship between genotypes and milk yield performance. PRL genotypes and parity were used as main factors and farm as the blocking factor. AB genotype goats produced significantly higher average daily milk yield and total milk production than AA genotype (p<0.05), an indication that the polymorphism in the caprine PRL (C576A) gene influenced milk yield performance in the population of crossbred Anglo-Nubian goats from Opol, Misamis Oriental and Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental. However, these results have to be validated in other dairy goat breeds.

Keywords: polymorphism, prolactin, milk yield, Anglo-Nubian, PCR-RFLP

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966 Haematological Indices of West African Dwarf Goats Fed Diets Containing Varying Levels of Sodium Humate

Authors: Ubu Isaiah, Gambo D.


Haematological studies are an important diagnosis of nutritional studies. The study investigated the haematological parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats fed a diet containing different levels of sodium humate. Twenty (20) WAD bucks weighing between 8.154 ± 0.340 kg were used for this study. The bucks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, and 15 g/kg diet of sodium humate laid out as a completely randomized design. Data on haematological parameters were obtained and statistically analysed using the generalized linear model (GLM) of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 23). Results showed that sodium humate supplementation (p <0.05) has no significant effect on Neutrophils, Eosinophil, Basophils, and Monocytes, respectively. It was recommended up to 15 g/kg diet supplementation of sodium humate sufficiently enhance the performance of WAD goats as well the improving their haematological indices.

Keywords: haematological indices, goat, sodium humate

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965 Coping Heat Stress By Crushed Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) Seeds in Broilers: Growth, Redox Balance, and Humoral Immune Response

Authors: Adia Fatima, Naila Chand, Rifat Ullah Khan


The goal of this study was to determine how fennel seed supplementation affected broiler growth, carcass quality, antioxidant status, and antibody titer in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 720 one-day-old broiler chickens were weighed and assigned to 28-floor pens (25 broiler chickens per pen). The broiler chickens were housed in a thermoneutral (TN) environment and were exposed to heat stress (HS). For 23 hours, the broiler chickens were kept under fluorescent lighting. For 35d, HS broiler chickens were fed a control diet and three levels of fennel seeds powder at rates of 15g/kg (Fen-15), 20 g/kg (Fen-20), and 25 g/kg (Fen-25). Overall feed intake, weight gain, and dressing % were considerably greater (P < 0.05) in Fen-25 and TN, but FCR was significantly reduced (P<0.01) in the same groups. When TN, Fen-20, and Fen-25 were compared to the control, malondialdehyde (MDA), paraoxonase (PON1), and antibody titer against New Castle disease (ND) were considerably (P < 0.05) greater. Further, the linear and quadratic response was for feed intake, weight gain, FCR, MDA, PON1, and ND titer. It was concluded that Fen-20 and Fen-25 increased broiler growth, carcass quality, antioxidant status, and immunological response under HS conditions.

Keywords: heat stress, growth, antioxidant, immunity

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964 Relation between Demodex folliculorum and Rosacea

Authors: Maha M. Eissa, Safia M. Ali, Sonia R. Allam, Ezzat A. Badawy, Nahed M. Baddour


The obligate follicle mite Demodex folliculorum (Df) has been demonstrated in increased numbers in patients with rosacea. The significance of this finding is still not completely understood because many people free of skin disease may also have mites. So, the aim of this work was to study the possible role of Df in patients with rosacea. Facial punch biopsy specimens were taken from patients with rosacea (either telangiectatic, papulopustular, squamous, granulomatous form or with rhinophyma) and age and sex-matched healthy subjects. Results of this study showed that 63.3% of the rosacea patients were harbouring the mite, with a higher incidence in patients with papulopustular form.

Keywords: Demodex folliculorum, histopathology, punch biopsy, rosacea

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963 In Vitro Assessment of True Digestibility and Rumen Parameters of Forage-Based Sheep Diet, Supplemented with Dietary Fossil Shell Flour

Authors: Olusegun O. Ikusika, Conference T. Mpendulo


The abundance of fossil shell flour (FSF) globally has increased interest in its use as a natural feed additive in livestock diets. Therefore, identifying its optimum inclusion levels in livestock production is essential for animal productivity. This study investigated the effects of various fossil shell flour (FSF) inclusion levels on in vitro digestibility, relative feed values, and rumen parameters of Dohne-Merino wethers. Twenty-four fistulated wethers with an average body weight of 20 ± 1•5 kg in a complete randomized design of four treatments having six wethers per treatment were used. They were fed a basal diet without fossil shell flour (control, 0%) or with the addition of 2% FSF (T2), 4% FSF(T3), and 6% FSF (T4) of diet DM for 35 days, excluding 14 days adaptation period. The results showed that increasing FSF levels had no effect on ruminal T0C or pH, but Ammonia-N increased (P<0.01) with increasing FSF. The total molar concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) decreased (P<0.05) with increasing levels of FSF. Acetic: propionic ratio decreased except at the 4 % inclusion level. IVTDDM, IVTDNDF and IVTDADF decreased up till 4% FSF inclusion but tended to increase (P = 0.06) at 6% inclusion. Relative feed values of the diets tended to increase (P=0.07) by adding fossil shell flour. In conclusion, adding FSF to the diets of Dohne-Merino wether up to 6% FSF inclusion rates did not improve IVTDDM (In vitro true digestibility dry matter), IVTDNDF (In vitro true digestibility neutral detergent fiber), and IVTDADF (In vitro true digestibility acid detergent fiber). However, a small increment of rumen nitrogen with no adverse effects on the rumen parameters was observed. The relative feed value (RFV) moved the feed from good to premium when supplemented. Therefore, FSF supplementation could improve feed value and maintain a normal range of rumen parameters for the effective functionality of the rumen.

Keywords: fossil shell flour, rumen parameters, in vitro digestibility, feed quality, dohne-merino sheep

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962 Progress, Challenges, and Prospects of Non-Conventional Feed Resources for Livestock Production in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review

Authors: Clyde Haruzivi, Olusegun Oyebade Ikusika, Thando Conference Mpendulo


Feed scarcity, increasing demand for animal products due to the growing human population, competition for conventional feed resources for humans and animal production, and ever-increasing prices of these feed resources are major constraints to the livestock industry in Sub-Saharan Africa. As a result, the industry is suffering immensely as the cost of production is high, hence the reduced returns. Most affected are the communal and resource-limited farmers who cannot afford the cost of conventional feed resources to supplement feeds, especially in arid and semi-arid areas where the available feed resources are not adequate for maintenance and production. This has tasked researchers and animal scientists to focus on the potential of non-conventional feed resources (NCFRs). Non-conventional feed resources could fill the gap through reduced competition, cost of feed, increased supply, increased profits, and independency as farmers will be utilizing locally available feed resources. Identifying available non-conventional feed resources is vital as it creates possibilities for novel feed industries and markets and implements methods of using these feedstuffs to improve livestock production and livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, this research work analyses the progress, challenges, and prospects of some non-conventional feed resources in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: non-conventional, feed resources, livestock production, food security, Sub-Saharan

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961 Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized in Plant Extract Against Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis of Shrimp: Estimated By Multiple Models

Authors: Luz del Carmen Rubí Félix Peña, Jose Adan Felix-Ortiz, Ely Sara Lopez-Alvarez, Wenceslao Valenzuela-Quiñonez


On a global scale, Mexico is the sixth largest producer of farmed white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The activity suffered significant economic losses due to acute hepatopancreatic necrosis (AHPND) caused by a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. For control, the first option is the application of antibiotics in food, causing changes in the environment and bacterial communities, which has produced greater virulence and resistance of pathogenic bacteria. An alternative treatment is silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) generated by green synthesis, which have shown an antibacterial capacity by destroying the cell membrane or denaturing the cell. However, the doses at which these are effective are still unknown. The aim is to calculate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the Gompertz, Richard, and Logistic model of biosynthesized AgNPs against a strain of V. parahaemolyticus. Through the testing of different formulations of AgNPs synthesized from Euphorbia prostrate (Ep) extracts against V. parahaemolyticus causing AHPND in white shrimp. Aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained, and the concentration of phenols and flavonoids was quantified. In the antibiograms, AgNPs were formulated in ethanol extracts of Ep (20 and 30%). The inhibition halo at well dilution test were 18±1.7 and 17.67±2.1 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. A broth microdilution was performed with the inhibitory agents (aqueous and ethanolic extracts and AgNPs) and 20 μL of the inoculum of V. parahaemolyticus. The MIC for AgNPs was 6.2-9.3 μg/mL and for ethanol extract of 49-73 mg/mL. The Akaike index (AIC) was used to choose the Gompertz model for ethanol extracts of Ep as the best data descriptor (AIC=204.8, 10%; 45.5, 20%, and 204.8, 30%). The Richards model was at AgNPs ethanol extract with AIC=-9.3 (10%), -17.5 (20 and 30%). The MIC calculated for EP extracts with the modified Gompertz model were 20 mg/mL (10% and 20% extract) and 40 mg/mL at 30%, while Richard was winner for AgNPs-synthesized it was 5 μg/mL (10% and 20%) and 8 μg/mL (30%). The solver tool Excel was used for the calculations of the models and inhibition curves against V.parahaemolyticus.

Keywords: green synthesis, euphorbia prostata, phenols, flavonoids, bactericide

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960 Age-Associated Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 10892 Pregnant Women in Senegal between 2016 and 2019

Authors: Ndiaye Mouhamadou, Seck Abdoulaye, Ndiaye Babacar, Diallo Thierno Abdoulaye, Diop Abdou, Seck Mame Cheikh, Diongue Khadim, Badiane Aida Sadikh, Diallo Mamadou Alpha, Kouedvidjin Ekoué, Ndiaye Daouda


Background: Toxoplasmosis is a parasite disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide and is therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women referred to the medical biology laboratory of the Pasteur Institute of Dakar (Senegal) between January 2014 and December 2019. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, retrospective study of 10892 blood samples from pregnant women aged 16 to 46 years. The Architect toxo IgG/IgM from Abbot Laboratories, which is a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), was used for the quantitative determination of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in human serum. Results: In total, over a period from January 2014 to December 2019, 10892 requests for toxoplasmosis serology in pregnant women were included. The age of the patients included in our series ranged from 16 to 46 years. The mean age was 31.2 ± 5.72 years. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women was estimated to be 28.9% [28.0-29.7]. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for a covariate such as a study period, pregnant women aged 36-46 years were more likely to carry IgG antibodies to T. gondii than pregnant women younger than 36 years. Conclusion: T. gondii seroprevalence was significantly higher in pregnant women older than 36 years, leaving younger women more susceptible to primary T. gondii infection and their babies to congenital toxoplasmosis. There will be a need to increase awareness of the risk factors for toxoplasmosis and its different modes of transmission in these high-risk groups, but this should be supported by epidemiologic studies of the distribution of risk factors for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and women of childbearing age.

Keywords: toxoplasmosis, pregnancy, seroprevalence, Senegal

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959 Molecular Epidemiology of Anthrax in Georgia

Authors: N. G. Vepkhvadze, T. Enukidze


Anthrax is a fatal disease caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming gram-positive bacillus that causes the disease anthrax in animals and humans. Anthrax is a zoonotic disease that is also well-recognized as a potential agent of bioterrorism. Infection in humans is extremely rare in the developed world and is generally due to contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. Testing of this zoonotic disease began in 1907 in Georgia and is still being tested routinely to provide accurate information and efficient testing results at the State Laboratory of Agriculture of Georgia. Each clinical sample is analyzed by RT-PCR and bacteriology methods; this study used Real-Time PCR assays for the detection of B. anthracis that rely on plasmid-encoded targets with a chromosomal marker to correctly differentiate pathogenic strains from non-anthracis Bacillus species. During the period of 2015-2022, the State Laboratory of Agriculture (SLA) tested 250 clinical and environmental (soil) samples from several different regions in Georgia. In total, 61 out of the 250 samples were positive during this period. Based on the results, Anthrax cases are mostly present in Eastern Georgia, with a high density of the population of livestock, specifically in the regions of Kakheti and Kvemo Kartli. All laboratory activities are being performed in accordance with International Quality standards, adhering to biosafety and biosecurity rules by qualified and experienced personnel handling pathogenic agents. Laboratory testing plays the largest role in diagnosing animals with anthrax, which helps pertinent institutions to quickly confirm a diagnosis of anthrax and evaluate the epidemiological situation that generates important data for further responses.

Keywords: animal disease, baccilus anthracis, edp, laboratory molecular diagnostics

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958 Pulsed-Wave Doppler Ultrasonographic Assessment of the Maximum Blood Velocity in Common Carotid Artery in Horses after Administration of Ketamine and Acepromazine

Authors: Saman Ahani, Aboozar Dehghan, Roham Vali, Hamid Salehian, Amin Ebrahimi


Pulsed-wave (PW) doppler ultrasonography is a non-invasive, relatively accurate imaging technique that can measure blood speed. The imaging could be obtained via the common carotid artery, as one of the main vessels supplying the blood of vital organs. In horses, factors such as susceptibility to depression of the cardiovascular system and their large muscular mass have rendered them vulnerable to changes in blood speed. One of the most important factors causing blood velocity changes is the administration of anesthetic drugs, including Ketamine and Acepromazine. Thus, in this study, the Pulsed-wave doppler technique was performed to assess the highest blood velocity in the common carotid artery following administration of Ketamine and Acepromazine. Six male and six female healthy Kurdish horses weighing 351 ± 46 kg (mean ± SD) and aged 9.2 ± 1.7 years (mean ± SD) were housed under animal welfare guidelines. After fasting for six hours, the normal blood flow velocity in the common carotid artery was measured using a Pulsed-wave doppler ultrasonography machine (BK Medical, Denmark), and a high-frequency linear transducer (12 MHz) without applying any sedative drugs as a control group. The same procedure was repeated after each individual received the following medications: 1.1, 2.2 mg/kg Ketamine (Pfizer, USA), and 0.5, 1 mg/kg Acepromizine (RACEHORSE MEDS, Ukraine), with an interval of 21 days between the administration of each dose and/or drug. The ultrasonographic study was done five (T5) and fifteen (T15) minutes after injecting each dose intravenously. Lastly, the statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 22 for Windows and a P value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Five minutes after administration of Ketamine (1.1, 2.2 mg/kg) in both male and female horses, the blood velocity decreased to 38.44, 34.53 cm/s in males, and 39.06, 34.10 cm/s in females in comparison to the control group (39.59 and 40.39 cm/s in males and females respectively) while administration of 0.5 mg/kg Acepromazine led to a significant rise (73.15 and 55.80 cm/s in males and females respectively) (p<0.05). It means that the most drastic change in blood velocity, regardless of gender, refers to the latter dose/drug. In both medications and both genders, the increase in doses led to a decrease in blood velocity compared to the lower dose of the same drug. In all experiments in this study, the blood velocity approached its normal value at T15. In another study comparing the blood velocity changes affected by Ketamine and Acepromazine through femoral arteries, the most drastic changes were attributed to Ketamine; however, in this experiment, the maximum blood velocity was observed following administration of Acepromazine via the common carotid artery. Therefore, further experiments using the same medications are suggested using Pulsed-wave doppler measuring the blood velocity changes in both femoral and common carotid arteries simultaneously.

Keywords: Acepromazine, common carotid artery, horse, ketamine, pulsed-wave doppler ultrasonography

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