Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 679

Search results for: packet delay

679 Optimizing TCP Vegas- Performance with Packet Spacing and Effect of Variable FTP Packet Size over Wireless IPv6 Network

Authors: B. S. Yew , B. L. Ong , R. B. Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper describes the performance of TCP Vegas over the wireless IPv6 network. The performance of TCP Vegas is evaluated using network simulator (ns-2). The simulation experiment investigates how packet spacing affects the network delay, network throughput and network efficiency of TCP Vegas. Moreover, we investigate how the variable FTP packet sizes affect the network performance. The result of the simulation experiment shows that as the packet spacing is implements, the network delay is reduces, network throughput and network efficiency is optimizes. As the FTP packet sizes increase, the ratio of delay per throughput decreases. From the result of experiment, we propose the appropriate packet size in transmitting file transfer protocol application using TCP Vegas with packet spacing enhancement over wireless IPv6 environment in ns-2. Additionally, we suggest the appropriate ratio in determining the appropriate RTT and buffer size in a network.

Keywords: TCP Vegas, Packet Spacing, Packet Size, Wireless IPv6, ns-2

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678 Delay Specific Investigations on QoS Scheduling Schemes for Real-Time Traffic in Packet Switched Networks

Authors: P.S.Prakash, S.Selvan

Abstract:

Packet switched data network like Internet, which has traditionally supported throughput sensitive applications such as email and file transfer, is increasingly supporting delay-sensitive multimedia applications such as interactive video. These delaysensitive applications would often rather sacrifice some throughput for better delay. Unfortunately, the current packet switched network does not offer choices, but instead provides monolithic best-effort service to all applications. This paper evaluates Class Based Queuing (CBQ), Coordinated Earliest Deadline First (CEDF), Weighted Switch Deficit Round Robin (WSDRR) and RED-Boston scheduling schemes that is sensitive to delay bound expectations for variety of real time applications and an enhancement of WSDRR is proposed.

Keywords: QoS, Delay-sensitive, Queuing delay, Scheduling

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677 Delay and Packet Loss Analysis for Handovers between MANETs and NEMO Networks

Authors: Jirawat Thaenthong, Steven Gordon

Abstract:

MANEMO is the integration of Network Mobility (NEMO) and Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET). A MANEMO node has an interface to both a MANET and NEMO network, and therefore should choose the optimal interface for packet delivery, however such a handover between interfaces will introduce packet loss. We define the steps necessary for a MANEMO handover, using Mobile IP and NEMO to signal the new binding to the relevant Home Agent(s). The handover steps aim to minimize the packet loss by avoiding waiting for Duplicate Address Detection and Neighbour Unreachability Detection. We present expressions for handover delay and packet loss, and then use numerical examples to evaluate a MANEMO handover. The analysis shows how the packet loss depends on level of nesting within NEMO, the delay between Home Agents and the load on the MANET, and hence can be used to developing optimal MANEMO handover algorithms.

Keywords: IP mobility, handover, MANET, network mobility

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676 Design and Bandwidth Allocation of Embedded ATM Networks using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: H. El-Madbouly

Abstract:

In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for the design of an optimization algorithm to achieve the bandwidth allocation of ATM network. In Broadband ISDN, the ATM is a highbandwidth; fast packet switching and multiplexing technique. Using ATM it can be flexibly reconfigure the network and reassign the bandwidth to meet the requirements of all types of services. By dynamically routing the traffic and adjusting the bandwidth assignment, the average packet delay of the whole network can be reduced to a minimum. M/M/1 model can be used to analyze the performance.

Keywords: Bandwidth allocation, Genetic algorithm, ATMNetwork, packet delay.

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675 Packet Reserving and Clogging Control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving Framework in MANET

Authors: C. Sathiyakumar, K. Duraiswamy

Abstract:

In MANET, mobile nodes communicate with each other using the wireless channel where transmission takes place with significant interference. The wireless medium used in MANET is a shared resource used by all the nodes available in MANET. Packet reserving is one important resource management scheme which controls the allocation of bandwidth among multiple flows through node cooperation in MANET. This paper proposes packet reserving and clogging control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving (RAPR) framework in MANET. It mainly focuses the end-to-end routing condition with maximal throughput. RAPR is complimentary system where the packet reserving utilizes local routing information available in each node. Path setup in RAPR estimates the security level of the system, and symbolizes the end-to-end routing by controlling the clogging. RAPR reaches the packet to the destination with high probability ratio and minimal delay count. The standard performance measures such as network security level, communication overhead, end-to-end throughput, resource utilization efficiency and delay measure are considered in this work. The results reveals that the proposed packet reservation and clogging control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving (RAPR) framework performs well for the above said performance measures compare to the existing methods.

Keywords: Packet reserving, Clogging control, Packet reservation in MANET, RAPR.

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674 Signing the First Packet in Amortization Scheme for Multicast Stream Authentication

Authors: Mohammed Shatnawi, Qusai Abuein, Susumu Shibusawa

Abstract:

Signature amortization schemes have been introduced for authenticating multicast streams, in which, a single signature is amortized over several packets. The hash value of each packet is computed, some hash values are appended to other packets, forming what is known as hash chain. These schemes divide the stream into blocks, each block is a number of packets, the signature packet in these schemes is either the first or the last packet of the block. Amortization schemes are efficient solutions in terms of computation and communication overhead, specially in real-time environment. The main effictive factor of amortization schemes is it-s hash chain construction. Some studies show that signing the first packet of each block reduces the receiver-s delay and prevents DoS attacks, other studies show that signing the last packet reduces the sender-s delay. To our knowledge, there is no studies that show which is better, to sign the first or the last packet in terms of authentication probability and resistance to packet loss. In th is paper we will introduce another scheme for authenticating multicast streams that is robust against packet loss, reduces the overhead, and prevents the DoS attacks experienced by the receiver in the same time. Our scheme-The Multiple Connected Chain signing the First packet (MCF) is to append the hash values of specific packets to other packets,then append some hashes to the signature packet which is sent as the first packet in the block. This scheme is aspecially efficient in terms of receiver-s delay. We discuss and evaluate the performance of our proposed scheme against those that sign the last packet of the block.

Keywords: multicast stream authentication, hash chain construction, signature amortization, authentication probability.

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673 Opportunistic Routing with Secure Coded Wireless Multicast Using MAS Approach

Authors: E. Golden Julie, S. Tamil Selvi, Y. Harold Robinson

Abstract:

Many Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications necessitate secure multicast services for the purpose of broadcasting delay sensitive data like video files and live telecast at fixed time-slot. This work provides a novel method to deal with end-to-end delay and drop rate of packets. Opportunistic Routing chooses a link based on the maximum probability of packet delivery ratio. Null Key Generation helps in authenticating packets to the receiver. Markov Decision Process based Adaptive Scheduling algorithm determines the time slot for packet transmission. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed protocol ensures better performance in terms of packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and normalized routing overhead.

Keywords: Delay-sensitive data, Markovian Decision Process based Adaptive Scheduling, Opportunistic Routing, Digital Signature authentication.

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672 Improving Packet Latency of Video Sensor Networks

Authors: Arijit Ghosh, Tony Givargis

Abstract:

Video sensor networks operate on stringent requirements of latency. Packets have a deadline within which they have to be delivered. Violation of the deadline causes a packet to be treated as lost and the loss of packets ultimately affects the quality of the application. Network latency is typically a function of many interacting components. In this paper, we propose ways of reducing the forwarding latency of a packet at intermediate nodes. The forwarding latency is caused by a combination of processing delay and queueing delay. The former is incurred in order to determine the next hop in dynamic routing. We show that unless link failures in a very specific and unlikely pattern, a vast majority of these lookups are redundant. To counter this we propose source routing as the routing strategy. However, source routing suffers from issues related to scalability and being impervious to network dynamics. We propose solutions to counter these and show that source routing is definitely a viable option in practical sized video networks. We also propose a fast and fair packet scheduling algorithm that reduces queueing delay at the nodes. We support our claims through extensive simulation on realistic topologies with practical traffic loads and failure patterns.

Keywords: Sensor networks, Packet latency, Network design, Networkperformance.

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671 Power Line Carrier Equipment Supporting IP Traffic Transmission in the Enterprise Networks of Energy Companies

Authors: M. S. Anton Merkulov

Abstract:

This article discusses the questions concerning of creating small packet networks for energy companies with application of high voltage power line carrier equipment (PLC) with functionality of IP traffic transmission. The main idea is to create converged PLC links between substations and dispatching centers where packet data and voice are transmitted in one data flow. The article contents description of basic conception of the network, evaluation of voice traffic transmission parameters, and discussion of header compression techniques in relation to PLC links. The results of exploration show us, that convergent packet PLC links can be very useful in the construction of small packet networks between substations in remote locations, such as deposits or low populated areas.

Keywords: packet PLC, VoIP, time delay, packet traffic, overhead compression

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670 An Approach for Reducing the End-to-end Delay and Increasing Network Lifetime in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: R. Asokan, A. M. Natarajan

Abstract:

Mobile adhoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile devices which form a communication network with no preexisting wiring or infrastructure. Multiple routing protocols have been developed for MANETs. As MANETs gain popularity, their need to support real time applications is growing as well. Such applications have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements such as throughput, end-to-end delay, and energy. Due to dynamic topology and bandwidth constraint supporting QoS is a challenging task. QoS aware routing is an important building block for QoS support. The primary goal of the QoS aware protocol is to determine the path from source to destination that satisfies the QoS requirements. This paper proposes a new energy and delay aware protocol called energy and delay aware TORA (EDTORA) based on extension of Temporally Ordered Routing Protocol (TORA).Energy and delay verifications of query packet have been done in each node. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol has a higher performance than TORA in terms of network lifetime, packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay.

Keywords: EDTORA, Mobile Adhoc Networks, QoS, Routing, TORA

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669 Improving Location Management in Mobile IPv4 Networks

Authors: Haidar Safa, Hassan Artail, Ahmad Mehio, Hicham Zahr, Ziad Matragi

Abstract:

The Mobile IP Standard has been developed to support mobility over the Internet. This standard contains several drawbacks as in the cases where packets are routed via sub-optimal paths and significant amount of signaling messages is generated due to the home registration procedure which keeps the network aware of the current location of the mobile nodes. Recently, a dynamic hierarchical mobility management strategy for mobile IP networks (DHMIP) has been proposed to reduce home registrations costs. However, this strategy induces a packet delivery delay and increases the risk of packet loss. In this paper, we propose an enhanced version of the dynamic hierarchical strategy that reduces the packet delivery delay and minimizes the risk of packet loss. Preliminary results obtained from simulations are promising. They show that the enhanced version outperforms the original dynamic hierarchical mobility management strategy version.

Keywords: Location management, Mobile IP (MIP), Home Agent, Foreign Agent.

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668 DODR : Delay On-Demand Routing

Authors: Dong Wan-li, Gu Nai-jie, Tu Kun, Bi Kun, Liu Gang

Abstract:

As originally designed for wired networks, TCP (transmission control protocol) congestion control mechanism is triggered into action when packet loss is detected. This implicit assumption for packet loss mostly due to network congestion does not work well in Mobile Ad Hoc Network, where there is a comparatively high likelihood of packet loss due to channel errors and node mobility etc. Such non-congestion packet loss, when dealt with by congestion control mechanism, causes poor TCP performance in MANET. In this study, we continue to investigate the impact of the interaction between transport protocols and on-demand routing protocols on the performance and stability of 802.11 multihop networks. We evaluate the important wireless networking events caused routing change, and propose a cross layer method to delay the unnecessary routing changes, only need to add a sensitivity parameter α , which represents the on-demand routing-s reaction to link failure of MAC layer. Our proposal is applicable to the plain 802.11 networking environment, the simulation results that this method can remarkably improve the stability and performance of TCP without any modification on TCP and MAC protocol.

Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), on-demandrouting, performance, transmission control protocol (TCP).

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667 A New Scheduling Algorithm Based on Traffic Classification Using Imprecise Computation

Authors: Farzad Abtahi, Sahar Khanmohamadi, Bahram Sadeghi Bigham

Abstract:

Wireless channels are characterized by more serious bursty and location-dependent errors. Many packet scheduling algorithms have been proposed for wireless networks to guarantee fairness and delay bounds. However, most existing schemes do not consider the difference of traffic natures among packet flows. This will cause the delay-weight coupling problem. In particular, serious queuing delays may be incurred for real-time flows. In this paper, it is proposed a scheduling algorithm that takes traffic types of flows into consideration when scheduling packets and also it is provided scheduling flexibility by trading off video quality to meet the playback deadline.

Keywords: Data communication, Real-time, Scheduling, Video transport.

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666 PetriNets Manipulation to Reduce Roaming Duration: Criterion to Improve Handoff Management

Authors: Hossam el-ddin Mostafa, Pavel Čičak

Abstract:

IETF RFC 2002 originally introduced the wireless Mobile-IP protocol to support portable IP addresses for mobile devices that often change their network access points to the Internet. The inefficiency of this protocol mainly within the handoff management produces large end-to-end packet delays, during registration process, and further degrades the system efficiency due to packet losses between subnets. The criterion to initiate a simple and fast full-duplex connection between the home agent and foreign agent, to reduce the roaming duration, is a very important issue to be considered by a work in this paper. State-transition Petri-Nets of the modeling scenario-based CIA: communication inter-agents procedure as an extension to the basic Mobile-IP registration process was designed and manipulated. The heuristic of configuration file during practical Setup session for registration parameters, on Cisco platform Router-1760 using IOS 12.3 (15)T is created. Finally, stand-alone performance simulations results from Simulink Matlab, within each subnet and also between subnets, are illustrated for reporting better end-to-end packet delays. Results verified the effectiveness of our Mathcad analytical manipulation and experimental implementation. It showed lower values of end-to-end packet delay for Mobile-IP using CIA procedure. Furthermore, it reported packets flow between subnets to improve packet losses between subnets.

Keywords: Cisco configuration, handoff, packet delay, Petri-Nets, registration process, Simulink.

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665 Implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 Packet Analyzer

Authors: Sung Jun Ban, Hyeonwoo Cho, ChangWoo Lee, Sang Woo Kim

Abstract:

A packet analyzer is a tool for debugging sensor network systems and is convenient for developers. In this paper, we introduce a new packet analyzer based on an embedded system. The proposed packet analyzer is compatible with IEEE 802.15.4, which is suitable for the wireless communication standard for sensor networks, and is available for remote control by adopting a server-client scheme based on the Ethernet interface. To confirm the operations of the packet analyzer, we have developed two types of sensor nodes based on PIC4620 and ATmega128L microprocessors and tested the functions of the proposed packet analyzer by obtaining the packets from the sensor nodes.

Keywords: Sensor network, embedded system, packet analyzer.

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664 Contention Window Adjustment in IEEE 802.11-Based Industrial Wireless Networks

Authors: Mohsen Maadani, Seyed Ahmad Motamedi

Abstract:

The use of wireless technology in industrial networks has gained vast attraction in recent years. In this paper, we have thoroughly analyzed the effect of contention window (CW) size on the performance of IEEE 802.11-based industrial wireless networks (IWN), from delay and reliability perspective. Results show that the default values of CWmin, CWmax, and retry limit (RL) are far from the optimum performance due to the industrial application characteristics, including short packet and noisy environment. In this paper, an adaptive CW algorithm (payload-dependent) has been proposed to minimize the average delay. Finally a simple, but effective CW and RL setting has been proposed for industrial applications which outperforms the minimum-average-delay solution from maximum delay and jitter perspective, at the cost of a little higher average delay. Simulation results show an improvement of up to 20%, 25%, and 30% in average delay, maximum delay and jitter respectively.

Keywords: Average Delay, Contention Window, Distributed Coordination Function (DCF), Jitter, Industrial Wireless Network (IWN), Maximum Delay, Reliability, Retry Limit.

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663 Performance Analysis of Energy-Efficient Home Femto Base Stations

Authors: Yun Won Chung

Abstract:

The energy consumption of home femto base stations (BSs) can be reduced, by turning off the Wi-Fi radio interface when there is no mobile station (MS) under the coverage of the BSs or MSs do not transmit or receive data packet for long time, especially in late night. In the energy-efficient home femto BSs, if MSs have any data packet to transmit and the Wi-Fi radio interface in off state, MSs wake up the Wi-Fi radio interface of home femto BSs by using additional low power radio interface. In this paper, the performance of the energy-efficient home femto BSs from the aspect of energy consumption and cumulative average delay, and show the effect of various parameters on energy consumption and cumulative average delay. From the results, the tradeoff relationship between energy consumption and cumulative average delay is shown and thus, appropriate operation should be needed to balance the tradeoff.

Keywords: energy consumption, power saving, femto base station.

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662 Comparative Performance Analysis of Fiber Delay Line Based Buffer Architectures for Contention Resolution in Optical WDM Networks

Authors: Manoj Kumar Dutta

Abstract:

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is the most promising technology for the proper utilization of huge raw bandwidth provided by an optical fiber. One of the key problems in implementing the all-optical WDM network is the packet contention. This problem can be solved by several different techniques. In time domain approach the packet contention can be reduced by incorporating Fiber Delay Lines (FDLs) as optical buffer in the switch architecture. Different types of buffering architectures are reported in literatures. In the present paper a comparative performance analysis of three most popular FDL architectures are presented in order to obtain the best contention resolution performance. The analysis is further extended to consider the effect of different fiber non-linearities on the network performance.

Keywords: WDM network, contention resolution, optical buffering, non-linearity, throughput.

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661 Evaluation of Energy-Aware QoS Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: M.K.Jeya Kumar

Abstract:

Many advanced Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks have been implemented for the effective routing of data. Energy awareness is an essential design issue and almost all of these routing protocols are considered as energy efficient and its ultimate objective is to maximize the whole network lifetime. However, the introductions of video and imaging sensors have posed additional challenges. Transmission of video and imaging data requires both energy and QoS aware routing in order to ensure efficient usage of the sensors and effective access to the gathered measurements. In this paper, the performance of the energy-aware QoS routing Protocol are analyzed in different performance metrics like average lifetime of a node, average delay per packet and network throughput. The parameters considered in this study are end-to-end delay, real time data generation/capture rates, packet drop probability and buffer size. The network throughput for realtime and non-realtime data was also has been analyzed. The simulation has been done in NS2 simulation environment and the simulation results were analyzed with respect to different metrics.

Keywords: Cluster nodes, end-to-end delay, QoS routing, routing protocols, sensor networks, least-cost-path.

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660 Computationally Efficient Signal Quality Improvement Method for VoIP System

Authors: H. P. Singh, S. Singh

Abstract:

The voice signal in Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) system is processed through the best effort policy based IP network, which leads to the network degradations including delay, packet loss jitter. The work in this paper presents the implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filter for voice quality improvement in the VoIP system through distributed arithmetic (DA) algorithm. The VoIP simulations are conducted with AMR-NB 6.70 kbps and G.729a speech coders at different packet loss rates and the performance of the enhanced VoIP signal is evaluated using the perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) measurement for narrowband signal. The results show reduction in the computational complexity in the system and significant improvement in the quality of the VoIP voice signal.

Keywords: VoIP, Signal Quality, Distributed Arithmetic, Packet Loss, Speech Coder.

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659 Performance Evaluation of the OCDM/WDM Technique for Optical Packet Switches

Authors: V. Eramo, L. Piazzo, M. Listanti, A. Germoni, A Cianfrani

Abstract:

The performance of the Optical Code Division Multiplexing/ Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM/OCDM) technique for Optical Packet Switch is investigated. The impact on the performance of the impairment due to both Multiple Access Interference and Beat noise is studied. The Packet Loss Probability due to output packet contentions is evaluated as a function of the main switch and traffic parameters when Gold coherent optical codes are adopted. The Packet Loss Probability of the OCDM/WDM switch can reach 10-9 when M=16 wavelengths, Gold code of length L=511 and only 24 wavelength converters are used in the switch.

Keywords: Optical code division multiplexing, bufferless optical packet switch, performance evaluation.

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658 Modeling and Analysis of Adaptive Buffer Sharing Scheme for Consecutive Packet Loss Reduction in Broadband Networks

Authors: Sakshi Kausha, R.K Sharma

Abstract:

High speed networks provide realtime variable bit rate service with diversified traffic flow characteristics and quality requirements. The variable bit rate traffic has stringent delay and packet loss requirements. The burstiness of the correlated traffic makes dynamic buffer management highly desirable to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. This paper presents an algorithm for optimization of adaptive buffer allocation scheme for traffic based on loss of consecutive packets in data-stream and buffer occupancy level. Buffer is designed to allow the input traffic to be partitioned into different priority classes and based on the input traffic behavior it controls the threshold dynamically. This algorithm allows input packets to enter into buffer if its occupancy level is less than the threshold value for priority of that packet. The threshold is dynamically varied in runtime based on packet loss behavior. The simulation is run for two priority classes of the input traffic – realtime and non-realtime classes. The simulation results show that Adaptive Partial Buffer Sharing (ADPBS) has better performance than Static Partial Buffer Sharing (SPBS) and First In First Out (FIFO) queue under the same traffic conditions.

Keywords: Buffer Management, Consecutive packet loss, Quality-of-Service, Priority based packet discarding, partial buffersharing.

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657 Video-On-Demand QoE Evaluation across Different Age-Groups and Its Significance for Network Capacity

Authors: Mujtaba Roshan, John A. Schormans

Abstract:

Quality of Experience (QoE) drives churn in the broadband networks industry, and good QoE plays a large part in the retention of customers. QoE is known to be affected by the Quality of Service (QoS) factors packet loss probability (PLP), delay and delay jitter caused by the network. Earlier results have shown that the relationship between these QoS factors and QoE is non-linear, and may vary from application to application. We use the network emulator Netem as the basis for experimentation, and evaluate how QoE varies as we change the emulated QoS metrics. Focusing on Video-on-Demand, we discovered that the reported QoE may differ widely for users of different age groups, and that the most demanding age group (the youngest) can require an order of magnitude lower PLP to achieve the same QoE than is required by the most widely studied age group of users. We then used a bottleneck TCP model to evaluate the capacity cost of achieving an order of magnitude decrease in PLP, and found it be (almost always) a 3-fold increase in link capacity that was required.

Keywords: Quality of experience, quality of service, packet loss probability, network capacity.

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656 An Enhanced AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

Authors: Apidet Booranawong, Wiklom Teerapabkajorndet

Abstract:

An enhanced ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing (E-AODV) protocol for control system applications in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) is proposed. Our routing algorithm is designed by considering both wireless network communication and the control system aspects. Control system error and network delay are the main selection criteria in our routing protocol. The control and communication performance is evaluated on multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4 networks for building-temperature control systems. The Gilbert-Elliott error model is employed to simulate packet loss in wireless networks. The simulation results demonstrate that the E-AODV routing approach can significantly improve the communication performance better than an original AODV routing under various packet loss rates. However, the control performance result by our approach is not much improved compared with the AODV routing solution.

Keywords: WSANs, building temperature control, AODV routing protocol, control system error, settling time, delay, delivery ratio.

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655 Globally Exponential Stability and Dissipativity Analysis of Static Neural Networks with Time Delay

Authors: Lijiang Xiang, Shouming Zhong, Yucai Ding

Abstract:

The problems of globally exponential stability and dissipativity analysis for static neural networks (NNs) with time delay is investigated in this paper. Some delay-dependent stability criteria are established for static NNs with time delay using the delay partitioning technique. In terms of this criteria, the delay-dependent sufficient condition is given to guarantee the dissipativity of static NNs with time delay. All the given results in this paper are not only dependent upon the time delay but also upon the number of delay partitions. Two numerical examples are used to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Globally exponential stability, Dissipativity, Static neural networks, Time delay.

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654 A Feasible Path Selection QoS Routing Algorithm with two Constraints in Packet Switched Networks

Authors: P.S.Prakash, S.Selvan

Abstract:

Over the past several years, there has been a considerable amount of research within the field of Quality of Service (QoS) support for distributed multimedia systems. One of the key issues in providing end-to-end QoS guarantees in packet networks is determining a feasible path that satisfies a number of QoS constraints. The problem of finding a feasible path is NPComplete if number of constraints is more than two and cannot be exactly solved in polynomial time. We proposed Feasible Path Selection Algorithm (FPSA) that addresses issues with pertain to finding a feasible path subject to delay and cost constraints and it offers higher success rate in finding feasible paths.

Keywords: feasible path, multiple constraints, path selection, QoS routing

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653 Stability Analysis of Mutualism Population Model with Time Delay

Authors: Rusliza Ahmad, Harun Budin

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of time delay on stability of mutualism population model with limited resources for both species. First, the stability of the model without time delay is analyzed. The model is then improved by considering a time delay in the mechanism of the growth rate of the population. We analyze the effect of time delay on the stability of the stable equilibrium point. Result showed that the time delay can induce instability of the stable equilibrium point, bifurcation and stability switches.

Keywords: Bifurcation, Delay margin, Mutualism population model, Time delay

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652 Periodic Oscillations in a Delay Population Model

Authors: Changjin Xu, Peiluan Li

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonlinear delay population model is investigated. Choosing the delay as a bifurcation parameter, we demonstrate that Hopf bifurcation will occur when the delay exceeds a critical value. Global existence of bifurcating periodic solutions is established. Numerical simulations supporting the theoretical findings are included.

Keywords: Population model, Stability, Hopf bifurcation, Delay, Global Hopf bifurcation.

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651 Position Based Routing Protocol with More Reliability in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Mahboobeh Abdoos, Karim Faez, Masoud Sabaei

Abstract:

Position based routing protocols are the kinds of routing protocols, which they use of nodes location information, instead of links information to routing. In position based routing protocols, it supposed that the packet source node has position information of itself and it's neighbors and packet destination node. Greedy is a very important position based routing protocol. In one of it's kinds, named MFR (Most Forward Within Radius), source node or packet forwarder node, sends packet to one of it's neighbors with most forward progress towards destination node (closest neighbor to destination). Using distance deciding metric in Greedy to forward packet to a neighbor node, is not suitable for all conditions. If closest neighbor to destination node, has high speed, in comparison with source node or intermediate packet forwarder node speed or has very low remained battery power, then packet loss probability is increased. Proposed strategy uses combination of metrics distancevelocity similarity-power, to deciding about giving the packet to which neighbor. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy has lower lost packets average than Greedy, so it has more reliability.

Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Network, Position Based, Reliability, Routing.

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650 Upgrading Performance of DSR Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Mehdi Alilou, Mehdi Dehghan

Abstract:

Routing in mobile ad hoc networks is a challenging task because nodes are free to move randomly. In DSR like all On- Demand routing algorithms, route discovery mechanism is associated with great delay. More Clearly in DSR routing protocol to send route reply packet, when current route breaks, destination seeks a new route. In this paper we try to change route selection mechanism proactively. We also define a link stability parameter in which a stability value is assigned to each link. Given this feature, destination node can estimate stability of routes and can select the best and more stable route. Therefore we can reduce the delay and jitter of sending data packets.

Keywords: DSR, MANET, proactive, routing.

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