Abstracts | Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1140

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Animal and Veterinary Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1140 Comparison of the Effect of Nano Calcium Carbonate and CaCO₃ on Egg Production, Egg Traits and Calcium Retention in Laying Japanese Quail

Authors: Farhad Ahmadi, Hamed Kimiaee, Fariba Rahimi


This research study focuses on the effect of different levels and sources of calcium on egg production, egg traits, and calcium retention in laying Japanese quail. The study aims to determine the impact of nano calcium carbonate (NCC) and calcium carbonate (CC) on these factors. The research was conducted using a total of 280 laying quail with an average age of 8 weeks. The quails were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 7 treatments, 4 replications, and 10 quails in each pen. The study lasted for 90 days. The experimental diets included a control group (T1) with a basal diet consisting of 3.17% CaCO₃, and other groups supplemented with different levels (0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.15%) of either calcium carbonate (CC) or nano calcium carbonate (NCC). The quails had free access to water and feed throughout the study period. Findings: The results of the study showed that NCC at the levels of 0.1% and 0.15% (T6 and T7) improved eggshell thickness, shell thickness, and shell breaking strength compared to the control group. Although not statistically significant, there was an increasing trend in quail egg production and calcium retention in the calcareous shell of the egg in birds that consumed the experimental diets containing different levels of NCC compared to the control and other treatment groups. Quail egg production was recorded monthly for each treatment group. At the end of the study, a total of 40 eggs (10 eggs/replicate) from each treatment group were randomly selected for analysis. Parameters such as eggshell thickness, shell thickness, shell breaking strength, and calcium retention were measured. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the results between the different treatment groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that NCC at the levels of 0.1% and 0.15% can improve the quantity and quality of eggs and calcium retention in laying Japanese quail. These findings highlight the potential benefits of using NCC as a calcium source in quail diets. Further research could be conducted to explore the mechanisms behind these improvements and optimize the dosage of NCC for maximum effect.

Keywords: egg, calcium, nanoparticles, physiology

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1139 Effect of Different SE Diets on Blood SE, TAC Levels in Dairy Cattle and Their Newborn Calves

Authors: Moshfeghi Sogand


Free radicals can be produced during the respiratory oxidation of different cells. These free radicals can damage to various macromolecules as protein ,fat, nucleic acids and … are harmful for body. The natural defence system that can prevent the damage of free radicals and nuteralized them , have tittled under the name total antioxidant capacity (TAC ). Se is one main antioxidant part in TAC , because it is one main part in structure of some body antioxidant enzymes such as GPX(glutathione peroxidase). Blood SE ,GPX and TAC probably can change by feeding of different selenium supplement diet in late pregnancy and also may transport from maternal blood to its fetus or by clostrum after calving. In this respect we have determined 100 pregnant dairy cattle (in the same condition of age , race and number of parturient) then devided them to 4 groups feed them in 3 last pregnancy months by different selenium diets. Group1:controle no se supplementation , group2: recived 0/3 ppm of the daily diet Saccharomyces Cervisiae . group3 :recived selenium _ rich yeast(containing200ppm selenium)was mixed with total daily ration fed. Group4: recived se _rich yeast(containing300 ppm selenium)was mixed with total daily ration fed. Then measured blood SE,GPX and TAC levels in them and in 3 days newborn calves after calving. The results were analysed by Tukey Anova test and the highest level of blood SE ,GPX and TAC was shown in cattle that feed fermented SE_yeast diet and in their 3 days newborn calves.


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1138 Changed Behavior of the Porcine Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Virus (Betacoronavirus) in Respiratory Epithelial Cells

Authors: Ateeqa Aslam, Hans J. Nauwynck


Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a betacoronavirus that has been studied in the past as a cause of vomiting and wasting disease (VWD) in young piglets (<3 weeks). Nowadays, the virus is still circulating on most farms in Belgium, but there are no descriptions anymore of VWD. Therefore, we are interested in differences between the old and new strains. We compared the replication kinetics of the old well-studied strain VW572 (1972) and the recent isolate P412 (2020) in a susceptible continuous cell line (RPD cells) and in primary porcine respiratory epithelial cells (PoRECs). The RPD cell line was inoculated with each PHEV strain at an m.o.i. of 1 the supernatant was collected, and the cells were fixed at different time points post-inoculation. The supernatant was titrated (extracellular virus titer), and the infected cells were revealed by immunofluorescence staining and quantitated by fluorescence microscopy. We found that VW572 replicated better in the RPD cell line at earlier time points when compared to P412. Porcine respiratory epithelial cells (PoREC) were isolated, grown at air-liquid interphase in transwells and inoculated with both strains of PHEV at a virus titer of 106.6TCID50 per 200 µl either at the apical side or at the basal side of the cells. At different time points after inoculation, the transwells were fixed and stained for infected cells. VW572 preferentially infected the epithelial cells via the basolateral side of porcine nasal epithelial cells, whereas P412 preferred the apical side. These findings suggest that there has been an evolution of PHEV in its interaction with the respiratory epithelial cells. In the future, more virus strains will be enclosed and the tropism of the strains for different neuronal cell types will be examined for the change in virus neurotropism.

Keywords: porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), primary porcine respiratory epithelial cells (PoRECs), virus tropism, vomiting and wasting disease (VWD)

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1137 Recovery of Food Waste: Production of Dog Food

Authors: K. Nazan Turhan, Tuğçe Ersan


The population of the world is approximately 8 billion, and it increases uncontrollably and irrepressibly, leading to an increase in consumption. This situation causes crucial problems, and food waste is one of these. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) defines food waste as the discarding or alternative utilization of food that is safe and nutritious for the consumption of humans along the entire food supply chain, from primary production to end household consumer level. In addition, according to the estimation of FAO, one-third of all food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted worldwide every year. Wasting food endangers natural resources and causes hunger. For instance, excessive amounts of food waste cause greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to global warming. Therefore, waste management has been gaining significance in the last few decades at both local and global levels due to the expected scarcity of resources for the increasing population of the world. There are several ways to recover food waste. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Food Recovery Hierarchy, food waste recovery ways are source reduction, feeding hungry people, feeding animals, industrial uses, composting, and landfill/incineration from the most preferred to the least preferred, respectively. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, agricultural fertilizer and animal feed can be obtained from food waste that is generated by different food industries. In this project, feeding animals was selected as a food waste recovery method and food waste of a plant was used to provide ingredient uniformity. Grasshoppers were used as a protein source. In other words, the project was performed to develop a dog food product by recovery of the plant’s food waste after following some steps. The collected food waste and purchased grasshoppers were sterilized, dried and pulverized. Then, they were all mixed with 60 g agar-agar solution (4%w/v). 3 different aromas were added, separately to the samples to enhance flavour quality. Since there are differences in the required amounts of different species of dogs, fulfilling all nutritional needs is one of the problems. In other words, there is a wide range of nutritional needs in terms of carbohydrates, protein, fat, sodium, calcium, and so on. Furthermore, the requirements differ depending on age, gender, weight, height, and species. Therefore, the product that was developed contains average amounts of each substance so as not to cause any deficiency or surplus. On the other hand, it contains more protein than similar products in the market. The product was evaluated in terms of contamination and nutritional content. For contamination risk, detection of E. coli and Salmonella experiments were performed, and the results were negative. For the nutritional value test, protein content analysis was done. The protein contents of different samples vary between 33.68% and 26.07%. In addition, water activity analysis was performed, and the water activity (aw) values of different samples ranged between 0.2456 and 0.4145.

Keywords: food waste, dog food, animal nutrition, food waste recovery

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1136 Potential of Grass Silage as a Source of Nutrients in Poultry Production

Authors: Hamim Abbas, Jean Luc-Hornick, Isabelle Dufrasne


Feed costs constitute over 60% of total expenses in organic layer poultry production, with feed protein supply being a significant concern. Alfalfa-based dehydrated silage pellets are mainly diets composed of leaves (ABSP), which are non-conventional protein sources that could enhance profits by reducing feed costs and ensuring consistent availability. This experiment studied the effects on the performances of Novogen Brown light layers of a commercial control diet replaced with 10% ABSP. After a 21-day trial, this diet (ABSP) has improved the laying rate, yolk color of eggs, feed conversion rate, ω−3 (PUFAs) and ω−6/ω−3 ratio (P<0.05) while the body weight and egg weight were degraded with the substitution of the ABSP in the diet(P>0.05). The laying rate showed a tendency to increase (P=0.06). These findings suggest that ABSP can replace at least 10% of the feed in organic layer diets without compromising production parameters negatively.

Keywords: alfalfa, silage, pellet, organic layers

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1135 Development of an in vitro Fermentation Chicken Ileum Microbiota Model

Authors: Bello Gonzalez, Setten Van M., Brouwer M.


The chicken small intestine represents a dynamic and complex organ in which the enzymatic digestion and absorption of nutrients take place. The development of an in vitro fermentation chicken small intestinal model could be used as an alternative to explore the interaction between the microbiota and nutrient metabolism and to enhance the efficacy of targeting interventions to improve animal health. In the present study we have developed an in vitro fermentation chicken ileum microbiota model for unrevealing the complex interaction of ileum microbial community under physiological conditions. A two-vessel continuous fermentation process simulating in real-time the physiological conditions of the ileum content (pH, temperature, microaerophilic/anoxic conditions, and peristaltic movements) has been standardized as a proof of concept. As inoculum, we use a pool of ileum microbial community obtained from chicken broilers at the age of day 14. The development and validation of the model provide insight into the initial characterization of the ileum microbial community and its dynamics over time-related to nutrient assimilation and fermentation. Samples can be collected at different time points and can be used to determine the microbial compositional structure, dynamics, and diversity over time. The results of studies using this in vitro model will serve as the foundation for the development of a whole small intestine in vitro fermentation chicken gastrointestinal model to complement our already established in vitro fermentation chicken caeca model. The insight gained from this model could provide us with some information about the nutritional strategies to restore and maintain chicken gut homeostasis. Moreover, the in vitro fermentation model will also allow us to study relationships between gut microbiota composition and its dynamics over time associated with nutrients, antimicrobial compounds, and disease modelling.

Keywords: broilers, in vitro model, ileum microbiota, fermentation

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1134 Exploring Fluoroquinolone-Resistance Dynamics Using a Distinct in Vitro Fermentation Chicken Caeca Model

Authors: Bello Gonzalez T. D. J., Setten Van M., Essen Van A., Brouwer M., Veldman K. T.


Resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQ) has evolved increasingly over the years, posing a significant challenge for the treatment of human infections, particularly gastrointestinal tract infections caused by zoonotic bacteria transmitted through the food chain and environment. In broiler chickens, a relatively high proportion of FQ resistance has been observed in Escherichia coli indicator, Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates. We hypothesize that flumequine (Flu), used as a secondary choice for the treatment of poultry infections, could potentially be associated with a high proportion of FQ resistance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we used an in vitro fermentation chicken caeca model. Two continuous single-stage fermenters were used to simulate in real time the physiological conditions of the chicken caeca microbial content (temperature, pH, caecal content mixing, and anoxic environment). A pool of chicken caecal content containing FQ-resistant E. coli obtained from chickens at slaughter age was used as inoculum along with a spiked FQ-susceptible Campylobacter jejuni strain isolated from broilers. Flu was added to one of the fermenters (Flu-fermenter) every 24 hours for two days to evaluate the selection and maintenance of FQ resistance over time, while the other served as a control (C-Fermenter). The experiment duration was 5 days. Samples were collected at three different time points: before, during and after Flu administration. Serial dilutions were plated on Butzler culture media with and without Flu (8mg/L) and enrofloxacin (4mg/L) and on MacConkey culture media with and without Flu (4mg/L) and enrofloxacin (1mg/L) to determine the proportion of resistant strains over time. Positive cultures were identified by mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). A subset of the obtained isolates were used for Whole Genome Sequencing analysis. Over time, E. coli exhibited positive growth in both fermenters, while C. jejuni growth was detected up to day 3. The proportion of Flu-resistant E. coli strains recovered remained consistent over time after antibiotic selective pressure, while in the C-fermenter, a decrease was observed at day 5; a similar pattern was observed in the enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli strains. This suggests that Flu might play a role in the selection and persistence of enrofloxacin resistance, compared to C-fermenter, where enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli strains appear at a later time. Furthermore, positive growth was detected from both fermenters only on Butzler plates without antibiotics. A subset of C. jejuni strains from the Flu-fermenter revealed that those strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (MIC < 0.12 μg/mL). A selection of E. coli strains from both fermenters revealed the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) (qnr-B19) in only one strain from the C-fermenter belonging to sequence type (ST) 48, and in all from Flu-fermenter belonged to ST189. Our results showed that Flu selective impact on PMQR-positive E. coli strains, while no effect was observed in C. jejuni. Maintenance of Flu-resistance was correlated with antibiotic selective pressure. Further studies into antibiotic resistance gene transfer among commensal and zoonotic bacteria in the chicken caeca content may help to elucidate the resistance spread mechanisms.

Keywords: fluoroquinolone-resistance, escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, in vitro model

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1133 Tick Infestation and its Implications on Health and Welfare of Cattle under Pastoral System in Nigeria

Authors: Alabi Olufemi, Adeyanju Taiwo, Oloruntoba Oluwasegun, Adeleye Bobola, Alabi Oyekemi


The pastoral system is a predominant form of cattle production in Nigeria, characterized by extensive grazing on communal lands. However, this system is challenged by various factors, including tick infestation, which significantly affects cattle health and welfare hence this investigation which aims to provide an in-depth understanding of tick infestation in the context of Nigerian pastoral systems, emphasizing its impact on cattle health and welfare. The country harbors a diverse array of tick species that affect cattle. These ticks belong to different genera, including Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma, among others. Each species has unique characteristics, life cycles, and host preferences, contributing to the complexity of tick infestation dynamics in pastoral settings. Tick infestation has numerous detrimental effects on cattle health. The direct effects include blood loss, anemia, skin damage due to feeding, and the transmission of pathogens that cause diseases such as anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and theileriosis. Indirectly, tick infestation can lead to reduced productivity, weight loss, and increased susceptibility to other diseases.The welfare of cattle in Nigerian pastoral systems is significantly impacted by tick infestation. Infested cattle often exhibit signs of distress, including restlessness, reduced grazing activity, and altered behavior. Furthermore, the discomfort caused by tick bites can lead to chronic stress, compromising the overall welfare of the animals. Effective tick control is crucial for mitigating the impact of infestation on cattle health and welfare. Strategies such as acaricide application, pasture management, genetic selection for tick resistance cattle, and vaccination against tick-borne diseases are commonly used. Tick infestation presents a significant challenge to cattle production under the pastoral system in Nigeria. It not only impacts cattle health but also compromises their welfare. Addressing the issue of tick infestation requires a multifaceted approach that integrates effective control strategies with sustainable management practices. Further research is needed to develop tailored interventions that account for the unique characteristics of Nigerian pastoral systems, ultimately ensuring the well-being and productivity of cattle in these settings.

Keywords: tick infestation, pastoral system, welfare, cattle

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1132 Hematological and Biochemical Indices of Starter Broiler Chickens Fed African Black Plum Seed Nut (Vitex Doniana) Meal

Authors: Obadire F. O., Obadire, S. O., Adeoti R. F., Pirgozliev V.


An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of utilizing African black plum seed nut (ABPNBD) meal on hematological and biochemical indices of broiler chicken ration formulated to substitute wheat offal. A total of 150- 1day-old, male Agrited birds were reared for 28 days of the experiment. The birds were assigned to five dietary treatments, with ten birds per treatment replicated 3 times. Experimental diets were formulated by supplementing the milled African black plum nut at (0, 5, 10, 12.5, and 15%) inclusion levels in the starter broiler’s ratio designated as T1 (control diet containing no ABPBD), Treatments (T2, 3,4 and 5) contained ABPNBD at 5, 10, 12.5, and 15%, respectively, in a completely randomized design. The hematological and biochemical indices of the birds were determined. The result revealed that all hematological parameters measured were significant (P <0.05) except for WBC. Increasing inclusion levels of ABPNBD decreased the PCV, HB, and RBC of the birds across the treatment groups. Birds fed 12.5 and 15% ABPNBD diets recorded the least of the parameters. The result of the serum biochemical indices showed significant (P < 0.05) influence for all parameters measured except for alanine transaminase (ALT), (AST), and creatinine. The total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, and glucose values were reduced across the treatment group as ABPNBD inclusion increased. Birds fed above 10% ABPNBD recorded the lowest value of TP, albumin, globulin, and glucose when compared with birds on a control diet and other treatments. The uric acid ranged from 3.85 to 2 .13 mmol/L, while creatinine ranged from 62.00 to 53.50 mmol/l. AST ranged between 8.50 u/l (5%) to 7.90 u/l (10%). ALT ranged between 7.50 u/l (12.5%) to 5.50 u/l (5 and 10%). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of African black plum up to 10% has no detrimental effect on the health of the starter chickens. Meanwhile, inclusion above 10% revealed a negative effect on some blood parameters measured. Therefore, African black plum should be supplemented with probable probiotics or subjected to different processing methods if to be used at a 15% inclusion level for optimal results.

Keywords: African black plum seed, starter broiler chickens, hematological and serum biochemical indices, (Vitex doniana)

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1131 Epulis in Cat's Lips: Understanding the Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

Authors: Sadaf Salek


Introduction: Cats are susceptible to various health conditions, and one such ailment that can affect their oral health is epulis in their lips. Epulis refers to a benign tumor or growth that can develop in different areas of a cat's mouth, including the lips. While epulis is not life-threatening, it can still cause discomfort and affect a cat's overall quality of life. This essay aims to delve into the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for epulis in cat's lips, shedding light on this lesser-known oral condition. Causes: Epulis in a cat's lips can have several causes. Firstly, genetic predisposition plays a significant role, with certain breeds being more prone to developing these growths. Secondly, chronic irritation to the mouth, such as from dental diseases or foreign objects, can also contribute to the development of epulis. Lastly, hormonal imbalances, specifically an excess of estrogen, have been associated with the occurrence of these tumors in cats. Understanding these causes can help cat owners take preventive measures to reduce the risk of epulis in their feline companions. Symptoms: Identifying the symptoms of epulis in a cat's lips is vital for early intervention and effective treatment. The most common symptoms include swelling, redness, and the presence of a visible growth or lump on the lip. Cats with epulis may also exhibit drooling, difficulty eating, and a reluctance to groom themselves. Any change in eating habits or oral behavior should not be overlooked and prompt a visit to the veterinarian for a thorough examination. Treatment ptions: When it comes to treating epulis in a cat's lips, various options are available, depending on the size, location, and characteristics of the growth. The primary treatment involves surgical removal of the tumor. This procedure should be performed by a qualified veterinarian, ensuring complete excision of the mass while preserving as much healthy tissue as possible. In some cases, radiation therapy may be necessary, especially if the tumor is large or aggressive. Additionally, a veterinarian may recommend oral hygiene care and regular dental cleaning to prevent further growths and maintain the cat's oral health. Prevention and Care: Preventing epulis in a cat's lips is not always possible, especially if genetic factors are involved. However, certain preventive measures can minimize the risk of these growths. Maintaining good oral hygiene through regular brushing and the use of appropriate dental products can help prevent chronic irritation and dental diseases. Routine veterinary check-ups should also include thorough oral examinations to detect any abnormal growths or changes in the mouth at an early stage. Pet owners should be observant and seek veterinary care promptly for any signs of discomfort or changes in eating habits. Conclusion: Epulis in a cat's lips is a condition that requires attention and proper treatment. Understanding the causes, identifying symptoms, and exploring treatment options are of utmost importance to help improve a cat's oral health and overall well-being.

Keywords: fibroma, cat, lip, epulis

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1130 A Study of Body Weight and Type Traits Recorded on Hairy Goat in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: A. Qayyum, G. Bilal, H. M. Waheed


The objectives of the study were to determine phenotypic variations in Hairy goats for quantitative and qualitative traits and to analyze the relationship between different body measurements and body weight in Hairy goats. Data were collected from the Barani Livestock Production Research Institute (BLPRI) at Kherimurat, Attock and potential farmers who were raising hairy goats in the Potohar region. Twelve (12) phenotypic parameters were measured on 99 adult Hairy goat (18 male and 81 female). Four qualitative and 8 quantitative traits were investigated. Qualitative traits were visually observed and expressed as percentages. Descriptive analysis was done on quantitative variables. All hairy goats had predominately black body coat color (72%), whereas white (11%) and brown (11%) body coat color were also observed. Both the pigmented (45.5%) and non-pigmented (54.5%) type of body skin were observed in the goat breed. Horns were present in the majority (91%) of animals. Most of the animals (83%) had straight facial head profiles. Analysis was performed in SAS On-Demand for Academics using PROC mixed model procedure. Overall means ± SD of body weight (BW), body length (BL), height at wither (HAW), ear length (EL), head length (HL), heart girth (HG), tail length (TL) and MC (muzzle circumference) were 41.44 ± 12.21 kg, 66.40 ± 7.87 cm, 75.17 ± 7.83 cm, 22.99 ± 6.75 cm, 15.07 ± 3.44 cm, 76.54 ± 8.80 cm, 18.28 ± 4.18 cm, and 26.24 ± 5.192 cm, respectively. Sex had a significant effect on BL and HG (P < 0.05), whereas BW, HAW, EL, HL, TL, and MC were not significantly affected (P > 0.05). The herd had a significant effect on BW, BL, HAW, HL, HG, and TL (P < 0.05) except EL and MC (P > 0.05). Hairy goats appear to have the potential for selection as mutton breeds in the Potohar region of Punjab. The findings of the present study would help in the characterization and conservation of hairy goats using genetic and genomic tools in the future.

Keywords: body weight, Hairy goat, type traits Punjab, Pakistan

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1129 Rumen Metabolites and Microbial Load in Fattening Yankasa Rams Fed Urea and Lime Treated Groundnut (Arachis Hypogeae) Shell in a Complete Diet

Authors: Bello Muhammad Dogon Kade


The study was conducted to determine the effect of a treated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) shell in a complete diet on blood metabolites and microbial load in fattening Yankasa rams. The study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm (Small Ruminants Unit of Animal Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Each kilogram of groundnut shell was treated with 5% urea and 5% lime for treatments 2 (UTGNS) and 3 (LTGNS), respectively. For treatment 4 (ULTGNS), 1 kg of groundnut shell was treated with 2.5% urea and 2.5% lime, but the shell in treatment 1 was not treated (UNTGNS). Sixteen Yankasa rams were used and randomly assigned to the four treatment diets with four animals per treatment in a completely randomized design (CRD). The diet was formulated to have 14% crude protein (CP) content. Rumen fluid was collected from each ram at the end of the experiment at 0 and 4 hours post-feeding. The samples were then put in a 30 ml bottle and acidified with 5 drops of concentrated sulphuric (0.1N H₂SO4) acid to trap ammonia. The results of the blood metabolites showed that the mean values of NH₃-N differed significantly (P<0.05) among the treatment groups, with rams in the ULTGNS diet having the highest significant value (31.96 mg/L). TVFs were significantly (P<0.05) higher in rams fed UNTGNS diet and higher in total nitrogen; the effect of sampling periods revealed that NH3N, TVFs and TP were significantly (P<0.05) higher in rumen fluid collected 4hrs post feeding among the rams across the treatment groups, but rumen fluid pH was significantly (p<0.05) higher in 0-hour post-feeding in all the rams in the treatment diets. In the treatment and sampling period’s interaction effects, animals on the ULTGNS diet had the highest mean values of NH3N in both 0 and 4 hours post-feeding and were significantly (P<0.5) higher compared to rams on the other treatment diets. Rams on the UTGNS diet had the highest bacteria load of 4.96X105/ml, which was significantly (P<0.05) higher than a microbial load of animals fed UNTGNS, LTGNS and ULTGNS diets. However, protozoa counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in rams fed the UTGNS diet than those followed by the ULTGNS diet. The results showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the bacteria count of the animals at both 0 and 4 hours post-feeding. But rumen fungi and protozoa load at 0 hours were significantly (P<0.05) higher than at 4 hours post-feeding. The use of untreated ground groundnut shells in the diet of fattening Yankasa ram is therefore recommended.

Keywords: blood metabolites, microbial load, volatile fatty acid, ammonia, total protein

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1128 Genomic Adaptation to Local Climate Conditions in Native Cattle Using Whole Genome Sequencing Data

Authors: Rugang Tian


In this study, we generated whole-genome sequence (WGS) data from110 native cattle. Together with whole-genome sequences from world-wide cattle populations, we estimated the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of different cattle populations. Our findings revealed clustering of cattle groups in line with their geographic locations. We identified noticeable genetic diversity between indigenous cattle breeds and commercial populations. Among all studied cattle groups, lower genetic diversity measures were found in commercial populations, however, high genetic diversity were detected in some local cattle, particularly in Rashoki and Mongolian breeds. Our search for potential genomic regions under selection in native cattle revealed several candidate genes related with immune response and cold shock protein on multiple chromosomes such as TRPM8, NMUR1, PRKAA2, SMTNL2 and OXR1 that are involved in energy metabolism and metabolic homeostasis.

Keywords: cattle, whole-genome, population structure, adaptation

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1127 Impact of Breed and Physiological Status on Blood Content of Goats in Arid Conditions of Algeria

Authors: Lilia Belkacem, Zahra Rouabah, Assia Allaoui, Karina Bachtarzi, Souhila Belkadi, Boubakeur Safsaf, Madjid Tlidjane


The Damascus breed, known for its prolificacy and milking ability, is recently imported in Algeria. Farmers tend to improve the local native herds by crossbreeding with Damascus bucks. The aim of the current investigation was to study the effects of physiological status on blood progesterone and some biochemical parameters in Shami goats and their crosses with local breed in arid conditions of Algeria. Ten does with an age range of 1.5- 3 years and BSC between 2.5 and 3.5 were used. Female goats were divided into two groups of five animals each: Damascus, and crossbred (Damascus x Arbia). All females were estrus synchronized and naturally mated. Blood samples were collected before intravaginal sponge insertion (non- pregnant), in early (30 days after sponge removal), mid (90 days), late pregnancy (130 days) and after kidding (30 days post-partum). Results demonstrate a significant effect of the reproductive stage on progesterone (P4) levels in both groups, on glycemia and cholesterolemia in crossbred does (p<0.05) and on albuminemia and uremia in Damascus ones. Concentrations of triglycerides, total proteins, globulin and creatinine revealed no significant difference between physiological phases in both groups (p>0.05). Breed effect was detected in early and mid-pregnancy for P4, in early pregnancy and lactation for total proteins and in lactation for globulin with lower concentrations in Damascus compared to crossbred does. Changes in P4 and biochemical profiles of both groups reflect the female goat’s adaptation to increased requirement of gestation and lactation in arid conditions of Algeria.

Keywords: damascus goat, crossbred, reproductive status, progesterone, biochemical metabolites

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1126 Lactation Curve at Holstein Cows in Romania and Influencing Factors

Authors: Enea Danut Nicolae, Osman (Defta) Aurelia, Vidu Livia, Marginean Gheorghe, Defta Nicoleta, Moise Andrada


Today, as a result of population growth, there is an increase in demand for animal products; milk and dairy products are an important part of this category. Maintaining production at maximum levels for as long as possible is one of the main objectives of dairy farmers. Over the course of lactation, a cow's milk production is not uniform. During the initial stage of lactation, the cow's milk production follows an upward slope, a plateau, and then a downward slope, which is a reflection of the lactation curve. The evolution of the lactation curve is influenced by numerous factors, which are genetic, exploitation, physiological, environmental and technological. The aim of this study was to observe the lactation curve of Holstein cows in Romania and determine the extent to which they conform to the expected pattern. In addition, there has been an analysis of the factors which have an influence on this curve and the extent of this influence. In order to be able to carry out the present study, data were collected from three farms located in three different geographical areas. To highlight the findings, the data collected was then statistically processed and graphically interpreted. All the farms have only Holstein cows, which are kept in free stalls.

Keywords: lactation curve, Holstein, milk production, influencing factors

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1125 Macroscopic Lesions and Histological Changes Caused by Non-Biodegradable Foreign Bodies in the Rumen of Cattle

Authors: Rouabah Zahra, Tlidjane Madjid, Belkacem Lilia, Hafid Nadia, Mallem Mouna


The goal of the current study was to evaluate the gross and histopathological changes caused by the presence of non-biodegradable foreign bodies (plastic bags) in the rumen-reticulum of cattle. To identify this problem, we conducted this study at a slaughterhouse on a total of 212 cattle without any previous selection. After slaughter and draining of the rumen, foreign bodies and macroscopic lesions were investigated, and rumen samples were taken for histopathological examination. Gross examination of the rumen-reticulum with non-biodegradable foreign bodies revealed congestion, hemorrhage, stunting, sagging, atrophy, and thinning of the papillae had been observed. Areas of erosion and ulceration were also observed in the rumen-reticulum of all cattle harboring a large quantity of plastic bags. Ulcerations and nodular formations were also present. The rumen-reticulum wall was thinner than normal and had a light-mottled wall and compressed papillae. The histopathological examination revealed a wide variety of lesions. We observed especially lesions of fragmentary or segmental ruptures, destruction, necrosis, degeneration and focal hyperplasia of the keratinized epithelium. The papillae are shortened, enlarged, atrophied, folded, and compressed. The length of the taste buds was reduced. These observed histopathological changes can be attributed to mechanical irritation induced by plastic bags or released chemicals by these non-biodegradable foreign bodies.

Keywords: cattle, non-biodegradable foreign bodies, lesions, rumen

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1124 Characterization and Pcr Detection of Selected Strains of Psychrotrophic Bacteria Isolated From Raw Milk

Authors: Kidane workelul, Li xu, Xiaoyang Pang, Jiaping Lv


Dairy products are exceptionally ideal media for the growth of microorganisms because of their high nutritional content. There are several ways that milk might get contaminated throughout the milking process, including how the raw milk is transported and stored, as well as how long it is kept before being processed. Psychrotrophic bacteria are among the one which can deteriorate the quality of milk mainly their heat resistance proteas and lipase enzyme. For this research purpose 8 selected strains of Psychrotrophic bacteria (Entrococcus hirae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas azotoformans, Pseudomonas putida, Exiguobacterium indicum, Pseudomonas paralactice, Acinetobacter indicum, Serratia liquefacients)are chosen and try to determine their characteristics based on the research methodology protocol. Thus, the 8 selected strains are cultured, plated incubate, extracted their genomic DNA and genome DNA was amplified, the purpose of the study was to identify their Psychrotrophic properties, lipase hydrolysis positive test, their optimal incubation temperature, designed primer using the noble strain P,flourescens conserved region area in target with lipA gene, optimized primer specificity as well as sensitivity and PCR detection for lipase positive strains using the design primers. Based on the findings both the selected 8 strains isolated from stored raw milk are Psychrotrophic bacteria, 6 of the selected strains except the 2 strains are positive for lipase hydrolysis, their optimal temperature is 20 to 30 OC, the designed primer specificity is very accurate and amplifies for those strains only with lipase positive but could not amplify for the others. Thus, the result is promising and could help in detecting the Psychrotrophic bacteria producing heat resistance enzymes (lipase) at early stage before the milk is processed and this will safe production loss for the dairy industry.

Keywords: dairy industry, heat-resistant, lipA, milk, primer and psychrotrophic

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1123 Difference in Virulence Factor Genes Between Transient and Persistent Streptococcus Uberis Intramammary Infection in Dairy Cattle

Authors: Anyaphat Srithanasuwan, Noppason Pangprasit, Montira Intanon, Phongsakorn Chuammitri, Witaya Suriyasathaporn, Ynte H. Schukken


Streptococcus uberis is one of the most common mastitis-causing pathogens, with a wide range of intramammary infection (IMI) durations and pathogenicity. This study aimed to compare shared or unique virulence factor gene clusters distinguishing persistent and transient strains of S. uberis. A total of 139 S. uberis strains were isolated from three small-holder dairy herds with a high prevalence of S. uberis mastitis. The duration of IMI was used to categorize bacteria into two groups: transient and persistent strains with an IMI duration of less than 1 month and longer than 2 months, respectively. Six representative S. uberis strains, three from each group (transience and persistence) were selected for analysis. All transient strains exhibited multi-locus sequence types (MLST), indicating a highly diverse population of transient S. uberis. In contrast, MLST of persistent strains was available in an online database (pubMLST). Identification of virulence genes was performed using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data. Differences in genomic size and number of virulent genes were found. For example, the BCA gene or alpha-c protein and the gene associated with capsule formation (hasAB), found in persistent strains, are important for attachment and invasion, as well as the evasion of the antimicrobial mechanisms and survival persistence, respectively. These findings suggest a genetic-level difference between the two strain types. Consequently, a comprehensive study of 139 S. uberis isolates will be conducted to perform an in-depth genetic assessment through WGS analysis on an Illumina platform.

Keywords: Streptococcus Uberis, mastitis, whole genome sequence, intramammary infection, persistent S. Uberis, transient s. Uberis

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1122 Cysticidal Effect of Balanites Aegyptiaca and Moringa Oleifera on Bovine Cysticercosis with Monitoring to Dynamics of TNF-α

Authors: Omnia M.Kandil, Noha M. F. Hassan, Doaa Sedky, Hatem A. Shalaby, Heba M. Ashry, Nadia M. T. Abu El Ezz, Sahar M. Kandeel, Mohamed S. Abdelfattah Ying L, Ebtesam M. Al-Olayan


The cestode, Taenia saginata is a zoonotic tapeworm that it’s larval stage which known as Cysticercus bovis cause cyst formation in cattle’s organs such as heart, lung, liver, tongue, esophagus and diaphragm muscle, despite the infected cattle may show no clinical signs. In view of considerable interest in developing cysticidal drugs including those from medicinal plants, because of their consideration as eco-friendly and biodegradable as well as having multiple bioactive compounds that may translate to multiple mechanisms in killing the parasites. This study was achieved to evaluate, for the first time, the efficacy of methanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits and Moringa oleifera seeds against metacestode larval stage of the cestode Taenia saginata in BALB/c mice compared with commonly used anthelmintic albendazole and assigning the level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) to monitor immune and inflammatory response of experimentally infected animals. The results revealed a marked decrease in the numbers of cysticerci found in all treated mice groups and up to 88% reduction was achieved in the B. aegyptiaca treated group; higher than that was recorded in both M. oleifera (72.23%) and albendazole treated ones (80.56%). The cysts of the treated groups were smaller of the control one. Besides, the mean concentration of TNF-α following treatment with Balanites and Moringa extracts, was higher but not significant difference than that in the untreated infected control one (P<0.05), evidence for inflammation and cyst damage. It can be concluded that the in vivo efficacy of M. oleifera extract was comparable to a commercial anthelmintic, and the B. aegyptiaca extract was superior in the reduction of cysticerci numbers.

Keywords: Balanites aeggyptica, Moringa oleifera, cysticercosis, BALB/C mice

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1121 Effects of Advanced Periodontal Disease on Hematological Parameters in Adult Dogs

Authors: Mahzad Yousefi, Azin Tavakoli


Periodontal disease is an inflammatory reaction; therefore, it is predicted that changes may occur in some inflammatory parameters that can be detected in routine blood tests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hematological and biochemistry changes that occur in dogs affected with advanced stages of periodontal disease. 87 dogs were diagnosed with periodontal disease (PD group), and 76 healthy dogs entered the study. The PD dogs had been affected with periodontitis stage 3 or 4 and were candidates for any dental extractions. The healthy dogs were either referred for annual checkups or for issuing health travel certificates that their owners asked for complete lab tests. Neither the diseased nor healthy subjects had a history of infectious, or other general health problems or surgery in the past 3 months. Age, as well as all hematologic including PCV, WBC and RBC count, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT, CBC, NLR, and biochemistry data, including total protein, albumin, glucose, BUN, Creatinine, ALT, AST, and ALP, were recorded and analyzed statistically. Results confirmed that aging has a significant direct relationship with the advanced stages of periodontal disease. Mild leukocytosis occurred in the diseased group; however, it was not significant. Also, the mean total protein of the PD group was lower than that of the healthy dogs, and serum levels of albumin were found to be lower significantly in the diseased group (P<0.05). Mean ±SD amount of Platelet, MCH, and ALT were significantly higher in the diseased group in comparison to the healthy dogs (P<0.05). No significant differences were reported in other evaluated parameters. It is concluded that CBC indices of PD dogs are not systemic inflammatory; however, only a decrease in albumin showed inflammatory responses. Some indices in routine laboratory tests can be changed significantly during advanced stages of the periodontal disease dogs.

Keywords: periodontal disease, dogs, hematological factors, advanced stages, blood tests

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1120 Assessment of the Production System and Management Practices in Selected Layer Chicken Farms in Batangas, Philippines

Authors: Monette S. De Castro, Veneranda A. Magpantay, Christine B. Adiova, Mark D. Arboleda


One-hundred-layer chicken farmers were randomly selected and interviewed using structured questionnaires to assess the production system and management practices in layer chicken farms. The respondents belonged to the commercial scale operation. Results showed that the predominant rearing and housing systems were intensive/complete confinement and open-sided, while slatted was the common type of flooring used during the brood-grow period. Dekalb and Lohmann were the common chicken layer strains reared by farmers. The majority of commercial chicken layer farms preferred ready-to-lay (RTL) pullets as their replacement stocks. Selling was the easiest way for farmers to dispose of and utilize poultry manure, while veterinary waste and mortality were disposed of in pits. Biosecurity practices employed by the farmers conformed with the ASEAN Biosecurity Management Manual for Commercial Poultry Farming. Flies and odor were the major problems in most layer farms that are associated with their farm wastes. Therefore, the application of new technologies and husbandry practices through training and actual demonstrations could be implemented to further improve the layer chicken raising in the province.

Keywords: layer chicken farms, marketing, production system, waste management

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1119 Partitioning of Non-Metallic Nutrients in Lactating Crossbred Cattle Fed Buffers

Authors: Awadhesh Kishore


The goal of the study was to determine how different non-metallic nutrients are partitioned from feed in various physiological contexts and how buffer addition in ruminant nutrition affects these processes. Six lactating crossbred dairy cows were selected and divided into three groups on the basis of their phenotypic and productive features (374±14 kg LW). Two treatments, T1 and T2, were randomly assigned to one animal from each group. Animals under T1 and T2 were moved to T2 and T1, respectively, after 30 days. T2 was the only group to receive buffers containing magnesium oxide and sodium bicarbonate at 0.0 and 0.01% of LW (the real amounts are equivalent to 75.3±4.0 and 30 7.7±2.0 g/d, respectively). T1 was used as the control. Wheat straw and berseem were part of the base diet, whereas wheat grain and mustard cake were part of the concentrate mixture. Following a 21-day feeding period, metabolic and milk production trials were carried out for seven consecutive days. The Kearl equation used the urine's calorific value to determine its volume. Chemical analyses were performed to determine the levels of nitrogen, carbohydrates, calories, and phosphorus in samples of feed, waste, buffer, mineral mixture, water, feces, urine, and milk that were collected. The information was analyzed statistically. Notable results included decreased nitrogen and carbohydrate partitioning to feces from feed, while increased calorie partitioning to milk and body storage, and increased carbohydrate partitioning to body storage. Phosphorus balance was significantly better in T2. The application of buffers in ruminant diets was found to increase the output of calories in milk, as well as the number of calories and carbohydrates stored in the body, while decreasing the amount of nitrogen in faeces. As a result, it may be advised to introduce buffers to feed crossbred dairy cattle.

Keywords: cattle, Magnesium oxide, non-metallic nutrients, partitioning, Sodium bicarbonate

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1118 Improving the Feeding Value of Straws with Pleurotus Ostreatus

Authors: S. Hussain, N. Ahmad, S. Alam, M. Bezabhi, W. H. Hendriks, P. Yu, J. W. Cone


The high content of lignin in cell walls is the major limiting factor in the digestion and utilisation of cereal crop residues by ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the white rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus), to degrade lignin and to enhance the rumen degradability of maize stover, rice straw, wheat straw and their mixture in equal proportion on a dry-matter (DM) basis. Four samples of each substrate were incubated aerobically in triplicate with P. ostreatus for 0 (Control), 21, 28 and 35 days under solid-state conditions (temperature, 24 ͦ C; humidity, 70± 5%). The changes in chemical composition, DM and nutrient losses, and rumen fermentation characteristics using in vitro DM digestibility (DMD) and the in vitro gas production (GP) technique were measured. The results showed that incubation with P. ostreatus decreased (P < 0.001) the contents of neutral detergent fibre and lignin with a concomitant increase (P < 0.001) in the contents of ash and crude protein. The losses of nutrients differed (P < 0.001) among the straw types, with rice straw and maize stover showing the largest (P < 0.05) lignin degradation compared to wheat and mixed straws. The DMD and 72-h cumulative GP increased (P < 0.001) consistently with increasing fungal incubation period and for all substrates the highest values of DMD and GP were measured after 35 days of incubation with P. ostreatus. The lignin degradation was strongly associated with hemicellulose degradation (r = 0.71) across the various straws. Results of the present study demonstrated that incubation of low-quality crop residues with P. ostreatus under solid-state conditions upgrades their feeding value by reducing the content of lignin and increasing the content of crude protein and ruminal degradation.

Keywords: crop residues, lignin degradation, maize stovers, wheat straws, white rot fungi

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1117 Alternate Optical Coherence Tomography Technologies in Use for Corneal Diseases Diagnosis in Dogs and Cats

Authors: U. E. Mochalova, A. V. Demeneva, Shilkin A. G., J. Yu. Artiushina


Objective. In medical ophthalmology OCT has been actively used in the last decade. It is a modern non-invasive method of high-precision hardware examination, which gives a detailed cross-sectional image of eye tissues structure with a high level of resolution, which provides in vivo morphological information at the microscopic level about corneal tissue, structures of the anterior segment, retina and optic nerve. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of using the OCT technology in complex ophthalmological examination in dogs and cats, to characterize the revealed pathological structural changes in corneal tissue in cats and dogs with some of the most common corneal diseases. Procedures. Optical coherence tomography of the cornea was performed in 112 animals: 68 dogs and 44 cats. In total, 224 eyes were examined. Pathologies of the organ of vision included: dystrophy and degeneration of the cornea, endothelial corneal dystrophy, dry eye syndrome, chronic superficial vascular keratitis, pigmented keratitis, corneal erosion, ulcerative stromal keratitis, corneal sequestration, chronic glaucoma and also postoperative period after performed keratoplasty. When performing OCT, we used certified medical devices: "Huvitz HOCT-1/1F», «Optovue iVue 80» and "SOCT Copernicus Revo (60)". Results. The results of a clinical study on the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT)of the cornea in cats and dogs, performed by the authors of the article in the complex diagnosis of keratopathies of variousorigins: endothelial corneal dystrophy, pigmented keratitis, chronic keratoconjunctivitis, chronic herpetic keratitis, ulcerative keratitis, traumatic corneal damage, sequestration of the cornea of cats, chronic keratitis, complicating the course of glaucoma. The characteristics of the OCT scans are givencorneas of cats and dogs that do not have corneal pathologies. OCT scans of various corneal pathologies in dogs and cats with a description of the revealed pathological changes are presented. Of great clinical interest are the data obtained during OCT of the cornea of animals undergoing keratoplasty operations using various forms of grafts. Conclusions. OCT makes it possible to assess the thickness and pathological structural changes of the corneal surface epithelium, corneal stroma and descemet membrane. We can measure them, determine the exact localization, and record pathological changes. Clinical observation of the dynamics of the pathological process in the cornea using OCT makes it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of drug treatment. In case of negative dynamics of corneal disease, it is necessary to determine the indications for surgical treatment (to assess the thickness of the cornea, the localization of its thinning zones, to characterize the depth and area of pathological changes). According to the OCT of the cornea, it is possible to choose the optimal surgical treatment for the patient, the technique and depth of optically constructive surgery (penetrating or anterior lamellar keratoplasty).; determine the depth and diameter of the planned microsurgical trepanation of corneal tissue, which will ensure good adaptation of the edges of the donor material.

Keywords: optical coherence tomography, corneal sequestration, optical coherence tomography of the cornea, corneal transplantation, cat, dog

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1116 Special Features Of Phacoemulsification Technique For Dense Cataracts

Authors: Shilkin A.G., Goncharov D.V., Rotanov D.A., Voitecha M.A., Kulyagina Y.I., Mochalova U.E.


Context: Phacoemulsification is a surgical technique used to remove cataracts, but it has a higher number of complications when dense cataracts are present. The risk factors include thin posterior capsule, dense nucleus fragments, and prolonged exposure to high-power ultrasound. To minimize these complications, various methods are used. Research aim: The aim of this study is to develop and implement optimal methods of ultrasound phacoemulsification for dense cataracts in order to minimize postoperative complications. Methodology: The study involved 36 eyes of dogs with dense cataracts over a period of 5 years. The surgeries were performed using a LEICA 844 surgical microscope and an Oertli Faros phacoemulsifier. The surgical techniques included the optimal technique for breaking the nucleus, bimanual surgery, and the use of Akahoshi prechoppers. Findings: The complications observed during the surgery included rupture of the posterior capsule and the need for anterior vitrectomy. Complications in the postoperative period included corneal edema and uveitis. Theoretical importance: This study contributes to the field by providing insights into the special features of phacoemulsification for dense cataracts. It highlights the importance of using specific techniques and settings to minimize complications. Data collection and analysis procedures: The data for the study were collected from surgeries performed on dogs with dense cataracts. The complications were documented and analyzed. Question addressed: The study addressed the question of how to minimize complications during phacoemulsification surgery for dense cataracts. Conclusion: By following the optimal techniques, settings, and using prechoppers, the surgery for dense cataracts can be made safer and faster, minimizing the risks and complications.

Keywords: dense cataracts, phacoemulsification, phacoemulsification of cataracts in elderly dogs, осложнения факоэмульсификации

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1115 The Functionality of Ovarian Follicle on Steroid Hormone Secretion under Heat Stress

Authors: Petnamnueng Dettipponpong, Shuen E. Chen


Heat stress is known to have negative effects on reproductive functions, such as follicular development and ovulation. This study aimed to investigate the specific effects of heat stress on steroid hormone secretion of ovarian follicle cells, particularly in relation to the expression of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). The aim of the study was to understand the impact of heat stress on steroid hormone secretion in ovarian follicle cells and to explore the role of ApoB and MTP in this process. Primary granulosa and theca cells were collected from follicles and cultured under heat stress conditions (42 °C) for various time periods. Controls were maintained under normal conditions (37.5 °C ). The culture medium was collected at different time points to measure levels of progesterone and estradiol using ELISA kits. ApoB and MTP expression levels were analyzed using homemade antibodies and western blot. Data were assessed by a one-way ANOVA comparison test with Duncan’s new multiple-range test. Results were expressed as mean±S.E. Difference was considered significant at P<0.05. The results showed that heat stress significantly increased progesterone secretion in granulosa cells, with the peak observed after 13 hours of recovery under thermoneutral conditions. Estradiol secretion by theca cells was not affected. Heat stress also had a significant negative effect on granulosa cell viability. Additionally, the expression of ApoB and MTP was found to be differentially regulated by heat stress. ApoB expression in theca cells was transiently promoted, while ApoB expression in granulosa cells was consistently suppressed. MTP expression increased after 5 hours of recovery in both cell types. These findings suggest a mechanism by which chicken follicle cells export cellular lipids as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in response to thermal stress. These contribute to our understanding of the role of ApoB and MTP steroidogenesis and lipid metabolism under heat stress conditions. The study involved the collection of primary granulosa and theca cells, culture under different temperature conditions, and analysis of the culture medium for hormone levels using ELISA kits. ApoB and MTP expression levels were assessed using homemade antibodies and western blot. This study aimed to address the effects of heat stress on steroid hormone secretion in ovarian follicle cells, as well as the role of ApoB and MTP in this process. The study demonstrates that heat stress stimulates steroidogenesis in granulosa cells, affecting progesterone secretion. ApoB and MTP expression were found to be differentially regulated by heat stress, indicating a potential mechanism for the export of cellular lipids in response to thermal stress.

Keywords: heat stress, granulosa cells, theca cells, steroidogenesis, chicken, apolipoprotein B, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein

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1114 Development and Evaluation of Novel Diagnostic Methods for Infectious Rhinotracheitis of Cattle

Authors: Wenxiao Liu, Kun Zhang, Yongqing Li


Bovine herpesvirus 1, a member of the genus Variellovirus of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, has caused severe economic cost to the bovine industry. In this study, BoHV-1 glycerol protein gD was expressed in insect cells, and the purified gD was immunized in the Balb/C mice to generate monoclonal antibodies. Based on hybridoma cell fusion techniques, 20 monoclonal antibodies against Bovine herpesvirus 1 have been obtained. Further, mAb 3F8 with neutralizing activity and gD were applied to develop a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) for detecting neutralizing antibodies against BoHV-1, which shows a significant correlation between the blocking Elisa and VNT. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated to be 94.59% and 93.42%, respectively. Furthermore, antibody pairing tests revealed that mAb 1B6 conjugated to fluorescence microspheres was used as the capture antibody, and mAb 3F9 was used as the detectable antibody to establish the immunochromatographic assay (ICS). The ICS was conducted to detect BoHV-1 in bovine samples with high sensitivity, specificity, and good stability. Clinical sample testing revealed that the results of ICS and real-time PCR have a coincidence rate of 95.42%. Our research confirmed that the ICS is a rapid and reliable method for the diagnosis of BoHV-1. In conclusion, our results lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control of BoHV-1 infection.

Keywords: bovine disease, BoHV-1, ELISA, ICS assay

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1113 Effect of Supplementation of Hay with Noug Seed Cake (Guizotia abyssinica), Wheat Bran and Their Mixtures on Feed Utilization, Digestiblity and Live Weight Change in Farta Sheep

Authors: Fentie Bishaw Wagayie


This study was carried out with the objective of studying the response of Farta sheep in feed intake and live weight change when fed on hay supplemented with noug seed cake (NSC), wheat bran (WB), and their mixtures. The digestibility trial of 7 days and 90 days of feeding trial was conducted using 25 intact male Farta sheep with a mean initial live weight of 16.83 ± 0.169 kg. The experimental animals were arranged randomly into five blocks based on the initial live weight, and the five treatments were assigned randomly to each animal in a block. Five dietary treatments used in the experiment comprised of grass hay fed ad libitum (T1), grass hay ad libitum + 300 g DM WB (T2), grass hay ad libitum + 300 g DM (67% WB: 33% NSC mixture) (T3), grass hay ad libitum + 300 g DM (67% NSC: 33% WB) (T4) and 300 g DM/ head/day NSC (T5). Common salt and water were offered ad libitum. The supplements were offered twice daily at 0800 and 1600 hours. The experimental sheep were kept in individual pens. Supplementation of NSC, WB, and their mixtures significantly increased (p < 0.01) the total dry matter (DM) (665.84-788 g/head/day) and (p < 0.001) crude protein (CP) intake. Unsupplemented sheep consumed significantly higher (p < 0.01) grass hay DM (540.5g/head/day) as compared to the supplemented treatments (365.8-488 g/h/d), except T2. Among supplemented sheep, T5 had significantly higher (p < 0.001) CP intake (99.98 g/head/day) than the others (85.52-90.2 g/head/day). Supplementation significantly improved (p < 0.001) the digestibility of CP (66.61-78.9%), but there was no significant effect (p > 0.05) on DM, OM, NDF, and ADF digestibility between supplemented and control treatments. Very low CP digestibility (11.55%) observed in the basal diet (grass hay) used in this study indicated that feeding sole grass hay could not provide nutrients even for the maintenance requirement of growing sheep. Significant final and daily live weight gain (p < 0.001) in the range of 70.11-82.44 g/head/day was observed in supplemented Farta sheep, but unsupplemented sheep lost weight by 9.11g/head/day. Numerically, among the supplemented treatments, sheep supplemented with a higher proportion of NSC in T4 (201 NSC + 99 g WB) gained more weight than the rest, though not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The absence of statistical difference in daily body weight gain between all supplemented sheep indicated that the supplementation of NSC, WB, and their mixtures had similar potential to provide nutrients. Generally, supplementation of NSC, WB, and their mixtures to the basal grass hay diet improved feed conversion ratio, total DM intake, CP intake, and CP digestibility, and it also improved the growth performance with a similar trend for all supplemented Farta sheep over the control group. Therefore, from a biological point of view, to attain the required level of slaughter body weight within a short period of the growing program, sheep producer can use all the supplement types depending upon their local availability, but in the order of priority, T4, T5, T3, and T2, respectively. However, based on partial budget analysis, supplementation of 300 g DM/head /day NSC (T5) could be recommended as profitable for producers with no capital limitation, whereas T4 supplementation (201 g NSC + 99 WB DM/day) is recommended when there is capital scarcity.

Keywords: weight gain, supplement, Farta sheep, hay as basal diet

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1112 The Nubian Ibex’s Distribution, Population, Habitat, and Conservation Status in Sudan’s Red Sea State Over the Past Decade

Authors: Lubna M. A. Hassan, Nasir Brema, Abdallah Mamy, Insaf Yahya, Tanzil A. G., Ahmed M. M. Hasoba, Omer A. Suliman


The Nubian ibex species has been categorized as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) due to a lack of population data in specific regions within their habitat. This species faces numerous challenges, including habitat loss caused by agricultural practices, livestock rearing, mining activity, and infrastructure development. Additionally, competition with non-native species and hunting pose significant threats to their survival. Unfortunately, studies on the distribution, conservation status, ecology, and health of the ibex are limited and primarily descriptive in nature. In order to bridge this knowledge gap, recent surveys were conducted in the Red Sea State of Sudan during specific periods in 2015, 2016, 2019, and 2021. These surveys have provided valuable insights into the distribution, habitats, and conservation status of the Nubian ibex in the Red Sea State. The findings indicate that the Capra nubiana ibex can be found across more than 17 mountains in the Red Sea State. However, the total population estimate from recent years suggests that there are fewer than 250 individuals remaining. The study has also identified the highest altitude at which the Nubian ibex habitats existed in Sudan's Red Sea State, measuring 1675 m. This area harbors a diverse array of Nubian ibex habitats, encompassing a total of 21 wild plant species from 10 distinct families. The region experiences an average annual temperature ranging from 20.64°C in January to 33.30°C in August. Precipitation occurs in November and December, although it is characterized by unreliability and erratic patterns. It is important to note that these population estimates were obtained through surveys conducted in collaboration with rangers and local communities, and adjustments to survey methods are necessary to accommodate the challenging mountainous terrain, such as utilizing aerial surveys. To effectively address these threats, it is imperative to establish comprehensive long-term monitoring programs.

Keywords: Nubian ibex, distribution, population, habitats

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1111 In Ovo Injection of N-Carbamylglutamate Improves Growth Performance, Muscle Fiber Development, and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Wang Yuan-hao, Habtamu Ayalew, Jing Wang, Shugeng Wu, Kai Qiu, Guanghai Qi, Haijun Zhang


N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has emerged as a promising candidate for regulating endogenous arginine synthesis, thereby promoting desirable growth, carcass traits, and muscle development in broilers. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of NCG in ovo feeding on the growth performance, growth hormones, and meat quality of Ross 308 breeder broilers. A total of 1680 embryo eggs were equally allocated into three treatment groups: non punctured control (NC), saline-injected control (SC; 100μL/egg), and N-carbamylglutamate injected group (NCG; 2 mg/egg). The treatment solution was injected into the amniotic cavity of the embryo at 17.5 days of incubation (DOI). For the subsequent 42 days of post hatch experimental sampling, a total of 360 broiler chicks with 6 replications per treatment and 15 chicks per replication were used. Chickens in the NCG group showed significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and final body weight (FBW) at both 21 and 42 days after hatch (DAH), while feed conversion efficiency (FCE) was significantly improved (P<0.05) at 42 DAH. The weight and percentage of drums at 21 DAH and the weight and percentage of breast muscle at 42 DAH were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NCG group. In addition, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), and testosterone (T) levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NCG groups at 21 and 42 DAH. Furthermore, triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NCG treatment group. Interestingly, meat color values were also significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NCG group at 24 hrs postmortem. Collectively, these findings show that 2 mg NCG in ovo injection improves the growth performance and meat quality of broilers; even the effects extend into the market age of the chickens.

Keywords: N-carbamylglutamate, broiler, in ovo injection, growth performance, meat quality

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