Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2008

Search results for: maximum lifetime backbone scheduling.

2008 Optimized Energy Scheduling Algorithm for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: S. Arun Rajan, S. Bhavani

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks can be tiny, low cost, intelligent sensors connected with advanced communication systems. WSNs have pulled in significant consideration as a matter of fact that, industrial as well as medical solicitations employ these in monitoring targets, conservational observation, obstacle exposure, movement regulator etc. In these applications, sensor hubs are thickly sent in the unattended environment with little non-rechargeable batteries. This constraint requires energy-efficient systems to drag out the system lifetime. There are redundancies in data sent over the network. To overcome this, multiple virtual spine scheduling has been presented. Such networks problems are called Maximum Lifetime Backbone Scheduling (MLBS) problems. Though this sleep wake cycle reduces radio usage, improvement can be made in the path in which the group heads stay selected. Cluster head selection with emphasis on geometrical relation of the system will enhance the load sharing among the nodes. Also the data are analyzed to reduce redundant transmission. Multi-hop communication will facilitate lighter loads on the network.

Keywords: WSN, wireless sensor networks, MLBS, maximum lifetime backbone scheduling.

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2007 A Modified Maximum Urgency First Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Tasks

Authors: Vahid Salmani, Saman Taghavi Zargar, Mahmoud Naghibzadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents a modified version of the maximum urgency first scheduling algorithm. The maximum urgency algorithm combines the advantages of fixed and dynamic scheduling to provide the dynamically changing systems with flexible scheduling. This algorithm, however, has a major shortcoming due to its scheduling mechanism which may cause a critical task to fail. The modified maximum urgency first scheduling algorithm resolves the mentioned problem. In this paper, we propose two possible implementations for this algorithm by using either earliest deadline first or modified least laxity first algorithms for calculating the dynamic priorities. These two approaches are compared together by simulating the two algorithms. The earliest deadline first algorithm as the preferred implementation is then recommended. Afterwards, we make a comparison between our proposed algorithm and maximum urgency first algorithm using simulation and results are presented. It is shown that modified maximum urgency first is superior to maximum urgency first, since it usually has less task preemption and hence, less related overhead. It also leads to less failed non-critical tasks in overloaded situations.

Keywords: Modified maximum urgency first, maximum urgency first, real-time systems, scheduling.

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2006 Local Algorithm for Establishing a Virtual Backbone in 3D Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Alaa E. Abdallah, M. Bsoul, Emad E. Abdallah, Ahmad Al-Khasawneh, Muath Alzghool

Abstract:

Due to the limited lifetime of the nodes in ad hoc and sensor networks, energy efficiency needs to be an important design consideration in any routing algorithm. It is known that by employing a virtual backbone in a wireless network, the efficiency of any routing scheme for the network can be improved. One common design for routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks is to use positioning information; we use the node-s geometric locations to introduce an algorithm that can construct the virtual backbone structure locally in 3D environment. The algorithm construction has a constant time.

Keywords: Virtual backbone, dominating set, UDG.

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2005 Heuristic Search Algorithm (HSA) for Enhancing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Tripatjot S. Panag, J. S. Dhillon

Abstract:

The lifetime of a wireless sensor network can be effectively increased by using scheduling operations. Once the sensors are randomly deployed, the task at hand is to find the largest number of disjoint sets of sensors such that every sensor set provides complete coverage of the target area. At any instant, only one of these disjoint sets is switched on, while all other are switched off. This paper proposes a heuristic search method to find the maximum number of disjoint sets that completely cover the region. A population of randomly initialized members is made to explore the solution space. A set of heuristics has been applied to guide the members to a possible solution in their neighborhood. The heuristics escalate the convergence of the algorithm. The best solution explored by the population is recorded and is continuously updated. The proposed algorithm has been tested for applications which require sensing of multiple target points, referred to as point coverage applications. Results show that the proposed algorithm outclasses the existing algorithms. It always finds the optimum solution, and that too by making fewer number of fitness function evaluations than the existing approaches.

Keywords: Coverage, disjoint sets, heuristic, lifetime, scheduling, wireless sensor networks, WSN.

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2004 Stochastic Scheduling to Minimize Expected Lateness in Multiple Identical Machines

Authors: Ghulam Zakria, Zailin Guan , Yasser Riaz Awan, Wan Lizhi

Abstract:

There are many real world problems in which parameters like the arrival time of new jobs, failure of resources, and completion time of jobs change continuously. This paper tackles the problem of scheduling jobs with random due dates on multiple identical machines in a stochastic environment. First to assign jobs to different machine centers LPT scheduling methods have been used, after that the particular sequence of jobs to be processed on the machine have been found using simple stochastic techniques. The performance parameter under consideration has been the maximum lateness concerning the stochastic due dates which are independent and exponentially distributed. At the end a relevant problem has been solved using the techniques in the paper..

Keywords: Quantity Production Flow Shop, LPT Scheduling, Stochastic Scheduling, Maximum Lateness, Random Due Dates

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2003 Lifetime Maximization in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Network Coding and Matrix Game

Authors: Jain-Shing Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a matrix game-theoretic cross-layer optimization formulation to maximize the network lifetime in wireless ad hoc networks with network coding. To this end, we introduce a cross-layer formulation of general NUM (network utility maximization) that accommodates routing, scheduling, and stream control from different layers in the coded networks. Specifically, for the scheduling problem and then the objective function involved, we develop a matrix game with the strategy sets of the players corresponding to hyperlinks and transmission modes, and design the payoffs specific to the lifetime. In particular, with the inherit merit that matrix game can be solved with linear programming, our cross-layer programming formulation can benefit from both game-based and NUM-based approaches at the same time by cooperating the programming model for the matrix game with that for the other layers in a consistent framework. Finally, our numerical example demonstrates its performance results on a well-known wireless butterfly network to verify the cross-layer optimization scheme.

Keywords: Cross-layer design, Lifetime maximization, Matrix game, Network coding

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2002 A Lifetime-Guaranteed Routing Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jae Keun Park, Sung Je Hong, Kyong Hoon Kim, Tae Heum Kang, Wan Yeon Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a routing scheme that guarantees the residual lifetime of wireless sensor networks where each sensor node operates with a limited budget of battery energy. The scheme maximizes the communications QoS while sustaining the residual battery lifetime of the network for a specified duration. Communication paths of wireless nodes are translated into a directed acyclic graph(DAG) and the maximum-flow algorithm is applied to the graph. The found maximum flow are assigned to sender nodes, so as to maximize their communication QoS. Based on assigned flows, the scheme determines the routing path and the transmission rate of data packet so that any sensor node on the path would not exhaust its battery energy before a specified duration.

Keywords: Sensor network, battery, residual lifetime, routingscheme, QoS

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2001 A Distributed Topology Control Algorithm to Conserve Energy in Heterogeneous Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: F. O. Aron, T. O. Olwal, A. Kurien, M. O. Odhiambo

Abstract:

A considerable amount of energy is consumed during transmission and reception of messages in a wireless mesh network (WMN). Reducing per-node transmission power would greatly increase the network lifetime via power conservation in addition to increasing the network capacity via better spatial bandwidth reuse. In this work, the problem of topology control in a hybrid WMN of heterogeneous wireless devices with varying maximum transmission ranges is considered. A localized distributed topology control algorithm is presented which calculates the optimal transmission power so that (1) network connectivity is maintained (2) node transmission power is reduced to cover only the nearest neighbours (3) networks lifetime is extended. Simulations and analysis of results are carried out in the NS-2 environment to demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Topology Control, Wireless Mesh Networks, Backbone, Energy Efficiency, Localized Algorithm.

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2000 Performance Analysis of OQSMS and MDDR Scheduling Algorithms for IQ Switches

Authors: K. Navaz, Kannan Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Due to the increasing growth of internet users, the emerging applications of multicast are growing day by day and there is a requisite for the design of high-speed switches/routers. Huge amounts of effort have been done into the research area of multicast switch fabric design and algorithms. Different traffic scenarios are the influencing factor which affect the throughput and delay of the switch. The pointer based multicast scheduling algorithms are not performed well under non-uniform traffic conditions. In this work, performance of the switch has been analyzed by applying the advanced multicast scheduling algorithm OQSMS (Optimal Queue Selection Based Multicast Scheduling Algorithm), MDDR (Multicast Due Date Round-Robin Scheduling Algorithm) and MDRR (Multicast Dual Round-Robin Scheduling Algorithm). The results show that OQSMS achieves better switching performance than other algorithms under the uniform, non-uniform and bursty traffic conditions and it estimates optimal queue in each time slot so that it achieves maximum possible throughput.

Keywords: Multicast, Switch, Delay, Scheduling.

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1999 An Improved Scheduling Strategy in Cloud Using Trust Based Mechanism

Authors: D. Sumathi, P. Poongodi

Abstract:

Cloud Computing refers to applications delivered as services over the internet, and the datacenters that provide those services with hardware and systems software. These were earlier referred to as Software as a Service (SaaS). Scheduling is justified by job components (called tasks), lack of information. In fact, in a large fraction of jobs from machine learning, bio-computing, and image processing domains, it is possible to estimate the maximum time required for a task in the job. This study focuses on Trust based scheduling to improve cloud security by modifying Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time (HEFT) algorithm. It also proposes TR-HEFT (Trust Reputation HEFT) which is then compared to Dynamic Load Scheduling.

Keywords: Software as a Service (SaaS), Trust, Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time (HEFT) algorithm, Dynamic Load Scheduling.

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1998 A Survey of Job Scheduling and Resource Management in Grid Computing

Authors: Raksha Sharma, Vishnu Kant Soni, Manoj Kumar Mishra, Prachet Bhuyan

Abstract:

Grid computing is a form of distributed computing that involves coordinating and sharing computational power, data storage and network resources across dynamic and geographically dispersed organizations. Scheduling onto the Grid is NP-complete, so there is no best scheduling algorithm for all grid computing systems. An alternative is to select an appropriate scheduling algorithm to use in a given grid environment because of the characteristics of the tasks, machines and network connectivity. Job and resource scheduling is one of the key research area in grid computing. The goal of scheduling is to achieve highest possible system throughput and to match the application need with the available computing resources. Motivation of the survey is to encourage the amateur researcher in the field of grid computing, so that they can understand easily the concept of scheduling and can contribute in developing more efficient scheduling algorithm. This will benefit interested researchers to carry out further work in this thrust area of research.

Keywords: Grid Computing, Job Scheduling, ResourceScheduling.

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1997 Towards Developing a Self-Explanatory Scheduling System Based on a Hybrid Approach

Authors: Jian Zheng, Yoshiyasu Takahashi, Yuichi Kobayashi, Tatsuhiro Sato

Abstract:

In the study, we present a conceptual framework for developing a scheduling system that can generate self-explanatory and easy-understanding schedules. To this end, a user interface is conceived to help planners record factors that are considered crucial in scheduling, as well as internal and external sources relating to such factors. A hybrid approach combining machine learning and constraint programming is developed to generate schedules and the corresponding factors, and accordingly display them on the user interface. Effects of the proposed system on scheduling are discussed, and it is expected that scheduling efficiency and system understandability will be improved, compared with previous scheduling systems.

Keywords: Constraint programming, Factors considered in scheduling, machine learning, scheduling system.

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1996 Accrual Based Scheduling for Cloud in Single and Multi Resource System: Study of Three Techniques

Authors: R. Santhosh, T. Ravichandran

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the accrual based scheduling for cloud in single and multi-resource system. Numerous organizations benefit from Cloud computing by hosting their applications. The cloud model provides needed access to computing with potentially unlimited resources. Scheduling is tasks and resources mapping to a certain optimal goal principle. Scheduling, schedules tasks to virtual machines in accordance with adaptable time, in sequence under transaction logic constraints. A good scheduling algorithm improves CPU use, turnaround time, and throughput. In this paper, three realtime cloud services scheduling algorithm for single resources and multiple resources are investigated. Experimental results show Resource matching algorithm performance to be superior for both single and multi-resource scheduling when compared to benefit first scheduling, Migration, Checkpoint algorithms.

Keywords: Cloud computing, Scheduling, Migration, Checkpoint, Resource Matching.

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1995 A New Scheduling Algorithm Based on Traffic Classification Using Imprecise Computation

Authors: Farzad Abtahi, Sahar Khanmohamadi, Bahram Sadeghi Bigham

Abstract:

Wireless channels are characterized by more serious bursty and location-dependent errors. Many packet scheduling algorithms have been proposed for wireless networks to guarantee fairness and delay bounds. However, most existing schemes do not consider the difference of traffic natures among packet flows. This will cause the delay-weight coupling problem. In particular, serious queuing delays may be incurred for real-time flows. In this paper, it is proposed a scheduling algorithm that takes traffic types of flows into consideration when scheduling packets and also it is provided scheduling flexibility by trading off video quality to meet the playback deadline.

Keywords: Data communication, Real-time, Scheduling, Video transport.

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1994 Comparative Study of Scheduling Algorithms for LTE Networks

Authors: Samia Dardouri, Ridha Bouallegue

Abstract:

Scheduling is the process of dynamically allocating physical resources to User Equipment (UE) based on scheduling algorithms implemented at the LTE base station. Various algorithms have been proposed by network researchers as the implementation of scheduling algorithm which represents an open issue in Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard. This paper makes an attempt to study and compare the performance of PF, MLWDF and EXP/PF scheduling algorithms. The evaluation is considered for a single cell with interference scenario for different flows such as Best effort, Video and VoIP in a pedestrian and vehicular environment using the LTE-Sim network simulator. The comparative study is conducted in terms of system throughput, fairness index, delay, packet loss ratio (PLR) and total cell spectral efficiency.

Keywords: LTE, Multimedia flows, Scheduling algorithms.

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1993 Job Shop Scheduling: Classification, Constraints and Objective Functions

Authors: Majid Abdolrazzagh-Nezhad, Salwani Abdullah

Abstract:

The job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP) is an important decision facing those involved in the fields of industry, economics and management. This problem is a class of combinational optimization problem known as the NP-hard problem. JSSPs deal with a set of machines and a set of jobs with various predetermined routes through the machines, where the objective is to assemble a schedule of jobs that minimizes certain criteria such as makespan, maximum lateness, and total weighted tardiness. Over the past several decades, interest in meta-heuristic approaches to address JSSPs has increased due to the ability of these approaches to generate solutions which are better than those generated from heuristics alone. This article provides the classification, constraints and objective functions imposed on JSSPs that are available in the literature.

Keywords: Job-shop scheduling, classification, constraints, objective functions.

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1992 The Simulation and Realization of Input-Buffer Scheduling Algorithm in Satellite Switching System

Authors: Yi Zhang, Quan Zhou, Jun Li, Yanlang Hu

Abstract:

Scheduling algorithm is a key technology in satellite switching system with input-buffer. In this paper, a new scheduling algorithm and its realization are proposed. Based on Crossbar switching fabric, the algorithm adopts serial scheduling strategy and adjusts the output port arbitrating strategy for the better equity of every port. Consequently, it increases the matching probability. The algorithm can greatly reduce the scheduling delay and cell loss rate. The analysis and simulation results by OPNET show that the proposed algorithm has the better performance than others in average delay and cell loss rate, and has the equivalent complexity. On the basis of these results, the hardware realization and simulation based on FPGA are completed, which validate the feasibility of the new scheduling algorithm.

Keywords: Scheduling algorithm, input-buffer, serial scheduling, hardware design.

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1991 Achieving Fair Share Objectives via Goal-Oriented Parallel Computer Job Scheduling Policies

Authors: Sangsuree Vasupongayya

Abstract:

Fair share is one of the scheduling objectives supported on many production systems. However, fair share has been shown to cause performance problems for some users, especially the users with difficult jobs. This work is focusing on extending goaloriented parallel computer job scheduling policies to cover the fair share objective. Goal-oriented parallel computer job scheduling policies have been shown to achieve good scheduling performances when conflicting objectives are required. Goal-oriented policies achieve such good performance by using anytime combinatorial search techniques to find a good compromised schedule within a time limit. The experimental results show that the proposed goal-oriented parallel computer job scheduling policy (namely Tradeofffs( Tw:avgX)) achieves good scheduling performances and also provides good fair share performance.

Keywords: goal-oriented parallel job scheduling policies, fairshare.

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1990 Useful Lifetime Prediction of Rail Pads for High Speed Trains

Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park

Abstract:

Useful lifetime evaluation of railpads were very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of rail pads. In this study, we performed properties and accelerated heat aging tests of rail pads considering degradation factors and all environmental conditions including operation, and then derived a lifetime prediction equation according to changes in hardness, thickness, and static spring constants in the Arrhenius plot to establish how to estimate the aging of rail pads. With the useful lifetime prediction equation, the lifetime of e-clip pads was 2.5 years when the change in hardness was 10% at 25°C; and that of f-clip pads was 1.7 years. When the change in thickness was 10%, the lifetime of e-clip pads and f-clip pads is 2.6 years respectively. The results obtained in this study to estimate the useful lifetime of rail pads for high speed trains can be used for determining the maintenance and replacement schedule for rail pads.

Keywords: Rail pads, accelerated test, Arrhenius plot, useful lifetime prediction.

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1989 The Application of Bayesian Heuristic for Scheduling in Real-Time Private Clouds

Authors: Sahar Sohrabi

Abstract:

The emergence of Cloud data centers has revolutionized the IT industry. Private Clouds in specific provide Cloud services for certain group of customers/businesses. In a real-time private Cloud each task that is given to the system has a deadline that desirably should not be violated. Scheduling tasks in a real-time private CLoud determine the way available resources in the system are shared among incoming tasks. The aim of the scheduling policy is to optimize the system outcome which for a real-time private Cloud can include: energy consumption, deadline violation, execution time and the number of host switches. Different scheduling policies can be used for scheduling. Each lead to a sub-optimal outcome in a certain settings of the system. A Bayesian Scheduling strategy is proposed for scheduling to further improve the system outcome. The Bayesian strategy showed to outperform all selected policies. It also has the flexibility in dealing with complex pattern of incoming task and has the ability to adapt.

Keywords: Bayesian, cloud computing, real-time private cloud, scheduling.

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1988 Production Planning and Scheduling and SME

Authors: M. Heck, H. Vettiger

Abstract:

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are the backbone of central Europe’s economies and have a significant contribution to the gross domestic product. Production planning and scheduling (PPS) is still a crucial element in manufacturing industries of the 21st century even though this area of research is more than a century old. The topic of PPS is well researched especially in the context of large enterprises in the manufacturing industry. However the implementation of PPS methodologies within SME is mostly unobserved. This work analyzes how PPS is implemented in SME with the geographical focus on Switzerland and its vicinity. Based on restricted resources compared to large enterprises, SME have to face different challenges. The real problem areas of selected enterprises in regards of PPS are identified and evaluated. For the identified real-life problem areas of SME clear and detailed recommendations are created, covering concepts and best practices and the efficient usage of PPS. Furthermore the economic and entrepreneurial value for companies is lined out and why the implementation of the introduced recommendations is advised.

Keywords: Central Europe, PPS, Production Planning, SME.

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1987 Feedback-Controlled Server for Scheduling Aperiodic Tasks

Authors: Shinpei Kato, Nobuyuki Yamasaki

Abstract:

This paper proposes a scheduling scheme using feedback control to reduce the response time of aperiodic tasks with soft real-time constraints. We design an algorithm based on the proposed scheduling scheme and Total Bandwidth Server (TBS) that is a conventional server technique for scheduling aperiodic tasks. We then describe the feedback controller of the algorithm and give the control parameter tuning methods. The simulation study demonstrates that the algorithm can reduce the mean response time up to 26% compared to TBS in exchange for slight deadline misses.

Keywords: Real-Time Systems, Aperiodic Task Scheduling, Feedback-Control Scheduling, Total Bandwidth Server.

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1986 Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle

Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park

Abstract:

Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by curve fittings of uniaxial tension equibiaxial tension and pure shear test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber material was proposed.

Keywords: Chevron rubber spring, material coefficient, finite element analysis, useful lifetime prediction.

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1985 SATA: A Web Based Scheduling Support System

Authors: Rajeswari Raju, Saiful Nizam Warris, Hazlifah Mohd Rusli

Abstract:

Developing a university course schedule is difficult. This is due to the limitations in the resources available. The process is made even harder with different faculties or departments having different ways of stating their schedule requirements. The person in charge of taking the schedule requirements and turning them into a proper course schedule is not only burden with the task of allocating the appropriate classes and time to lecturers and students, they also need to understand the schedule requirements. Therefore a scheduling support system named SATA is developed to assist ICRESS in the course scheduling process. SATA has been put to use for several semesters and the results have been encouraging. It won a bronze medal in the 2008 Invention, Innovation and Design competition (IID-08) and has been submitted to be patented in October 2008

Keywords: Course Scheduling, Scheduling Tool Aid.

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1984 Performance Analysis of List Scheduling in Heterogeneous Computing Systems

Authors: Keqin Li

Abstract:

Given a parallel program to be executed on a heterogeneous computing system, the overall execution time of the program is determined by a schedule. In this paper, we analyze the worst-case performance of the list scheduling algorithm for scheduling tasks of a parallel program in a mixed-machine heterogeneous computing system such that the total execution time of the program is minimized. We prove tight lower and upper bounds for the worst-case performance ratio of the list scheduling algorithm. We also examine the average-case performance of the list scheduling algorithm. Our experimental data reveal that the average-case performance of the list scheduling algorithm is much better than the worst-case performance and is very close to optimal, except for large systems with large heterogeneity. Thus, the list scheduling algorithm is very useful in real applications.

Keywords: Average-case performance, list scheduling algorithm, mixed-machine heterogeneous computing system, worst-case performance.

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1983 Sleep Scheduling Schemes Based on Location of Mobile User in Sensor-Cloud

Authors: N. Mahendran, R. Priya

Abstract:

The mobile cloud computing (MCC) with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology gets more attraction by research scholars because its combines the sensors data gathering ability with the cloud data processing capacity. This approach overcomes the limitation of data storage capacity and computational ability of sensor nodes. Finally, the stored data are sent to the mobile users when the user sends the request. The most of the integrated sensor-cloud schemes fail to observe the following criteria: 1) The mobile users request the specific data to the cloud based on their present location. 2) Power consumption since most of them are equipped with non-rechargeable batteries. Mostly, the sensors are deployed in hazardous and remote areas. This paper focuses on above observations and introduces an approach known as collaborative location-based sleep scheduling (CLSS) scheme. Both awake and asleep status of each sensor node is dynamically devised by schedulers and the scheduling is done purely based on the of mobile users’ current location; in this manner, large amount of energy consumption is minimized at WSN. CLSS work depends on two different methods; CLSS1 scheme provides lower energy consumption and CLSS2 provides the scalability and robustness of the integrated WSN.

Keywords: Sleep scheduling, mobile cloud computing, wireless sensor network, integration, location, network lifetime.

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1982 Analysis and Research of Two-Level Scheduling Profile for Open Real-Time System

Authors: Yongxian Jin, Jingzhou Huang

Abstract:

In an open real-time system environment, the coexistence of different kinds of real-time and non real-time applications makes the system scheduling mechanism face new requirements and challenges. One two-level scheduling scheme of the open real-time systems is introduced, and points out that hard and soft real-time applications are scheduled non-distinctively as the same type real-time applications, the Quality of Service (QoS) cannot be guaranteed. It has two flaws: The first, it can not differentiate scheduling priorities of hard and soft real-time applications, that is to say, it neglects characteristic differences between hard real-time applications and soft ones, so it does not suit a more complex real-time environment. The second, the worst case execution time of soft real-time applications cannot be predicted exactly, so it is not worth while to cost much spending in order to assure all soft real-time applications not to miss their deadlines, and doing that may cause resource wasting. In order to solve this problem, a novel two-level real-time scheduling mechanism (including scheduling profile and scheduling algorithm) which adds the process of dealing with soft real-time applications is proposed. Finally, we verify real-time scheduling mechanism from two aspects of theory and experiment. The results indicate that our scheduling mechanism can achieve the following objectives. (1) It can reflect the difference of priority when scheduling hard and soft real-time applications. (2) It can ensure schedulability of hard real-time applications, that is, their rate of missing deadline is 0. (3) The overall rate of missing deadline of soft real-time applications can be less than 1. (4) The deadline of a non-real-time application is not set, whereas the scheduling algorithm that server 0 S uses can avoid the “starvation" of jobs and increase QOS. By doing that, our scheduling mechanism is more compatible with different types of applications and it will be applied more widely.

Keywords: Hard real-time, two-level scheduling profile, open real-time system, non-distinctive schedule, soft real-time

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1981 Appraisal on Link Lifetime Prediction Using Geographical Information

Authors: C. Nallusamy, A. Sabari, K. Suganya

Abstract:

Geographical routing protocol requires node physical location information to make forwarding decision. Geographical routing uses location service or position service to obtain the position of a node. The geographical information is a geographic coordinates or can be obtained through reference points on some fixed coordinate system. Link can be formed between two nodes. Link lifetime plays a crucial role in MANET. Link lifetime represent how long the link is stable without any failure between the nodes. Link failure may occur due to mobility and because of link failure energy of nodes can be drained. Thus this paper proposes survey about link lifetime prediction using geographical information.

Keywords: MANET, Geographical routing, Link lifetime, Link stability.

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1980 Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated Data for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Krishna Veni, R.Geetha

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are suitable for many scenarios in the real world. The retrieval of data is made efficient by the data aggregation techniques. Many techniques for the data aggregation are offered and most of the existing schemes are not energy efficient and secure. However, the existing techniques use the traditional clustering approach where there is a delay during the packet transmission since there is no proper scheduling. The presented system uses the Velocity Energy-efficient and Link-aware Cluster-Tree (VELCT) scheme in which there is a Data Collection Tree (DCT) which improves the lifetime of the network. The VELCT scheme and the construction of DCT reduce the delay and traffic. The network lifetime can be increased by avoiding the frequent change in cluster topology. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated data (SETA) improves the security of the data transmission via the trust value of the nodes prior the aggregation of data. Since SETA considers the data only from the trustworthy nodes for aggregation, it is more secure in transmitting the data thereby improving the accuracy of aggregated data.

Keywords: Aggregation, lifetime, network security, wireless sensor network.

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1979 Energy Efficient and Reliable Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Eunil Park, Kwangsu Cho

Abstract:

The wireless link can be unreliable in realistic wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Energy efficient and reliable data forwarding is important because each node has limited resources. Therefore, we must suggest an optimal solution that considers using the information of the node-s characteristics. Previous routing protocols were unsuited to realistic asymmetric WSNs. In this paper, we propose a Protocol that considers Both sides of Link-quality and Energy (PBLE), an optimal routing protocol that balances modified link-quality, distance and energy. Additionally, we propose a node scheduling method. PBLE achieves a longer lifetime than previous routing protocols and is more energy-efficient. PBLE uses energy, local information and both sides of PRR in a 1-hop distance. We explain how to send data packets to the destination node using the node's information. Simulation shows PBLE improves delivery rate and network lifetime compared to previous schemes. Moreover, we show the improvement in various WSN environments.

Keywords: energy-efficient, lifetime, PBLE, unreliable

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