Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 831

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Animal and Veterinary Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

831 The Effects of Arginine, Glutamine and Threonine Supplementation in the Starting Phase on Subsequent Performance of Male Broile

Authors: Jalal Fazli Amiri, Mohammad Hossein Shahir, Mohammad Hossein Nemati, Afshin Heidarinia

Abstract:

The current study was performed to investigate the effects of arginine, threonine, and glutamine supplementation in excess of requirements in the starter period (17 days) on performance, intestinal morphology, and immune response of broilers. Four hundred and sixteen male day-old chicks were assigned in a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement to a completely randomized design with four replicates (13 birds per replicate ). Treatments were: a control group that received the basal diet, basal diet plus 1% glutamine, basal diet plus 0.2% threonine, basal diet plus 0.75 % arginine, and combination of these three amino acids (glutamine+arginine, glutamine+threonine, arginine+threonine and arginine+ glutamine+threonine). The effect of glutamine supplementation on feed intake was significant in week 4 (p < 0.05), week 6 (p < 0.001), and total feed intake (p < 0.05) and caused declined feed intake. No significant differences of glutamine addition were observed on intestinal morphology (villi height, crypt depth, villi height to crypt depth ratio, villi width). Threonine supplementation caused increased weight gain in week 2 (p < 0.001) and 3 and a decrease of total feed intake (p < 0.05). Duodenum and jejunum villi height, crypt depth, villi height to crypt depth ratio, villi width were not affected. The effect of arginine supplementation was the increase of breast percentage (p < 0.05) and a decrease of jejunum villi high (p < 0.05) and Jejunum crypt depth (p < 0.05). Supplementation of arginine, threonine, and glutamine had no significant effects on blood titer of antibodies against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza. Overall, it seems that the supplementation of arginine, threonine, and glutamine in excess of requirements in the starter period had no effect on performance in subsequent periods and intestinal morphology.

Keywords: Immunity, broiler chickens, intestinal morphology, arginine, glutamine, threonine

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830 Effect of Spirulina Supplementation on Growth Performance and Body Conformation of Two Omani Goat Breeds

Authors: Fahad Al Yahyaey, Ihab Shaat, Russell Bush

Abstract:

This study was conducted at the Livestock Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Oman, on two local goat breeds (Jabbali and Sahrawi) due to their importance to Omani livestock production and food security. The Jabbali is characterized by increased growth rates and a higher twinning rate, while the Sahrawi has increased milk production. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Spirulina supplementation on live weight (BWT), average daily gain (ADG), and body conformation measurements; chest girth (CG), wither height (WH), body length (BL), and body condition score (BCS). Thirty-six males (approximately nine-months-old and 16.44 ± 0.33 kg average of initial body weight) were used across an eleven-week study from November–February 2019-2020. Each breed was divided into three groups (n = 6/group) and fed one of three rations: (1) concentrate mixture (Control) with crude protein 14% and energy 11.97% MJ/kg DM; (2) the same concentrate feed with the addition of 2 gm /capita daily Spirulina platensis (Treatment 1) and (3) the same concentrate feed with the addition of 4 gm /capita daily Spirulina platensis (Treatment 2). Analysis of weekly data collections for all traits indicated a significant effect of feeding Spirulina on all the studied traits except WH and BL. Analysis of variance for fixed effects in this study (damage and kid birth type i.e., single, twin or triple) were not significant for all studied traits. However, the breed effect was highly significant (P < 0.001) on BWT, ADG, BCS, and CG traits. On the other hand, when the analysis was done for the treatment effect within breeds for ADG, the Sahrawi breed had a significant effect (P < 0.05) at 56.52, 85.51, and 85.50 g/day for control, treatment 1 and treatment 2, respectively. This is a 51% difference between the control and treatment 1 (2 gm /capita). Whereas for the Jabbali breed, the treatment effect was not significant for ADG (P =0.55), and the actual ADG was 104.59, 118.84, and 114.25 g/day for control, treatment 1, and treatment 2, respectively, providing a 14% difference between the control group and the treated group (4 gm /capita). These findings indicate using Spirulina supplementation in Omani goat diets is recommended at 2 gm per capita as there was no benefit in feeding at 4 gm per capita for either breed. Farmers feeding Spirulina supplementation to kids after weaning at six-months could increase their herd performance and growth rate and facilitate buck selection at an earlier age.

Keywords: Goats, Spirulina, live weight, body conformation

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829 Assessment of Women Involvement in Fishing Activities: A Case Study of Epe and Ibeju Lekki LGA, Lagos

Authors: Temitope Adewale, Oladapo Raji

Abstract:

The study was designed to investigate the assessment of women's involvement in fishing. In order to give the study a direction, five research questions, as well as two hypotheses, were postulated, and a total of fifty (50) respondents each were selected from two local government areas for the study. This brings a total of one hundred (100) respondents selected from these local government areas in Lagos state. The outcome of the finding indicates that the percentage of the respondents’ age, 49% was between 31 and 35 years, 56% has a working experience of 6-10 years, 61% were married, 69% had secondary education as their educational level. However, findings show that socio-economic characteristics (x2 =15.504, df=6, p < 0.05) and income (r=0.83, p < 0.05) have a significant relationship on the fishing. It was established that the Women in Fish production/processing were faced with a lot of constraints such as high cost of inputs, inadequate electricity supply, lack of adequate capital, non-availability of the improved oven, non-availability of extension agents, inadequate fish landing, lack of transportation facilities, lack of training on financial management and loan acquisition which affected the level of output of women in Fish processing adversely.

Keywords: Agriculture, Women, Fishing, Lagos

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828 By Removing High-Performance Aerobic Scope Phenotypes, Capture Fisheries May Reduce the Resilience of Fished Populations to Thermal Variability and Compromise Their Persistence into the Anthropocene.

Authors: Alexander Winkler, Warren M. Potts, Lauren A. Bailey, Amber R. Childs, Nicola C. James, Murray I. Duncan

Abstract:

For the persistence of fished populations in the Anthropocene, it is critical to predict how fished populations will respond to the coupled threats of exploitation and climate change for adaptive management. The resilience of fished populations will depend on their capacity for physiological plasticity and acclimatization in response to environmental shifts. However, there is evidence for the selection of physiological traits by capture fisheries. Hence, fish populations may have a limited scope for the rapid expansion of their tolerance ranges or physiological adaptation under fishing pressures. To determine the physiological vulnerability of fished populations in the Anthropocene, the metabolic performance was compared between a fished and spatially protected Chrysoblephus laticeps population in response to thermal variability. Individual aerobic scope phenotypes were quantified using intermittent flow respirometry by comparing changes in energy expenditure of each individual at ecologically relevant temperatures, mimicking variability experienced as a result of upwelling and downwelling events. The proportion of high and low-performance individuals were compared between the fished and spatially protected population. The fished population had limited aerobic scope phenotype diversity and fewer high-performance phenotypes, resulting in a significantly lower aerobic scope curve across low (10 °C) and high (24 °C) thermal treatments. The performance of fished populations may be compromised with predicted future increases in cold upwelling events. This requires the conservation of the physiologically fittest individuals in spatially protected areas, which can recruit into nearby fished areas, as a climate resilience tool.

Keywords: Climate Change, respirometry, fish physiology, metabolic shifts, over-fishing

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827 Benefits of The ALIAmide Palmitoyl-Glucosamine Co-Micronized with Curcumin for Osteoarthritis Pain: A Preclinical Study

Authors: Enrico Gugliandolo, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosalia Crupi

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic pain conditions in dogs and cats. OA pain is currently viewed as a mixed phenomenon involving both inflammatory and neuropathic mechanisms at the peripheral (joint) and central (spinal and supraspinal) levels. Oxidative stress has been implicated in OA pain. Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly prescribed for OA pain, they should be used with caution in pets because of adverse effects in the long term and controversial efficacy on neuropathic pain. An unmet need remains for safe and effective long-term treatments for OA pain. Palmitoyl-glucosamine (PGA) is an analogue of the ALIAamide palmitoylethanolamide, i.e., a body’s own endocannabinoid-like compound playing a sentinel role in nociception. PGA, especially in the micronized formulation, was shown safe and effective in OA pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a co-micronized formulation of PGA with the natural antioxidant curcumin (PGA-cur) on OA pain. Ten Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for each treatment group. The University of Messina Review Board for the care and use of animals authorized the study. On day 0, rats were anesthetized (5.0% isoflurane in 100% O2) and received intra-articular injection of MIA (3 mg in 25 μl saline) in the right knee joint, with the left being injected an equal volume of saline. Starting the third day after MIA injection, treatments were administered orally three times per week for 21 days, at the following doses: PGA 20 mg/kg, curcumin 10 mg/kg, PGA-cur (2:1 ratio) 30 mg/kg. On day 0 and 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post-injection, mechanical allodynia was measured using a dynamic plantar Von Frey hair aesthesiometer and expressed as paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and latency (PWL). Motor functional recovery of the rear limb was evaluated on the same time points by walking track analysis using the sciatic functional index. On day 21 post-MIA injection, the concentration of the following inflammatory and nociceptive mediators was measured in serum using commercial ELISA kits: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), nerve growth factor (NGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-1-3-9 (MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9). The results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons. Micronized PGA reduced neuropathic pain, as shown by the significant higher PWT and PWL values compared to vehicle group (p < 0.0001 for all the evaluated time points). The effect of PGA-cur was superior at all time points (p < 0.005). PGA-cur restored motor function already on day 14 (p < 0.005), while micronized PGA was effective a week later (D21). MIA-induced increase in the serum levels of all the investigated mediators was inhibited by PGA-cur (p < 0.01). PGA was also effective, except on IL-1 and MMP-3. Curcumin alone was inactive in all the experiments at any time point. The encouraging results suggest that PGA-cur may represent a valuable option in OA pain management and warrant further confirmation in well-powered clinical trials.

Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Curcumin, ALIAmides, palmitoyl-glucosamine

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826 Effects of Bile Acids and Lipase Supplementation in Low-Energy Diets on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate the effect of bile acids and lipase supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Seven hundred day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 45.9 ± 0.3 g were assigned to 5 dietary treatments, with five replications of 28 birds each in a completely randomized design. The five treatments were as follows: (i) HE: broilers received a diet with high energy content; (ii) LE: broilers received a diet with low energy content and energy content reduced by 100 kcal/kg as compared to HE; (iii) LEB: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 300 g/ton bile acids; (iv) LEL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 180 g/ton lipase enzyme and (v) LEBL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with both 300 g/ton bile acids and 180 g/ton lipase enzyme. The experimental period lasted for 35 days. Broilers fed HE had a lower (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) gain and lower feed intake (1-35 d), but during finisher period (21-35 d), BW gain was similar with other treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in HE and higher in LEBL group (P < 0.05), while the LE, LEB, and LEL had intermediate values. At 35 d no difference occurred between treatment for water holding capacity and pH of breast and thigh muscles (P > 0.05). The relative weight of pancreas was higher (P < 0.05) in LEB treatment but lower (P < 0.05) in LEL treatment. In conclusion, bile acids and lipase supplementation at 300 g/ton and 150g/ton of feed in low-energy diets respectively had no effect on broiler performance and meat quality. However, FCR was improved in HE treatment.

Keywords: Energy, enzyme, Bile acids, Growth

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825 Mitigating Ruminal Methanogenesis Through Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Faiz-ul Hassan, Yanfen Cheng

Abstract:

According to FAO, enteric methane (CH4) production is about 44% of all greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. Ruminants produce CH4 as a result of fermentation of feed in the rumen especially from roughages which yield more CH4 per unit of biomass ingested as compared to concentrates. Efficient ruminal fermentation is not possible without abating CO2 and CH4. Methane abatement strategies are required to curb the predicted rise in emissions associated with greater ruminant production in future to meet ever increasing animal protein requirements. Ecology of ruminal methanogenesis and avenues for its mitigation can be identified through various genomic and transcriptomic techniques. Programs such as Hungate1000 and the Global Rumen Census have been launched to enhance our understanding about global ruminal microbial communities. Through Hungate1000 project, a comprehensive reference set of rumen microbial genome sequences has been developed from cultivated rumen bacteria and methanogenic archaea along with representative rumen anaerobic fungi and ciliate protozoa cultures. But still many species of rumen microbes are underrepresented especially uncultivable microbes. Lack of sequence information specific to the rumen's microbial community has inhibited efforts to use genomic data to identify specific set of species and their target genes involved in methanogenesis. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic study of entire microbial rumen populations offer new perspectives to understand interaction of methanogens with other rumen microbes and their potential association with total gas and methane production. Deep understanding of methanogenic pathway will help to devise potentially effective strategies to abate methane production while increasing feed efficiency in ruminants.

Keywords: Genome Sequences, Methanogens, Hungate1000, ruminal fermentation

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824 Genetically Engineered Insulin Mediated by Glucose Transporter 2 Promoter for the Biosynthesis of Insulin in Rat Hepatocytes

Authors: Gehad Elsayed Mahmoud

Abstract:

Expression of insulin in hepatocytes by hepatic gene therapy is a promise for the treatment of diabetes. The conversion of immature proinsulin to mature insulin occurs only in cells contain the enzymes responsible for the cleavage of proinsulin to insulin. For successful hepatic insulin gene therapy, insulin production must be tightly coupled to glucose concentration. Hepatocytes are excellent target cells for insulin gene therapy since; they are similar to pancreatic beta cells, they have the ability to rapidly adapt to blood glucose concentrations as they possess glucose-sensing components, such as Glucose Transporter 2 (GLUT2). So, we engineered rat proinsulin with the sites of cleavage (Furin Cleavable Sites) using site directed mutagenesis for removal of C-peptide to form the two chains A and B for mature insulin production. This engineered proinsulin was constructed into a non viral expressing vector and regulated by glucose transporter 2 promoter (GLUT2 promoter) to control the amount of mature insulin expressed, and to modulate the amount of glucose found in hepatocytes. The mature, active, and regulated expressed insulin was secreted according to the amount of glucose regulated by the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2).

Keywords: gene therapy, insulin, Mutation, hepatocytes, vector, transfection, GLUT2 promoter, preproinsulin

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823 Camel Mortalities Due to Accidental Intoxcation with Ionophore

Authors: M. A. Abdelfattah, F. K. Waleed

Abstract:

Anticoccidials were utilized widely in veterinary practice for the avoidance of coccidiosis in poultry and assume a huge job as development promotants in ruminants. Ionophore harming is every now and again happens because of accidental access to medicated feed, errors in feed mixing, incorrect dosage calculation or misuse in non-recommended species. Camels on several farms in Eastern area of Saudi Arabia were accidently fed with a feed pellet containing 13 ppm salinomycin. One hundred and sixty-three camels died with mortality rate of 100%. The poisoning was clinically characterized by restlessness with tail lift to the top, jerk in the muscles of legs and thighs, excessive sweating, frequent setting and standing with body imbalance, lateral and sternal recumbences with the legs stretched back, eye tears with dilated pupil, vomiting of the stomach content, loss of consciousness and death of some of them. Feed analysis indicated the presence of salinomycin in pelleted feed in a range of 13 mg/kg-47 mg/kg. Necropsy findings and histopathological examinations were presented. Regulations and legal implications concerning with sale of contaminated feed in Saudi market are discussed in the light of feed law and by-law. The necessity for an effective implication of regulation concerning application of quality assurance systems based on the principles of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and the application of Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point (HACCP) during feed production is necessary to avoid feed accident.

Keywords: Toxicity, camel, medicated feed, salinomycin, anticoccidial

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822 Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Leaves and Pods of Leucaena Leucocephala, Prosopis Laevigata and Acacia Farnesiana in a Xerophyllous Shrubland

Authors: Miguel Mellado, Cecilia Zapata

Abstract:

Goats can be exploited in harsh environments due to their capacity to adjust to limited quantity and quality forage sources. In these environments, leguminous trees can be used as supplementary feeds as foliage and fruits of these trees can contribute to maintain or improve production efficiency in ruminants. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value of three leguminous trees heavily selected by goats in a xerophyllous shrubland. Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) of leaves and pods from leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) and huisache (Acacia farnesiana) is presented. Crude protein (CP) ranged from 17.3% for leaves of huisache to 21.9% for leucaena. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content ranged from 39.0 to 40.3 with no difference among fodder threes. Across tree species, mean IVDMD was 61.6% for pods and 52.2% for leaves. IVDMD for leaves was highest (P < 0.01) for leucaena (54.9%) and lowest for huisache (47.3%). Condensed tannins in an acetonic extract were highest for leaves of huisache (45.3 mg CE/g DM) and lowest for mesquite (25.9 mg CE/g DM). Pods and leaves of huisache presented the highest number of secondary metabolites, mainly related to hydrobenzoic acid and flavonols; leucaena and mesquite presented mainly flavonols and anthocyanins. It was concluded that leaves and pods of leucaena, mesquite and huisache constitute valuable forages for ruminant livestock due to its low fiber, high CP levels, moderate in vitro fermentation characteristics and high mineral content. Keywords: Fodder tree; ruminants; secondary metabolites; minerals; tannins

Keywords: Minerals, Secondary Metabolites, Ruminants, tannins, fodder tree

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821 Retrospective Evaluation of Vector-borne Infections in Cats Living in Germany (2012-2019)

Authors: I. Schäfer, B. Kohn, M. Volkmann, E. Müller

Abstract:

Introduction: Blood-feeding arthropods transmit parasitic, bacterial, or viral pathogens to domestic animals and wildlife. Vector-borne infections are gaining significance due to the increase of travel, import of domestic animals from abroad, and the changing climate in Europe. Aims of the study: The main objective of this retrospective study was to assess the prevalence of vector-borne infections in cats in which a ‘Feline Travel Profile’ had been conducted. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included test results from cats for which a ‘Feline Travel Profile’ established by LABOKLIN had been requested by veterinarians between April 2012 and December 2019. This profile contains direct detection methods via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Hepatozoon spp. and Dirofilaria spp. as well as indirect detection methods via immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for Ehrlichia spp. and Leishmania spp. This profile was expanded to include an IFAT for Rickettsia spp. from July 2015 onwards. The prevalence of the different vector-borne infectious agents was calculated. Results: A total of 602 cats were tested using the ‘Feline Travel Profile’. Positive test results were as follows: Rickettsia spp. IFAT 54/442 (12.2%), Ehrlichia spp. IFAT 68/602 (11.3%), Leishmania spp. IFAT 21/602 (3.5%), Hepatozoon spp. PCR 51/595 (8.6%), and Dirofilaria spp. PCR 1/595 cats (0.2%). Co-infections with more than one pathogen could be detected in 22/602 cats. Conclusions: 170/602 cats (28.2%) were tested positive for at least one vector-borne pathogen. Infections with multiple pathogens could be detected in 3.7% of the cats. The data emphasizes the importance of considering vector-borne infections as potential differential diagnoses in cats.

Keywords: Laboratory Diagnostics, Germany, arthopod-transmitted infections, feline vector-borne infections

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820 Other End of the Leash: The Volunteer Handlers Perspective of Animal-Assisted Interventions

Authors: Julie A. Carberry, Victor Maddalena

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Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAIs) have existed in various forms for centuries. In the past 30 years, there has been a dramatic increase in popularity. AAIs are now part of the lives of persons of all ages in many types of institutions. Anecdotal evidence of the benefits of AAIs have led to widespread adoption, yet there remains a lack of solid research base for support. The research question was, what are the lived experiences of AAI volunteer handlers are? An interpretive phenomenological methodology was used for this qualitative study. Data were collected from 1 - 2 hour-long semi-structured interviews and 1 observational field visit. All interviews were conducted, transcribed, and coded for themes by the principal investigator. Participants must have been an active St. John Ambulance Therapy Dog Program volunteer for a least one year. In total, 14 volunteer handlers, along with some of their dogs, were included. The St. John Ambulance is a not for profit organization that provides training and community services to Canadians. The Therapy Dog Program is 1 of the 4 nationally recognized core community service programs. The program incorporates dogs in the otherwise traditional therapeutic intervention of friendly visitation with clients. The lack of formal objectives and goals, and a trained therapist defines the program as an Animal-Assisted Activity (AAA), which is a type of AAI. Since the animals incorporated are dogs, the program is specifically a Canine-Assisted Activity (CAA), which is a type of Canine-Assisted Intervention (CAI). Six themes emerged from the analysis of the data: (a) a win-win-win situation for all parties involved – volunteer handlers, clients, and the dogs, (b) being on the other end of the leash: functions of the role of volunteer handler, (c) the importance of socialization: from spreading smiles to creating meaningful connections, (d) the role of the dog: initiating interaction and providing comfort, (e) an opportunity to feel good and destress, and (f) altruism versus personal rewards. Other insights were found regarding the program, clients, and staff. Possible implications from this research include increased organizational recruitment and retention of volunteer handlers and as well as increased support for CAAs and other CAIs that incorporate teams of volunteer handlers and their dogs. This support could, in turn, add overall support for the acceptance and broad implementation of AAIs as an alternative and or complementary non-pharmaceutical therapeutic intervention.

Keywords: Qualitative, perspective, animal-assisted activity, animal-assisted intervention, canine-assisted activity, canine-assisted intervention, volunteer handler

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819 Prebiotics and Essential Oils-Enriched Diet Can Increase the Efficiency of Vaccine against Furunculosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

Authors: Niki Hayatgheib, SéGolèNe Calvez, Catherine Fournel, Lionel Pineau, Herve Pouliquen, Emmanuelle Moreau

Abstract:

Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known disease found principally in salmonid aquaculture. Vaccination has been partly successful in preventing this disease, but outbreaks still occur. The application of functional feed additive found to be a promising yield to improve fish health against diseases. In this study, we tested the efficacy of prebiotics and plant essential oils-enriched diet on immune response and disease resistance in vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against furunculosis. A total of 600 fish were fed with the basal diet or supplement. On 4th week of feeding, fish were vaccinated with an autovaccine. Following 8 weeks, fish were challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and mortalities were recorded for 3 weeks. Lysozyme activity and antibody titer in serum were measured in different groups. The results of this study showed that lysozyme and circulatory antibody titer in plasma elevated significantly in vaccinated fish fed with additive. The best growth rate and relative percentage survival (62%) were in fish fed with a supplement, while 15% in control fish. Overall, prebiotics and essential oils association can be considered as a potential component for enhancing vaccine efficacy against furunculosis by increasing the growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance in rainbow trout.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Vaccination, Fish, Disease Resistance, Immune response, rainbow trout, aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, prebiotics-essential oils feed additive

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818 Haematological Changes and Anticoccidial Activities of Kaempferol in Eimeria Tenella Infected Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ya'u Muhammad, Umar Umar A. Mallammadori, Dahiru Mansur

Abstract:

Effect of kaempferol on haematological parameters in two weeks old broiler chickens with experimental Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated in this study. Sixty-day old broilers were randomly allotted into six groups (I-VI) of ten broilers each and brooded for two weeks with commercial broiler feed (vital feed®) and provided water ad libitum. At two weeks of age broilers in group 1 were neither infected nor treated. Broilers in groups II-VI were infected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocyst (104/ml) via oral inoculation. After infection was established, broilers in groups II-IV were treated orally with 1 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg of kaempferol, respectively. Broilers in group V were treated for five days with amprolium, 1.25 g/L in drinking water. Broilers in group VI were administered normal saline, 5 ml/kg per os for five days. Five days post infection; all broilers were sacrificed by severing their jugular veins. Blood sample from each bird was collected in EDTA container for haematology. Caecal contents were harvested and used to determine the lesion score and caecal Oocyst count respectively. Data obtained was analyzed using pad prism version 5.0. Mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and Red Blood Cell (RBC) count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. Similarly, PCV, Hb concentration, and RBC count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV when compared to VI. No significant (P > 0.05) difference in the mean values of PCV, Hb and RBC count were recorded between groups treated with kaempferol and group V. Caecal Oocyst counts and lesion scores reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. It was therefore observed in this study that kaempferol improved haematological parameters and reduced Oocyst count as well as the lesion scores in broilers infected with Eimeria tenella.

Keywords: broilers, kaempferol, Eimeria tenella, lesion scores, oocyst count

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817 Influence of Age on Some Testicular and Spermatic Parameters in Kids and Bucks in Local Breed Arbia in Algeria

Authors: Safsaf Boubakeur, Boukhalfa Djemouai, Belkadi Souhila

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To increase the profitability of the national herd so that it can meet the needs of the population, Algeria has proceeded to the introduction of new reproductive biotechnologies, including artificial insemination on natural heat, by induction and heat synchronization. This biotechnology uses the male way for the creation and dissemination of genetic progress. The study has focused on 30 goat kids and bucks local breed aged between 03 and 24 months, divided into 03 groups 03-06 months[Grp 1; n=9], 07-10 months [Grp 2; n=13] and 11-24 months [Grp 3; n=8], in order to determine the influence of age on testicular evolution by measurements of testis and scrotum, and the epididymis sperm parameters evaluation. These parameters are influenced by age variations (sperm and spermocytogram). The examined parameters have focused on testicular weight (grams), the scrotal circumference (cm), mass mobility (%), vitality rate (%), sperm concentration (x 109), and percentage of abnormal spermatozoa (%). The ANOVA reveals a significance effect of age on parameters: testis weight, scrotal circumference, sperm concentration, motility varying between high (p < 0.01) to very high significance (p < 0.001), while in viability and abnormalities no significance was observed between all groups. The value of these parameters increased significantly until the age of 02 years, while that of sperm abnormalities has increased in Grp2. The histological study of testicular development shows that the genetic spermatozoa function characterized by cell proliferation, which is more and more intense starting from the age of 05 months and can be considered as an age of puberty in the local breed goat Arbia and increases with animal age.

Keywords: testicular measurements, kids and bucks, epididymis sperm, Arbia breed

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816 Positivity of Pathogenic Leptospira in Pigs from Rural Communities on the Coast of Ecuador

Authors: Veronica Barragan, Ligia Luna, Maria Patricia Zambrano, Carlos Bulnes, Eduardo Diaz, Talima Pearson

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Leptospirosis impacts animal production and is responsible for important economic losses in the pig industry. Infection is associated with reproductive failures that lead to abortions, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality. The leptospira serogroups that have been traditionally linked to disease in pigs are Pomona, Australis, and Tarassovi. Unfortunately, knowledge about pig leptospirosis is biased towards infection in large-scale commercial farms from developed countries, where exposure is usually limited to host-specific serotypes. The aim of our study is to describe leptospirosis in pigs from rural communities located in the coast of Ecuador-South America, where leptospirosis is endemic. A particularity of these pigs is that, because they are usually raised in the backyard of their owner’s houses, exposure to other leptospira excreted by other animals is likely to occur. Therefore, we collected 420 kidney samples from pigs sacrificed at a local slaughterhouse, and Leptospira positivity was tested in all samples by amplifying the Lipl32 gen. Our results show pathogenic Leptospira positivity in 19.3% (81/420) of pigs. Microaglutination test was performed in 60 PCR positive samples with titers >1:100 in 17 pigs, titers of 1:50 in 28 pigs, and no MAT titers in 15 pigs even though Leptospira DNA was found in their kidneys. Interestingly, reacting serovars were very diverse, with 18.3% of pig sera reacting with two or more serovars. Additionally, serovar Canicola was found in 16.7% of pigs followed by Tarassovi (10%), Australis (6.7%), Pyogenes (5%), Icterohaemorrhageae (1.7%), and Grippotyphosa (1.7%). It is also important to highlight that most of the analyzed animals came from small-scale farms where pigs may be exposed to the pathogen by exposure to other domestic and peridomestic animals such as rats, dogs, horses, donkeys, and even wildlife. This would explain the finding of non-pig adapted Leptospira serovars such as Canicola, which is commonly reported in dogs.

Keywords: Pig, Leptospira, Lipl32, peridomestic, serovar

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815 Assessment Environmental and Economic of Yerba Mate as a Feed Additive on Feedlot Lamb

Authors: Danny Alexander R. Moreno, Gustavo L. Sartorello, Yuli Andrea P. Bermudez, Richard R. Lobo, Ives Claudio S. Bueno, Augusto H. Gameiro

Abstract:

Meat production is a significant sector for Brazil's economy; however, the agricultural segment has suffered censure regarding the negative impacts on the environment, which consequently results in climate change. Therefore, it is essential the implementation of nutritional strategies that can improve the environmental performance of livestock. This research aimed to estimate the environmental impact and profitability of the use of yerba mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis) as an additive in the feeding of feedlot lamb. Thirty-six castrated male lambs (average weight of 23.90 ± 3.67 kg and average age of 75 days) were randomly assigned to four experimental diets with different levels of inclusion of yerba mate extract (0, 1, 2, and 4 %) based on dry matter. The animals were confined for fifty-three days and fed with 60:40 corn silage to concentrate ratio. As an indicator of environmental impact, the carbon footprint (CF) was measured as kg of CO₂ equivalent (CO₂-eq) per kg of body weight produced (BWP). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as methane (CH₄) generated from enteric fermentation, were calculated using the sulfur hexafluoride gas tracer (SF₆) technique; while the CH₄, nitrous oxide (N₂O - emissions generated by feces and urine), and carbon dioxide (CO₂ - emissions generated by concentrate and silage processing) were estimated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology. To estimate profitability, the gross margin was used, which is the total revenue minus the total cost; the latter is composed of the purchase of animals and food. The boundaries of this study considered only the lamb fattening system. The enteric CH₄ emission from the lamb was the largest source of on-farm GHG emissions (47%-50%), followed by CH₄ and N₂O emissions from manure (10%-20%) and CO₂ emission from the concentrate, silage, and fossil energy (17%-5%). The treatment that generated the least environmental impact was the group with 4% of yerba mate extract (YME), which showed a 3% reduction in total GHG emissions in relation to the control (1462.5 and 1505.5 kg CO₂-eq, respectively). However, the scenario with 1% YME showed an increase in emissions of 7% compared to the control group. In relation to CF, the treatment with 4% YME had the lowest value (4.1 kg CO₂-eq/kg LW) compared with the other groups. Nevertheless, although the 4% YME inclusion scenario showed the lowest CF, the gross margin decreased by 36% compared to the control group (0% YME), due to the cost of YME as a food additive. The results showed that the extract has the potential for use in reducing GHG. However, the cost of implementing this input as a mitigation strategy increased the production cost. Therefore, it is important to develop political strategies that help reduce the acquisition costs of input that contribute to the search for the environmental and economic benefit of the livestock sector.

Keywords: Profitability, Meat Production, Sheep, natural additives

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814 Feeding Effects of Increasing Levels of Yerba Mate on Lamb Meat Quality

Authors: Danny Alexander R. Moreno, Yuli Andrea P. Bermudez, Richard R. Lobo, Tamyres R. D. Amorim, Angelica Simone C. Pereira, Ives Claudio D. Bueno

Abstract:

The use of natural antioxidants in animal feed can positively modify the profile of fatty acids (FAs) in meat, due to the presence of secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic and flavonoid compounds, which promote an increase in the associated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with beneficial factors in human health. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion percentage of yerba mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) as a natural antioxidant on lamb meat quality. The animals were confined for 53 days and fed with corn silage and concentrated in the proportion of 60:40, respectively, were divided into four homogeneous groups (n = 9 lambs/group), to each of the treatments, one control group without yerba mate extract - YME (0%) and three treatments with 1, 2 and 4% the inclusion of YME on a DM basis. Samples of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle were collected from the deboning of 36 lambs, analyzing pH values, color parameters (brightness: L*, red value: a*, and yellow: b*), fatty acid profile, total lipids, and sensory analysis. The inclusion of YME modified the value of b* (P = 0.0041), indicating a higher value of yellow color in the meat, for the group supplemented with 4% YME. All data were statistically evaluated using the MIXED procedure of the statistical package SAS 9.4. However, it did not show differences in the final live weight in the groups evaluated, as well as in the pH values (P = 0.1923) and the total lipid concentration (P = 0.0752). The FAs (P ≥ 0.1360) and health indexes were not altered by the inclusion of YME (P ≥ 0.1360); only branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) exhibited a diet effect (P = 0.0092) in the group that had 4% of the extract. In the sensory analysis test with a hedonic scale it did not show differences between the treatments (P ≥ 0.1251). Nevertheless, in the just about-right test, using (note 1) to 'very strong, softness or moist' (note 5); the softness was different between the evaluated treatments (P = 0.0088) where groups with 2% YME had a better acceptance of tasters (4.15 ± 0.08) compared to the control (3.89 ± 0.08). In conclusion, although the addition of YME has shown positive results in sensory acceptance and in increasing the concentration of BCFA, fatty acids beneficial to human health, without changing the physical-chemical parameters in lamb meat, the absolute changes are considered to have been quite small, which was probably related to the high efficiency of PUFA biohydrogenation in the n the rumen.

Keywords: Composition, Health, antioxidant, meat analysis

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813 In vivo Estimation of Mutation Rate of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus

Authors: P.P. Rupasinghe, A.H. Farid

Abstract:

The Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV, Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) causes persistent infection, plasmacytosis, and formation and deposition of immune complexes in various organs in adult mink, leading to glomerulonephritis, arteritis and sometimes death. The disease has no cure nor an effective vaccine, and identification and culling of mink positive for anti-AMDV antibodies have not been successful in controlling the infection in many countries. The failure to eradicate the virus from infected farms may be caused by keeping false-negative individuals on the farm, virus transmission from wild animals, or neighboring farms. The identification of sources of infection, which can be performed by comparing viral sequences, is important in the success of viral eradication programs. High mutation rates could cause inaccuracies when viral sequences are used to trace back an infection to its origin. There is no published information on the mutation rate of AMDV either in vivo or in vitro. The in vivo estimation is the most accurate method, but it is difficult to perform because of the inherent technical complexities, namely infecting live animals, the unknown numbers of viral generations (i.e., infection cycles), the removal of deleterious mutations over time and genetic drift. The objective of this study was to determine the mutation rate of AMDV on which no information was available. A homogenate was prepared from the spleen of one naturally infected American mink (Neovison vison) from Nova Scotia, Canada (parental template). The near full-length genome of this isolate (91.6%, 4,143 bp) was bidirectionally sequenced. A group of black mink was inoculated with this homogenate (descendant mink). Spleen sampled were collected from 10 descendant mink after 16 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) and from anther 10 mink after 176 wpi, and their near-full length genomes were bi-directionally sequenced. Sequences of these mink were compared with each other and with the sequence of the parental template. The number of nucleotide substitutions at 176 wpi was 3.1 times greater than that at 16 wpi (113 vs 36) whereas the estimates of mutation rate at 176 wpi was 3.1 times lower than that at 176 wpi (2.85×10-3 vs 9.13×10-4 substitutions/ site/ year), showing a decreasing trend in the mutation rate per unit of time. Although there is no report on in vivo estimate of the mutation rate of DNA viruses in animals using the same method which was used in the current study, these estimates are at the higher range of reported values for DNA viruses determined by various techniques. These high estimates are logical based on the wide range of diversity and pathogenicity of AMDV isolates. The results suggest that increases in the number of nucleotide substitutions over time and subsequent divergence make it difficult to accurately trace back AMDV isolates to their origin when several years elapsed between the two samplings.

Keywords: mutation rate, Aleutian mink disease virus, American mink, nucleotide substitution

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812 Effects of Punicalagin on Some Productive and Reproductive Traits in Virgin Rabbit Does

Authors: Nada A. El-Shahaw, Anas A.Salem, M. Kobeisy, Hoda M. Shabaan

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is collective term both oxygen radical, such superoxide (O₂•), hydroxyl(OH•), peroxyl (RO₂), and hydroperoxyl (HO₂•), and certain non-radical oxidizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), hypochlorous acid (HOCL), and ozone (O₃), that can be convert easily to radical. The importance of antioxidants is shown here punicalagin. Punicalagin is preventing the harmful effect of (ROS) in all cells, specially gonadal cells. So, the aim of study was to investigate effects of punicalagin (PL) on maternal live body weight (MLBW), number of services/conception (NS), conception rate (CR), gestation length (GL), kindling rate (KR), total litter size (TLS), live litter size (LLS), kit weight (KW), progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17 (E2) concentrations at 1st and 2nd pregnancy of young does. A total of 28 healthy virgin does (6 months old) were divided into 2 equal groups. Group I, each doe, was injected IM with 100 ug PL twice/week pre-mating and one time 3 days post-mating. Group II, each doe was injected IM with sterilized water (control). Blood samples were taken at pre-mating, mating, post-mating, throughout pregnancy, and immediately post-kindling for assaying P4 and E2. All does were naturally mated with fertile bucks. Results revealed that PL displayed their significant impacts on MLBW, NS/conception, CR, GL, KR, TLS, LLS, KWs (birth and weaning), P4 and E2 concentrations either at 1ˢᵗ/2ⁿᵈ pregnancy or both of them. Conclusively, PL improved pregnancy outcomes of young do particularly at 2ⁿᵈ pregnancy and could be recommended in rabbit's farms.

Keywords: pregnancy, progesterone, estradiol-17β, punicalagin, does

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811 Identifying Pathogenic Mycobacterium Species Using Multiple Gene Phylogenetic Analysis

Authors: Lemar Blake, Chris Oura, Ayanna C. N. Phillips Savage

Abstract:

Improved DNA sequencing technology has greatly enhanced bacterial identification, especially for organisms that are difficult to culture. Mycobacteriosis with consistent hyphema, bilateral exophthalmia, open mouth gape and ocular lesions, were observed in various fish populations at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Aquaculture/Aquatic Animal Health Unit. Objective: To identify the species of Mycobacterium that is affecting aquarium fish at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Aquaculture/Aquatic Animal Health Unit. Method: A total of 13 fish samples were collected and analyzed via: Ziehl-Neelsen, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. These tests were carried out simultaneously for confirmation. The following combination of conventional primers: 16s rRNA (564 bp), rpoB (396 bp), sod (408 bp) were used. Concatenation of the gene fragments was carried out to phylogenetically classify the organism. Results: Acid fast non-branching bacilli were detected in all samples from homogenized internal organs. All 13 acid fast samples were positive for Mycobacterium via real-time PCR. Partial gene sequences using all three primer sets were obtained from two samples and demonstrated a novel strain. A strain 99% related to Mycobacterium marinum was also confirmed in one sample, using 16srRNA and rpoB genes. The two novel strains were clustered with the rapid growers and strains that are known to affect humans. Conclusions: Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated two novel Mycobacterium strains with the potential of being zoonotic and one strain 99% related to Mycobacterium marinum.

Keywords: DNA Sequencing, Polymerase chain reaction, phylogenetic, zoonotic

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810 Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors Associated with Skin Affection in Donkeys

Authors: Mohamed Z. Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed M. Ahdy, Emad E. Younis, Sabry A. El-Khodary

Abstract:

Little research information is available on the prevalence of diseases of donkeys in Egypt. Across sectional study was undertaken between March 2009 and February 2010 to verify the prevalence of skin affection of donkeys. A total of 1134 donkeys in northern Egypt were investigated. A questionnaire was constructed to verify the number of infected contact animals as well as the associated factors. Physical examination was carried out, and the distribution of skin lesions was recorded. Skin scraping and biopsy were obtained to perform bacteriological, mycological, and histopathological examinations. Thirty-five (3.09%) out of 1134 noticed donkeys had skin affections including mange (18/35), dermatophytosis (6/35), bacterial dermatitis (6/35) urticaria (2/35) and allergic dermatitis (3/35). The present results indicate that mange and dermatophytosis are the prevalent skin diseases in donkeys. Contact with other animal species of contaminated environment may contribute to the occurrence of the diseases.

Keywords: Prevalence, Egypt, donkeys, skin affection

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809 Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Fermented Feed Mulberry(Morus alba L.) on Reproductive Performance and Fecal M Icro Biota of Pregnant Sows

Authors: Yuping Zhang, Teng Ma, Nadia Everaert, Hongfu Zhang

Abstract:

Supplying dietary fiber during gestation is known to improve the welfare of feed-restricted sows. However, whether high fiber supplementation during pregnancy can improve the performance of sows and their offspring depends on the type, amount, source, etc., in which the solubility plays a key important role. Insoluble fibers have been shown to increase feed intake of sows in lactation, meet the needs of sows for milk production, reduce sow’s weight and backfat loss, and thus improve the performance of sows and their offspring. In this study, we investigated the effect of the addition of fermented feed mulberry (FFM), rich in insoluble fiber, during the whole gestation on the performance of sows and their offspring and explored possible mechanisms by determining serum hormones and fecal microbiota. The FFM-diet contained 25.5% FFM (on dry matter basis) and was compared with the control–diet (CON, corn, and soybean meal diet). The insoluble fiber content of the FFM and CON diet are respectively 29.3% and 19.1%. both groups were allocated 20 multiparous sows, and they are fed different feed allowance to make sure all the sows get the same digestible energy for each day. After farrowing, all sows were fed the same lactation diet ad libitum. The serum estradiol, progesterone concentration, blood glucose, and insulin levels at gestation day 0, 20, and 60 were tested. And also, the composition and differences fecal microbiota at day 60 of gestation were analyzed. Fecal consistency was determined with Bristol stool scale method, those with a score below 3 were counted as constipation The results showed that there was no impact of the FFM treatment on sows’ backfat, bodyweight changes, blood glucose, serum estradiol, and progesterone concentration, litter size, and performance of the offspring(p > 0.05), Except significant decrease in the concentration of insulin in sows’ serum at 60 days of gestation were observed in the FFM group compare to the CON group (P < 0.01). FFM diet also significantly increased feed intake on the first, third, and 21st days of sow lactation. (p < 0.01); The α- and β- diversity and abundance of the microbiota were significant increased (p < 0.01) compared with the CON group, The abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were significantly increased, meanwhile the abundances of Spirochetes, Proteobacteria, and Euryarchaeota, were significantly reduced in the feces of the FFM group. We also analyzed the fecal microbiota of constipated sows vs non-constipated sows and found that the diversity and abundance did also differ between these two groups. FFM and CON group < 0.01). The relationship between sow’s constipation and microbiota merits further investigation.

Keywords: reproductive performance, fermented feed mulberry, fecal flora, sow

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808 Reclamation of Saline and Alkaline Soils through Aquaculture: A Review and Prospects for Future Research

Authors: M. Shivakumar, S. R. Somashekhar, C. V. Raju

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Secondary salinization of agricultural lands in any command areas of the world is the major issue in the recent past. Currently, it is estimated that the 954 mh of saline and alkaline soil is present in the world. Thousands of hectares of land, getting added every year. Argentina, Bangladesh and Australia are most affected countries. In India, out of 142.80 million hectare (mh) cropped area, 56 mh is irrigated area. Of which, more than 9 mh (about 16.%) of land is found to be alkaline/saline. Due to continuous utilization of same land for same agricultural activities, excessive usage of fertilizers and water, most of the soils have become alkaline, saline or water logged. These lands are low productive and at times totally unfit for agricultural activities. These soils may or may not posses good physical condition, but plants may suffer from its inability to absorb water from salty solution. Plants suffer from dehydration and loose water to the soil, shrink, resulting death of plant. This process is called plasmolysis. It is the fact that soil is an independent, organic body of nature that acquires properties in accordance with forces which act upon it. Aquaculture is one of the solutions to utilize such problematic soils for food production. When the impoundments are constructed in an area 10-15% of the affected areas, the excess water along with the salts gets into impoundments and management of salt is easier in water than in the soil. Due to high organic input in aquaculture such as feed, manure and continuous deposition of fecal matter, pH of the soil gets reduced and over the period of time such soils can be put back into the original activity. Under National Agricultural Development Program (NADP), the project was implemented in 258 villages of Mandya District, Karnataka State, India and found that these lands can be effectively utilized for fish culture and increase the proteinacious food production by many folds while conserving the soils. The findings of the research can be adopted and up scaled in any country.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Problematic Soils, reclamation, saline and alkaline soils

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807 Macroscopic Study of Reproductive Pathologies in Cows at the Souk-Ahras Communal Slaughterhouse

Authors: Besma Abdeltif, Chebabhi Imen

Abstract:

Introduction: it is important to define the genital pathologies encountered in Algeria in postpartum dairy cows. The objective was to identify the different pathologies of reproduction in cows found at the communal abattoir of Souk Ahras. Materials and Methods: Our study was carried at the communal slaughterhouse of Souk-Ahras on 63 genital tracts were examined macroscopically after slaughter. Results: The results obtained reveal a high frequency of pregnant females (14.28%), most of the gestations were at their beginning. Uterine anomalies ranked first in the genital lesions of the cow (20.37%). The frequencies of these abnormalities are in ascending order: aplasia of the horns = 1.85%, traumatic cervical = 1.85%, cervical tumors = 1.85%, chronic endometritis = 3.70% and Acute endometritis = 11.11%. The ovarian cyst is the most common lesion, with a frequency of 3.70%, followed by smooth ovaries (1.85%). These are single, thin-walled cysts more present on the right ovary than the left ovary. Salpingitis is the only tubal lesion found on 5.55% of the non-pregnant genital tract. Neoformation is the only vaginal lesion identified in this work (1.85%). Conclusion: Our result, in general, conforms to the data of the literature.

Keywords: Pathology, cow, slaughterhouse, genital tract

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806 Cloning and Analysis of Nile Tilapia Toll-like receptors Type-3 mRNA

Authors: Abdelazeem Algammal, Reham Abouelmaatti, XIAOKUN Li, JISHENG Ma, Eman Abdelnaby, Wael Elfeil

Abstract:

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best understood of the innate immune receptors that detect infections in vertebrates. However, the fish TLRs also exhibit very distinct features and a large diversity, which is likely derived from their diverse evolutionary history and the distinct environments that they occupy. Little is known about the fish immune system structure. Our work was aimed to identify and clone the Nile tilapiaTLR-3 as a model of freshwater fish species; we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) TLR-3 and according to our knowledge, it is the first report illustrating tilapia TLR-3. The complete cDNA sequence of Nile tilapia TLR-3 was 2736 pair base and it encodes a polypeptide of 912 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that Nile tilapia TLR-3 has typical structural features and main components of proteins belonging to the TLR family. Our results illustrate a complete and functional Nile tilapia TLR-3 and it is considered an ortholog of the other vertebrate’s receptor.

Keywords: Gene expression, Cloning, Nile tilapia, TLR-3

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805 Developing a Set of Primers Targeting Chondroitin Ac Lyase Gene for Specific and Sensitive Detection of Flavobacterium Columnare, a Causative Agent of Freshwater Columnaris

Authors: Channarong Rodkhum, Mahmoud Mabrok

Abstract:

Flavobacterium columanre is one of the devastating pathogen that causes noticeable economic losses in freshwater cultured fish. Like other filamentous bacteria, F. columanre tends to aggregate and fluctuate to all kind of media, thus revealing obstacles in recognition of its colonies. Since the molecular typing is the only fundamental tool for rapid and precise detection of this pathgen. The present study developed a species-specific PCR assay based on cslA unique gene of F. columnare. The cslA gene sequences of 13 F. columnare, strains retrieved from gene bank database, were aligned to identify a conserved homologous segment prior to primers design. The new primers yielded amplicons of 287 bp from F. columnare strains but not from relevant or other pathogens, unlike to other published set that showed no specificity and cross-reactivity with F. indicum. The primers were sensitive and detected as few as 7 CFUs of bacteria and 3 pg of gDNA template. The sensitivity was reduced ten times when using tissue samples. These primers precisely defined all field isolates in a double-blind study, proposing their applicable use for field detection.

Keywords: PCR, Flavobacterium columnare, Columnaris infection, cslA gene

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804 Dietary Anion-Cation Balance of Grass and Net Acid-Base Excretion in Urine of Suckler Cows

Authors: H. Scholz, G. Heckenberger, P. Kuehne

Abstract:

Dietary Anion-Cation Balance (DCAB) in grazing systems under German conditions has a tendency to decrease from May until September and often are measured DCAB lower than 100 meq per kg dry matter. Lower DCAB in grass feeding system can change the metabolic status of suckler cows and often are results in acidotic metabolism. Measurement of acid-base excretion in dairy cows has been proved to a method to evaluate the acid-base status. The hypothesis was that metabolic imbalances could be identified by urine measurement in suckler cows. The farm study was conducted during the grazing seasons 2017 and 2018 and involved 7 suckler cow farms in Germany. Suckler cows were grazing during the whole time of the investigation and had no access to other feeding components. Cows had free access to water and salt block and free access to minerals (loose). The dry matter of the grass was determined at 60 °C and were then analysed for energy and nutrient content and for the Dietary Cation-Anion Balance (DCAB). Urine was collected in 50 ml-glasses and analysed for net acid-base excretion (NSBA) and the concentration of creatinine and urea in the laboratory. Statistical analysis took place with ANOVA with fixed effects of farms (1-7), month (May until September), and number of lactations (1, 2, and ≥ 3 lactations) using SPSS Version 25.0 for windows. An alpha of 0.05 was used for all statistical tests. During the grazing periods of years 2017 and 2018, an average DCAB was observed in the grass of 167 meq per kg DM. A very high mean variation could be determined from -42 meq/kg to +439 meq/kg. Reference values in relation to DCAB were described between 150 meq and 400 meq per kg DM. It was found the high chlorine content with reduced potassium level led to this reduction in DCAB at the end of the grazing period. Between the DCAB of the grass and the NSBA in urine of suckler cows was a correlation according to PEARSON of r = 0.478 (p ≤ 0.001) or after SPEARMAN of r = 0.601 (p ≤ 0.001) observed. For the control of urine values of grazing suckler cows, the wide spread of the values poses a challenge of the interpretation, especially since the DCAB is unknown. The influence of several feeding components such as chlorine, sulfur, potassium, and sodium (ions for the DCAB) and dry matter feed intake during the grazing period of suckler cows should be taken into account in further research. The results obtained show that up a decrease in the DCAB is related to a decrease in NSBA in urine of suckler cows. Monitoring of metabolic disturbances should include analysis of urine, blood, milk, and ruminal fluid.

Keywords: grazing period, suckler cow, dietary anion-cation balance, DCAB, net acid-base excretion, NSBA

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803 Full Fat Soybean Meal as a Substitute for Soybean Meal in Broiler Rations

Authors: R. M. K. S. Chandana, A. P. D. G. Pathirana, N. Priyankarage, W. A. D. Nayananjalie, S. S. P. Silva

Abstract:

Full fat soybean meal (FFSBM) has been used in many parts of the world together with solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in livestock feeds. Although some local FFSBM is available, their use has not been assessed experimentally. This study was carried out to evaluate the use of local extruded FFSBM in broiler rations. Four treatment diets were formulated by incorporating locally produced FFSBM (0, 10, 20, and 30%) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) in a two-phase (starter and finisher) feeding program. Two hundred Hubbard F 15 day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into four treatments with five replicates per each. Bodyweight gain (BWG), feed intakes (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated for a period of 42 days. Nutrient utilization in the form of dry matter (DM), energy, nitrogen, and fat retention were estimated by the total collection method in three weeks old broilers. At the end of the experiment, carcass weight was measured, and the dressing percentage was calculated. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SAS. There was no significant effect of FFSBM on feed intakes of chicks fed different diets (p > 0.05). Birds fed the control diet, and FF10 (10% FFSBM diet) gained significantly more than that of birds fed FF20 or FF30 diets (p > 0.05). In the finisher period, control birds gained more than all the other treatment birds. FCR was poorer in bird fed higher levels of FFSBM compared to the control or FF10 birds during their early life, but that was not evident in the latter part of the experiment. Treatments did not alter (p > 0.05) the retention of DM and nitrogen, but energy utilization was lowest (p < 0.05) in birds fed with 0% FFSBM, and the highest fat digestibility was observed in birds fed with 30% FFSBM diets. Thus, it can be concluded that FFSBM can be used as a substitute for SBM in broiler rations and could be incorporated up to 10% of the diet safely with no adverse effects on broiler performances.

Keywords: digestibility, broiler, body weight, soybean meal, full fat soybean meal

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802 A Meta Regression Analysis to Detect Price Premium Threshold for Eco-Labeled Seafood

Authors: Cristina Giosuè, Federica Biondo, Sergio Vitale

Abstract:

In the last years, the consumers' awareness for environmental concerns has been increasing, and seafood eco-labels are considered as a possible instrument to improve both seafood markets and sustainable fishing management. In this direction, the aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for eco-labeled wild seafood, by a meta-regression. Therefore, only papers published on ISI journals were searched on “Web of Knowledge” and “SciVerse Scopus” platforms, using the combinations of the following key words: seafood, ecolabel, eco-label, willingness, WTP and premium. The dataset was built considering: paper’s and survey’s codes, year of publication, first author’s nationality, species’ taxa and family, sample size, survey’s continent and country, data collection (where and how), gender and age of consumers, brand and ΔWTP. From analysis the interest on eco labeled seafood emerged clearly, in particular in developed countries. In general, consumers declared greater willingness to pay than that actually applied for eco-label products, with difference related to taxa and brand.

Keywords: Seafood, willingness to pay, eco label, meta regression

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