Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 762

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Animal and Veterinary Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

762 Bioprophylaxis of Saprolegniasis in Incubated Clarias Gariepinus Eggs Using Pyocyanin Extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: G. A. Oladosu1, P. O. Ogbodogbo, C. I. Makinde1, M. O. Tijani, O. A. Adegboyega

Abstract:

Saprolegniasis is a major pathogenic infection that contributes significantly to poor hatching rates in incubated fish eggs in the Africa catfish hatchery in Nigeria. Malachite green known to be very effective against this condition has been banned because it is carcinogenic. There is, therefore, the need for other effective yet safer methods of controlling saprolegniasis in incubated fish eggs. A total of 50 ml crude, chloroform extract of pyocyanin from which solvent was removed to attain 30 ml, having a concentration of 12.16 ug/ml was produced from 700 ml broth culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a previous study. In-vitro susceptibility of the fungus was investigated by exposing fungal infected eggs to two different time-concentration ratios of pyocyanin; 0.275 ug/ml and 2.75 ug/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and 5 mg/L malachite green as positive control while normal saline was the control. The efficacy of pyocyanin was evaluated using the degree of mycelial growth inhibition in different treatments. Fertilized Clarias gariepinus eggs (between 45 to 64 eggs) were then incubated in 20 ml of medium containing similar concentrations of pyocyanin and malachite green, with freshwater as a control for 24 hours. Hatching rates of the incubated eggs were observed. Three samples of un-hatched eggs were taken from each medium and observed for the presence of fungal pathogens using microscopy. Another batch of three samples of un-hatched eggs from each treatment was also inoculated on Sabourand dextrose agar (SDA) using Egg-Agar Transfer Technique to observe for fungal growth. Mycelial growth was inhibited in fungal infected eggs treated with 2.75 ug/ml for 24 hrs and the 5 mg/L malachite green for both 1 hr and 24 hrs. The mortality rate was 100% in fertilized C. gariepinus eggs exposed for 24 hrs to 0.275 and 2.75 ug/ml of pyocyanin. The mortality rate was least in malachite green followed by the control treatment. Embryonic development was observed to be arrested in the eggs treated with the two pyocyanin concentrations as they maintain their colour but showed no development beyond the gastrula stage, whereas viable eggs in the control and malachite green treatments developed fully into healthy hatchlings. Furthermore, microscopy of the un-hatched eggs revealed the presence of a protozoan ciliate; Colpidium sp, (Tetrahymenidae), as well as a pathogenic fungus; Saprolegnia sp. in the control but not in the malachite green and pyocyanin treatments. Growth of Saprolegnia sp was also observed in SDA culture of un-hatched eggs from the control, but not from pyocyanin and malachite green treated eggs. Pyocyanin treatment of incubated eggs of Clarias gariepinus effectively prevented fungal infection in the eggs, but also arrested the development of the embryo. Therefore, crude chloroform extract of pyocyanin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used in the control of Saprolegniasis in incubated Clarias gariepinus eggs at the concentration and duration tested in this study.

Keywords: African catfish, bioprophylaxis, catfish embryo, Saprolegniasis

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761 Laboratory Diagnostic Testing of Peste des Petits Ruminants in Georgia

Authors: Nino G. Vepkhvadze, Tea Enukidze

Abstract:

Every year the number of countries around the world face the risk of the spread of infectious diseases that bring significant ecological and social-economic damage. Hence, the importance of food product safety is emphasized that is the issue of interest for many countries. To solve them, it’s necessary to conduct preventive measures against the diseases, have accurate diagnostic results, leadership, and management. The Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease is caused by a morbillivirus closely related to the rinderpest virus. PPR is a transboundary disease as it emerges and evolves, considered as one of the top most damaging animal diseases. The disease imposed a serious threat to sheep-breeding when the farms of sheep, goats are significantly growing within the country. In January 2016, PPR was detected in Georgia. Up to present the origin of the virus, the age relationship of affected ruminants and the distribution of PPRV in Georgia remains unclear. Due to the nature of PPR, and breeding practices in the country, reemerging of the disease in Georgia is highly likely. The purpose of the studies is to provide laboratories with efficient tools allowing the early detection of PPR emergence and re-emergences. This study is being accomplished under the Biological Threat Reduction Program project with the support of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The purpose of the studies is to investigate the samples and identify areas at high risk of the disease. Georgia has a high density of small ruminant herds bred as free-ranging, close to international borders. Kakheti region, Eastern Georgia, will be considered as area of high priority for PPR surveillance. For this reason, in 2019, in Kakheti region investigated n=484 sheep and goat serum and blood samples from the same animals, utilized serology and molecular biology methods. All samples were negative by RT-PCR, and n=6 sheep samples were seropositive by ELISA-Ab. Future efforts will be concentrated in areas where the risk of PPR might be high such as international bordering regions of Georgia. For diagnostics, it is important to integrate the PPRV knowledge with epidemiological data. Based on these diagnostics, the relevant agencies will be able to control the disease surveillance.

Keywords: animal disease, especially dangerous pathogen, laboratory diagnostics, virus

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760 The Impact of Animal-Assisted Pedagogy on Social Participation in Heterogenous Classrooms: A Survey Considering the Pupils Perspective on Animal-Assisted Teaching

Authors: Mona Maria Mombeck

Abstract:

Social participation in heterogeneous classrooms is one of the main goals in inclusive education. Children with special educational needs (SEN) and children with learning difficulties, or behavioural problems not diagnosed as SEN, are more likely to be excluded by other children than others. It is proven that the presence of dogs, as well as contact with dogs, increases the likelihood of positive social behaviour between humans. Therefore, animal-assisted pedagogy may be presumed to be a constructive way of inclusive teaching and facing the challenges of social inclusion in school classes. This study investigates the presence of a friendly dog in heterogeneous groups of pupils in order to evaluate the influence of dogs on facets of social participation of children in school. 30 German pupils, aged from 10 to 14, in four classes were questioned about their social participation before and after they were educated for a year in school with animal-assisted-pedagogy, using the problem-concerned interview method. In addition, the post-interview includes some general questions about the putative differences or similarities of being educated with and without a dog. The interviews were analysed with the qualitative-content-analysis using QDA software. The results showed that a dog has a positive impact on the atmosphere, student relationships, and well-being in class. Regarding the atmosphere, the pupils mainly argued that the improvement was caused by taking into account the dog’s well-being, respecting the dog-related rules, and by emotional self-regulation. It can be supposed that children regard the rules concerning the dog as more relevant to them than rules, not concerning the dog even if they require the same behaviour and goal. Furthermore, a dog has a positive impact on emotional self-regulation and, therefore, on pupil’s behaviour in class and the atmosphere. In terms of the statements about relationships, the dog’s presence was mainly seen to provide both a unifying aim and a uniting topic to talk about. The improved well-being was described as a feeling of joy and peace of mind. Moreover, the teacher was evaluated as more friendly and trustworthy after animal-assisted teaching. Nevertheless, animal-assisted pedagogy can, rarely, cause problems as well, such as jealousy, distraction, or concerns about the well-being of the dog. The study could prove the relevance of animal-assisted pedagogy for facing the challenges of social participation in inclusive education.

Keywords: animal-assisted-pedagogy, inclusive education, human-animal-interactions, social participation

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759 Direct Fed Microbes: A Better Approach to Maximize Utilization of Roughages in Tropical Ruminants

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti, Faiz-ul Hassan

Abstract:

Manipulating microbial ecosystem in the rumen is considered as an important strategy to optimize production efficiency in ruminants. In the past, antibiotics and synthetic chemical compounds have been used for the manipulation of rumen fermentation. However, since the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics has been banned, efforts are being focused to search out safe alternative products. In tropics, crop residues and forage grazing are major dietary sources for ruminants. Poor digestibility and utilization of these feedstuffs by animals is a limiting factor to exploit the full potential of ruminants in this area. Hence, there is a need to enhance the utilization of these available feeding resources. One of the potential strategies in this regard is the use of direct-fed microbes. Bacteria and fungi are mostly used as direct-fed microbes to improve animal health and productivity. Commonly used bacterial species include lactic acid-producing and utilizing bacteria (Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacillus) and fungal species of yeast are Saccharomyces and Aspergillus. Direct-fed microbes modulate microbial balance in the gastrointestinal tract through the competitive exclusion of pathogenic species and favoring beneficial microbes. Improvement in weight gain and feed efficiency has been observed as a result of feeding direct-fed bacteria. The use of fungi as a direct-fed microbe may prevent excessive production of lactate and harmful oxygen in the rumen leading to better feed digestibility. However, the mechanistic mode of action for bacterial or fungal direct-fed microbes has not been established yet. Various reports have confirmed an increase in dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk contents in response to the administration of direct-fed microbes. However, the application of a direct-fed microbe has shown variable responses mainly attributed to dosages and strains of microbes. Nonetheless, it is concluded that the inclusion of direct-fed microbes may mediate the rumen ecosystem to manage lactic acid production and utilization in both clinical and sub-acute rumen acidosis.

Keywords: microbes, roughages, rumen, feed efficiency, production, fermentation

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758 Synergetic Effect of Dietary Essential Amino Acids (Lysine and Methionine) on the Growth, Body Composition and Enzymes Activities of Genetically Male Tilapia

Authors: Noor Khan, Hira Waris

Abstract:

This study was conducted on genetically male tilapia (GMT) fry reared in glass aquarium for three months to examine the synergetic effect of essential amino acids (EAA) supplementation on growth, body composition, and enzyme activities. Fish having average body weight of 16.56 ± 0.42g were fed twice a day on artificial feed (20% crude protein) procured from Oryza Organics (commercial feed) supplemented with EAA; methionine (M) and lysine (L) designated as T1 (0.3%M and 2%L), T2 (0.6%M and 4%L), T3 (0.9%M and 6%L) and control without EAA. Significantly higher growth performance was observed in T1, followed by T2, T3, and control. The results revealed that whole-body dry matter and crude protein were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in T3 (0.9% and 6%) feeding fish, while the crude fat was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in a similar group of fish. Additionally, protease, amylase, and lipase activities were also observed maximum (p ≤ 0.05) in response to T3 than other treatments and control. However, the EAA, especially lysine and methionine, were found significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in T1 compared to other treatments. Conclusively, the addition of EAA, methionine, and lysine in the feed not only enhanced the growth performance of GMT fry but also improved body proximate composition and essential amino acid profile.

Keywords: genetically male tilapia, body composition, digestive enzyme activities, amino acid profile

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757 Black-Legged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Impacts on Hematology and Ectoparasite Communities of Peromyscus Mice

Authors: Erica Fellin, Albrecht Schulte-Hostedde

Abstract:

As the climate warms, the black-legged tick’s (Ixodes scapularis) range expands further north in Ontario, Canada, reaching new host populations that have not previously interacted with this blood-feeding parasite. Peromyscus mice in these northern areas are unfamiliar and inexperienced to the effects of these ticks compared to their southern counterparts that have adapted to living with these organisms. The purpose of this study was to see if there is a difference in physiology between these two groups – deer mice living in areas where tick populations have established and deer mice living in black-legged tick-free environments – looking specifically to see if there is significant variation in hemoglobin levels, which can negatively impact how these mice function in their environment. Along with this, a comparison of the parasite community structure on these mice hosts was analyzed to see if ticks change the composition of these micro-environments. Blood samples were collected from individual mice from populations where black-legged ticks were either present or absent to assess haemoglobin levels. At the same time, ectoparasites were collected from these same mice to determine parasite loads and species diversity. Haemoglobin levels were found to be lower when tick loads were high, and parasite diversity appeared to be higher when ticks were absent. Since black-legged ticks are carriers of many pathogens that can be passed on to humans, including Lyme’s disease, it is important to understand their movement and distribution across Ontario as well as their interactions with their hosts (and co-occurring parasites) in their environments.

Keywords: community ecology, hematology, hosts, parasites

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756 Prognostic Evaluation of Traumatic Neurological Damage by Electromyography in Street Animals

Authors: Hilal Acar, Hakan Salci

Abstract:

The traumatic neurological damages have an important place in veterinary medicine with high morbidity and mortality rates. In order to detect the localization of the trauma, the treatment regimen, and prognosis of the cases with neurological damage, neurological examination, and the other diagnostic methods can be a choice. Electromyography (EMG), which is commonly applied in recent years, provides valuable information in the evaluation of neurological lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognosis of the traumatic neurological damage in street animals by EMG examination. Fifteen cats and 15 dogs diagnosed with neurological damage as a result of clinical, neurological, and radiological examinations were included in this study material. All cases were grouped as monoparesis, paraparesis, paraplegia, and tetraparesis according to neurological examination findings. In all groups, motor nerve conduction velocity study and needle EMG examination were performed. The normal conduction velocity was 60 ± 10 m/sec for all healthy nerves. N. ulnaris, n. radialis, n. tibialis and n. peronealis of the cases were evaluated. The prognosis of the cases was determined based on the EMG examination findings. In clinical and neurological examinations, 16.65% monoparesis, 36.63% paraparesis, 9.99% paraplegia, and 36.63% tetraparesis were detected. In radiological evaluation, 13.32% bullet core in vertebral canal, 63.27% vertebral fracture, 9.99% pelvis fracture were determined; however, 13.32% of patients any pathology was observed radiologically. Conduction velocities of patients with monoparesis were detected low in 60% and normal in 40%. At 27.27% of the patients with paraparesis, n. tibialis motor conduction velocity was below 50 m/s, 45.45% above 50 m/sec, while at 27.27% of the patients the n. tibialis was not stimulated. N. peronealis conduction velocity was normal in 36.36%, low in 27.27%, and unavailable in 36.36%. At 66.66% of the patient with paraplegia, n. tibialis, and n. peronealis conduction velocity was decreased, but at 33.33% of patients were normal. In tetraparesis patients, n.tibialis was low in 36.36%, normal in 54.54%, and could not be recorded in 9.09%. N. ulnaris conduction velocity was low in 9.09%, normal in 72.72%, and unavailable in 18.18%. In the monoparesis group, 100% were positive on the basis of EMG examination findings. While the prognosis of 36.36% of the patients with paraparesis was positive, only 9.09% of the patients with tetraparesis were positive. The prognosis was negative in all patients in the paraplegia group. Consequently, EMG examination has a prognostic significance in the evaluation of traumatic neurological damage recognized on the basis of clinical, neurological, and radiological examination in street animals.

Keywords: electromyography, neurological damage, street animals, trauma

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755 Effect of Replacing Maize with Acha Offal in Broiler Chicken Diets on Performance, Haematology and Serum Biochemicals

Authors: Sudik S. D., Raymon J. B., Maidala A., Lawan A., Bagudu I. A.

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted with 240 Abor Acre broilers to determine the effect of replacing maize with acha offal (Digitaria exilis) on performance, haematology, and serum biochemical. Chicks were allotted to six diets (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6) with acha offal (AO) at 0.0%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, 12.5% and 15.0% respectively as replacement of maize with 4 replicates consisting of 10 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. They were allowed ad libitum accessed to feed and water throughout a 42 days experiment. The results showed that at the starter phase, only feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly affected (p < 0.05). Chicks fed T5 had best FCR more than those fed T1 while those fed T2, T3, T4, and T6 had similar FCR comparable with T1. At the finisher stage, final weight (FW), total weight change (TWC), average daily gain (ADG), and FCR were significantly affected (p < 0.05). Chickens fed T3, T4, T5, and T6 had similar FW, TWC, and ADG and higher than those fed T1; those fed T2 had similar FW, TWG, and DWG with T1. Chickens fed T6 had best FCR, followed by those fed T3, T4, and T5, while those T2 had worse FCR similar with those fed T1. Eviscerated weight was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by treatment. Birds fed T4, T5, and T6 had higher eviscerated weight followed by T3 while those fed T2 had least eviscerated weight comparable with those fed T1. The entire organs (Gizzard, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, and proventriculus) were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by treatments. Packed cell volume (PCV) and red blood cell (RBC) were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by treatment. Birds fed T4, T5, and T6 had higher and similar PCV and RBC with those fed T1 while those fed T2 and T3 had lower PCV and RBC. The entire serum metabolites were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by treatments. In conclusion, acha offal can replace maize in starter and finisher broilers’ diets at 12.5% and 15.0%, respectively, without an adverse effect.

Keywords: broiler, acha offal, maize, performance, eviscerated, haematology, serum

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754 Effects of Feeding Time on Survival Rates, Growth Performance and Feeding Behavior of Juvenile Catfish

Authors: Abdullahi Ibrahim

Abstract:

The culture of Clarias gariepinus for fish production is becoming increasingly essential as the fish is contributing to the food abundance and nutritional benefit to family health, income generation, and employment opportunities. The effect of feeding frequency was investigated over a period of ten (10) weeks; the experiment was conducted to monitor survival rates, growth performance, and feeding behavior of juvenile catfish. The experimental fish were randomly assigned to five treatment groups; (i.e., with different feeding frequency intervals) of 100 fish each. Each treatment was replicated twice with 50 fish per replicate. All the groups were fed with floating fish feed (blue crown®). The five treatments (feeding frequency) were T1- once a day feeding of night hours only, T2- twice a day feeding time of morning and night hours, T3- trice a day feeding time of morning, evening and night hours, T-4 four times a day feeding of morning, afternoon, evening, and night hours, T-5 five times a day feeding at four hours interval. There were significant differences (p > 0.05) among treatments. Feed intake and weight gain improved significantly (p < 0.05) in T-4 and T-3. The best of the feeding time on weight gain, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio were obtained at three times a day feeding (T-3) compared to other treatments, especially those fed once and five times feeding a regiment. This might be attributed to the high level of dissolve oxygen and less stress. Feeding fish three times a day is therefore recommended for efficient catfish production to maximize profits as the feed represents more than 50% of aquaculture inputs, particularly in intensive farming systems.

Keywords: catfish, floating fish feed, dissolve oxygen, juvenile

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753 The Expression of Toll-Like Receptors Gene in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Betong (KU Line) Chicken

Authors: Chaiwat Boonkaewwan, Anutian Suklek, Jatuporn Rattanasrisomporn, Autchara Kayan

Abstract:

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are conserved microbial sensing receptors located on cell surface that are able to detect different pathogens. The aim of the present study is to examine the expression of TLR gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cell of Betong (KU line) chicken. Blood samples were collected from healthy 12 Betong (KU line) chicken. PBMCs were isolated and maintained in RPMI1640 with 10% FBS, penicillin and streptomycin. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion test. The expression of TLRs gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Results showed that PBMCs viability from Betong (KU line) chicken was 95.38 ± 1.06%. From the study of TLRs gene expression, results indicated that there are expressions of TLR1.1 TLR1.2 TLR2.1 TLR2.2 TLR3 TLR4 TLR5 TLR 7 TLR15 and TLR21 in PBMCs of Betong (KU line) chicken. In conclusion, PBMCs isolated from blood of Betong (KU line) chicken had a high cell viability ( > 95%). The expression of TLRs in chicken was all found in PBMCs, which indicated that PBMC isolated from the blood of Betong (KU line) chicken can be used as an in vitro immune responses study.

Keywords: toll-like receptor, Betong (KU line) chicken, peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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752 Osteometry of the Long Bones of Adult Chinkara (Gazella bennettii): A Remarkable Example of Sexual Dimorphism

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan

Abstract:

The objective of this study was 1) to measure osteometric parameters of the long bones of the adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data 2) to study sexual dimorphism in the adult Chinkara through osteometry and 3) to estimate body weight from the measurements of greatest length and shaft of the long bones. For this purpose, after taking body measurements of adult Chinkara after mortality, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age were buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Various osteometric parameters of the humerus, radius, metacarpus, femur, tibia and metatarsal were measured through the digital calliper. Statistically significant (P < 0.05), differences in some of the osteometrical parameters between male and female adult Chinkara were observed. Sexual dimorphism exit between the long bones of male and female adult Chinkara. In both male and female Chinkara value obtained for the estimated body weight from humeral, metacarpal and metatarsal measurements were near to the actual body weight of the adult Chinkara. In conclusion, the present study estimates preliminary data on long bones osteometrics and suggests that the morphometric details of the male and female adult Chinkara have differed morphometrically from each other.

Keywords: body mass measurements, Chinkara, long bones, morphometric, sexual dimorphism

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751 Comparative Gross Anatomical Studies of the Long Bones of the Adult Chinkara and in the Adult Beetal Goat

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib –ur- Rehman, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to examine the osteomorphological differences between the long bones of adult Chinkara and an adult Beetal goat, using visual observation, which has still not studied. The osseous remains of these small-sized ungulates often encountered, but cannot distinguish, because of the lack of literature. Specimens of the adult Chinkara of known age and sex for osteomorphological studies are collected from the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan, while the bones of adult Beetal goats are obtained after slaughtering in a slaughterhouse. The research is carried out at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. In this research, the main morphological features recorded in the long bones of thoracic limb and pelvic limb of the adult Chinkara, by comparing them to those of the Beetal goat. The most important differences between the two species are noted in the scapula, the humerus, the radius and ulna, the metacarpal, femur, tibia metatarsal and phalanges. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the morphology of the long bones of adult Chinkara has different from the Beetal goat in various points of view. Based on these recorded points, long bones of these two species can easily be differentiated. The study is helpful in zooarcheological, comparative osteometric studies, for forensic specialists and veterinary anatomists.

Keywords: Beetal goat, Chinkara, comparative morphological features, long bones, osteology

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750 Ultrastructure of the Tongue of the African Beauty Snake Psammophis sibilans

Authors: Mohamed M. A. Abumandour, Neveen E. R. El-Bakary

Abstract:

The present work performed on the six tongues of African Beauty snake (Psammophis sibilans) that were obtained immediately after their catching, from agricultural fields, Desouk city, Kafrelsheikh Governorate, Egypt. These collected snakes should be from any oral abnormalities or injuries. The lingual surface of the Psammophis sibilans was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface of the bifurcated apex was smoother than the lingual body. The median lingual sulcus was deep and contained a number of the taste pores. By the high magnification of SEM of each part of a bifurcated area of the lingual apex have numerous taste buds and no lingual papillae were observed. A few numbers of papillae were observed in the lingual body. The microridges and microvilli distributed in the lingual body helped in spreading of mucus over the epithelial surface. Taste pores and papillae in the tongue indicate the presence of a direct chemo-sensory function for the tongue of these snakes as the chemicals dissolved in the mucus then transferred to Jacobson organ. To conclude, the bifurcation appearance of the snake lingual tip act as a chemical or edge detector help in the process named chemo-mechano-reception.

Keywords: African beauty snake, taste buds, taste pores, tongue, papillae

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749 Genetic Diversity of Wild Population of Heterobranchus Spp. Based on Mitochondria DNA Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I Gene Analysis

Authors: M.Y. Abubakar, Ipinjolu J.K., Yuzine B. Esa, Magawata I., Hassan W.A., Turaki A.A

Abstract:

Catfish (Heterobranchus spp.) is a major freshwater fish that are widely distributed in Nigeria waters and are gaining rapid aquaculture expansion. However, indiscriminate artificial crossbreeding of the species with others poses a threat to their biodiversity. There is a paucity of information about the genetic variability, hence this insight on the genetic variability is badly needed, not only for the species conservation but for aquaculture expansion. In this study, we tested the level of Genetic diversity, population differentiation and phylogenetic relationship analysis on 35 individuals of two populations of Heterobranchus bidorsalis and 29 individuals of three populations of Heterobranchus longifilis using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtDNA COI) gene sequence. Nucleotide sequences of 650 bp fragment of the COI gene of the two species were compared. In the whole 4 and 5 haplotypes were distinguished in the populations of H. bidorsalis & H. longifilis with accession numbers (MG334168 - MG334171 & MG334172 to MG334176) respectively. Haplotypes diversity indices revealed a range of 0.59 ± 0.08 to 0.57 ± 0.09 in H. bidorsalis and 0.000 to 0.001051 ± 0.000945 in H. longifilis population, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed no significant variation among H. bidorsalis population of the Niger & Benue Rivers, detected significant genetic variation was between the Rivers of Niger, Kaduna and Benue population of H. longifilis. Two main clades were recovered, showing a clear separation between H. bidorsalis and H. longifilis in the phylogenetic tree. The mtDNA COI genes studied revealed high gene flow between populations with no distinct genetic differentiation between the populations as measured by the fixation index (FST) statistic. However, a proportion of population-specific haplotypes was observed in the two species studied, suggesting a substantial degree of genetic distinctiveness for each of the population investigated. These findings present the description of the species character and accessions of the fish’s genetic resources, through gene sequence submitted in Genetic database. The data will help to protect their valuable wild resource and contribute to their recovery and selective breeding in Nigeria.

Keywords: AMOVA, genetic diversity, Heterobranchus spp., mtDNA COI, phylogenetic tree

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748 Effect of Substituting Groundnut Cake with Remnant of Food Composite on Survival and Growth of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: M. Y. Abubakar, M. Yunisa, A. N. Muhammad

Abstract:

Constraining the production Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus culture is the prohibitive cost of feed. We assess the performance of the species fingerlings on diets substituted with composite. Four dietary treatments (0%, 25%, 45%, and 75%) for C. gariepinus and five (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and whole food composite) for O. niloticus were formulated and each fed to 15 fingerlings for C. gariepinus and 10 fingerlings for O. niloticus stocked in 75ltrs plastic bowls, replicated trice in a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted 56 days. Percent survival rate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (57.78 ± 9.69) in C. gariepinus fed diet III. The growth and nutrient utilization indices were least in the fish fed diet IV, which was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in other treatments. Fish fed dietary treatment III, recorded the best in growth and nutrient utilization indices and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those fed dietary treatments I & II which were non-significant (p > 0.05) and higher than those fed 75% substitution. Better profit index was in the fish fed diet with 50% substitution level. For O. niloticus, the survival (172.62 ± 39.03) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in those fed 25% substituted diet. For growth indices, the least performed were those fed whole composite while other treatments were non-significant (p > 0.05) different from each other. In terms of nutrient utilization, fish fed diet substituted at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% food composite had similar food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the profit index among the whole treatment. It can be concluded that food composite from Sokoto house-holds can optimally replace groundnut cake up to 50% level as a protein source in the diets of Clarias gariepinus and O. niloticus fingerlings without adverse effects on survival, growth, and nutrient utilization.

Keywords: food composite, nutrient utilization, C. gariepinus, O. niloticus household, substitution levels

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747 Anatomical and Pathological Evaluation of Anomaly Cases Presented to the Department of Pathology at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, between 2017 and 2019

Authors: Gülseren Kırbaş Doğan, Emin Karakurt, Mushap Kuru, Hilmi Nuhoğlu

Abstract:

Developmental anomalies can be caused by defects in bone tissue, cartilage tissue, or primitive mesenchymal tissue. Genetic-, environmental-, teratogenic-, faulty breeding selection–, or feeding-related anomalies can be observed either locally or systemically. This study aimed to evaluate in detail the various anomalies in six calves according to pathological and anatomical investigations. Six calves were delivered to the Department of Pathology at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine between 2017 and 2019. These calves comprised one with anencephaly, one with the diencephalic syndrome, one with Schistosoma reflexum, two with anasarca, and one with nasal and calvarium openings. After necropsy, samples were taken from the organs, foreseen, and routine pathological examinations were performed. Following these procedures, the calves were brought to the anatomy laboratory and anatomically examined. As a result, various anomalies in 6 calves were evaluated according to pathological and anatomical investigations. These findings are believed to contribute to the literature.

Keywords: anatomy, anomaly, calf, pathology

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746 Immune Activity of Roman Hens as Influenced by the Feed Formulated with Germinated Paddy Rice

Authors: Wirot Likittrakulwong, Pisit Poolprasert, Tossaporn Incharoen

Abstract:

Germinated paddy rice (GPR) has the potential to be used as a feed ingredient. However, their properties have not been fully investigated. This paper examined the nutrient digestibility and the relationship to immune activity in Roman hens fed with GPR. It was found that true and apparent metabolizable energy (ME) values of GPR were 3.20 and 3.28 kcal/g air dry, respectively. GPR exhibited high content of phytonutrients, especially GABA. GPR showed similar protein profiles in comparison to non-germinated paddy rice. For immune activity, the feed with GPR enhanced the immune activity of Roman hens under high stocking density stress as evidenced by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity. In this study, GPR is proved to be a good source of functional ingredient for chicken feed.

Keywords: germinated paddy rice, nutrient digestibility, immune activity, functional property

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745 Capacity for Care: A Management Model for Increasing Animal Live Release Rates, Reducing Animal Intake and Euthanasia Rates in an Australian Open Admission Animal Shelter

Authors: Ann Enright

Abstract:

More than ever, animal shelters need to identify ways to reduce the number of animals entering shelter facilities and the incidence of euthanasia. Managing animal overpopulation using euthanasia can have detrimental health and emotional consequences for the shelter staff involved. There are also community expectations with moral and financial implications to consider. To achieve the goals of reducing animal intake and the incidence of euthanasia, shelter best practice involves combining programs, procedures and partnerships to increase live release rates (LRR), reduce the incidence of disease, length of stay (LOS) and shelter intake whilst overall remaining financially viable. Analysing daily processes, tracking outcomes and implementing simple strategies enabled shelter staff to more effectively focus their efforts and achieve amazing results. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the effect of implementing the capacity for care (C4C) management model. Data focusing on the average daily number of animals on site for a two year period (2016 – 2017) was exported from a shelter management system, Customer Logic (CL) Vet to Excel for manipulation and comparison. Following the implementation of C4C practices the average daily number of animals on site was reduced by >50%, (2016 average 103 compared to 2017 average 49), average LOS reduced by 50% from 8 weeks to 4 weeks and incidence of disease reduced from ≥ 70% to less than 2% of the cats on site at the completion of the study. The total number of stray cats entering the shelter due to council contracts reduced by 50% (486 to 248). Improved cat outcomes were attributed to strategies that increased adoptions and reduced euthanasia of poorly socialized cats, including foster programs. To continue to achieve improvements in LRR and LOS, strategies to decrease intake further would be beneficial, for example, targeted sterilisation programs. In conclusion, the study highlighted the benefits of using C4C as a management tool, delivering a significant reduction in animal intake and euthanasia with positive emotional, financial and community outcomes.

Keywords: animal welfare, capacity for care, cat, euthanasia, length of stay, managed intake, shelter

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744 Principal Component Analysis of Body Weight and Morphometric Traits of New Zealand Rabbits Raised under Semi-Arid Condition in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Abayomi Rotimi

Abstract:

Context: Rabbits production plays important role in increasing animal protein supply in Nigeria. Rabbit production provides a cheap, affordable, and healthy source of meat. The growth of animals involves an increase in body weight, which can change the conformation of various parts of the body. Live weight and linear measurements are indicators of growth rate in rabbits and other farm animals. Aims: This study aimed to define the body dimensions of New Zealand rabbits and also to investigate the morphometric traits variables that contribute to body conformation by the use of principal component analysis (PCA). Methods: Data were obtained from 80 New Zealand rabbits (40 bucks and 40 does) raised in Livestock Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University Dutsinma. Data were taken on body weight (BWT), body length (BL), ear length (EL), tail length (TL), heart girth (HG) and abdominal circumference (AC). Data collected were subjected to multivariate analysis using SPSS 20.0 statistical package. Key results: The descriptive statistics showed that the mean BWT, BL, EL, TL, HG, and AC were 0.91kg, 27.34cm, 10.24cm, 8.35cm, 19.55cm and 21.30cm respectively. Sex showed significant (P<0.05) effect on all the variables examined, with higher values recorded for does. The phenotypic correlation coefficient values (r) between the morphometric traits were all positive and ranged from r = 0.406 (between EL and BL) to r = 0.909 (between AC and HG). HG is the most correlated with BWT (r = 0.786). The principal component analysis with variance maximizing orthogonal rotation was used to extract the components. Two principal components (PCs) from the factor analysis of morphometric traits explained about 80.42% of the total variance. PC1 accounted for 64.46% while PC2 accounted for 15.97% of the total variances. Three variables, representing body conformation, loaded highest in PC1. PC1 had the highest contribution (64.46%) to the total variance, and it is regarded as body conformation traits. Conclusions: This component could be used as selection criteria for improving body weight of rabbits.

Keywords: conformation, multicollinearity, multivariate, rabbits and principal component analysis

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743 Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from Fish Mongers within Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Olamide Olawusi-Peters, Kehinde Adejugbagbe

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The concentration of heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu) in Clarias gariepinus collected from the fish market; Fanibi (Station I) and Fiwasaye (Station II) in Akure metropolis, Ondo state, Nigeria was investigated to ascertain the safety of the consumers. Sixty samples were collected from the two markets in three batches (I, II, III) for the period of six months and analyzed for heavy metals in the gills and muscles of the fish. Also, Health Risk Index (HRI) was used to determine the health risk of these metals to the consumers. The result showed that the investigated metal concentration was higher in station I than station II except Pb having higher concentration in stations II than I. In both stations, the highest concentration of Fe was recorded in the gills (12.60±1.51; 6.94±1.38) and muscles (3.72±0.09; 3.86±0.33) of samples in batch I. Also, the Health Risk Index (HRI) revealed that consumption of Clarias gariepinus from these study areas did not pose any health risk (HRI < 1). In addition, concentrations of the heavy metals were all below the permissible limits recommended by FAO/WHO.

Keywords: health risk index, heavy metals, clarias gariepinus, akure metropolis, fish monger

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742 Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from the Intestines of Slaughtered Goat and Cattle

Authors: Latifat Afolake Ogunfolabo, Hakeem Babafemi Ogunfolabo

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The gastrointestinal tract is densely populated with micro-organism which closely and intensively interacts with the host and ingested feed. Food borne infections are some of the major international challenges that lead to high mortality and also, antimicrobial resistance, which has been classified as a serious threat by World Health Organization. Samples of slaughtered cattle and goats intestines were collected and standard culture methods were used for bacteria isolation and identification. Minimum inhibitory concentration of commonly used antibiotic using modification of the disk diffusion method was carried out on isolates. The samples cultured were all positive to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (95% and 90%), Escherichia coli (85%), Salmonella typhi (70% and 60%), Staphylococcus aureus (75%and 100%), Micrococcus luteus (55% and35%), Bacillus macerans (60% and 5%), Bacillus cereus (25% and 20%), Clostridium perfringens (20% and 5%), Micrococcus varians (20% and 5%), Bacillus subtilis (25% and 5%), Streptococcus faecalis (40% and 25%) and Streptococcus faecium (15% and 10%) in goat and cattle respectively. Also, Proteus mirabilis (40%), Micrococcus luteus (35%), Proteus vulgaris (30%), Klebsiella aerogenes(15%) were isolated from cattle. The total coliform (13.55 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.77) and (20.30 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.27) counts were significantly higher than the total bacteria count (8.3 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.41) and (16.60 x10⁵cfu/gm ±0.49) for goat and cattle respectively. Selected Bacteria count of isolates showed that Staphylococcus aureus had the highest significant value (6.9 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.57) and (16.80 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.57) Escherichia coli (4.60 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.42) and (7.05 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.64) while the lowest significant value was obtained in Salmonella/Shigella (1.7 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.00) and (1.5 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.00) for goat and cattle respectively. Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from slaughtered goat and cattle intestine to commonly used antibiotics showed that the highest statistical significant value for zone of inhibition for goat was obtained for Ciprofloxacin (30.00 ± 2.25, 23.75 ± 2.49, 17.17 ± 1.40) followed by Augmentin (28.33 ± 1.22, 21. 83 ± 2.44, 16.67 ± 1.49), Erythromycin (27.75 ±1.48, 20.25 ± 1.29, 16.67 ± 1.26) while the lowest values were obtained for Ofloxacin (27.17 ± 1.89, 21.42 ± 2.19, 16.83 ± 1.26) respectively and values obtained for cattle are Ciprofloxacin (30.64 ± 1.6, 25.79 ± 1.76, 8.07 ± 11.49) followed by Augmentin (28.29 ± 1.33, 22.64 ± 1.82, 17.43 ± 1.55) Ofloxacin (26.57 ± 2.02, 20.79 ± 2.75, 16.21 ± 1.19) while the lowest values were obtained for Erythromycin (26.64 ± 1.49, 20.29 ± 1.49, 16.29 ± 1.33) at different dilution factor (10⁻¹, 10⁻², 10⁻³) respectively. The isolates from goat and cattle were all susceptible to Augmentin at the three different dilution factors. Some goat isolates are intermediate to Ciprofloxacin and Erythromycin at 10⁻² and 10⁻³, while resistance to Ciprofloxacin at 10⁻³ dilution factor. Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin at the dilution factors of 10⁻³ and 10⁻¹ for some cattle isolate and resistance were observed for Ofloxacin and Erythromycin at dilution of 10⁻³. These results indicate the susceptibilities and the antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotic.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, bacteria, cattle, goat, identification

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741 Molecular Characterization of Dirofilaria repens in Dogs from Karnataka, India

Authors: D. S. Malatesh, K. J. Ananda, C. Ansar Kamran, K. Ganesh Udupa

Abstract:

Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-borne filarioid nematode of dogs and other carnivores and accidentally affects humans. D. repens is reported in many countries, including India. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by D. repens is a zoonotic disease, widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa, with higher prevalence reported in dogs from Sri Lanka (30-60%), Iran (61%) and Italy (21-25%). Dirofilariasis in dogs was diagnosed by detection of microfilariae in blood. Identification of different Dirofilaria species was done by using molecular methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Even though many researchers reported molecular evidence of D. repens across India, to our best knowledge there is no data available on molecular diagnosis of D. repens in dogs and its zoonotic implication in Karnataka state a southern state in India. The aim of the present study was to identify the Dirofilaria species occurring in dogs from Karnataka, India. Out of 310 samples screened for the presence of microfilariae using traditional diagnostic methods, 99 (31.93%) were positive for the presence of microfilariae. Based on the morphometry, the microfilariae were identified as D. repens. For confirmation of species, the samples were subjected to PCR using pan filarial primers (DIDR-F1, DIDR-R1) for amplification of internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. The PCR product of 484 base pairs on agarose gel was indicative of D. repens. Hence, a single PCR reaction using pan filarial primers can be used to differentiate filarial species found in dogs. The present study confirms that dirofilarial species occurring in dogs from Karnataka is D. repens and further sequencing studies are needed for genotypic characterization of D. repens.

Keywords: Dirofilaria repens, molecular characterization, polymerase chain reaction, Karnataka, India

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740 Effect of Graded Level of Nano Selenium Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chicken

Authors: Raj Kishore Swain, Kamdev Sethy, Sumanta Kumar Mishra

Abstract:

Selenium is an essential trace element for the chicken with a variety of biological functions like growth, fertility, immune system, hormone metabolism, and antioxidant defense systems. Selenium deficiency in chicken causes exudative diathesis, pancreatic dystrophy and nutritional muscle dystrophy of the gizzard, heart and skeletal muscle. Additionally, insufficient immunity, lowering of production ability, decreased feathering of chickens and increased embryo mortality may occur due to selenium deficiency. Nano elemental selenium, which is bright red, highly stable, soluble and of nano meter size in the redox state of zero, has high bioavailability and low toxicity due to the greater surface area, high surface activity, high catalytic efficiency and strong adsorbing ability. To assess the effect of dietary nano-Se on performance and expression of gene in Vencobb broiler birds in comparison to its inorganic form (sodium selenite), four hundred fifty day-old Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 9 dietary treatment groups with two replicates with 25 chicks per replicate. The dietary treatments were: T1 (Control group): Basal diet; T2: Basal diet with 0.3 ppm of inorganic Se; T3: Basal diet with 0.01875 ppm of nano-Se; T4: Basal diet with 0.0375 ppm of nano-Se; T5: Basal diet with 0.075 ppm of nano-Se, T6: Basal diet with 0.15 ppm of nano-Se, T7: Basal diet with 0.3 ppm of nano-Se, T8: Basal diet with 0.60 ppm of nano-Se, T9: Basal diet with 1.20 ppm of nano-Se. Nano selenium was synthesized by mixing sodium selenite with reduced glutathione and bovine serum albumin. The experiment was carried out in two phases: starter phase (0-3 wks), finisher phase (4-5 wk) in deep litter system. The body weight at the 5th week was best observed in T4. The best feed conversion ratio at the end of 5th week was observed in T4. Erythrocytic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all the nano selenium treated groups at 5th week. The antibody titers (log2) against Ranikhet diseases vaccine immunization of 5th-week broiler birds were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the treatments T4 to T7. The selenium levels in liver, breast, kidney, brain, and gizzard were significantly (P < 0.05) increased with increasing dietary nano-Se indicating higher bioavailability of nano-Se compared to inorganic Se. The real time polymer chain reaction analysis showed an increase in the expression of antioxidative gene in T4 and T7 group. Therefore, it is concluded that supplementation of nano-selenium at 0.0375 ppm over and above the basal level can improve the body weight, antioxidant enzyme activity, Se bioavailability and expression of the antioxidative gene in broiler birds.

Keywords: chicken, growth, immunity, nano selenium

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739 Gross and Clinical Anatomy of the Skull of Adult Chinkara, Gazella bennettii

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib Ur Rehman, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah

Abstract:

The objective of this study was (1) to study gross morphological, osteometric and clinical important landmarks in the skull of adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data and (2) to study sexual dimorphism in male and female adult Chinkara through osteometry. For this purpose, after performing postmortem examination, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age was buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Gross morphological features and various osteometric parameters of the skull were studied in the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. The shape of the Chinkara skull was elongated and had thirty-two bones. The skull was comprised of the cranial and the facial part. The facial region of the skull was formed by maxilla, incisive, palatine, vomar, pterygoid, frontal, parietal, nasal, incisive, turbinates, mandible and hyoid apparatus. The bony region of the cranium of Chinkara was comprised of occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, interparietal, parietal, temporal, and frontal bone. The foramina identified in the facial region of the skull of Chinkara were infraorbital, supraorbital foramen, lacrimal, sphenopalatine, maxillary and caudal palatine foramina. The foramina of the cranium of the skull of the Chinkara were the internal acoustic meatus, external acoustic meatus, hypoglossal canal, transverse canal, sphenorbital fissure, carotid canal, foramen magnum, stylomastoid foramen, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and jugular foramen, and the rostral and the caudal foramina that formed the pterygoid canal. The measured craniometric parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between male and female adult Chinkara except Palatine bone, OI, DO, IOCDE, OCT, ICW, IPCW, and PCPL were significantly higher (p > 0.05) in male than female Chinkara and mean values of the mandibular parameters except b and h were significantly (p < 0.5) higher in male Chinkara than female Chinkara. Sexual dimorphism exists in some of the orbital and foramen magnum parameters, while high levels of sexual dimorphism identified in mandible. In conclusion, morphocraniometric studies of Chinkara skull made it possible to identify species-specific skull and use clinical measurements during practical application.

Keywords: Chinkara, skull, morphology, morphometrics, sexual dimorphism

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738 An Analysis of Teacher Knowledge of Recognizing and Addressing the Needs of Traumatized Students

Authors: Tiffany Hollis

Abstract:

Childhood trauma is well documented in mental health research, yet has received little attention in urban schools. Child trauma affects brain development and impacts cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning. When educators understand that some of the behaviors that appear to be aggressive in nature might be the result of a hidden diagnosis of trauma, learning can take place, and the child can thrive in the classroom setting. Traumatized children, however, do not fit neatly into any single ‘box.’ Although many children enter school each day carrying with them the experience of exposure to violence in the home, the symptoms of their trauma can be multifaceted and complex, requiring individualized therapeutic attention. The purpose of this study was to examine how prepared educators are to address the unique challenges facing children who experience trauma. Given the vast number of traumatized children in our society, it is evident that our education system must investigate ways to create an optimal learning environment that accounts for trauma, addresses its impact on cognitive and behavioral development, and facilitates mental and emotional health and well-being. The researcher describes the knowledge, attitudes, dispositions, and skills relating to trauma-informed knowledge of induction level teachers in a diverse middle school. The data for this study were collected through interviews with teachers, who are in the induction phase (the first three years of their teaching career). The study findings paint a clear picture of how ill-prepared educators are to address the needs of students who have experienced trauma and the implications for the development of a professional development workshop or series of workshops that train teachers how to recognize and address and respond to the needs of students. The study shows how teachers often lack skills to meet the needs of students who have experienced trauma. Traumatized children regularly carry a heavy weight on their shoulders. Children who have experienced trauma may feel that the world is filled with unresponsive, threatening adults, and peers. Despite this, supportive interventions can provide traumatized children with places to go that are safe, stimulating, and even fun. Schools offer an environment that potentially meets these requirements by creating safe spaces where students can feel at ease and have fun while also learning via stimulating educational activities. This study highlights the lack of preparedness of educators to address the academic, behavioral, and cognitive needs of students who have experienced trauma. These findings provide implications for the creation of a professional development workshop that addresses how to recognize and address the needs of students who have experienced some type of trauma. They also provide implications for future research with a focus on specific interventions that enable the creation of optimal learning environments where students who have experienced trauma and all students can succeed, regardless of their life experiences.

Keywords: educator preparation, induction educators, professional development, trauma-informed

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737 Biological Institute Actions for Bovine Mastitis Monitoring in Low Income Dairy Farms, Brazil: Preliminary Data

Authors: Vanessa Castro, Liria H. Okuda, Daniela P. Chiebao, Adriana H. C. N. Romaldini, Harumi Hojo, Marina Grandi, Joao Paulo A. Silva, Alessandra F. C. Nassar

Abstract:

The Biological Institute of Sao Paulo, in partnership with a private company, develops an Animal Health Family Farming Program (Prosaf) to enable communication among smallholder farmers and scientists, on-farm consulting and lectures, solving health questions that will benefit agricultural productivity. In Vale do Paraiba region, a dairy region of Sao Paulo State, southern Brazil, many of these types of farms are found with several milk quality problems. Most of these farms are profit-based business; however, with non-technified cattle rearing systems and uncertain veterinary assistance. Feedback from Prosaf showed that the biggest complaints from farmers were low milk production, sick animals and, mainly, loss of selling price due to a high somatic cell count (SCC) and a total bacterial count (TBC). The aims of this study were to improve milk quality, animal hygiene and herd health status by adjustments into general management practices and introducing techniques of sanitary control and milk monitoring in five dairy farms from Sao Jose do Barreiro municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, to increase their profits. A total of 119 milk samples from 56 animals positive for California Mastitis Test (CMT) were collected. The positive CMT indicates subclinical mastitis, therefore laboratorial exams were performed in the milk (microbiological, biochemical and antibiogram test) detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (41.8%), Bacillus sp. (11.8%), Streptococcus sp. (2.1%), nonfermenting, motile and oxidase-negative Gram-negative Bacilli (2.1%) and Enterobacter (2.1%). Antibiograms revealed high resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin, probably due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics without veterinarian prescription. We suggested the improvement of hygiene management in the complete milking and cooling tanks system. Using the results of the laboratory tests, animals were properly treated, and the effects observed were better CMT outcomes, lower SCCs, and TBCs leading to an increase in milk pricing. This study will have a positive impact on the family farmers from Sao Paulo State dairy region by improving their market milk competitiveness.

Keywords: milk, family farming, food quality, antibiogram, profitability

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736 Phenotypical and Molecular Characterization of Burkholderia mallei from Horses with Glanders: Preliminary Data

Authors: A. F. C. Nassar, D. K. Tessler, L. Okuda, C. Del Fava, D. P. Chiebao, A. H. C. N. Romaldini, A. P. Alvim, M. J. Sanchez-Vazquez, M. S. Rosa, J. C. Pompei, R. Harakava, M. C. S. Araujo, G. H. F. Marques, E. M. Pituco

Abstract:

Glanders is a zoonotic disease of Equidae caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei presented in acute or chronic clinical forms with inflammatory nodules in the respiratory tract, lymphangitis and caseous lymph nodes. There is not a treatment with veterinary drugs to this life-threatening disease; thus, its occurrence must be notified to official animal health services and any infected animal must be eliminated. This study aims to detect B. mallei from horses euthanized in outbreaks of glanders in Brazil, providing a better understanding of the bacterial characteristics and determine a proper protocol for isolation. The work was carried out with the collaboration of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Sao Paulo State Animal Health Department, while its procedures were approved by the Committee of Ethics in Animal Experimentation from the Instituto Biologico (CETEA n°156/2017). To the present time, 16 horses from farms with outbreaks of glanders detected by complement fixation test (CFT) serology method were analyzed. During the necropsy, samples of possibly affected organs (lymph nodes, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and trachea) were collected for bacterial isolation, molecular tests and pathology. Isolation was performed using two enriched mediums, a potato infusion agar with 5% sheep blood, 4% glycerol and antibiotics (penicilin100U/ mL), and another with the same ingredients except the antibiotic. A PCR protocol was modified for this study using primers design to identify a region of the Flip gen of B. mallei. Thru isolation, 12.5% (2/16) animals were confirmed positive using only the enriched medium with antibiotic and confirmed by PCR: from mediastinal and submandibular lymph nodes and lungs in one animal and from mediastinal lymph node in the other. The detection of the bacterium using PCR showed positivity of 100% (16/16) horses from 144 samples of organs. Pathology macroscopic lesions observed were catarrhal nasal discharge, fetlock ulcers, emaciation, lymphangitis in limbs, suppurative lymphangitis, lymph node enlargement, star shaped liver, and spleen scars, adherence of the renal capsule, pulmonary hemorrhage, and miliary nodules. Microscopic lesions were suppurative bronchopneumonia with microabscesses and Langhans giant cells in lungs; lymph nodes with abscesses and intense lymphoid reaction; hemosiderosis and abscesses in spleen. Positive samples on PCR will be sequenced later and analyzed comparing with previous records in the literature. A throughout description of the recent acute cases of glanders occurring in Brazil and characterization of the bacterium related will contribute to advances in the knowledge of the pathogenicity, clinical symptoms, and epidemiology of this zoonotic disease. Acknowledgment: This project is sponsored by FAPESP.

Keywords: equines, bacterial isolation, zoonosis, PCR, pathology

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735 In vitro Effects of Berberine on the Vitality and Oxidative Profile of Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Hana Greifová, Peter Ivanič, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent in vitro effects of berberine (BER), a natural alkaloid with numerous biological properties on bovine spermatozoa during three time periods (0 h, 2 h, 24 h). Bovine semen samples were diluted and cultivated in physiological saline solution containing 0.5% DMSO together with 200, 100, 50, 10, 5, and 1 μmol/L BER. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the computer assisted semen analyzer. The viability of spermatozoa was assessed by the metabolic (MTT) assay, production of superoxide radicals was quantified using the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, and chemiluminescence was used to evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell lysates were prepared and the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated using the TBARS assay. The results of the movement activity showed a significant increase in the motility during long term cultivation in case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 μmol/L BER (P < 0.01; P < 0.001; 24 h). At the same time, supplementation of 1, 5 and 10 μmol/L BER led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P < 0.001; 24 h). BER addition at a range of 1-50 μmol/L also provided a significantly higher protection against superoxide (P < 0.05) and ROS (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) overgeneration as well as LPO (P < 0.01; P<0.05) after a 24 h cultivation. We may suggest that supplementation of BER to bovine spermatozoa, particularly at concentrations ranging between 1 and 50 μmol/L, may offer protection to the motility, viability and oxidative status of the spermatozoa, particularly notable at 24 h.

Keywords: berberine, bulls, motility, oxidative profile, spermatozoa, viability

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734 Origanum vulgare as a Possible Modulator of Testicular Endocrine Function in Mice

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Barbora Babečková, Michal Ďuračka, Róbert Kirchner, Július Árvay

Abstract:

This study was designed to assess the in vitro effects of Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) extract on the testicular steroidogenesis. We focused on identifying major biomolecules present in the oregano extract, as well as to investigate its in vitro impact on the secretion of cholesterol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione by murine testicular fragments. The extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which identified cyranosid, daidzein, thymol, rosmarinic and trans-caffeic acid among the predominant biochemical components of oregano. For the in vitro experiments, testicular fragments from 20 sexually mature Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were incubated in the absence (control group) or presence of the oregano extract at selected concentrations (10, 100 and 1000 μg/mL) for 24 h. Cholesterol levels were quantified using photometry and the hormones were assessed by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Our data revealed that the release of cholesterol and androstenedione (but not dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone) by the testicular fragments was significantly impacted by the oregano extract in a dose-dependent fashion. Supplementation of the extract resulted in a significant decline of cholesterol (P < 0.05 in case of 100 μg/mL; P < 0.01 with respect 100 μg/mL extract), as well as androstenedione (P < 0.01 with respect to 100 and 1000 μg/mL extract). Our results suggest that the biomolecules present in Origanum vulgare L. could exhibit a dose-dependent impact on the secretion of male steroids, playing a role in the regulation of testicular steroidogenesis.

Keywords: mice, Origanum vulgare L., steroidogenesis, testes

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733 Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography of the Hepatic Tissue of Canine Brachycephalic Patients

Authors: A. C. Facin, M. C. Maronezi , M. P. Menezes, G. L. Montanhim, L. Pavan, M. A. R. Feliciano, R. P. Nociti, R. A. R. Uscategui, P. C. Moraes

Abstract:

The incidence of brachycephalic syndrome (BS) in the clinical routine of small animals has increased significantly giving the higher proportion of brachycephalic pets in the last years and has been considered as an animal welfare problem. The treatment of BS is surgical and the clinical signs related can be considerably attenuated. Nevertheless, the systemic effects of the BS are still poorly reported and little is known about these when the surgical correction is not performed early. Affected dogs are more likely to develop cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal and sleep disorders in which the chronic hypoxemia plays a major role. This syndrome is compared with the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in humans, both considered as causes of systemic and metabolic dysfunction. Among the several consequences of the BS little is known if the syndrome also affects the hepatic tissue of brachycephalic patients. Elastography is a promising ultrasound technique that evaluates tissue elasticity and has been recently used with the purpose of diagnosis of liver fibrosis. In medicine, it is a growing concern regarding the hepatic injury of patients affected by OSA. This prospective study hypothesizes if there is any consequence of BS in the hepatic parenchyma of brachycephalic dogs that don’t receive any surgical treatment. This study was conducted following the approval of the Animal Ethics and Welfare Committee of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, UNESP, Campus Jaboticabal, Brazil (protocol no 17944/2017) and funded by Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, process no 2017/24809-4). The methodology was based in ARFI elastography using the ACUSON S2000/SIEMENS device, with convex multifrequential transducer and specific software as well as clinical evaluation of the syndrome, in order to determine if they can be used as a prognostic non-invasive tool. On quantitative elastography, it was collected three measures of shear wave velocity (meters per second) and depth in centimeters in the left lateral, left medial, right lateral, right medial and caudate lobe of the liver. The brachycephalic patients, 16 pugs and 30 french bulldogs, were classified using a previously established 4-point functional grading system based on clinical evaluation before and after a 3-minute exercise tolerance test already established and validated. The control group was based on the same features collected in 22 beagles. The software R version 3.3.0 was used for the analysis and the significance level was set at 0.05. The data were analysed for normality of residuals and homogeneity of variances by Shapiro-Wilks test. Comparisons of parametric continuous variables between breeds were performed by using ANOVA with a post hoc test for pair wise comparison. The preliminary results show significant statistic differences between the brachycephalic groups and the control group in all lobes analysed (p ≤ 0,05), with higher values of shear wave velocities in the hepatic tissue of brachycephalic dogs. In this context, the results obtained in this study contributes to the understanding of BS as well as its consequences in our patients, reflecting in evidence that one more systemic consequence of the syndrome may occur in brachycephalic patients, which was not related in the veterinary literature yet.

Keywords: airway obstruction, brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome, hepatic injury, obstructive sleep apnea

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