Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: longevity

16 The Effect of Cow Reproductive Traits on Lifetime Productivity and Longevity

Authors: Lāsma Cielava, Daina Jonkus, Līga Paura

Abstract:

The age of first calving (AFC) is one of the most important factors that have a significant impact on cow productivity in different lactations and its whole life. A belated AFC leads to reduced reproductive performance and it is one of the main reasons for reduced longevity. Cows that calved in time period from 2001-2007 and in this time finished at least four lactations were included in the database. Data were obtained from 68841 crossbred Holstein Black and White (HM), crossbred Latvian Brown (LB), and Latvian Brown genetic resources (LBGR) cows. Cows were distributed in four groups depending on age at first calving. The longest lifespan was conducted for LBGR cows, but they were also characterized with lowest lifetime milk yield and life day milk yield. HM breed cows had the shortest lifespan, but in the lifespan of 2862.2 days was obtained in average 37916.4 kg milk accordingly 13.2 kg milk in one life day. HM breed cows were also characterized with longer calving intervals (CI) in first four lactations, but LBGR cows had the shortest CI in the study group. Age at first calving significantly affected the length of CI in different lactations (p<0.05). HM cows that first time calved >30 months old in the fourth lactation had the longest CI in all study groups (421.4 days). The LBGR cows were characterized with the shortest CI, but there was slight increase in second and third lactation. Age at first calving had a significant impact on cows’ age in each calving time. In the analysis, cow group was conducted that cows with age at first calving <24 months or in average 580.5 days at the time of fifth calving were 2156.7 days (5.9 years) old, but cows with age at first calving >30 months (932.6 days) at the time of fifth calving were 2560.9 days (7.3 years) old.

Keywords: Age at first calving, calving interval, longevity, milk yield.

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15 Spark Breakdown Voltage and Surface Degradation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrode Surfaces

Authors: M. G. Rostedt, M. J. Hall, L. Shi, R. D. Matthews

Abstract:

Silicon substrates coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were experimentally investigated to determine spark breakdown voltages relative to uncoated surfaces, the degree of surface degradation associated with the spark discharge, and techniques to minimize the surface degradation. The results may be applicable to instruments or processes that use MWCNT as a means of increasing local electric field strength and where spark breakdown is a possibility that might affect the devices’ performance or longevity. MWCNTs were shown to reduce the breakdown voltage of a 1mm gap in air by 30-50%. The relative decrease in breakdown voltage was maintained over gap distances of 0.5 to 2mm and gauge pressures of 0 to 4 bar. Degradation of the MWCNT coated surfaces was observed. Several techniques to improve durability were investigated. These included: chromium and gold-palladium coatings, tube annealing, and embedding clusters of MWCNT in a ceramic matrix.

Keywords: Ionization sensor, spark, nanotubes, electrode, breakdown.

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14 Energy Efficient Reliable Cooperative Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Gergely Treplan, Long Tran-Thanh, Janos Levendovszky

Abstract:

In this paper, a reliable cooperative multipath routing algorithm is proposed for data forwarding in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this algorithm, data packets are forwarded towards the base station (BS) through a number of paths, using a set of relay nodes. In addition, the Rayleigh fading model is used to calculate the evaluation metric of links. Here, the quality of reliability is guaranteed by selecting optimal relay set with which the probability of correct packet reception at the BS will exceed a predefined threshold. Therefore, the proposed scheme ensures reliable packet transmission to the BS. Furthermore, in the proposed algorithm, energy efficiency is achieved by energy balancing (i.e. minimizing the energy consumption of the bottleneck node of the routing path) at the same time. This work also demonstrates that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing algorithms in extending longevity of the network, with respect to the quality of reliability. Given this, the obtained results make possible reliable path selection with minimum energy consumption in real time.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, reliability, cooperativerouting, Rayleigh fading model, energy balancing

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13 Present State of Local Public Transportation Service in Local Municipalities of Japan and Its Effects on Population

Authors: Akiko Kondo, Akio Kondo

Abstract:

We are facing regional problems to low birth rate and longevity in Japan. Under this situation, there are some local municipalities which lose their vitality. The aims of this study are to clarify the present state of local public transportation services in local municipalities and relation between local public transportation services and population quantitatively. We conducted a questionnaire survey concerning regional agenda in all local municipalities in Japan. We obtained responses concerning the present state of convenience in use of public transportation and local public transportation services. Based on the data gathered from the survey, it is apparent that we should some sort of measures concerning public transportation services. Convenience in use of public transportation becomes an object of public concern in many rural regions. It is also clarified that some local municipalities introduce a demand bus for the purpose of promotion of administrative and financial efficiency. They also introduce a demand taxi in order to secure transportation to weak people in transportation and eliminate of blank area related to public transportation services. In addition, we construct a population model which includes explanatory variables of present states of local public transportation services. From this result, we can clarify the relation between public transportation services and population quantitatively.

Keywords: Public transportation, local municipality, regional analysis, regional issue.

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12 Sustainable Control of Taro Beetles via Scoliid Wasps and Metarhizium anisopliae

Authors: F. O. Faithpraise, J. Idung, C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, P. Birch, H. Lu

Abstract:

Taro Scarab beetles (Papuana uninodis, Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) inflict severe damage on important root crops and plants such as Taro or Cocoyam, yam, sweet potatoes, oil palm and coffee tea plants across Africa and Asia resulting in economic hardship and starvation in some nations. Scoliid wasps and Metarhizium anisopliae fungus - bio-control agents; are shown to be able to control the population of Scarab beetle adults and larvae using a newly created simulation model based on non-linear ordinary differential equations that track the populations of the beetle life cycle stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult and the population of the scoliid parasitoid wasps, which attack beetle larvae. In spite of the challenge driven by the longevity of the scarab beetles, the combined effect of the larval wasps and the fungal bio-control agent is able to control and drive down the population of both the adult and the beetle eggs below the environmental carrying capacity within an interval of 120 days, offering the long term prospect of a stable and eco-friendly environment; where the population of scarab beetles is: regulated by parasitoid wasps and beneficial soil saprophytes.

Keywords: Metarhizium anisopliae, Scoliid wasps, Sustainable control, Taro beetles, parasitoids.

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11 Genetic Polymorphism of Main Lactoproteins of Romanian Grey Steppe Breed in Preservation

Authors: Şt. Creangâ, V. Maciuc, A.V. Bâlteanu, S.S. Chelmu

Abstract:

The paper presents a part of the results obtained in a complex research project on Romanian Grey Steppe breed, owner of some remarkable qualities such as hardiness, longevity, adaptability, special resistance to ban weather and diseases and included in the genetic fund (G.D. no. 822/2008.) from Romania. Following the researches effectuated, we identified alleles of six loci, codifying the six types of major milk proteins: alpha-casein S1 (α S1-cz); beta-casein (β-cz); kappa-casein (K-cz); beta-lactoglobulin (β-lg); alpha-lactalbumin (α-la) and alpha-casein S2 (α S2-cz). In system αS1-cz allele αs1-Cn B has the highest frequency (0.700), in system β-cz allele β-Cn A2 ( 0.550 ), in system K-cz allele k-CnA2 ( 0.583 ) and heterozygote genotype AB ( 0.416 ) and BB (0.375), in system β-lg allele β-lgA1 has the highest frequency (0.542 ) and heterozygote genotype AB ( 0.500 ), in system α-la there is monomorphism for allele α-la B and similarly in system αS2-cz for allele αs2-Cn A. The milk analysis by the isoelectric focalization technique (I.E.F.) allowed the identification of a new allele for locus αS1-casein, for two of the individuals under analysis, namely allele called αS1-casein IRV. When experiments were repeated, we noticed that this is not a proteolysis band and it really was a new allele that has not been registered in the specialized literature so far. We identified two heterozygote individuals, carriers of this allele, namely: BIRV and CIRV. This discovery is extremely important if focus is laid on the national genetic patrimony.

Keywords: allele, breed, genetic preservation, lactoproteins, Romanian Grey Steppe

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10 The Risk and Value Engineering Structures and their Integration with Industrial Projects Management (A Case Study on I. K.Corporation)

Authors: Lida Haghnegahdar, Ezzatollah Asgharizadeh

Abstract:

Value engineering is an efficacious contraption for administrators to make up their minds. Value perusals proffer the gaffers a suitable instrument to decrease the expenditures of the life span, quality amelioration, structural improvement, curtailment of the construction schedule, longevity prolongation or a merging of the aforementioned cases. Subjecting organizers to pressures on one hand and their accountability towards their pertinent fields together with inherent risks and ambiguities of other options on the other hand set some comptrollers in a dilemma utilization of risk management and the value engineering in projects manipulation with regard to complexities of implementing projects can be wielded as a contraption to identify and efface each item which wreaks unnecessary expenses and time squandering sans inflicting any damages upon the essential project applications. Of course It should be noted that implementation of risk management and value engineering with regard to the betterment of efficiency and functions may lead to the project implementation timing elongation. Here time revamping does not refer to time diminishing in the whole cases. his article deals with risk and value engineering conceptualizations at first. The germane reverberations effectuated due to its execution in Iran Khodro Corporation are regarded together with the joint features and amalgamation of the aforesaid entia; hence the proposed blueprint is submitted to be taken advantage of in engineering and industrial projects including Iran Khodro Corporation.

Keywords: Management, risk engineering, value engineering, project manipulation, Iran Khodro.

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9 An Evaluation of Digital Elevation Models to Short-Term Monitoring of a High Energy Barrier Island, Northeast Brazil

Authors: Venerando E. Amaro, Francisco Gabriel F. de Lima, Marcelo S.T. Santos

Abstract:

The morphological short-term evolution of Ponta do Tubarão Island (PTI) was investigated through high accurate surveys based on post-processed kinematic (PPK) relative positioning on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). PTI is part of a barrier island system on a high energy northeast Brazilian coastal environment and also an area of high environmental sensitivity. Surveys were carried out quarterly over a two years period from May 2010 to May 2012. This paper assesses statically the performance of digital elevation models (DEM) derived from different interpolation methods to represent morphologic features and to quantify volumetric changes and TIN models shown the best results to that purposes. The MDE allowed quantifying surfaces and volumes in detail as well as identifying the most vulnerable segments of the PTI to erosion and/or accumulation of sediments and relate the alterations to climate conditions. The coastal setting and geometry of PTI protects a significant mangrove ecosystem and some oil and gas facilities installed in the vicinities from damaging effects of strong oceanwaves and currents. Thus, the maintenance of PTI is extremely required but the prediction of its longevity is uncertain because results indicate an irregularity of sedimentary balance and a substantial decline in sediment supply to this coastal area.

Keywords: DEM, GNSS, short-term monitoring, Brazil.

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8 Neurogenic Potential of Clitoria ternatea Aqueous Root Extract–A Basis for Enhancing Learning and Memory

Authors: Kiranmai S.Rai

Abstract:

The neurogenic potential of many herbal extracts used in Indian medicine is hitherto unknown. Extracts derived from Clitoria ternatea Linn have been used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as an ingredient of “Medhya rasayana", consumed for improving memory and longevity in humans and also in treatment of various neurological disorders. Our earlier experimental studies with oral intubation of Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract (CTR) had shown significant enhancement of learning and memory in postnatal and young adult Wistar rats. The present study was designed to elucidate the in vitro effects of 200ng/ml of CTR on proliferation, differentiation and growth of anterior subventricular zone neural stem cells (aSVZ NSC-s) derived from prenatal and postnatal rat pups. Results show significant increase in proliferation and growth of neurospheres and increase in the yield of differentiated neurons of aSVZ neural precursor cells (aSVZNPC-s) at 7 days in vitro when treated with 200ng/ml of CTR as compared to age matched control. Results indicate that CTR has growth promoting neurogenic effect on aSVZ neural stem cells and their survival similar to neurotrophic factors like Survivin, Neuregulin 1, FGF-2, BDNF possibly the basis for enhanced learning and memory.

Keywords: Anterior subventricular zone (aSVZ) neural stemcell, Clitoria ternatea, Learning and memory, Neurogenesis.

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7 Sub-Lethal Effects of Thiamethoxam and Pirimicarb on Life-Table Parameters of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Parasitoid of Lipaphis erysimi (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Authors: Nastaran Rezaei, Mohammad Saeed Mossadegh, Farhan Kocheyli, Khalil Talebi Jahromi, Aurang Kavousi

Abstract:

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) aims to combine biological and chemical strategies and measures, hence highlighting the study of acute toxicity and sub-lethal effects of pesticides comprehensively. The present research focused on the side effects of thiamethoxam and pirimicarb sub-lethal concentrations on demographic parameters of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh Laboratory) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Adult parasitoids were exposed to LC25 of insecticides as well as distilled water as the control. The results showed that thiamethoxam adversely affected population parameters (r, λ, R0, T), adults' longevity, females' oviposition period and mean fecundity, and a similar trend was obtained for pirimicarb with the exception of generation time (T), the latter did not significantly change compared to the control. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) in the control and those treated with pirimicarb and thiamethoxam were 0.2801, 0.2064, 0.1525 days-1, respectively, and the sex ratio was biased toward females in all treatments. Furthermore, none of the insecticides influenced total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) and offspring emergence rate. In general, these results indicated that both insecticides potentially distort the demographic parameters of the parasitoid even at sub-lethal concentrations, and then they should not be considered for IPM program in the presence of D. rapae.

Keywords: Diaeretiella rapae, Lipaphis erysimi, life-table study, pirimicarb, thiamethoxam.

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6 Revitalisation of Indigenous Food in Africa through Print and Electronic Media

Authors: Adebisi. Elizabeth, Banjo

Abstract:

Language and culture are interwoven that they cannot be separated, for the knowledge of a language cannot be complete without having the culture of the language. Indigenous food is a cultural aspect of any language that is expected to be acquired by all the speakers of the language. Indigenous food is known to be vital right from early years, which is also attributed to the healthy living of the ancient people. However it is discovered that the indigenous food is almost being replaced by fast food products such as Indomie noodles, Spaghetti and Macaroni to the extent that majority of the young folks prefer the eating of the fast foods and cannot prepare the indigenous foods which are good for growth and healthy living of people. Therefore, there is need to revitalize and re-educate people on the indigenous food which is an aspect of inter-cultural education of any language to prevent it from being forgotten or neglected.

African foods are many, but this study focused on Nigerian food using some Yoruba dishes as a case study. Examples of Yoruba dishes are pounded yam and melon with vegetable and dried fish soup, beans pudding (moin moin) and pap (eko), water yam pudding with fish and meat (ikokore) and many more. The ingredients needed for the preparation of these indigenous foods contain some basic food nutrients which will be analyzed and their nutritional importance to human bodies will also be discussed.

The process of re- awakening the education of indigenous food to the present and up-coming generation should be via print and electronic media in form of advertisements on posters, billboards, calendars and in rhymes on television programs, radio presentations, video tapes and CD–ROM apart from classroom teaching and learning. Indigenous food is a panacea to healthy living and longevity, a prevention of diseases and a means of accelerated healing of the body through natural foods.

Keywords: Indigenous food, print and electronic media, nutritional values, re-awakening education.

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5 Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Data Aggregation Trees in Wireless Sensor Networks and Comparison with Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ladan Darougaran, Hossein Shahinzadeh, Hajar Ghotb, Leila Ramezanpour

Abstract:

In ad hoc networks, the main issue about designing of protocols is quality of service, so that in wireless sensor networks the main constraint in designing protocols is limited energy of sensors. In fact, protocols which minimize the power consumption in sensors are more considered in wireless sensor networks. One approach of reducing energy consumption in wireless sensor networks is to reduce the number of packages that are transmitted in network. The technique of collecting data that combines related data and prevent transmission of additional packages in network can be effective in the reducing of transmitted packages- number. According to this fact that information processing consumes less power than information transmitting, Data Aggregation has great importance and because of this fact this technique is used in many protocols [5]. One of the Data Aggregation techniques is to use Data Aggregation tree. But finding one optimum Data Aggregation tree to collect data in networks with one sink is a NP-hard problem. In the Data Aggregation technique, related information packages are combined in intermediate nodes and form one package. So the number of packages which are transmitted in network reduces and therefore, less energy will be consumed that at last results in improvement of longevity of network. Heuristic methods are used in order to solve the NP-hard problem that one of these optimization methods is to solve Simulated Annealing problems. In this article, we will propose new method in order to build data collection tree in wireless sensor networks by using Simulated Annealing algorithm and we will evaluate its efficiency whit Genetic Algorithm.

Keywords: Data aggregation, wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency, simulated annealing algorithm, genetic algorithm.

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4 Efficacy of Gamma Radiation on the Productivity of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Authors: Mehrdad Ahmadi, Mohamad Babaie, Shiva Osouli, Bahareh Salehi, Nadia Kalantaraian

Abstract:

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most serious pests in olive orchards in growing province in Iran. The female lay eggs in green olive fruit and larvae hatch inside the fruit, where they feed upon the fruit matters. One of the main ecologically friendly and species-specific systems of pest control is the sterile insect technique (SIT) which is based on the release of large numbers of sterilized insects. The objective of our work was to develop a SIT against B. oleae by using of gamma radiation for the laboratory and field trial in Iran. Oviposition of female mated by irradiated males is one of the main parameters to determine achievement of SIT. To conclude the sterile dose, pupae were placed under 0 to 160 Gy of gamma radiation. The main factor in SIT is the productivity of females which are mated by irradiated males. The emerged adults from irradiated pupae were mated with untreated adults of the same age by confining them inside the transparent cages. The fecundity of the irradiated males mated with non-irradiated females was decreased with the increasing radiation dose level. It was observed that the number of eggs and also the percentage of the egg hatching was significantly (P < 0.05) affected in either IM x NF crosses compared with NM x NF crosses in F1 generation at all doses. Also, the statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the mean number of eggs laid between irradiated and non-irradiated females crossed with irradiated males, which suggests that the males were susceptible to gamma radiation. The egg hatching percentage declined markedly with the increase of the radiation dose of the treated males in mating trials which demonstrated that egg hatch rate was dose dependent. Our results specified that gamma radiation affects the longevity of irradiated B. oleae larvae (established from irradiated pupae) and significantly increased their larval duration. Results show the gamma radiation, and SIT can be used successfully against olive fruit flies.

Keywords: Fertility, olive fruit fly, radiation, SIT.

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3 Mass rearing and Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Pupal Mortality and Reproduction of Citrus Leaf Miner Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

Authors: Shiva Osouli, Maryam Atapour, Mehrdad Ahmadi, Shima Shokri

Abstract:

Citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) is native to Asia and one of the most serious pests of Iran’s citrus nursery stocks. In the present study, the possibility of insect mass rearing on four various citrus hosts and the effects of gamma irradiation on the pupal mortality and reproduction of this pest were studied. Trifoliate orange and grapefruit showed less infection, while the number of pupae in Valencia oranges and sweet lemons cages was so high. There was not any significant difference between weight of male and female pupae among different citrus hosts, but generally the weight of male pupae was less than females. Use of Valencia orange or sweet lemons seedlings in especial dark emergence and oviposition cages could be recommended for mass rearing of this pest. In this study, the effects of gamma radiation at doses 100 to 450 Gy on biological and reproductive parameters of the pest has been determined. The results show that mean percent of pupal mortality increased with increasing doses and reached to 28.67% at 450 Gy for male pupae and 38.367% for female pupae. Also, the mean values of this parameter were higher for irradiated female, which indicated the higher sensitivity of this sex. The gamma ray irradiation from 200 and 300 Gy caused decrease in male and female adult moth longevity, respectively. The eggs were laid by emerged females, and their hatchability was decreased by increasing gamma doses. The fecundity of females in both combinations of crosses (irradiated male × normal female and irradiated female × normal male) did not differ, but fertility of laid eggs by irradiated female × normal male affected seriously and the mean values of this parameter reached to zero at 300 Gy. The hatchability percentage of produced eggs by normal female × irradiated male at 300 Gy was 23.29% and reached to less than 2 % at 450 Gy as the highest tested dose. The results of this test show that females have more radio-sensitivity in comparison to males.

Keywords: Citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella, citrus hosts, mass rearing, sterile insect technique.

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2 Surface Topography Assessment Techniques based on an In-process Monitoring Approach of Tool Wear and Cutting Force Signature

Authors: A. M. Alaskari, S. E. Oraby

Abstract:

The quality of a machined surface is becoming more and more important to justify the increasing demands of sophisticated component performance, longevity, and reliability. Usually, any machining operation leaves its own characteristic evidence on the machined surface in the form of finely spaced micro irregularities (surface roughness) left by the associated indeterministic characteristics of the different elements of the system: tool-machineworkpart- cutting parameters. However, one of the most influential sources in machining affecting surface roughness is the instantaneous state of tool edge. The main objective of the current work is to relate the in-process immeasurable cutting edge deformation and surface roughness to a more reliable easy-to-measure force signals using a robust non-linear time-dependent modeling regression techniques. Time-dependent modeling is beneficial when modern machining systems, such as adaptive control techniques are considered, where the state of the machined surface and the health of the cutting edge are monitored, assessed and controlled online using realtime information provided by the variability encountered in the measured force signals. Correlation between wear propagation and roughness variation is developed throughout the different edge lifetimes. The surface roughness is further evaluated in the light of the variation in both the static and the dynamic force signals. Consistent correlation is found between surface roughness variation and tool wear progress within its initial and constant regions. At the first few seconds of cutting, expected and well known trend of the effect of the cutting parameters is observed. Surface roughness is positively influenced by the level of the feed rate and negatively by the cutting speed. As cutting continues, roughness is affected, to different extents, by the rather localized wear modes either on the tool nose or on its flank areas. Moreover, it seems that roughness varies as wear attitude transfers from one mode to another and, in general, it is shown that it is improved as wear increases but with possible corresponding workpart dimensional inaccuracy. The dynamic force signals are found reasonably sensitive to simulate either the progressive or the random modes of tool edge deformation. While the frictional force components, feeding and radial, are found informative regarding progressive wear modes, the vertical (power) components is found more representative carrier to system instability resulting from the edge-s random deformation.

Keywords: Dynamic force signals, surface roughness (finish), tool wear and deformation, tool wear modes (nose, flank)

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1 Predicting Mortality among Acute Burn Patients Using BOBI Score vs. FLAMES Score

Authors: S. Moustafa El Shanawany, I. Labib Salem, F. Mohamed Magdy Badr El Dine, H. Tag El Deen Abd Allah

Abstract:

Thermal injuries remain a global health problem and a common issue encountered in forensic pathology. They are a devastating cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults especially in developing countries, causing permanent disfigurement, scarring and grievous hurt. Burns have always been a matter of legal concern in cases of suicidal burns, self-inflicted burns for false accusation and homicidal attempts. Assessment of burn injuries as well as rating permanent disabilities and disfigurement following thermal injuries for the benefit of compensation claims represents a challenging problem. This necessitates the development of reliable scoring systems to yield an expected likelihood of permanent disability or fatal outcome following burn injuries. The study was designed to identify the risk factors of mortality in acute burn patients and to evaluate the applicability of FLAMES (Fatality by Longevity, APACHE II score, Measured Extent of burn, and Sex) and BOBI (Belgian Outcome in Burn Injury) model scores in predicting the outcome. The study was conducted on 100 adult patients with acute burn injuries admitted to the Burn Unit of Alexandria Main University Hospital, Egypt from October 2014 to October 2015. Victims were examined after obtaining informed consent and the data were collected in specially designed sheets including demographic data, burn details and any associated inhalation injury. Each burn patient was assessed using both BOBI and FLAMES scoring systems. The results of the study show the mean age of patients was 35.54±12.32 years. Males outnumbered females (55% and 45%, respectively). Most patients were accidently burnt (95%), whereas suicidal burns accounted for the remaining 5%. Flame burn was recorded in 82% of cases. As well, 8% of patients sustained more than 60% of total burn surface area (TBSA) burns, 19% of patients needed mechanical ventilation, and 19% of burnt patients died either from wound sepsis, multi-organ failure or pulmonary embolism. The mean length of hospital stay was 24.91±25.08 days. The mean BOBI score was 1.07±1.27 and that of the FLAMES score was -4.76±2.92. The FLAMES score demonstrated an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.95 which was significantly higher than that of the BOBI score (0.883). A statistically significant association was revealed between both predictive models and the outcome. The study concluded that both scoring systems were beneficial in predicting mortality in acutely burnt patients. However, the FLAMES score could be applied with a higher level of accuracy.

Keywords: BOBI, Burns, FLAMES, scoring systems, outcome.

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