Mass rearing and Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Pupal Mortality and Reproduction of Citrus Leaf Miner Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)
Citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) is native to Asia and one of the most serious pests of Iran’s citrus nursery stocks. In the present study, the possibility of insect mass rearing on four various citrus hosts and the effects of gamma irradiation on the pupal mortality and reproduction of this pest were studied. Trifoliate orange and grapefruit showed less infection, while the number of pupae in Valencia oranges and sweet lemons cages was so high. There was not any significant difference between weight of male and female pupae among different citrus hosts, but generally the weight of male pupae was less than females. Use of Valencia orange or sweet lemons seedlings in especial dark emergence and oviposition cages could be recommended for mass rearing of this pest. In this study, the effects of gamma radiation at doses 100 to 450 Gy on biological and reproductive parameters of the pest has been determined. The results show that mean percent of pupal mortality increased with increasing doses and reached to 28.67% at 450 Gy for male pupae and 38.367% for female pupae. Also, the mean values of this parameter were higher for irradiated female, which indicated the higher sensitivity of this sex. The gamma ray irradiation from 200 and 300 Gy caused decrease in male and female adult moth longevity, respectively. The eggs were laid by emerged females, and their hatchability was decreased by increasing gamma doses. The fecundity of females in both combinations of crosses (irradiated male × normal female and irradiated female × normal male) did not differ, but fertility of laid eggs by irradiated female × normal male affected seriously and the mean values of this parameter reached to zero at 300 Gy. The hatchability percentage of produced eggs by normal female × irradiated male at 300 Gy was 23.29% and reached to less than 2 % at 450 Gy as the highest tested dose. The results of this test show that females have more radio-sensitivity in comparison to males.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132337Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 491
 FAO, 2013. FAO Statistical Yearbook 2013, World food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome. 289 pp.
 E. E. G. Cardwell, K. E. Godfrey, D.H. Headrick, P. A. Mank, J. E. Pena, “Citrus leaf miner and citrus peelminer,” University of California. ANR Publication. 8321, pp. 1-12, 2008.
 E. Ebrahimi, M. Malekzadeh, Z. Yefremova, “Parasitoid wasps of Phyllocnistis citrella (Lep., Gracillariidae) in Iran,” Plant Pathol. Entomol., vol. 76, pp. 81-92, 2008.
 G. A. C Beattie, D. Smith, Citrus leafminer, N.S.W. Agriculture No: 42. AB. 4. Rydalmere, N.S.W., Australia, 1993, pp 12.
 J. B. Heppner, “Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, in Florida (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae: Phyllocnistidae),” Fla. Entomol., vol. 78, no.1, pp. 183-186, 1995.
 S. A. S. Ba-Angood, “On the biology and food preference of the Citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Gracilariidae, Lepidoptera) in PDR of Yemen,” Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie, vol. 86, pp.53-57, 1978.
 M. C. Chagas, J. R. P. Parra, T. Namekata, J. S. Hartung, P. T. Yamamoto, “Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and Its Relationship with the Citrus Canker Bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri in Brazil,” Neotrop. Entomol., vol. 30, pp. 55-59, 2001
 V. A. Dyck, H. Hendrichs, A. S. “Robinson, Sterile Insect Technique Principles and Practice,” in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management, Espringer, Netherlands. 2005.
 J. M. Smith, M. A. Hoy, “Rearing Methods for Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Cirrospilus quadristriatus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) Released in a Classical Biological Control Program for the Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae),” Florida Entomologist, vol. 78, no.4, pp. 600-608, 1995
 J. A. Jacas, A. Garrido, “Differences in the morphology of male and female phylloconistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae),” Fla. Entomol., vol.79, pp. 603-606, 1996.
 S. Kharrat, A. Jerraya, “Rearing parasitoids by mass production of citrus leafminer larvae, Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae),” Entomologia Generalis, vol. 28, no.2, pp. 115-120, 2005.
 H. Fu, F. Zhu, Y. Deng, Q. Weng, M. Hu, T. Zhang, “Development, Reproduction and Sexual Competitiveness of Conopomorpha sinensis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) Gamma-Irradiated as Pupae and Adults,” Fla. Entomol., vol, 98, pp.66-72, 2016
 H. M. Salem, M. A. Foudo, A. A. Abas, W. M. Ali, A. Gabarty, “Effects of gamma irradiation on the development and reproduction of the greasy cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.),” J Radiat. Res. Appl. Sci. vol. 7, pp. 110-115, 2014.
 K. Ramesh, A. K. Garg, R. K. Seth, “Interaction of substerlizing gamma radiation and Thiodicarb treatment for management of the tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura.” Phytoparasitica, vol. 30, pp. 7-17. 2002.
 M. H. Dhouibi, C. T. Abderahmane, “The effect of substerilizating doses of gamma radiation on the pupae of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: pyralidae),” in Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility, IAEA-TECDOC 1083. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 2002, pp. 43- 45.
 A. Tothova, F. Marec, “Chromosomal principle of radiation-induced F1 sterility in Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae),” Genome, vol, 44, pp. 172-184, 2001
 K. P. Katiyar, “Studies on the biology and sterilization of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella Guer,” in The application of nuclear energy to agriculture. Annual Report, AT (30-1)-2043, 1967, pp. 111-122.
 L. Daguang, L. Xiaohui, H. Jiangguo, W. Endong, H. Qiulan, L. Yongjun, “Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Large scale rearing and the effect of gamma radiation on selected life history parameters of this pest in china,” in Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility, IAEA-TECDOC 1083. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 2002, pp. 23- 27.
 V. R. Ocampo, J. B. Leon, “The effects of radiation on the biology and reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),” in Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility, IAEA-TECDOC 1083. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 2002, pp. 29- 36.
 S. Chakroun, M. Skander, K. G. Lebdi, “Sterile insect technique against date moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller 1881, in Tunisia: Research of gamma radiation sterilizing dose,” Int. j. eng. sci. technol. (IJSET). Vol. 3, pp.55-62, 2014.
 N. Genchev, “Suppression of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) population using the sterile insect technique,” in Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility, IAEA-TECDOC 1083. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 2002, pp. 49- 60.
 A. J. Walton, D. E. Conlong, M. F. Addison, “Parental and F1 sterility of Eldana Saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)” Proc. S. Afr. Sug. Technol. Ass. 84, pp. 281-286, 2011.
 A. Bakri, N. J. Heather, J. Hendrichs, I. Ferris, “Fifty years of radiation biology in entomology: lessons learned from IDIDAS,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. Vol. 98, pp. 1-12, 2005.
 R. Rahman, M. M. Rahman, S. Islam, R. Huque, 2002. “Observation on the growth parameters of Spilosoma oblique (Lep: Arctiidae) reard on artificial diets and reproductive component of this irradiated pest,” in Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility, IAEA-TECDOC 1083. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 2002, pp. 7- 14.