Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 101

Search results for: relay

101 Study on Wireless Transmission for Reconnaissance UAV with Wireless Sensor Network and Cylindrical Array of Microstrip Antennas

Authors: Chien-Chun Hung, Chun-Fong Wu

Abstract:

It is important for a commander to have real-time information to aware situations and to make decision in the battlefield. Results of modern technique developments have brought in this kind of information for military purposes. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is one of the means to gather intelligence owing to its widespread applications. It is still not clear whether or not the mini UAV with short-range wireless transmission system is used as a reconnaissance system in Taiwanese. In this paper, previous experience on the research of the sort of aerial vehicles has been applied with a data-relay system using the ZigBee modulus. The mini UAV developed is expected to be able to collect certain data in some appropriate theaters. The omni-directional antenna with high gain is also integrated into mini UAV to fit the size-reducing trend of airborne sensors. Two advantages are so far obvious. First, mini UAV can fly higher than usual to avoid being attacked from ground fires. Second, the data will be almost gathered during all maneuvering attitudes.

Keywords: Mini UAV, reconnaissance, wireless transmission, ZigBee modulus.

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100 Normalizing Scientometric Indicators of Individual Publications Using Local Cluster Detection Methods on Citation Networks

Authors: Levente Varga, Dávid Deritei, Mária Ercsey-Ravasz, Răzvan Florian, Zsolt I. Lázár, István Papp, Ferenc Járai-Szabó

Abstract:

One of the major shortcomings of widely used scientometric indicators is that different disciplines cannot be compared with each other. The issue of cross-disciplinary normalization has been long discussed, but even the classification of publications into scientific domains poses problems. Structural properties of citation networks offer new possibilities, however, the large size and constant growth of these networks asks for precaution. Here we present a new tool that in order to perform cross-field normalization of scientometric indicators of individual publications relays on the structural properties of citation networks. Due to the large size of the networks, a systematic procedure for identifying scientific domains based on a local community detection algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is tested with different benchmark and real-world networks. Then, by the use of this algorithm, the mechanism of the scientometric indicator normalization process is shown for a few indicators like the citation number, P-index and a local version of the PageRank indicator. The fat-tail trend of the article indicator distribution enables us to successfully perform the indicator normalization process.

Keywords: Citation networks, scientometric indicator, cross-field normalization, local cluster detection.

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99 Email Based Global Automation with Raspberry Pi and Control Circuit Module: Development of Smart Home Application

Authors: Lochan Basyal

Abstract:

Global Automation is an emerging technology of today’s era and is based on Internet of Things (IoT). Global automation deals with the controlling of electrical appliances throughout the world. The fabrication of this system has been carried out with interfacing an electrical control system module to Raspberry Pi. An electrical control system module includes a relay driver mechanism through which appliances are controlled automatically in respective condition. In this research project, one email ID has been assigned to Raspberry Pi, and the users from different location having different email ID can mail to Raspberry Pi on assigned email address “raspberryp[email protected]” with subject heading “Device Control” with predefined command on compose email line. Also, a notification regarding current working condition of this system has been updated on respective user email ID. This approach is an innovative way of implementing smart automation system through which a user can control their electrical appliances like light, fan, television, refrigerator, etc. in their home with the use of email facility. The development of this project helps to enhance the concept of smart home application as well as industrial automation.

Keywords: Control circuit, email, global automation, internet of things, Raspberry Pi.

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98 A Low-Power Two-Stage Seismic Sensor Scheme for Earthquake Early Warning System

Authors: Arvind Srivastav, Tarun Kanti Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The north-eastern, Himalayan, and Eastern Ghats Belt of India comprise of earthquake-prone, remote, and hilly terrains. Earthquakes have caused enormous damages in these regions in the past. A wireless sensor network based earthquake early warning system (EEWS) is being developed to mitigate the damages caused by earthquakes. It consists of sensor nodes, distributed over the region, that perform majority voting of the output of the seismic sensors in the vicinity, and relay a message to a base station to alert the residents when an earthquake is detected. At the heart of the EEWS is a low-power two-stage seismic sensor that continuously tracks seismic events from incoming three-axis accelerometer signal at the first-stage, and, in the presence of a seismic event, triggers the second-stage P-wave detector that detects the onset of P-wave in an earthquake event. The parameters of the P-wave detector have been optimized for minimizing detection time and maximizing the accuracy of detection.Working of the sensor scheme has been verified with seven earthquakes data retrieved from IRIS. In all test cases, the scheme detected the onset of P-wave accurately. Also, it has been established that the P-wave onset detection time reduces linearly with the sampling rate. It has been verified with test data; the detection time for data sampled at 10Hz was around 2 seconds which reduced to 0.3 second for the data sampled at 100Hz.

Keywords: Earthquake early warning system, EEWS, STA/LTA, polarization, wavelet, event detector, P-wave detector.

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97 Relay Node Placement for Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Hanieh Tarbiat Khosrowshahi, Mojtaba Shakeri

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of a set of sensor nodes with limited capability. WSNs may suffer from multiple node failures when they are exposed to harsh environments such as military zones or disaster locations and lose connectivity by getting partitioned into disjoint segments. Relay nodes (RNs) are alternatively introduced to restore connectivity. They cost more than sensors as they benefit from mobility, more power and more transmission range, enforcing a minimum number of them to be used. This paper addresses the problem of RN placement in a multiple disjoint network by developing a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem is reintroduced as the Steiner tree problem (which is known to be an NP-hard problem) by the aim of finding the minimum number of Steiner points where RNs are to be placed for restoring connectivity. An upper bound to the number of RNs is first computed to set up the length of initial chromosomes. The GA algorithm then iteratively reduces the number of RNs and determines their location at the same time. Experimental results indicate that the proposed GA is capable of establishing network connectivity using a reasonable number of RNs compared to the best existing work.

Keywords: Connectivity restoration, genetic algorithms, multiple-node failure, relay nodes, wireless sensor networks.

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96 Field-Programmable Gate Array Based Tester for Protective Relay

Authors: H. Bentarzi, A. Zitouni

Abstract:

The reliability of the power grid depends on the successful operation of thousands of protective relays. The failure of one relay to operate as intended may lead the entire power grid to blackout. In fact, major power system failures during transient disturbances may be caused by unnecessary protective relay tripping rather than by the failure of a relay to operate. Adequate relay testing provides a first defense against false trips of the relay and hence improves power grid stability and prevents catastrophic bulk power system failures. The goal of this research project is to design and enhance the relay tester using a technology such as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) card NI 7851. A PC based tester framework has been developed using Simulink power system model for generating signals under different conditions (faults or transient disturbances) and LabVIEW for developing the graphical user interface and configuring the FPGA. Besides, the interface system has been developed for outputting and amplifying the signals without distortion. These signals should be like the generated ones by the real power system and large enough for testing the relay’s functionality. The signals generated that have been displayed on the scope are satisfactory. Furthermore, the proposed testing system can be used for improving the performance of protective relay.

Keywords: Amplifier class D, FPGA, protective relay, tester.

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95 Perception-Oriented Model Driven Development for Designing Data Acquisition Process in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: K. Indra Gandhi

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have always been characterized for application-specific sensing, relaying and collection of information for further analysis. However, software development was not considered as a separate entity in this process of data collection which has posed severe limitations on the software development for WSN. Software development for WSN is a complex process since the components involved are data-driven, network-driven and application-driven in nature. This implies that there is a tremendous need for the separation of concern from the software development perspective. A layered approach for developing data acquisition design based on Model Driven Development (MDD) has been proposed as the sensed data collection process itself varies depending upon the application taken into consideration. This work focuses on the layered view of the data acquisition process so as to ease the software point of development. A metamodel has been proposed that enables reusability and realization of the software development as an adaptable component for WSN systems. Further, observing users perception indicates that proposed model helps in improving the programmer's productivity by realizing the collaborative system involved.

Keywords: Model-driven development, wireless sensor networks, data acquisition, separation of concern, layered design.

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94 Transformer Life Enhancement Using Dynamic Switching of Second Harmonic Feature in IEDs

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, P. K. Gargava

Abstract:

Energization of a transformer results in sudden flow of current which is an effect of core magnetization. This current will be dominated by the presence of second harmonic, which in turn is used to segregate fault and inrush current, thus guaranteeing proper operation of the relay. This additional security in the relay sometimes obstructs or delays differential protection in a specific scenario, when the 2nd harmonic content was present during a genuine fault. This kind of scenario can result in isolation of the transformer by Buchholz and pressure release valve (PRV) protection, which is acted when fault creates more damage in transformer. Such delays involve a huge impact on the insulation failure, and chances of repairing or rectifying fault of problem at site become very dismal. Sometimes this delay can cause fire in the transformer, and this situation becomes havoc for a sub-station. Such occurrences have been observed in field also when differential relay operation was delayed by 10-15 ms by second harmonic blocking in some specific conditions. These incidences have led to the need for an alternative solution to eradicate such unwarranted delay in operation in future. Modern numerical relay, called as intelligent electronic device (IED), is embedded with advanced protection features which permit higher flexibility and better provisions for tuning of protection logic and settings. Such flexibility in transformer protection IEDs, enables incorporation of alternative methods such as dynamic switching of second harmonic feature for blocking the differential protection with additional security. The analysis and precautionary measures carried out in this case, have been simulated and discussed in this paper to ensure that similar solutions can be adopted to inhibit analogous issues in future.

Keywords: Differential protection, intelligent electronic device (IED), 2nd harmonic, inrush inhibit.

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93 Integrated Power Saving for Multiple Relays and UEs in LTE-TDD

Authors: Chun-Chuan Yang, Jeng-Yueng Chen, Yi-Ting Mai, Chen-Ming Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, the design of integrated sleep scheduling for relay nodes and user equipments under a Donor eNB (DeNB) in the mode of Time Division Duplex (TDD) in LTE-A is presented. The idea of virtual time is proposed to deal with the discontinuous pattern of the available radio resource in TDD, and based on the estimation of the traffic load, three power saving schemes in the top-down strategy are presented. Associated mechanisms in each scheme including calculation of the virtual subframe capacity, the algorithm of integrated sleep scheduling, and the mapping mechanisms for the backhaul link and the access link are presented in the paper. Simulation study shows the advantage of the proposed schemes in energy saving over the standard DRX scheme.

Keywords: LTE-A, Relay, TDD, Power Saving.

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92 Energy Efficiency Approach to Reduce Costs of Ownership of Air Jet Weaving

Authors: Corrado Grassi, Achim Schröter, Yves Gloy, Thomas Gries

Abstract:

Air jet weaving is the most productive, but also the most energy consuming weaving method. Increasing energy costs and environmental impact are constantly a challenge for the manufacturers of weaving machines. Current technological developments concern with low energy costs, low environmental impact, high productivity, and constant product quality. The high degree of energy consumption of the method can be ascribed to the high need of compressed air. An energy efficiency method is applied to the air jet weaving technology. Such method identifies and classifies the main relevant energy consumers and processes from the exergy point of view and it leads to the identification of energy efficiency potentials during the weft insertion process. Starting from the design phase, energy efficiency is considered as the central requirement to be satisfied. The initial phase of the method consists of an analysis of the state of the art of the main weft insertion components in order to point out a prioritization of the high demanding energy components and processes. The identified major components are investigated to reduce the high demand of energy of the weft insertion process. During the interaction of the flow field coming from the relay nozzles within the profiled reed, only a minor part of the stream is really accelerating the weft yarn, hence resulting in large energy inefficiency. Different tools such as FEM analysis, CFD simulation models and experimental analysis are used in order to design a more energy efficient design of the involved components in the filling insertion. A different concept for the metal strip of the profiled reed is developed. The developed metal strip allows a reduction of the machine energy consumption. Based on a parametric and aerodynamic study, the designed reed transmits higher values of the flow power to the filling yarn. The innovative reed fulfills both the requirement of raising energy efficiency and the compliance with the weaving constraints.

Keywords: Air jet weaving, aerodynamic simulation, energy efficiency, experimental measurements, power costs, weft insertion.

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91 Adaptive Transmission Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yong-Jun Kim, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, a dual-hop relay based on channel state is studied. In the conventional relay scheme, a relay uses the same modulation method without reference to channel state. But, a relay uses an adaptive modulation method with reference to channel state. If the channel state is poor, a relay eliminates latter 2 bits and uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. If channel state is good, a relay modulates the received symbols with 16-QAM symbols by using 4 bits. The performance of the proposed scheme for Symbol Error Rate (SER) and throughput is analyzed.

Keywords: Adaptive transmission, channel state, dual-hop, hierarchical modulation, relay.

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90 Fault and Theft Recognition Using Toro Dial Sensor in Programmable Current Relay for Feeder Security

Authors: R. Kamalakannan, N. Ravi Kumar

Abstract:

Feeder protection is important in transmission and distribution side because if any fault occurs in any feeder or transformer, man power is needed to identify the problem and it will take more time. In the existing system, directional overcurrent elements with load further secured by a load encroachment function can be used to provide necessary security and sensitivity for faults on remote points in a circuit. It is validated only in renewable plant collector circuit protection applications over a wide range of operating conditions. In this method, the directional overcurrent feeder protection is developed by using monitoring of feeder section through internet. In this web based monitoring, the fault and power theft are identified by using Toro dial sensor and its information is received by SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and controlled by ARM microcontroller. This web based monitoring is also used to monitor the feeder management, directional current detection, demand side management, overload fault. This monitoring system is capable of monitoring the distribution feeder over a large area depending upon the cost. It is also used to reduce the power theft, time and man power. The simulation is done by MATLAB software.

Keywords: Current sensor, distribution feeder protection, directional overcurrent, power theft, protective relay.

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89 Cooperative Cross Layer Topology for Concurrent Transmission Scheduling Scheme in Broadband Wireless Networks

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider CCL-N (Cooperative Cross Layer Network) topology based on the cross layer (both centralized and distributed) environment to form network communities. Various performance metrics related to the IEEE 802.16 networks are discussed to design CCL-N Topology. In CCL-N topology, nodes are classified as master nodes (Master Base Station [MBS]) and serving nodes (Relay Station [RS]). Nodes communities are organized based on the networking terminologies. Based on CCL-N Topology, various simulation analyses for both transparent and non-transparent relays are tabulated and throughput efficiency is calculated. Weighted load balancing problem plays a challenging role in IEEE 802.16 network. CoTS (Concurrent Transmission Scheduling) Scheme is formulated in terms of three aspects – transmission mechanism based on identical communities, different communities and identical node communities. CoTS scheme helps in identifying the weighted load balancing problem. Based on the analytical results, modularity value is inversely proportional to that of the error value. The modularity value plays a key role in solving the CoTS problem based on hop count. The transmission mechanism for identical node community has no impact since modularity value is same for all the network groups. In this paper three aspects of communities based on the modularity value which helps in solving the problem of weighted load balancing and CoTS are discussed.

Keywords: Cross layer network topology, concurrent scheduling, modularity value, network communities and weighted load balancing.

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88 Authorization of Commercial Communication Satellite Grounds for Promoting Turkish Data Relay System

Authors: Celal Dudak, Aslı Utku, Burak Yağlioğlu

Abstract:

Uninterrupted and continuous satellite communication through the whole orbit time is becoming more indispensable every day. Data relay systems are developed and built for various high/low data rate information exchanges like TDRSS of USA and EDRSS of Europe. In these missions, a couple of task-dedicated communication satellites exist. In this regard, for Turkey a data relay system is attempted to be defined exchanging low data rate information (i.e. TTC) for Earth-observing LEO satellites appointing commercial GEO communication satellites all over the world. First, justification of this attempt is given, demonstrating duration enhancements in the link. Discussion of preference of RF communication is, also, given instead of laser communication. Then, preferred communication GEOs – including TURKSAT4A already belonging to Turkey- are given, together with the coverage enhancements through STK simulations and the corresponding link budget. Also, a block diagram of the communication system is given on the LEO satellite.

Keywords: Communication, satellite, data relay system, coverage.

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87 Freedom of Media, Democracy and Gezi Park

Authors: Emine Tirali

Abstract:

This article provides a conceptual framework of the freedom of media and its correlation with democracy. In a democracy, media should serve the publics’ right to know and reflect human rights violations and offer options for meaningful political choices and effective participation in civic affairs. On that point, the 2013 events at Gezi Park in Turkey are a good empirical example to be discussed. During the events, when self-censorship was broadly employed by mainstream Turkish media, social media filled the important role of providing information to the public. New technologies have made information into a fundamental tool for change and growth, and as a consequence, societies worldwide have merged into a single, interdependent, and autonomous organism. For this reason, violations of human rights can no longer be considered domestic issues, but rather global ones. Only global political action is an adequate response. Democracy depends on people shaping the society they live in, and in order to accomplish this, they need to express themselves. Freedom of expression is therefore necessary in order to understand diversity and differing perspectives, which in turn are necessary to resolve conflicts among people. Moreover, freedom of information is integral to freedom of expression. In this context, the international rules and laws regarding freedom of expression and freedom of information – indispensable for a free and independent media – are examined. These were put in place by international institutions such as the United Nations, UNESCO, the Council of Europe, and the European Union, which have aimed to build a free, democratic, and pluralist world committed to human rights and the rule of law. The methods of international human rights institutions depend on effective and frequent employment of mass media to relay human rights violations to the public. Therefore, in this study, the relationship between mass media and democracy, the process of how mass media forms public opinion, the problems of mass media, the neo-liberal theory of mass media, and the use of mass media by NGOs will be evaluated.

Keywords: Freedom of expression, democracy, public opinion, self-censorship.

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86 An Improved Transmission Scheme in Cooperative Communication System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Young-Min Ko, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Recently developed cooperative diversity scheme enables a terminal to get transmit diversity through the support of other terminals. However, most of the introduced cooperative schemes have a common fault of decreased transmission rate because the destination should receive the decodable compositions of symbols from the source and the relay. In order to achieve high data rate, we propose a cooperative scheme that employs hierarchical modulation. This scheme is free from the rate loss and allows seamless cooperative communication.

Keywords: Cooperative communication, hierarchical modulation, high data rate, transmission scheme.

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85 Improved Network Construction Methods Based on Virtual Rails for Mobile Sensor Network

Authors: Noritaka Shigei, Kazuto Matsumoto, Yoshiki Nakashima, Hiromi Miyajima

Abstract:

Although Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs), which consist of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs), can cover a wide range of observation region by using a small number of sensor nodes, they need to construct a network to collect the sensing data on the base station by moving the MSNs. As an effective method, the network construction method based on Virtual Rails (VRs), which is referred to as VR method, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose two types of effective techniques for the VR method. They can prolong the operation time of the network, which is limited by the battery capabilities of MSNs and the energy consumption of MSNs. The first technique, an effective arrangement of VRs, almost equalizes the number of MSNs belonging to each VR. The second technique, an adaptive movement method of MSNs, takes into account the residual energy of battery. In the simulation, we demonstrate that each technique can improve the network lifetime and the combination of both techniques is the most effective.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, mobile sensor node, relay of sensing data, virtual rail, residual energy.

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84 Network Mobility Support in Content-Centric Internet

Authors: Zhiwei Yan, Jong-Hyouk Lee, Yong-Jin Park, Xiaodong Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze NEtwork MObility (NEMO) supporting problems in Content-Centric Networking (CCN), and propose the CCN-NEMO which can well support the deployment of the content-centric paradigm in large-scale mobile Internet. The CCN-NEMO extends the signaling message of the basic CCN protocol, to support the mobility discovery and fast trigger of Interest re-issuing during the network mobility. Besides, the Mobile Router (MR) is extended to optimize the content searching and relaying in the local subnet. These features can be employed by the nested NEMO to maximize the advantages of content retrieving with CCN. Based on the analysis, we compare the performance on handover latency between the basic CCN and our proposed CCN-NEMO. The results show that our scheme can facilitate the content-retrieving in the NEMO scenario with improved performance.

Keywords: CCN, handover, NEMO, mobility management.

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83 Action Potential of Lateral Geniculate Neurons at Low Threshold Currents: Simulation Study

Authors: Faris Tarlochan, Siva Mahesh Tangutooru

Abstract:

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) is the relay center in the visual pathway as it receives most of the input information from retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and sends to visual cortex. Low threshold calcium currents (IT) at the membrane are the unique indicator to characterize this firing functionality of the LGN neurons gained by the RGC input. According to the LGN functional requirements such as functional mapping of RGC to LGN, the morphologies of the LGN neurons were developed. During the neurological disorders like glaucoma, the mapping between RGC and LGN is disconnected and hence stimulating LGN electrically using deep brain electrodes can restore the functionalities of LGN. A computational model was developed for simulating the LGN neurons with three predominant morphologies each representing different functional mapping of RGC to LGN. The firings of action potentials at LGN neuron due to IT were characterized by varying the stimulation parameters, morphological parameters and orientation. A wide range of stimulation parameters (stimulus amplitude, duration and frequency) represents the various strengths of the electrical stimulation with different morphological parameters (soma size, dendrites size and structure). The orientation (0-1800) of LGN neuron with respect to the stimulating electrode represents the angle at which the extracellular deep brain stimulation towards LGN neuron is performed. A reduced dendrite structure was used in the model using Bush–Sejnowski algorithm to decrease the computational time while conserving its input resistance and total surface area. The major finding is that an input potential of 0.4 V is required to produce the action potential in the LGN neuron which is placed at 100 μm distance from the electrode. From this study, it can be concluded that the neuroprostheses under design would need to consider the capability of inducing at least 0.4V to produce action potentials in LGN.

Keywords: Lateral geniculate nucleus, visual cortex, finite element, glaucoma, neuroprostheses.

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82 Visualization of Flow Behaviour in Micro-Cavities during Micro Injection Moulding

Authors: Reza Gheisari, Paulo J. Bartolo, Nicholas Goddard

Abstract:

Polymeric micro-cantilevers (Cs) are rapidly becoming popular for MEMS applications such as chemo- and biosensing as well as purely electromechanical applications such as microrelays. Polymer materials present suitable physical and chemical properties combined with low-cost mass production. Hence, micro-cantilevers made of polymers indicate much more biocompatibility and adaptability of rapid prototyping along with mechanical properties. This research studies the effects of three process and one size factors on the filling behaviour in micro cavity, and the role of each in the replication of micro parts using different polymer materials i.e. polypropylene (PP) SABIC 56M10 and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Magnum 8434 . In particular, the following factors are considered: barrel temperature, mould temperature, injection speed and the thickness of micro features. The study revealed that the barrel temperature and the injection speed are the key factors affecting the flow length of micro features replicated in PP and ABS. For both materials, an increase of feature sizes improves the melt flow. However, the melt fill of micro features does not increase linearly with the increase of their thickness.

Keywords: Flow length, micro-cantilevers, micro injection moulding, microfabrication.

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81 The Challenges and Solutions for Developing Mobile Apps in a Small University

Authors: Greg Turner, Bin Lu, Cheer-Sun Yang

Abstract:

As computing technology advances, smartphone applications can assist student learning in a pervasive way. For example, the idea of using mobile apps for the PA Common Trees, Pests, Pathogens, in the field as a reference tool allows middle school students to learn about trees and associated pests/pathogens without bringing a textbook. While working on the development of three heterogeneous mobile apps, we ran into numerous challenges. Both the traditional waterfall model and the more modern agile methodologies failed in practice. The waterfall model emphasizes the planning of the duration for each phase. When the duration of each phase is not consistent with the availability of developers, the waterfall model cannot be employed. When applying Agile Methodologies, we cannot maintain the high frequency of the iterative development review process, known as ‘sprints’. In this paper, we discuss the challenges and solutions. We propose a hybrid model known as the Relay Race Methodology to reflect the concept of racing and relaying during the process of software development in practice. Based on the development project, we observe that the modeling of the relay race transition between any two phases is manifested naturally. Thus, we claim that the RRM model can provide a de fecto rather than a de jure basis for the core concept in the software development model. In this paper, the background of the project is introduced first. Then, the challenges are pointed out followed by our solutions. Finally, the experiences learned and the future works are presented.

Keywords: Agile methods, mobile apps, software process model, waterfall model.

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80 Efficient Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Fishing through Surveillance for Fishermen

Authors: T. Ahilan, V. Aswin Adityan, S. Kailash

Abstract:

UAV’s are small remote operated or automated aerial surveillance systems without a human pilot aboard. UAV’s generally finds its use in military and special operation application, a recent growing trend in UAV’s finds its application in several civil and nonmilitary works such as inspection of power or pipelines. The objective of this paper is the augmentation of a UAV in order to replace the existing expensive sonar (Sound Navigation And Ranging) based equipment amongst small scale fisherman, for whom access to sonar equipment are restricted due to limited economic resources. The surveillance equipment’s present in the UAV will relay data and GPS (Global Positioning System) location onto a receiver on the fishing boat using RF signals, using which the location of the schools of fishes can be found. In addition to this, an emergency beacon system is present for rescue operations and drone recovery.

Keywords: GPS, RF signals, School of fish, Sonar, Surveillance UAV, Video stream.

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79 Robotics and Embedded Systems Applied to the Buried Pipeline Inspection

Authors: Robson C. Santos, Julio C. P. Ribeiro, Iorran M. de Castro, Luan C. F. Rodrigues, Sandro R. L. Silva, Diego M. Quesada

Abstract:

The work aims to develop a robot in the form of autonomous vehicle to detect, inspection and mapping of underground pipelines through the ATmega328 Arduino platform. Hardware prototyping is very similar to C / C ++ language that facilitates its use in robotics open source, resembles PLC used in large industrial processes. The robot will traverse the surface independently of direct human action, in order to automate the process of detecting buried pipes, guided by electromagnetic induction. The induction comes from coils that send the signal to the Arduino microcontroller contained in that will make the difference in intensity and the treatment of the information, and then this determines actions to electrical components such as relays and motors, allowing the prototype to move on the surface and getting the necessary information. This change of direction is performed by a stepper motor with a servo motor. The robot was developed by electrical and electronic assemblies that allowed test your application. The assembly is made up of metal detector coils, circuit boards and microprocessor, which interconnected circuits previously developed can determine, process control and mechanical actions for a robot (autonomous car) that will make the detection and mapping of buried pipelines plates. This type of prototype can prevent and identifies possible landslides and they can prevent the buried pipelines suffer an external pressure on the walls with the possibility of oil leakage and thus pollute the environment.

Keywords: Robotic, metal detector, embedded system, pipeline.

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78 Cognitive Relaying in Interference Limited Spectrum Sharing Environment: Outage Probability and Outage Capacity

Authors: Md Fazlul Kader, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a cognitive relay network (CRN) in which the primary receiver (PR) is protected by peak transmit power ¯PST and/or peak interference power Q constraints. In addition, the interference effect from the primary transmitter (PT) is considered to show its impact on the performance of the CRN. We investigate the outage probability (OP) and outage capacity (OC) of the CRN by deriving closed-form expressions over Rayleigh fading channel. Results show that both the OP and OC improve by increasing the cooperative relay nodes as well as when the PT is far away from the SR.

Keywords: Cognitive relay, outage, interference limited, decode-and-forward (DF).

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77 Smart Monitoring and Control of Tap Changer Using Intelligent Electronic Device

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, G. R. Manjunatha, R. Ramaprabha, V. Rajini, M. V. Gopalan

Abstract:

In this paper, monitoring and control of tap changer mechanism of a transformer implementation in an Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) is discussed. It has been a custom for decades to provide a separate panel for on load tap changer control for monitoring the tap position. However, this facility cannot either record or transfer the information to remote control centers. As there is a technology shift towards the smart grid protection and control standards, the need for implementing remote control and monitoring has necessitated the implementation of this feature in numerical relays. This paper deals with the programming, settings and logic implementation which is applicable to both IEC 61850 compatible and non-compatible IEDs thereby eliminating the need for separate tap changer control equipment. The monitoring mechanism has been implemented in a 28MVA, 110 /6.9kV transformer with 16 tap position with GE make T60 IED at Ultratech cement limited Gulbarga, Karnataka and is in successful service.

Keywords: Transformer protection, tap changer control, tap position monitoring, on load tap changer, intelligent electronic device (IED).

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76 Cooperative CDD Scheme Based on Hierarchical Modulation in OFDM System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yeong-Seop Ahn, Young-Min Ko, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In order to achieve high data rate and increase the spectral efficiency, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system has been proposed. However, multiple antennas are limited by size and cost. Therefore, recently developed cooperative diversity scheme, which profits the transmit diversity only with the existing hardware by constituting a virtual antenna array, can be a solution. However, most of the introduced cooperative techniques have a common fault of decreased transmission rate because the destination should receive the decodable compositions of symbols from the source and the relay. In this paper, we propose a cooperative cyclic delay diversity (CDD) scheme that use hierarchical modulation. This scheme is free from the rate loss and allows seamless cooperative communication.

Keywords: MIMO, Cooperative communication, CDD, Hierarchical modulation.

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75 A Novel Solution to Restricted Earth Fault Low Impedance Relay Maloperation

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, R. Ramaprabha, V. Rajini, V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

In this paper, various methods of providing restricted earth fault protection are discussed. The proper operation of high and low impedance Restricted Earth Fault (REF) protection for various applications has been discussed. The maloperation of a relay due to improper placement of CTs has been identified and a simple/unique solution has been proposed in this work with a case study. Moreover, it is found that the proper placement of CT in high impedance method will provide the same result with reduced CT. This methodology has been successfully implemented in Al Takreer refinery for a 2000 KVA transformer. The outcome of the paper may be included in IEEEC37.91 standard to give the proper guidance for protection engineers to sort out the issues related to mal functioning of REF relays.

Keywords: Relay maloperation, transformer, low impedance REF, MatLab, 64R, IEEE C37.91.

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74 Improved Performance of Cooperative Scheme in the Cellular and Broadcasting System

Authors: Hyun-Jee Yang, Bit-Na Kwon, Yong-Jun Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In the cooperative transmission scheme, both the cellular system and broadcasting system are composed. Two cellular base stations (CBSs) communicating with a user in the cell edge use cooperative transmission scheme in the conventional scheme. In the case that the distance between two CBSs and the user is distant, the conventional scheme does not guarantee the quality of the communication because the channel condition is bad. Therefore, if the distance between CBSs and a user is distant, the performance of the conventional scheme is decreased. Also, the bad channel condition has bad effects on the performance. The proposed scheme uses two relays to communicate well with CBSs when the channel condition between CBSs and the user is poor. Using the relay in the high attenuation environment can obtain both advantages of the high bit error rate (BER) and throughput performance.

Keywords: Cooperative communications, diversity gain, OFDM, interworking system.

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73 Pilot Directional Protection Scheme Using Wireless Communication

Authors: Nitish Sharma, G. G. Karady

Abstract:

This paper presents a scheme for the protection of loop system from all type of faults using the direction of fault current. The presence of distributed generation in today’s system increases the complexity of fault detection as the power flow is bidirectional. Hence, protection scheme specific to this purpose needs to be developed. This paper shows a fast protection scheme using communication which can be fiber optic or wireless. In this paper, the possibility of wireless communication for protection is studied to exchange the information between the relays. The negative sequence and positive sequence directional elements are used to determine the direction of fault current. A PSCAD simulation is presented and validated using commercial SEL relays.

Keywords: Smart grid protection, pilot protection, power system simulation, wireless communication.

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72 A Smart Monitoring System for Preventing Gas Risks in Indoor

Authors: Gyoutae Park, Geunjun Lyu, Yeonjae Lee, Wooksuk Kim, Jaheon Gu, Sanguk Ahn, Hiesik Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a system for preventing gas risks through the use of wireless communication modules and intelligent gas safety appliances. Our system configuration consists of an automatic extinguishing system, detectors, a wall-pad, and a microcomputer controlled micom gas meter to monitor gas flow and pressure as well as the occurrence of earthquakes. The automatic fire extinguishing system checks for both combustible gaseous leaks and monitors the environmental temperature, while the detector array measures smoke and CO gas concentrations. Depending on detected conditions, the micom gas meter cuts off an inner valve and generates a warning, the automatic fire-extinguishing system cuts off an external valve and sprays extinguishing materials, or the sensors generate signals and take further action when smoke or CO are detected. Information on intelligent measures taken by the gas safety appliances and sensors are transmitted to the wall-pad, which in turn relays this as real time data to a server that can be monitored via an external network (BcN) connection to a web or mobile application for the management of gas safety. To validate this smart-home gas management system, we field-tested its suitability for use in Korean apartments under several scenarios.

Keywords: Gas sensor, leak, gas safety, gas meter, gas risk, wireless communication.

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