Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 895

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Animal and Veterinary Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

895 In Vitro Digestibility of Grains and Straw of Seventeen Ecotypes of Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia) in the North of Morocco

Authors: Boukrouh Soumaya, Cabaraux Jean-François, Avril Claire, Noutfia Ali, Chentouf Mouad


The introduction of marginal leguminous forage species in the diet of ruminants are of great importance. Bitter vetch is a good source of proteins, highly resistant against drought and poor soil conditions. Accordingly; two years field trials (2018/2019 and 2019-2020) were conducted to determine the digestibility of straw and grains of 17 promising bitter vetch ecotypes(Vicia ervilia) in the north of Morocco. In vitro dry and organic matter digestibility, gas production, and kinetics of fermentation of grains and straw were evaluated using gas production technique, pepsin-cellulase enzymatic digestibility of DM (CDDM)and OM (CDOM), as well as protease enzymatic CP degradation (CPD) and in vitro true digestibility, were performed using DAISYII Incubator. In vitro digestibility was performed using gas production method of (Menke et al., 1979) improved by Menke and Steingass (1988). Samples were incubated in glass syringes that contained rumen fluid and incubation solution that conserved in water bath in 39°C during 72 hours. Gas production was recorded after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Studied digestibility parameters were dry and organic matter digestibility, microbial biomass production, partitioning factor, and volatile fatty acids. Enzymatic dry matter digestibility was different (p < 0.05) among grains and straw for all ecotypes. It varied from 804.1 to 957.7 g/kg DM and 270.4 to 412.3 g/kg DM for grains and straw, respectively. Metabolizable energy varied between 11.7 to 14.3 MJ/kg DM and 2.6 to 5.0 MJ/kg DM for grains and straw, respectively. Potential gas production (A), the rate constants (c and d), and lag times of grains and straws from different bitter vetch ecotypes were different (p > 0.05). The results emphasized that in any evaluation of bitter vetch ecotypes, where straw of this legume seed is used as an animal feed, not only seed yield but also yield and quality of straw should be taken into consideration, particularly in areas where straw from this legume is considered as an important feedstuff for ruminants. Enzymatic digestibility was lower than in vitro digestibility by gaz production and by the DAISYII method because rumen fluid contains bacteria than increase digestibility. There was no difference between in vitro digestibility by gaz production and the DAISY II method. The DAISY II method can be used to increase labor efficiency in the in vitro DM digestibility analysis if gaz production is not necessary for analysis.

Keywords: bitter vetch, grains, straw, ecotype, in vitro digestibility, gaz production, enzymatic digestibility

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894 Cryptosporidium Parvum oocytic Antigen Induced a Pro-Inflammatory DC Phenotype

Authors: Connick K, Lalor R, Murphy A, O’Neill SM, Rabab S. Zalat, Eman E. El Shanawany


Cryptosporidium parvum is an opportunistic intracellular parasite that causes mild to severe diarrhea in human and animal populations and is an important zoonotic disease globally. In immunocompromised hosts, infection Canbe life-threatening as no effective treatments are currently available to control infection. To increase our understanding of the mechanisms that play a role in host-parasite interactions at the level of the immune response, we investigated the effects of Cryptosporidium parvum antigen (CPA) on bone marrow-derived (DCS). Herein we examined cytokine secretion and cell surface marker expression on DCs exposed to CPA. We also measured cytokine production in CD4+ cells co-cultured with CPA primed DCs in the presence of anti-CD3. CPA induced a significant increase in the production of interleukin(IL)-12p40, IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-α by DCs and enhanced the expression of the cell surface markers TLR4, CD80, CD86, and MHC11. CPA primed DC co-cultured in the presence of anti-CD3 with CD4+ T-cells inhibited the secretion of Th2 associated cytokines, notably IL-5 and IL-13, with no effects on the secretions of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and IL-10. These findings support studies in the literature that CPA can induce the full maturation of DCs that subsequently initiate Th1 immune responses critical to the resolution of C. parvum infection.

Keywords: cryptosporidium parvum, dendritic cells, IL-12 p70, cell surface marker

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893 Effects of Glucogenic and Lipogenic Diets on Ruminal Microbiota and Metabolites in Vitro

Authors: Beihai Xiong, Dengke Hua, Wouter Hendriks, Wilbert Pellikaan


To improve the energy status of dairy cows in the early lactation, lots of jobs have been done on adjusting the starch to fiber ratio in the diet. As a complex ecosystem, the rumen contains a large population of microorganisms which plays a crucial role in feed degradation. Further study on the microbiota alterations and metabolic changes under different dietary energy sources is essential and valuable to better understand the function of the ruminal microorganisms and thereby to optimize the rumen function and enlarge feed efficiency. The present study will focus on the effects of two glucogenic diets (G: ground corn and corn silage; S: steam-flaked corn and corn silage) and a lipogenic diet (L: sugar beet pulp and alfalfa silage) on rumen fermentation, gas production, the ruminal microbiota and metabolome, and also their correlations in vitro. The gas production was recorded consistently, and the gas volume and producing rate at times 6, 12, 24, 48 h were calculated separately. The fermentation end-products were measured after fermenting for 48 h. The ruminal bacteria and archaea communities were determined by 16S RNA sequencing technique, the metabolome profile was tested through LC-MS methods. Compared to the diet G and S, the L diet had a lower dry matter digestibility, propionate production, and ammonia-nitrogen concentration. The two glucogenic diets performed worse in controlling methane and lactic acid production compared to the L diet. The S diet produced the greatest cumulative gas volume at any time points during incubation compared to the G and L diet. The metabolic analysis revealed that the lipid digestion was up-regulated by the diet L than other diets. On the subclass level, most metabolites belonging to the fatty acids and conjugates were higher, but most metabolites belonging to the amino acid, peptides, and analogs were lower in diet L than others. Differences in rumen fermentation characteristics were associated with (or resulting from) changes in the relative abundance of bacterial and archaeal genera. Most highly abundant bacteria were stable or slightly influenced by diets, while several amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were sensitive to the dietary changes. The L diet had a significantly higher number of cellulolytic bacteria, including the genera of Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Eubacterium, Lachnospira, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and unclassified Ruminococcaceae. The relative abundances of amylolytic bacteria genera including Selenomonas_1, Ruminobacter, and Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 were higher in diet G and S. These affected bacteria was also proved to have high associations with certain metabolites. The Selenomonas_1 and Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-002 may contribute to the higher propionate production in the diet G and S through enhancing the succinate pathway. The results indicated that the two glucogenic diets had a greater extent of gas production, a higher dry matter digestibility, and produced more propionate than diet L. The steam-flaked corn did not show a better performance on fermentation end-products than ground corn. This study has offered a deeper understanding of ruminal microbial functions which could assistant the improvement in rumen functions and thereby in the ruminant production.

Keywords: gas production, metabolome, microbiota, rumen fermentation

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892 Diverse Survey Sampling of US Population Reveals Race/Ethnicity Differences in Perceptions of Dog Breed Personalities

Authors: J. A. Villarreal, D. S. Ha., A. Smith, J. C. Ha


Numerous dogs are living in shelters seeking homes. Perceptions of dog personality based on breed type have been shown to influence adoptability. Past research has focused primarily on Caucasian female samples. This study provides a more diverse sample within the US. Of the respondents, 558 identified as White/Caucasian, 395 identified as Black/African American, 123 identified as Hispanic/Latinx, and 46 identified as Asian/Asian American. 29.6% of respondents identified as male and 70.4% identified as female. Initial analyses indicate significant differences in race/ethnicity in the association of the personality terms of “Dangerous”, “Calm”, and “Energetic” with dog breeds. Black/African-American respondents were more likely to associate the term “Dangerous” with almost all breeds assessed in this survey, followed by Hispanic/Latinx, and lastly by White/Caucasian and Asian/Asian American. Higher annual income respondents were less likely to associate the term “Calm” with most breeds and lower-income respondents were less likely to ascribe the term “Dangerous” to Pit Bull Terriers. Further analyses are underway. These findings can help dog adoption programs promote more diversity in potential adopters.

Keywords: breed, diversity, dog, ethnicity, personality

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891 Case Report: Mandibular Area Abscesses in Calves

Authors: Dovilė Bačėninaitė, Karina Džermeikaitė, Justinas Kirvela, Ramūnas Antanaitis


Bacteria are often present in the mouth of cattle. Some of them can cause abscesses. Starting with severe swelling of the mouth, muscle spasm, or locked jaw, it can lead to inability to open its mouth, move the neck, cause pain while eating. While the calf is unable to eat properly, it becomes more susceptible to infectious diseases, lower weight gain can be observed. Abscesses can be considered as a continuum of oral disease, whereby early stages of the lumpy jaw could proceed from gingivitis to periodontal disease. In the event of tissue damage, bacteria can enter the bloodstream, even cause sepsis. The most common lesions occur when animals eat sharp grass, coarse fodder, sharp, piercing foreign bodies (this is especially common for calves when they are trying to eat inedible objects). A crossbred Holstein calf presented with a history of proliferative outgrowth in the mandibular region. On clinical examination, needle aspiration, mandibular swelling revealed sticky, white curd-like fluid containing. Pus bacteriology revealed gram-negative cocci. They were sensitive to amoxicillin, cephalexin, enrofloxacin, ceftiofur. Blood morphology was in physiological ranges. The calf was treated surgically. The growth was excised, the puss drained and the wound was flushed with potassium permanganate solution (0,01%). A week after clinical surgery examination was performed. The swelling was decreased. Superficial bacterial infections are often associated with poor hygiene, which should be improved before treatment is commenced. Clipping away dirty hair and gently washing affected areas of skin daily with solutions such as povidone-iodine, potassium permanganate is effective. Appropriate antibiotic therapy, based on sensitivity testing, may be used where there is evidence of systemic illness.

Keywords: calf, abscess, lumpy jaw, pus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Actinobacillus, infection

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890 Effect of Feed Supplement Optipartum C+ 200 (Alfa- Amylase and Beta-Glucanase) in In-Line Rumination Parameters

Authors: Ramūnas Antanaitis, Lina Anskienė, Robertas Stoškus


This study was conducted during 2021.05.01 – 2021.08.31 at the Lithuanian University of health sciences and one Lithuanian dairy farm with 500 dairy cows (55.911381565736, 21.881321760608195). Average calving – 50 cows per month. Cows (n=20) in the treatment group (TG) were fed with feed supplement Optipartum C+ 200 (Enzymes: Alfa- Amylase 57 Units; Beta-Glucanase 107 Units) from 21 days before calving till 30 days after calving with feeding rate 200g/cow/day. Cows in the control group (CG) were fed a feed ration without feed supplement. Measurements started from 6 days before calving and continued till 21 days after calving. The following indicators were registered: with the RumiWatch System: Rumination time; Eating time; Drinking time; Rumination chews; Eating chews; Drinking gulps; Bolus; Chews per minute; Chews per bolus. With SmaXtec system - the temperature, pH of the contents of cows' reticulorumens and cows' activity. According to our results, we found that feeding of cows, from 21 days before calving to 30 days after calving, with a feed supplement with alfa- amylase and beta-glucanase (Optipartum C+ 200) (with dose 200g/cow/day) can produce an increase in: 9% rumination time and eating time, 19% drinking time, 11% rumination chews, 16% eating chews,13% number of boluses per rumination, 5% chews per minute and 16% chews per bolus. We found 1.28 % lower reiticulorumen pH and 0.64% lower reticulorumen temperature in cows fed with the supplement compared with control group cows. Also, cows feeding with enzymes were 8.80% more active.

Keywords: Alfa-Amylase, Beta-Glucanase, cows, in-line, sensors

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889 Lipoic Acid Accelerates Wound Healing by Diminishing Pro-Inflammatory Markers and Chemokine Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Mouse Model

Authors: Khairy M. A. Zoheir


One of the most severe complications of Rheumatoid arthritis is delayed recovery. lipoic acid possesses antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the effects of lipoic acid was investigated on the key mediators of Rheumatoid arthritis, namely, CD4+CD25+ T cell subsets, GITR expressing cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, T-helper-17 (Th17) cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α)] through flow-cytometry and qPCR analyses. Lipoic acid treated mice showed a significant decrease in the Rheumatoid arthritis, the frequency of GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-αand Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) compared with positive and negative controlled mice. Lipoic acid treatment also down regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators compared with the Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model and untreated mice. The number of Tregs also found to be significantly upregulated in lipoic acid treated mice. Our results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. This study showed the beneficial role of lipoic acid in promoting a well-balanced tool for therapy Rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: lipoic acid, chemokines, inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis

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888 Prevalence Of Periodontal Disease In Felines In The Outskirts Of The City Of Manaus, Brazil: An Epidemiological Study

Authors: Pármenas Costa Macedo do Nascimento


Periodontal disease is the most common disease in the oral cavity of felines. It starts with the accumulation of bacteria on the tooth surface supporting the tissues of the periodontal tissue, namely gums, alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament. The main clinical symptom observed by the owner is bad breath, which may lead to local and systemic consequences depending on the stage of periodontal disease, such as bleeding and bone loss. Therefore, the study is important to educate tutors to take better care of the felines oral health in order to try to prevent the disease. For this epidemiological study, the target population has been felines, located on the outskirts of Manaus, in the state of Amazonas, with a geographic area of 155.68 km², with no defined breed, from October 1st to 10th, 2021, whose samples has been randomly selected, with a detailed profile. The variables of interest for this study have been: absence or presence of periodontal disease, gender, age (delimited by age group), and condition (domiciled or homeless). Using a sample of 40 felines from 4 districts of the east side of Manaus chosen at random, an oral exam has been made to identify the studied disease. The animal's apparent age, condition, sex, and presence or absence of periodontal disease has been noted. It has been observed that 70% (28/40) of them had periodontal disease, mostly females, aged between 0 and 5 years and domiciled, totaling 30% (12/40).

Keywords: felines, oral cavity, oral exam, periodontal disease

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887 Use of Recycled Vegetable Oil in the Diet of Lactating Sows

Authors: Juan Manuel Uriarte Lopez, Hector Raul Guemez Gaxiola, Javier Alonso Romo Rubio, Juan Manuel Romo Valdez


The objective of this investigation was to determine the influence of the use of recycled vegetable oil from restaurants in the productive performance of sows in lactation. Twenty-four hybrids lactating sows (Landrace x Yorkshire) were divided into three treatments with eight sows per treatment. On day 107 of gestation, the sows were moved to the mesh floor maternity cages in an environment regulated by the environment regulated (2.4 × 0.6 m) contained an area (2.4 × 0.5 m) for newborn pigs on each side, all diets were provided as a dry powder, and the sows received free access to water throughout the experimental period. After farrowing, the sows were fasted for 12 hours, the daily feed ration gradually increased, and the sows had ad libitum access to feed on the fourth day. The diets used were corn-soybean meal-based, containing 0 (CONT), recycled vegetable oil 1.0 % (RVOL), or recycled vegetable oil 1.5 % (RVOH) for 30 days. The diets contained similar calculated levels of crude protein and metabolizable energy and contained vitamins and minerals that exceeded National Research Council (1998) recommendations; sows were fed three times daily. On day 30, piglets were weaned, and performances of lactating sows and nursery piglets were recorded. Results indicated that average daily feed intake (5.58, 5.55, and 5.49 kg for CONT, RVOL, and RVO, respectively) of sows were not affected (P > 0.05) by different dietary. There was no difference in the average body weight of piglets on the day of birth, with 1.33, 1.36, and 1.35 kg, respectively (P > 0.05). There was no difference in average body weight of piglets on day 30, with 6.91, 6.75, and 7.05 kg, respectively 0.05) between treatments numbers of weaned piglets per sow (9.95, 9.80, and 9.80) were not affected by treatments (P > 0.05).In conclusion, the substitution of virgin vegetable oil for recycled vegetable oil in the diet does not affect the productive performance of lactating sows.

Keywords: lactating, sow, vegetable, oil

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886 Study of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Asparagys Root (Asparagus Officinalis) On Testes Spematoxods Indexes in Laboratory Mouse

Authors: Hamid Karimi, Negar Mahdavi, Hosein Tayefinas Abadi


Infertility is a more important problem in modern world. In the Western countries data showed that one couple from eight couples is infertile in human papulation. Role of male in infertility is higher than women e.g., 40%. Abnormal spermatozoid production, genital ducts abstraction, genital system flammation and disorder of erection are more important factor for male population infertility. Iranian Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) are used in Iranian traditional medicine as narcotic material for treatment of rheumatoid, headache, sexual inability and acute inflammation. In this survey, effect of asparagus root was studied on spermatozoid index in laboratory mouse. For this reason, hydro-alcoholic extract of asparagus root is prepared and examined on four group of mature male mouse. Blank group without extract, 100 ml/kg dose group, 200 ml/kg dose group and, 300ml/kg dose group. Then, mice are euthanized and testes are removed. Spermatozoids are going out from tail of epididymis and swim up in Ham's F10 tissue culture media. This research results were appeared that there are significant different (P<0.05) between 200 and 300 ml/kg with another treatment groups. Therefore, Aparagus root extract have can be to cause enhancement of spermatozoid quality and fertility improvement in laboratory mouse.

Keywords: histoligy, asparagus, testes, spermatozoid

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885 Study of Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Asparagus Root (Asparagus officinalis) Ontestes Spermyogenesis Index of Laboratory Mouse

Authors: Hamid Karimi, Naegar Mahdavi, Hossein Tayefi Nasrabadi


Spermatozoids production rate and its quality are more important factors in the diagnosis of infertility. Also, spematozids activity have a more important role in fertilization. Some medicinal plants as Asparagus(Asparagus officinalis) has many antioxidant component. Therefore, They can affect testes tissue to production more and high-quality spermatozoids. In this survey, Asparagus root extract is studied on spermatogenesis index in the laboratory mouse testes. Hydro-alcoholic extract of asparagus root is prepared and examined on four group of the mature male mouse. Blank group without extract, group 1,100ml/kg dose, group 2, 200 ml/kg dose and group 3, 300ml/kg dose. Then, mice are euthanized, and testes are removed. Testes are weighted, and paraffinized blocks are prepared. TDI(Tubular Differentiation Index) and SPI(Spermiation Index) are studied on histological sections by light microscope. This study results were showed that TDI and SPI in treatments groups with 200 and 300 ml/kg dose had significant enhancement (P<0.05). Consequently, Extract of Asparagus root can enhance spermatozoid production and, therefore, cause improve fertility in male laboratory mice.

Keywords: histology, spermatozoid, ASP [aragus, testes

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884 Comparative Acaricidal Efficacy of Fluralaner vs Oral Ivermectin Against Tick Infestation in Dogs

Authors: Tayyaba Zahra, Shehla Gul Bokhari, Asim Khalid Mahmood, Raheela Akhtar, Khizar Matloob


In Pakistan, dogs are commonly infested with ticks, especially in summers, causing not only dermatological issues but also systemic problems. Persistence of tick infestation often leads to heavy losses. Different acaricides are locally available with variable efficacy; however, recurrence of infestation is commonly reported. The present study was thus designed to compare the efficacy of a novel drug Fluralaner and conventionally used Ivermectin against tick infestation. Dogs positive for tick infestation were randomly divided into 2 groups viz, Groups A and B having 8 dogs each. Ticks were enumerated manually from the whole body of dogs at day 0 before the administration of drugs Dogs in Group A were treated with Fluralaner at day 0, and dogs in Group B were treated with Ivermectin. Post-treatment, ticks were counted again at days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. At day 07 of the study, no tick was found on the dogs treated with Fluralaner, while many ticks were present on the dogs treated with Ivermectin showing an efficacy up to 50%. On the consecutive follow-up evaluations, similar results were found for Fluralaner while the efficacy of Ivermectin was further reduced to less than 50%. Furthermore, Fluralaner treated dogs had better RBC counts, PCV, Hgb concentration, LFTs, RFTs post-treatment than the dogs treated with Ivermectin. Statistically, oral Fluralaner proved a more effective drug (P≤0.05)than oral Ivermectin against tick infestation in dogs.

Keywords: fluralaner, ivermectin, dogs, tick infestations

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883 Glucose Measurement in Response to Environmental and Physiological Challenges: Towards a Non-Invasive Approach to Study Stress in Fishes

Authors: Tomas Makaras, Julija Razumienė, Vidutė Gurevičienė, Gintarė Sauliutė, Milda Stankevičiūtė


Stress responses represent animal’s natural reactions to various challenging conditions and could be used as a welfare indicator. Regardless of the wide use of glucose measurements in stress evaluation, there are some inconsistencies in its acceptance as a stress marker, especially when it comes to comparison with non-invasive cortisol measurements in the fish challenging stress. To meet the challenge and to test the reliability and applicability of glucose measurement in practice, in this study, different environmental/anthropogenic exposure scenarios were simulated to provoke chemical-induced stress in fish (14-days exposure to landfill leachate) followed by a 14-days stress recovery period and under the cumulative effect of leachate fish subsequently exposed to pathogenic oomycetes (Saprolegnia parasitica) to represent a possible infection in fish. It is endemic to all freshwater habitats worldwide and is partly responsible for the decline of natural freshwater fish populations. Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) and sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta) juveniles were chosen because of a large amount of literature on physiological stress responses in these species was known. Glucose content in fish by applying invasive and non-invasive glucose measurement procedures in different test mediums such as fish blood, gill tissues and fish-holding water were analysed. The results indicated that the quantity of glucose released in the holding water of stressed fish increased considerably (approx. 3.5- to 8-fold) and remained substantially higher (approx. 2- to 4-fold) throughout the stress recovery period than the control level suggesting that fish did not recover from chemical-induced stress. The circulating levels of glucose in blood and gills decreased over time in fish exposed to different stressors. However, the gill glucose level in fish showed a decrease similar to the control levels measured at the same time points, which was found to be insignificant. The data analysis showed that concentrations of β-D glucose measured in gills of fish treated with S. parasitica differed significantly from the control recovery, but did not differ from the leachate recovery group showing that S. parasitica presence in water had no additive effects. In contrast, a positive correlation between blood and gills glucose were determined. Parallel trends in blood and water glucose changes suggest that water glucose measurement has much potency in predicting stress. This study demonstrated that measuring β-D-glucose in fish-holding water is not stressful as it involves no handling and manipulation of an organism and has critical technical advantages concerning current (invasive) methods, mainly using blood samples or specific tissues. The quantification of glucose could be essential for studies examining the stress physiology/aquaculture studies interested in the assessment or long-term monitoring of fish health.

Keywords: brown trout, landfill leachate, sea trout, pathogenic oomycetes, β-D-glucose

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882 Effects of Diabetic Duration on Platelet and Platelet Indices in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Sahar Oudeh, Abbas Javaheri Vayeghan, Mahmood Ahmadi-Hamedani


This study aimed to investigate the effect of diabetic duration on platelet and platelet indices in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male and female rats. Thirty-two healthy adult Wistar rats (16 females and 16 males) were randomly divided into 4 groups of eight, including 1) control group (4 females and 4 males who did not undergo any treatment until the end of 28 days), 2) 7-day diabetic group (4 females and 4 males who were diabetic for 7 days and were euthanized after 7 days), 3) 14-day diabetic group (4 females and 4 males who were diabetic for 14 days and were euthanized after 14 days), and 28-day diabetic group (4 females and 4 males who were diabetic for 28 days and were euthanized after 28 days). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). After induction of diabetes in the groups, blood samples were taken from their hearts after anesthesia, and platelet counts (PLT) and platelet indices were measured by an automatic blood cell counter (Nihon Kohden, Celltac Alpha VET MEK-6550, Japan). Statistical differences among groups were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s multiple tests. The results of this study showed that PLT and mean platelet volume (MPV) significantly increased in 7 and 14-day diabetic groups compared to the control group, whereas plateletcrit (PCT) and platelet distribution rate (PDW) significantly increased in 14 and 28-day diabetic groups, respectively. Significant differences were observed between female and male rats in PCT and PLT in the 14-day diabetic group and PDW in the 28-day diabetic group. According to the results of this study, measurement and analysis of platelet indices can be used as a method for the early diagnosis of diabetes and its complications.

Keywords: diabetic duration, streptozotocin, female and male rats, platelet indices

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881 CSPG4 Molecular Target in Canine Melanoma, Osteosarcoma and Mammary Tumors for Novel Therapeutic Strategies

Authors: Paola Modesto, Floriana Fruscione, Isabella Martini, Simona Perga, Federica Riccardo, Mariateresa Camerino, Davide Giacobino, Cecilia Gola, Luca Licenziato, Elisabetta Razzuoli, Katia Varello, Lorella Maniscalco, Elena Bozzetta, Angelo Ferrari


Canine and human melanoma, osteosarcoma (OSA), and mammary carcinomas are aggressive tumors with common characteristics making dogs a good model for comparative oncology. Novel therapeutic strategies against these tumors could be useful to both species. In humans, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is a marker involved in tumor progression and could be a candidate target for immunotherapy. The anti-CSPG4 DNA electrovaccination has shown to be an effective approach for canine malignant melanoma (CMM) [1]. An immunohistochemistry evaluation of CSPG4 expression in tumour tissue is generally performed prior to electrovaccination. To assess the possibility to perform a rapid molecular evaluation and in order to validate these spontaneous canine tumors as the model for human studies, we investigate the CSPG4 gene expression by RT qPCR in CMM, OSA, and canine mammary tumors (CMT). The total RNA was extracted from RNAlater stored tissue samples (CMM n=16; OSA n=13; CMT n=6; five paired normal tissues for CMM, five paired normal tissues for OSA and one paired normal tissue for CMT), retro-transcribed and then analyzed by duplex RT-qPCR using two different TaqMan assays for the target gene CSPG4 and the internal reference gene (RG) Ribosomal Protein S19 (RPS19). RPS19 was selected from a panel of 9 candidate RGs, according to NormFinder analysis following the protocol already described [2]. Relative expression was analyzed by CFX Maestro™ Software. Student t-test and ANOVA were performed (significance set at P<0.05). Results showed that gene expression of CSPG4 in OSA tissues is significantly increased by 3-4 folds when compared to controls. In CMT, gene expression of the target was increased from 1.5 to 19.9 folds. In melanoma, although an increasing trend was observed, no significant differences between the two groups were highlighted. Immunohistochemistry analysis of the two cancer types showed that the expression of CSPG4 within CMM is concentrated in isles of cells compared to OSA, where the distribution of positive cells is homogeneous. This evidence could explain the differences in gene expression results.CSPG4 immunohistochemistry evaluation in mammary carcinoma is in progress. The evidence of CSPG4 expression in a different type of canine tumors opens the way to the possibility of extending the CSPG4 immunotherapy marker in CMM, OSA, and CMT and may have an impact to translate this strategy modality to human oncology.

Keywords: canine melanoma, canine mammary carcinomas, canine osteosarcoma, CSPG4, gene expression, immunotherapy

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880 Transcriptome Sequencing of the Spleens Reveals Genes Involved in Antiviral Response in Chickens Infected with Castv

Authors: Sajewicz-Krukowska Joanna, Domańska-Blicharz Katarzyna, Tarasiuk Karolina, Marzec-Kotarska Barbara


Astroviral infections pose a significant problem in the poultry industry, leading to multiple adverse effects such as decreased egg production, breeding disorders, poor weight gain, and even increased mortality. Commonly observed chicken astrovirus (CAstV) was recently reported to be responsible for "white chicks syndrome" associated with increased embryo/chick mortality. The CAstV-mediated pathogenesis in chicken occurs due to complex interactions between the infectious pathogen and the immune system. Many aspects of CAstV-chicken interactions remain unclear, and there is no information available regarding gene expression changes in the chicken's spleen in response to CAstV infection. We aimed to investigate the molecular background triggered by CAstV infection. Ten 21-day-old SPF White Leghorn chickens were divided into two groups of 5 birds each. One group was inoculated with CAstV, and the other was used as the negative control. On 4th dpi, spleen samples were collected and immediately frozen at -70°C for RNA isolation. We analysed transcriptional profiles of the chickens' spleens at the 4th day following infection using RNA-seq to establish differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The RNA-seq findings were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). A total of 31959 transcripts were identified in response to CAstV infection. Eventually 45 DEGs (p-value<0.05; Log2Foldchange>1)were recognized in the spleen after CAstV infection (26 upregulated DEGs and 19 downregulated DEGs). qRT-PCR performed on 4 genes (IFIT5, OASL, RASD1, DDX60) confirmed RNAseq results. Top differentially expressed genes belonged to novel putative IFN-induced CAstV restriction factors. Most of the DEGs were associated with RIG-I–like signalling pathway or, more generally, with an innate antiviral response(upregulated: BLEC3, CMPK2, IFIT5, OASL, DDX60, IFI6, and downregulated: SPIK5, SELENOP, HSPA2, TMEM158, RASD1, YWHAB). The study provided a global analysis of host transcriptional changes that occur during CAstV infection in vivo and proved the cell cycle in the spleen and immune signalling in chickens were predominantly affected upon CAstV infection.

Keywords: chicken astrovirus, CastV, RNA-seq, transcriptome, spleen

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879 Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in Spontaneously Occurring Canine Melanoma

Authors: Simona Perga, Chiara Beltramo, Floriana Fruscione, Isabella Martini, Federica Cavallo, Federica Riccardo, Paolo Buracco, Selina Iussich, Elisabetta Razzuoli, Katia Varello, Lorella Maniscalco, Elena Bozzetta, Angelo Ferrari, Paola Modesto


Introduction: Human and canine melanoma have common clinical, histologic characteristics making dogs a good model for comparative oncology. The identification of specific genes and a better understanding of the genetic landscape, signaling pathways, and tumor–microenvironmental interactions involved in the cancer onset and progression is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies against this tumor in both species. In the present study, the differential expression of genes in spontaneously occurring canine melanoma and in paired normal tissue was investigated by targeted RNAseq. Material and Methods: Total RNA was extracted from 17 canine malignant melanoma (CMM) samples and from five paired normal tissues stored in RNA-later. In order to capture the greater genetic variability, gene expression analysis was carried out using two panels (Qiagen): Human Immuno-Oncology (HIO) and Mouse-Immuno-Oncology (MIO) and the miSeq platform (Illumina). These kits allow the detection of the expression profile of 990 genes involved in the immune response against tumors in humans and mice. The data were analyzed through the CLCbio Genomics Workbench (Qiagen) software using the Canis lupus familiaris genome as a reference. Data analysis were carried out both comparing the biologic group (tumoral vs. healthy tissues) and comparing neoplastic tissue vs. paired healthy tissue; a Fold Change greater than two and a p-value less than 0.05 were set as the threshold to select interesting genes. Results and Discussion: Using HIO 63, down-regulated genes were detected; 13 of those were also down-regulated comparing neoplastic sample vs. paired healthy tissue. Eighteen genes were up-regulated, 14 of those were also down-regulated comparing neoplastic sample vs. paired healthy tissue. Using the MIO, 35 down regulated-genes were detected; only four of these were down-regulated, also comparing neoplastic sample vs. paired healthy tissue. Twelve genes were up-regulated in both types of analysis. Considering the two kits, the greatest variation in Fold Change was in up-regulated genes. Dogs displayed a greater genetic homology with humans than mice; moreover, the results have shown that the two kits are able to detect different genes. Most of these genes have specific cellular functions or belong to some enzymatic categories; some have already been described to be correlated to human melanoma and confirm the validity of the dog as a model for the study of molecular aspects of human melanoma.

Keywords: animal model, canine melanoma, gene expression, spontaneous tumors, targeted RNAseq

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
878 Association of Copy Number Variation of the CHKB, KLF6, GPC1, and CHRM3 Genes with Growth Traits of Datong Yak (Bos grunniens)

Authors: Habtamu Abera Goshu, Ping Yan


Copy number variation (CNV) is a significant marker of the genetic and phenotypic diversity among individuals that accounts for complex quantitative traits of phenotype and diseases via modulating gene dosage, position effects, alteration of downstream pathways, modification of chromosome structure, and position within the nucleus and disrupting coding regions in the genome. Associating copy number variations (CNVs) with growth and gene expression are a powerful approach for identifying genomic characteristics that contribute to phenotypic and genotypic variation. A previous study using next-generation sequencing illustrated that the choline kinase beta (CHKB), Krüpple-like factor 6 (KLF6), glypican 1(GPC1), and cholinergic receptor muscarinic 3 (CHRM3) genes reside within copy number variable regions (CNVRs) of yak populations that overlap with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of meat quality and growth. As a result, this research aimed to determine the association of CNVs of the KLF6, CHKB, GPC1, and CHRM3 genes with growth traits in the Datong yak breed. The association between the CNV types of the KLF6, CHKB, GPC1, and CHRM3 genes and the growth traits in the Datong yak breed was determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS software. The CNV types were classified as a loss (a copy number of 0 or 1), gain (a copy number >2), and normal (a copy number of 2) relative to the reference gene, BTF3 in the 387 individuals of Datong yak. These results indicated that the normal CNV types of the CHKB and GPC1 genes were significantly (P<0.05) associated with high body length, height and weight, and chest girth in six-month-old and five-year-old Datong yaks. On the other hand, the loss CNV types of the KLF6 gene is significantly (P<0.05) associated with body weight and length and chest girth at six-month-old and five-year-old Datong yaks. In the contrary, the gain CNV type of the CHRM3 gene is highly (P<0.05) associated with body weight, length, height, and chest girth in six-month-old and five-year-old. This work provides the first observation of the biological role of CNVs of the CHKB, KLF6, GPC1, and CHRM3 genes in the Datong yak breed and might, therefore, provide a novel opportunity to utilize data on CNVs in designing molecular markers for the selection of animal breeding programs for larger populations of various yak breeds. Therefore, we hypothesized that this study provided inclusive information on the application of CNVs of the CHKB, KLF6, GPC1, and CHRM3 genes in growth traits in Datong yaks and its possible function in bovine species.

Keywords: Copy number variation, growth traits, yak, genes

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877 Antibiogram and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius from Shelter Dogs with Skin Infections and Dog Owners in Abakaliki, Nigeria

Authors: Moses Ikechukwu Benjamin


The continued increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcuspseudintermedius (MRSP) among dogs and the zoonotic transmission event of MRSP from dogs to humans threaten veterinary medicine and public health. The cardinal objective of this study was to determine the antibiogram and frequency of toxingenes in MRSP obtained from shelter dogs with skin infections and dog owners in Abakaliki, Eastern Nigeria. Skinswabs from 61 shelter dogs with skin infections and 33 nasal swabs from dog owners were processed and analyzed using standard microbiological techniques. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. The screening for Seccanine, lukD, siet, and exitoxin genes was carried out by PCR. A total of 23 (37.7 %) and 1 (3 %) MRSP strains were obtained from shelter dogs and dog owners, respectively. Generally, isolates exhibited high resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, and cefepime (100 % - 66.7 %) but were very susceptible (100 % - 70.7 %) to chloramphenicol and doripenem. The only isolate from dog owners harbouredseccanine, lukD, and siet toxin genes while solatesfrom shelter dogs harbouredseccanine16 (69.6 %), lukD 17 (73.9 %), siet 20 (87 %), and exi1 (4.4 %) toxin genes. Isolates were generally observed to be more resistant than other reports from the literature. Interesting, there was a similarity in the resistance antibiotypes and frequency of toxin genes harboured by MRSP isolates between shelter dogs with skin infections and their owner in a sampled household, thus suggesting a likely zoonotic transmission event. This report of the occurrence of MRSP and high frequency of toxin genes (Seccanine,lukD, and siet) in shelter dogs and dog owners represent a major challenge, especially in terms of antibiotic therapy, and is a serious concern for both animal and public health.

Keywords: methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius, zoonotic transmission, antibiotic resistance, companion dogs, toxin genes

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
876 Association of Temperature Factors with Seropositive Results against Selected Pathogens in Dairy Cow Herds from Central and Northern Greece

Authors: Marina Sofia, Alexios Giannakopoulos, Antonia Touloudi, Dimitris C Chatzopoulos, Zoi Athanasakopoulou, Vassiliki Spyrou, Charalambos Billinis


Fertility of dairy cattle can be affected by heat stress when the ambient temperature increases above 30°C and the relative humidity ranges from 35% to 50%. The present study was conducted on dairy cattle farms during summer months in Greece and aimed to identify the serological profile against pathogens that could affect fertility and to associate the positive serological results at herd level with temperature factors. A total of 323 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy dairy cows of 8 herds, located in Central and Northern Greece. ELISA tests were performed to detect antibodies against selected pathogens that affect fertility, namely Chlamydophila abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus (IBRV). Eleven climatic variables were derived from the WorldClim version 1.4. and ArcGIS V.10.1 software was used for analysis of the spatial information. Five different MaxEnt models were applied to associate the temperature variables with the locations of seropositive Chl. abortus, C. burnetii, N. caninum, T. gondii and IBRV herds (one for each pathogen). The logistic outputs were used for the interpretation of the results. ROC analyses were performed to evaluate the goodness of fit of the models’ predictions. Jackknife tests were used to identify the variables with a substantial contribution to each model. The seropositivity rates of pathogens varied among the 8 herds (0.85-4.76% for Chl. abortus, 4.76-62.71% for N. caninum, 3.8-43.47% for C. burnetii, 4.76-39.28% for T. gondii and 47.83-78.57% for IBRV). The variables of annual temperature range, mean diurnal range and maximum temperature of the warmest month gave a contribution to all five models. The regularized training gains, the training AUCs and the unregularized training gains were estimated. The mean diurnal range gave the highest gain when used in isolation and decreased the gain the most when it was omitted in the two models for seropositive Chl.abortus and IBRV herds. The annual temperature range increased the gain when used alone and decreased the gain the most when it was omitted in the models for seropositive C. burnetii, N. caninum and T. gondii herds. In conclusion, antibodies against Chl. abortus, C. burnetii, N. caninum, T. gondii and IBRV were detected in most herds suggesting circulation of pathogens that could cause infertility. The results of the spatial analyses demonstrated that the annual temperature range, mean diurnal range and maximum temperature of the warmest month could affect positively the possible pathogens’ presence. Acknowledgment: This research has been co‐financed by the European Regional Development Fund of the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, under the call RESEARCH–CREATE–INNOVATE (project code: T1EDK-01078).

Keywords: dairy cows, seropositivity, spatial analysis, temperature factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
875 Dragonflies (Odonata) Reflect Climate Warming Driven Changes in High Mountain Invertebrates Populations

Authors: Nikola Góral, Piotr Mikołajczuk, Paweł Buczyński


Much scientific research in the last 20 years has focused on the influence of global warming on the distribution and phenology of living organisms. Three potential responses to climate change are predicted: individual species may become extinct, adapt to new conditions in their existing range or change their range by migrating to places where climatic conditions are more favourable. It means not only migration to areas in other latitudes, but also different altitudes. In the case of dragonflies (Odonata), monitoring in Western Europe has shown that in response to global warming, dragonflies tend to change their range to a more northern one. The strongest response to global warming is observed in arctic and alpine species, as well as in species capable of migrating over long distances. The aim of the research was to assess whether the fauna of aquatic insects in high-mountain habitats has changed as a result of climate change and, if so, how big and what type these changes are. Dragonflies were chosen as a model organism because of their fast reaction to changes in the environment: they have high migration abilities and short life cycle. The state of the populations of boreal-mountain species and the extent to which lowland species entered high altitudes was assessed. The research was carried out on 20 sites in Western Sudetes, Southern Poland. They were located at an altitude of between 850 and 1250 m. The selected sites were representative of many types of valuable alpine habitats (subalpine raised bog, transitional spring bog, habitats associated with rivers and mountain streams). Several sites of anthropogenic origin were also selected. Thanks to this selection, a wide characterization of the fauna of the Karkonosze was made and it was compared whether the studied processes proceeded differently, depending on whether the habitat is primary or secondary. Both imagines and larvae were examined (by taking hydrobiological samples with a kick-net), and exuviae were also collected. Individual species dragonflies were characterized in terms of their reproductive, territorial and foraging behaviour. During each inspection, the basic physicochemical parameters of the water were measured. The population of the high-mountain dragonfly Somatochlora alpestris turned out to be in a good condition. This species was noted at several sites. Some of those sites were situated relatively low (995 m AMSL), which proves that the thermal conditions at the lower altitudes might be still optimal for this species. The protected by polish law species Somatochlora arctica, Aeshna subarctica and Leucorrhinia albifrons, as well as strongly associated with bogs Leucorrhinia dubia and Aeshna juncea bogs were observed. However, they were more frequent and more numerous in habitats of anthropogenic origin, which may suggest minor changes in the habitat preferences of dragonflies. The subject requires further research and observations over a longer time scale.

Keywords: alpine species, bioindication, global warming, habitat preferences, population dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
874 The Product Innovation Using Nutraceutical Delivery System on Improving Growth Performance of Broiler

Authors: Kitti Supchukun, Kris Angkanaporn, Teerapong Yata


The product innovation using a nutraceutical delivery system on improving the growth performance of broilers is the product planning and development to solve the antibiotics banning policy incurred in the local and global livestock production system. Restricting the use of antibiotics can reduce the quality of chicken meat and increase pathogenic bacterial contamination. Although other alternatives were used to replace antibiotics, the efficacy was inconsistent, reflecting on low chicken growth performance and contaminated products. The product innovation aims to effectively deliver the selected active ingredients into the body. This product is tested on the pharmaceutical lab scale and on the farm-scale for market feasibility in order to create product innovation using the nutraceutical delivery system model. The model establishes the product standardization and traceable quality control process for farmers. The study is performed using mixed methods. Starting with a qualitative method to find the farmers' (consumers) demands and the product standard, then the researcher used the quantitative research method to develop and conclude the findings regarding the acceptance of the technology and product performance. The survey has been sent to different organizations by random sampling among the entrepreneur’s population including integrated broiler farm, broiler farm, and other related organizations. The mixed-method results, both qualitative and quantitative, verify the user and lead users' demands since they provide information about the industry standard, technology preference, developing the right product according to the market, and solutions for the industry problems. The product innovation selected nutraceutical ingredients that can solve the following problems in livestock; bactericidal, anti-inflammation, gut health, antioxidant. The combinations of the selected nutraceutical and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) technology aim to improve chemical and pharmaceutical components by changing the structure of active ingredients into nanoparticle, which will be released in the targeted location with accurate concentration. The active ingredients in nanoparticle form are more stable, elicit antibacterial activity against pathogenic Salmonella spp and E.coli, balance gut health, have antioxidant and anti-inflammation activity. The experiment results have proven that the nutraceuticals have an antioxidant and antibacterial activity which also increases the average daily gain (ADG), reduces feed conversion ratio (FCR). The results also show a significant impact on the higher European Performance Index that can increase the farmers' profit when exporting. The product innovation will be tested in technology acceptance management methods from farmers and industry. The production of broiler and commercialization analyses are useful to reduce the importation of animal supplements. Most importantly, product innovation is protected by intellectual property.

Keywords: nutraceutical, nano structure lipid carrier, anti-microbial drug resistance, broiler, Salmonella

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
873 Technology Assessment of the Collection of Cast Seaweed and Use as Feedstock for Biogas Production- The Case of SolrøD, Denmark

Authors: Rikke Lybæk, Tyge Kjær


The Baltic Sea is suffering from nitrogen and phosphorus pollution, which causes eutrophication of the maritime environment and hence threatens the biodiversity of the Baltic Sea area. The intensified quantity of nutrients in the water has created challenges with the growth of seaweed being discarded on beaches around the sea. The cast seaweed has led to odor problems hampering the use of beach areas around the Bay of Køge in Denmark. This is the case in, e.g., Solrød Municipality, where recreational activities have been disrupted when cast seaweed pile up on the beach. Initiatives have, however, been introduced within the municipality to remove the cast seaweed from the beach and utilize it for renewable energy production at the nearby Solrød Biogas Plant, thus being co-digested with animal manure for power and heat production. This paper investigates which type of technology application’s have been applied in the effort to optimize the collection of cast seaweed, and will further reveal, how the seaweed has been pre-treated at the biogas plant to be utilized for energy production the most efficient, hereunder the challenges connected with the content of sand. Heavy metal contents in the seaweed and how it is managed will also be addressed, which is vital as the digestate is utilized as soil fertilizer on nearby farms. Finally, the paper will outline the energy production scheme connected to the use of seaweed as feedstock for biogas production, as well as the amount of nitrogen-rich fertilizer produced. The theoretical approach adopted in the paper relies on the thinking of Circular Bio-Economy, where biological materials are cascaded and re-circulated etc., to increase and extend their value and usability. The data for this research is collected as part of the EU Interreg project “Cluster On Anaerobic digestion, environmental Services, and nuTrients removAL” (COASTAL Biogas), 2014-2020. Data gathering consists of, e.g., interviews with relevant stakeholders connected to seaweed collection and operation of the biogas plant in Solrød Municipality. It further entails studies of progress and evaluation reports from the municipality, analysis of seaweed digestion results from scholars connected to the research, as well as studies of scientific literature to supplement the above. Besides this, observations and photo documentation have been applied in the field. This paper concludes, among others, that the seaweed harvester technology currently adopted is functional in the maritime environment close to the beachfront but inadequate in collecting seaweed directly on the beach. New technology hence needs to be developed to increase the efficiency of seaweed collection. It is further concluded that the amount of sand transported to Solrød Biogas Plant with the seaweed continues to pose challenges. The seaweed is pre-treated for sand in a receiving tank with a strong stirrer, washing off the sand, which ends at the bottom of the tank where collected. The seaweed is then chopped by a macerator and mixed with the other feedstock. The wear down of the receiving tank stirrer and the chopper are, however, significant, and new methods should be adopted.

Keywords: biogas, circular bio-economy, Denmark, maritime technology, cast seaweed, solrød municipality

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
872 Improving the Quality of Casava Peel-Leaf Mixture through Fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas Poultry Ration

Authors: Mirnawati, G. Ciptaan, Ferawati


This study aims to improve the quality of the cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) through fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas poultry ration. This research is an experimental study using a completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus. The treatments were a combination of cassava peel and leaves with the ratio of; A (9:1), B (8:2), C (7:3), and D (6:4). The observed variables were protease enzyme activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and metabolic energy. The results of the diversity analysis showed that there was a very significant (p < 0.01) effect on protease activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and energy metabolism of fermented CPLM. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that CPLM (6:4) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus gave the best results seen from protease activity 7,25 U/ml, 21.23% crude protein, 19.80% crude fiber, 59.65% nitrogen retention, 62.99% crude fiber digestibility and metabolic energy 2671 Kcal/kg.

Keywords: quality, Casava peel-leaf mixture, fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporus

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
871 The Effect of Substitution Concentrate with Leguminose Indigofera Zollingeriana in Lactation Goat Ration of Dry Matter, Organic Matter Intake, Milk Production, PUFA and CLA Content of Milk

Authors: Mardiati Zain, Elihasridas, Yolani Utami, Muhammad Taufic, Bima Bagaskara


The purpose of this study is to formulate a ratio that an increased concentration of bioactive compounds in the form of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk to produce functional milk that is beneficial for health. It has been proven that forage-based feeds (grass and legumes) are able to increase the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and, in particular, conjugated linoleic acid CLA in milk. The presence of bioactive compounds in product fat of ruminant origin these have generated great interest because they are associated with their potential as anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetogenic and stimulant of the immune response. PUFA and CLA and especially n-3 fatty acids, only 4% of the fatty acids present in milk. For that, efforts need to be made to change the fatty acid composition of milk to increase the nutritional value for consumers through increasing the concentration of PUFA and CLA. This is very important in the midst of the covid pandemic 19, which is increasing, it is necessary to drink and food that can improve the system body immunity. The study was conducted in vivo using a randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. This experiment used 16 heads of 40-55 kg lactating goats. Goats were fed a basal diet containing (dry matter basis) 60% native grass and 40% concentrate. The treatment was A. 60% native grass + 40% concentrate, B. 60% native grass + 30% concentrate + 10% I. zollengeriana C. 60% native grass + 20% concentrate + 20% I. zollengeriana, D, 60% native grass + 10% concentrate + 30% I. zollengeriana.The results showed that the use of I. zollengeriana until 30% in ration gave the same result with using a concentrate of nutrient intake and milk production but increased the CLA dan PUFA content in milk. The results of this study concluded that I. zollengeriana could increase the content of CLA and PUFA at the use of 75% substitute concentrate in the diet of lactating goats

Keywords: Indigofera zollengeriana, lactation goat, milk production, CLA, PUFA

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
870 Bioactive Potentials of Peptides and Lipids from Green Mussel (Perna viridis), Horse Mussel (Modiolus philippinarum) and Charru Mussel (Mytella charruana)

Authors: Sharon N. Nuñal, May Flor S. Muegue, Nizzy Hope N. Cartago, Raymund B. Parcon, Sheina B. Logronio


The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of Perna Viridis, Modiolus philippinarum, and Mytella charruana found in the Philippines were assessed. Mussel protein samples were hydrolyzed using trypsin, maturase, alcalase and pepsin at 1% and 2% concentrations and then fractionated through membrane filtration (<10 kDa and <30 kDa). Antioxidant assays showed that pepsin hydrolysate at 2% enzyme concentration exhibited the maximum activities for both 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Radical Scavenging Activity (155-176 µM TE/mg protein) and 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging (67-68 µM TE/mg protein) assays while trypsin hydrolysate dominated the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) for the three mussel species. Lower molecular weight peptide fractions at <10 kDa exhibited better antioxidant activities than the higher molecular weight fractions. The anti-inflammatory activities of M. philippinarum and M. charruana showed comparable protein denaturation inhibition potentials with the highest in P. Viridis samples (98.93%). The 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory activities of mussel samples showed no significant difference with inhibition exceeding 70%. P. Viridis demonstrated the highest inhibition against Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at 56.19%, while the rest showed comparable activities. This study showed that the three mussel species are potential sources of bioactive peptides and lipids with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, bioactive properties, mussel

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
869 Prevalence and Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Mastitic Dairy Cattle in Canada

Authors: Satwik Majumder, Dongyun Jung, Jennifer Ronholm, Saji George


Bovine mastitis is the most common infectious disease in dairy cattle, with major economic implications for the dairy industry worldwide. Continuous monitoring for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacterial isolates from dairy farms is vital not only for animal husbandry but also for public health. In this study, the prevalence of AMR in 113 Escherichia coli isolates from cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Canada was investigated. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test with 18 antibiotics and microdilution method with three heavy metals (copper, zinc, and silver) was performed to determine the antibiotic and heavy-metal susceptibility. Resistant strains were assessed for efflux and ß-lactamase activities besides assessing biofilm formation and hemolysis. Whole-genome sequences for each of the isolates were examined to detect the presence of genes corresponding to the observed AMR and virulence factors. Phenotypic analysis revealed that 32 isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and 107 showed resistance against at least one heavy metal. Quinolones and silver were the most efficient against the tested isolates. Among the AMR isolates, AcrAB-TolC efflux activity and ß-lactamase enzyme activities were detected in 13 and 14 isolates, respectively. All isolates produced biofilm but with different capacities, and 33 isolates showed α-hemolysin activity. A positive correlation (Pearson r = +0.89) between efflux pump activity and quantity of biofilm was observed. Genes associated with aggregation, adhesion, cyclic di-GMP, quorum sensing were detected in the AMR isolates, corroborating phenotype observations. This investigation showed the prevalence of AMR in E. coli isolates from bovine clinical mastitis. The results also suggest the inadequacy of antimicrobials with a single mode of action to curtail AMR bacteria with multiple mechanisms of resistance and virulence factors. Therefore, it calls for combinatorial therapy for the effective management of AMR infections in dairy farms and combats its potential transmission to the food supply chain through milk and dairy products.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, E. coli, bovine mastitis, antibiotics, heavy-metals, efflux pump, ß-lactamase enzyme, biofilm, whole-genome sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
868 Molecular Identification of Pneumocystis SPP Isolated from Wild Rats in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Babak Rezavand


Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised and HIV-positive patients and remained one of the most important common opportunistic infections in these individuals in the world. Pneumocystis infection has been reported in many mammals. The aim of this study was to determine the Pneumocystis infection in wild rats as natural reservoirs of this organism in Tehran city, Iran. Fifty three rats (Rattus rattus) were live trapped in different areas of Tehran city, Iran. After isolation of their lung tissues and homogenization in sterile conditions, DNA was extracted. DNAs from all of the Pneumocystis species were amplified by pAZ102-H and pAZ102-E primers, and Nested PCR was performed using pAZ102-X and pAZ102-W primers from the initial PCR product for all the species of Pneumocystis. Amplification of the genome revealed the presence of Pneumocystis in the lungs of 17 rats (32%) through a PCR product with a bandwidth of 346 bp. In the Nested PCR amplification, from the PCR product of 53 rats, 64.2% of the samples were positive with a bandwidth of 261bp. Pneumocystis SPP infestation is highly prevalent among wild rats in Tehran city, indicating the existence of infection in the natural ecosystem of these rodents. As a host, rat plays an important role in the transmission of the microorganism in the world.

Keywords: pneumocystis SPP, rattus rattus, nested PCR, Tehran

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
867 Use of Pheromones, Active Surveillance and Treated Cattle to Prevent the Establishment of the Tropical Bont Tick in Puerto Rico and the Americas

Authors: Robert Miller, Fred Soltero, Sandra Allan, Denise Bonilla


The Tropical Bont Tick (TBT), Amblyomma variegatum, was introduced to the Caribbean in the mid-1700s. Since it has spread throughout the Caribbean dispersed by cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). Tropical Bont Ticks vector many pathogens to livestock and humans. However, only the livestock diseases heartwater, Ehrlichia (Cowdria) ruminantium, and dermatophilosis, Dermatophilus congolensis, are associated with TBT in the Caribbean. African tick bite fever (Rickettsia africae) is widespread in Caribbean TBT but human cases are rare. The Caribbean Amblyomma Programme (CAP) was an effort led by the Food and Agricultural Organization to eradicate TBTs from participating islands. This 10-year effort successfully eradicated TBT from many islands. However, most are reinfested since its termination. Pheromone technology has been developed to aid in TBT control. Although not part of the CAP treatment scheme, this research established that pheromones in combination with pesticide greatly improves treatment efficiencies. Additionally, pheromone combined with CO₂ traps greatly improves active surveillance success. St. Croix has a history of TBT outbreaks. Passive surveillance detected outbreaks in 2016 and in May of 2021. Surveillance efforts are underway to determine the extent of TBT on St Croix. Puerto Rico is the next island in the archipelago and is at a greater risk of re-infestation due to active outbreaks in St Croix. Tropical Bont Ticks were last detected in Puerto Rico in the 1980s. The infestation started on the small Puerto Rican island of Vieques, the closest landmass to St Croix, and spread to the main island through cattle movements. This infestation was eradicated with the help of the Tropical Cattle Tick (TCT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, eradication program. At the time, large percentages of Puerto Rican cattle were treated for ticks along with the necessary material and manpower mobilized for the effort. Therefore, a shift of focus from the TCT to TBT prevented its establishment in Puerto Rico. Currently, no large-scale treatment of TCTs occurs in Puerto Rico. Therefore, the risk of TBT establishment is now greater than it was in the 1980s. From Puerto Rico, the risk of TBT movement to the American continent increases significantly. The establishment of TBTs in the Americas would cause $1.2 billion USD in losses to the livestock industry per year. The USDA Agricultural Research Service recently worked with the USDA Animal Health Inspection Service and the Puerto Rican Department of Agriculture to modernize the management of the TCT. This modernized program uses safer pesticides and has successfully been used to eradicate pesticide-susceptible and -resistant ticks throughout the island. The objective of this work is to prevent the infestation of Puerto Rico by TBTs by combining the current TCT management efforts with TBT surveillance in Vieques. The combined effort is designed to eradicate TCT from Vieques while using the treated cattle as trap animals for TBT using pheromone impregnated tail tags attached to treated animals. Additionally, active surveillance using CO₂-baited traps combined with pheromone will be used to actively survey the environment for free-living TBT. Knowledge gained will inform TBT control efforts in St. Croix.

Keywords: Amblyomma variegatum, caribbean, eradication, Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, pheromone

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
866 Effects of Nutrients Supply on Milk Yield, Composition and Enteric Methane Gas Emissions from Smallholder Dairy Farms in Rwanda

Authors: Jean De Dieu Ayabagabo, Paul A.Onjoro, Karubiu P. Migwi, Marie C. Dusingize


This study investigated the effects of feed on milk yield and quality through feed monitoring and quality assessment, and the consequent enteric methane gas emissions from smallholder dairy farms in drier areas of Rwanda, using the Tier II approach for four seasons in three zones, namely; Mayaga and peripheral Bugesera (MPB), Eastern Savanna and Central Bugesera (ESCB), and Eastern plateau (EP). The study was carried out using 186 dairy cows with a mean live weight of 292 Kg in three communal cowsheds. The milk quality analysis was carried out on 418 samples. Methane emission was estimated using prediction equations. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA. The dry matter intake was lower (p<0.05) in the long dry season (7.24 Kg), with the ESCB zone having the highest value of 9.10 Kg, explained by the practice of crop-livestock integration agriculture in that zone. The Dry matter digestibility varied between seasons and zones, ranging from 52.5 to 56.4% for seasons and from 51.9 to 57.5% for zones. The daily protein supply was higher (p<0.05) in the long rain season with 969 g. The mean daily milk production of lactating cows was 5.6 L with a lower value (p<0.05) during the long dry season (4.76 L), and the MPB zone having the lowest value of 4.65 L. The yearly milk production per cow was 1179 L. The milk fat varied from 3.79 to 5.49% with a seasonal and zone variation. No variation was observed with milk protein. The seasonal daily methane emission varied from 150 g for the long dry season to 174 g for the long rain season (p<0.05). The rain season had the highest methane emission as it is associated with high forage intake. The mean emission factor was 59.4 Kg of methane/year. The present EFs were higher than the default IPPC value of 41 Kg from developing countries in African, the Middle East, and other tropical regions livestock EFs using Tier I approach due to the higher live weight in the current study. The methane emission per unit of milk production was lower in the EP zone (46.8 g/L) due to the feed efficiency observed in that zone. Farmers should use high-quality feeds to increase the milk yield and reduce the methane gas produced per unit of milk. For an accurate assessment of the methane produced from dairy farms, there is a need for the use of the Life Cycle Assessment approach that considers all the sources of emissions.

Keywords: footprint, forage, girinka, tier

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