Search results for: Rayleigh fading model
7372 Coverage Availability for the IEEE 802.16 System over the SUI Channels with Rayleigh Fading
Authors: Shiann-Shiun Jeng, Chen-Wan Tsung, Hong-You Liou, Chun-Chieh Chang, Jia-Ming Chen
Abstract:The coverage probability and range of IEEE 802.16 systems depend on different wireless scenarios. Evaluating the performance of IEEE 802.16 systems over Stanford University Interim (SUI) channels is suggested by IEEE 802.16 specifications. In order to derive an effective method for forecasting the coverage probability and range, this study uses the SUI channel model to analyze the coverage probability with Rayleigh fading for an IEEE 802.16 system. The BER of the IEEE 802.16 system is shown in the simulation results. Then, the maximum allowed path loss can be calculated and substituted into the coverage analysis. Therefore, simulation results show the coverage range with and without Rayleigh fading.
Keywords: OFDM, coverage, SUI channel, IEEE 802.16Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1324
7371 Optimum Radio Capacity Estimation of a Single-Cell Spread Spectrum MIMO System under Rayleigh Fading Conditions
Authors: P. Varzakas
Abstract:In this paper, the problem of estimating the optimal radio capacity of a single-cell spread spectrum (SS) multiple-inputmultiple- output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is examined. The optimisation between the radio capacity and the theoretically achievable average channel capacity (in the sense of information theory) per user of a MIMO single-cell SS system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is presented. Then, the spectral efficiency is estimated in terms of the achievable average channel capacity per user, during the operation over a broadcast time-varying link, and leads to a simple novel-closed form expression for the optimal radio capacity value based on the maximization of the achieved spectral efficiency. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the proposed analysis.
Keywords: Channel capacity, MIMO systems, Radio capacity, Rayleigh fading, Spectral efficiency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1127
7370 Performance of Nakagami Fading Channel over Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing
Authors: M. Ranjeeth, S. Anuradha
Spectrum sensing is the main feature of cognitive radio technology. Spectrum sensing gives an idea of detecting the presence of the primary users in a licensed spectrum. In this paper we compare the theoretical results of detection probability of different fading environments like Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m fading channels with the simulation results using energy detection based spectrum sensing. The numerical results are plotted as Pf Vs Pd for different SNR values, fading parameters. It is observed that Nakagami fading channel performance is better than other fading channels by using energy detection in spectrum sensing. A MATLAB simulation test bench has been implemented to know the performance of energy detection in different fading channel environment.
Keywords: Spectrum sensing, Energy detection, fading channels, Probability of detection, probability of false alarm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2988
7369 Error Rate Performance Comparisons of Precoding Schemes over Fading Channels for Multiuser MIMO
Authors: M. Arulvizhi
In Multiuser MIMO communication systems, interuser interference has a strong impact on the transmitted signals. Precoding technique schemes are employed for multiuser broadcast channels to suppress an interuser interference. Different Linear and nonlinear precoding schemes are there. For the massive system dimension, it is difficult to design an appropriate precoding algorithm with low computational complexity and good error rate performance at the same time over fading channels. This paper describes the error rate performance of precoding schemes over fading channels with the assumption of perfect channel state information at the transmitter. To estimate the bit error rate performance, different propagation environments namely, Rayleigh, Rician and Nakagami fading channels have been offered. This paper presents the error rate performance comparison of these fading channels based on precoding methods like Channel Inversion and Dirty paper coding for multiuser broadcasting system. MATLAB simulation has been used. It is observed that multiuser system achieves better error rate performance by Dirty paper coding over Rayleigh fading channel.
Keywords: Multiuser MIMO, channel inversion precoding, dirty paper coding, fading channels, BER.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 614
7368 Effect of Transmission Codes on Hybrid SC/MRC Diversity Reception MQAM system over Rayleigh Fading Channels
Authors: J.S. Ubhi, M.S. Patterh, T.S. Kamal
Abstract:In this paper, the effect of transmission codes on the performance of coherent square M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (CSMQAM) under hybrid selection/maximal-ratio combining (H-S/MRC) diversity is analysed. The fading channels are modeled as frequency non-selective slow independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The results for coded MQAM are computed numerically for the case of (24,12) extended Golay code and compared with uncoded MQAM under H-S/MRC diversity by plotting error probabilities versus average signal to noise ratio (SNR) for various values L and N in order to examine the improvement in the performance of the digital communications system as the number of selected diversity branches is increased. The results for no diversity, conventional SC and Lth order MRC schemes are also plotted for comparison. Closed form analytical results derived in this paper are sufficiently simple and therefore can be computed numerically without any approximations. The analytical results presented in this paper are expected to provide useful information needed for design and analysis of digital communication systems over wireless fading channels.
Keywords: Error probability, diversity reception, Rayleigh fading channels, wireless digital communications.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1595
7367 Security over OFDM Fading Channels with Friendly Jammer
Authors: Munnujahan Ara
In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels. We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading. The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated. Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations. We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading channels in the presence of friendly jammers.
Keywords: Fading parallel channels, Wire-tap channel, OFDM, Secrecy capacity, Power allocation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1667
7366 Energy Efficient Reliable Cooperative Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Gergely Treplan, Long Tran-Thanh, Janos Levendovszky
Abstract:In this paper, a reliable cooperative multipath routing algorithm is proposed for data forwarding in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this algorithm, data packets are forwarded towards the base station (BS) through a number of paths, using a set of relay nodes. In addition, the Rayleigh fading model is used to calculate the evaluation metric of links. Here, the quality of reliability is guaranteed by selecting optimal relay set with which the probability of correct packet reception at the BS will exceed a predefined threshold. Therefore, the proposed scheme ensures reliable packet transmission to the BS. Furthermore, in the proposed algorithm, energy efficiency is achieved by energy balancing (i.e. minimizing the energy consumption of the bottleneck node of the routing path) at the same time. This work also demonstrates that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing algorithms in extending longevity of the network, with respect to the quality of reliability. Given this, the obtained results make possible reliable path selection with minimum energy consumption in real time.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks, reliability, cooperativerouting, Rayleigh fading model, energy balancingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1495
7365 Analytical Mathematical Expression for the Channel Capacity of a Power and Rate Simultaneous Adaptive Cellular DS/FFH-CDMA Systemin a Rayleigh Fading Channel
In this paper, an accurate theoretical analysis for the achievable average channel capacity (in the Shannon sense) per user of a hybrid cellular direct-sequence/fast frequency hopping code-division multiple-access (DS/FFH-CDMA) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is presented. The analysis covers the downlink operation and leads to the derivation of an exact mathematical expression between the normalized average channel capacity available to each system-s user, under simultaneous optimal power and rate adaptation and the system-s parameters, as the number of hops per bit, the processing gain applied, the number of users per cell and the received signal-tonoise power ratio over the signal bandwidth. Finally, numerical results are presented to illustrate the proposed mathematical analysis.
Keywords: Shannon capacity, adaptive systems, code-division multiple access, fading channels.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1424
7364 Statistical Modeling of Local Area Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes
Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois
Fading noise degrades the performance of cellular communication, most notably in femto- and pico-cells in 3G and 4G systems. When the wireless channel consists of a small number of scattering paths, the statistics of fading noise is not analytically tractable and poses a serious challenge to developing closed canonical forms that can be analysed and used in the design of efficient and optimal receivers. In this context, noise is multiplicative and is referred to as stochastically local fading. In many analytical investigation of multiplicative noise, the exponential or Gamma statistics are invoked. More recent advances by the author of this paper utilized a Poisson modulated-weighted generalized Laguerre polynomials with controlling parameters and uncorrelated noise assumptions. In this paper, we investigate the statistics of multidiversity stochastically local area fading channel when the channel consists of randomly distributed Rayleigh and Rician scattering centers with a coherent Nakagami-distributed line of sight component and an underlying doubly stochastic Poisson process driven by a lognormal intensity. These combined statistics form a unifying triply stochastic filtered marked Poisson point process model.
Keywords: Cellular communication, femto- and pico-cells, stochastically local area fading channel, triply stochastic filtered marked Poisson point process.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1245
7363 Adaptive Subchannel Allocation for MC-CDMA System
Authors: Cuiran Li, Jianli Xie, Chengshu Li
Abstract:Multicarrier code-division multiple-access is one of the effective techniques to gain its multiple access capability, robustness against fading, and to mitigate the ISI. In this paper, we propose an improved mulcarrier CDMA system with adaptive subchannel allocation. We analyzed the performance of our proposed system in frequency selective fading environment with narrowband interference existing and compared it with that of parallel transmission over many subchannels (namely, conventional MC-CDMA scheme) and DS-CDMA system. Simulation results show that adaptive subchannel allocation scheme, when used in conventional multicarrier CDMA system, the performance will be greatly improved.
Keywords: MC-CDMA, Rayleigh fading, Narrowbandinterference, Channel estimation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1461
7362 A New Distribution and Application on the Lifetime Data
Authors: Gamze Ozel, Selen Cakmakyapan
We introduce a new model called the Marshall-Olkin Rayleigh distribution which extends the Rayleigh distribution using Marshall-Olkin transformation and has increasing and decreasing shapes for the hazard rate function. Various structural properties of the new distribution are derived including explicit expressions for the moments, generating and quantile function, some entropy measures, and order statistics are presented. The model parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood and the observed information matrix is determined. The potentiality of the new model is illustrated by means of a simulation study.
Keywords: Marshall-Olkin distribution, Rayleigh distribution, estimation, maximum likelihood.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1284
7361 Overloading Scheme for Cellular DS-CDMA using Quasi-Orthogonal Sequences and Iterative Interference Cancellation Receiver
Authors: Preetam Kumar, Saswat Chakrabarti
Abstract:Overloading is a technique to accommodate more number of users than the spreading factor N. This is a bandwidth efficient scheme to increase the number users in a fixed bandwidth. One of the efficient schemes to overload a CDMA system is to use two sets of orthogonal signal waveforms (O/O). The first set is assigned to the N users and the second set is assigned to the additional M users. An iterative interference cancellation technique is used to cancel interference between the two sets of users. In this paper, the performance of an overloading scheme in which the first N users are assigned Walsh-Hadamard orthogonal codes and extra users are assigned the same WH codes but overlaid by a fixed (quasi) bent sequence  is evaluated. This particular scheme is called Quasi- Orthogonal Sequence (QOS) O/O scheme, which is a part of cdma2000 standard  to provide overloading in the downlink using single user detector. QOS scheme are balance O/O scheme, where the correlation between any set-1 and set-2 users are equalized. The allowable overload of this scheme is investigated in the uplink on an AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels, so that the uncoded performance with iterative multistage interference cancellation detector remains close to the single user bound. It is shown that this scheme provides 19% and 11% overloading with SDIC technique for N= 16 and 64 respectively, with an SNR degradation of less than 0.35 dB as compared to single user bound at a BER of 0.00001. But on a Rayleigh fading channel, the channel overloading is 45% (29 extra users) at a BER of 0.0005, with an SNR degradation of about 1 dB as compared to single user performance for N=64. This is a significant amount of channel overloading on a Rayleigh fading channel.
Keywords: DS-CDMA, Iterative Interference CancellationOrthogonal codes, Overloading.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1596
7360 An Energy Detection-Based Algorithm for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Rayleigh Fading Channel
Authors: H. Bakhshi, E. Khayyamian
Abstract:Cognitive radios have been recognized as one of the most promising technologies dealing with the scarcity of the radio spectrum. In cognitive radio systems, secondary users are allowed to utilize the frequency bands of primary users when the bands are idle. Hence, how to accurately detect the idle frequency bands has attracted many researchers’ interest. Detection performance is sensitive toward noise power and gain fluctuation. Since signal to noise ratio (SNR) between primary user and secondary users are not the same and change over the time, SNR and noise power estimation is essential. In this paper, we present a cooperative spectrum sensing algorithm using SNR estimation to improve detection performance in the real situation.
Keywords: Cognitive radio, cooperative spectrum sensing, energy detection, SNR estimation, spectrum sensing, Rayleigh fading channel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1221
7359 Experimental Investigation of On-Body Channel Modelling at 2.45 GHz
Authors: Hasliza A. Rahim, Fareq Malek, Nur A. M. Affendi, Azuwa Ali, Norshafinash Saudin, Latifah Mohamed
This paper presents the experimental investigation of on-body channel fading at 2.45 GHz considering two effects of the user body movement; stationary and mobile. A pair of body-worn antennas was utilized in this measurement campaign. A statistical analysis was performed by comparing the measured on-body path loss to five well-known distributions; lognormal, normal, Nakagami, Weibull and Rayleigh. The results showed that the average path loss of moving arm varied higher than the path loss in sitting position for upper-arm-to-left-chest link, up to 3.5 dB. The analysis also concluded that the Nakagami distribution provided the best fit for most of on-body static link path loss in standing still and sitting position, while the arm movement can be best described by log-normal distribution.
Keywords: On-Body channel communications, fading characteristics, statistical model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1414
7358 Performance Evaluation of Cooperative Diversity in Flat Fading Channel with Error Control Coding
Authors: Oluseye Adeniyi Adeleke, Mohd Fadzli Salleh
Cooperative communication provides transmit diversity, even when, due to size constraints, mobile units cannot accommodate multiple antennas. A versatile cooperation method called coded cooperation has been developed, in which cooperation is implemented through channel coding with a view to controlling the errors inherent in wireless communication. In this work we evaluate the performance of coded cooperation in flat Rayleigh fading environment using a concept known as the pair wise error probability (PEP). We derive the PEP for a flat fading scenario in coded cooperation and then compare with the signal-to-noise ratio of the users in the network. Results show that an increase in the SNR leads to a decrease in the PEP. We also carried out simulations to validate the result.
Keywords: Channel state information, coded cooperation, cooperative systems, pairwise-error-probability, Reed-Solomon codes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1642
7357 Least Square-SVM Detector for Wireless BPSK in Multi-Environmental Noise
Authors: J. P. Dubois, Omar M. Abdul-Latif
Abstract:Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). In this paper, SVM is applied to signal detection in communication systems in the presence of channel noise in various environments in the form of Rayleigh fading, additive white Gaussian background noise (AWGN), and interference noise generalized as additive color Gaussian noise (ACGN). The structure and performance of SVM in terms of the bit error rate (BER) metric is derived and simulated for these advanced stochastic noise models and the computational complexity of the implementation, in terms of average computational time per bit, is also presented. The performance of SVM is then compared to conventional binary signaling optimal model-based detector driven by binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. We show that the SVM performance is superior to that of conventional matched filter-, innovation filter-, and Wiener filter-driven detectors, even in the presence of random Doppler carrier deviation, especially for low SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) ranges. For large SNR, the performance of the SVM was similar to that of the classical detectors. However, the convergence between SVM and maximum likelihood detection occurred at a higher SNR as the noise environment became more hostile.
Keywords: Colour noise, Doppler shift, innovation filter, least square-support vector machine, matched filter, Rayleigh fading, Wiener filter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1696
7356 C-LNRD: A Cross-Layered Neighbor Route Discovery for Effective Packet Communication in Wireless Sensor Network
Authors: K. Kalaikumar, E. Baburaj
One of the problems to be addressed in wireless sensor networks is the issues related to cross layer communication. Cross layer architecture shares the information across the layer, ensuring Quality of Services (QoS). With this shared information, MAC protocol adapts effective functionality maintenance such as route selection on changeable sensor network environment. However, time slot assignment and neighbour route selection time duration for cross layer have not been carried out. The time varying physical layer communication over cross layer causes high traffic load in the sensor network. Though, the traffic load was reduced using cross layer optimization procedure, the computational cost is high. To improve communication efficacy in the sensor network, a self-determined time slot based Cross-Layered Neighbour Route Discovery (C-LNRD) method is presented in this paper. In the presented work, the initial process is to discover the route in the sensor network using Dynamic Source Routing based Medium Access Control (MAC) sub layers. This process considers MAC layer operation with dynamic route neighbour table discovery. Then, the discovered route path for packet communication employs Broad Route Distributed Time Slot Assignment method on Cross-Layered Sensor Network system. Broad Route means time slotting on varying length of the route paths. During packet communication in this sensor network, transmission of packets is adjusted over the different time with varying ranges for controlling the traffic rate. Finally, Rayleigh fading model is developed in C-LNRD to identify the performance of the sensor network communication structure. The main task of Rayleigh Fading is to measure the power level of each communication under MAC sub layer. The minimized power level helps to easily reduce the computational cost of packet communication in the sensor network. Experiments are conducted on factors such as power factor, on packet communication, neighbour route discovery time, and information (i.e., packet) propagation speed.
Keywords: Medium access control, neighbour route discovery, wireless sensor network, Rayleigh fading, distributed time slot assignmentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 656
7355 Determining of Threshold Levels of Burst by Burst AQAM/CDMA in Slow Rayleigh Fading Environments
Authors: F. Nejadebrahimi, M. ArdebiliPour
In this paper, we are going to determine the threshold levels of adaptive modulation in a burst by burst CDMA system by a suboptimum method so that the above method attempts to increase the average bit per symbol (BPS) rate of transceiver system by switching between the different modulation modes in variable channel condition. In this method, we choose the minimum values of average bit error rate (BER) and maximum values of average BPS on different values of average channel signal to noise ratio (SNR) and then calculate the relative threshold levels of them, so that when the instantaneous SNR increases, a higher order modulation be employed for increasing throughput and vise-versa when the instantaneous SNR decreases, a lower order modulation be employed for improvement of BER. In transmission step, by this adaptive modulation method, in according to comparison between obtained estimation of pilot symbols and a set of above suboptimum threshold levels, above system chooses one of states no transmission, BPSK, 4QAM and square 16QAM for modulation of data. The expected channel in this paper is a slow Rayleigh fading.
Keywords: AQAM, burst, BER, BPS, CDMA, threshold.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1413
7354 Capacity and Performance Analysis of Space-Time Block Coded MIMO-OFDM Systems over Rician Fading Channel
Authors: Imran Khan, Shujaat Ali Khan Tanoli, Nandana Rajatheva
This paper presents an analysis on the capacity and performance of MIMO-OFDM systems. The work is focused on the capacity of MIMO-OFDM systems over rician fading channel, in the case of the channel being known at the receiver only, which is more practical case of the channel. Simple expression for capacity is derived for the case of correlated rician fading. The performance of some MIMO-OFDM implementations with rician fading model is presented using an Alamouti coding scheme and Simulation results are obtained for both capacity and performance analysis.
Keywords: MIMO, OFDM, rician distribution, space time blockcodes (STBC).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1960
7353 Performance Analysis of a Combined Ordered Successive and Interference Cancellation Using Zero-Forcing Detection over Rayleigh Fading Channels in MIMO Systems
Authors: Jamal R. Elbergali
Abstract:Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems are wireless systems with multiple antenna elements at both ends of the link. Wireless communication systems demand high data rate and spectral efficiency with increased reliability. MIMO systems have been popular techniques to achieve these goals because increased data rate is possible through spatial multiplexing scheme and diversity. Spatial Multiplexing (SM) is used to achieve higher possible throughput than diversity. In this paper, we propose a Zero- Forcing (ZF) detection using a combination of Ordered Successive Interference Cancellation (OSIC) and Zero Forcing using Interference Cancellation (ZF-IC). The proposed method used an OSIC based on Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) ordering to get the estimation of last symbol, then the estimated last symbol is considered to be an input to the ZF-IC. We analyze the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the proposed MIMO system over Rayleigh Fading Channel, using Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation scheme. The results show better performance than the previous methods.
Keywords: SNR, BER, BPSK, MIMO, Modulation, Zero forcing (ZF), OSIC, ZF-IC, Spatial Multiplexing (SM).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1600
7352 Recursive Least Squares Adaptive Filter a better ISI Compensator
Authors: O. P. Sharma, V. Janyani, S. Sancheti
Inter-symbol interference if not taken care off may cause severe error at the receiver and the detection of signal becomes difficult. An adaptive equalizer employing Recursive Least Squares algorithm can be a good compensation for the ISI problem. In this paper performance of communication link in presence of Least Mean Square and Recursive Least Squares equalizer algorithm is analyzed. A Model of communication system having Quadrature amplitude modulation and Rician fading channel is implemented using MATLAB communication block set. Bit error rate and number of errors is evaluated for RLS and LMS equalizer algorithm, due to change in Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and fading component gain in Rician fading Channel.
Keywords: Least mean square (LMS), Recursive least squares(RLS), Adaptive equalization, Bit error rate (BER), Rician fading channel, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), Signal to noiseratio (SNR).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2949
7351 Performance of Dual MRC Receiver for M-ary Modulations over Correlated Nakagami-m Fading Channels with Non-identical and Arbitrary Fading Parameter
Authors: Rupaban Subadar
Abstract:Performance of a dual maximal ratio combining receiver has been analyzed for M-ary coherent and non-coherent modulations over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels with nonidentical and arbitrary fading parameter. The classical probability density function (PDF) based approach is used for analysis. Expressions for outage probability and average symbol error performance for M-ary coherent and non-coherent modulations have been obtained. The obtained results are verified against the special case published results and found to be matching. The effect of the unequal fading parameters, branch correlation and unequal input average SNR on the receiver performance has been studied.
Keywords: MRC, correlated Nakagami-m fading, non-identicalfading statistics, average symbol error rateProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1328
7350 Average Secrecy Mutual Information of the Non-Identically Independently Distributed Hoyt Fading Wireless Channels
Authors: Md. Sohidul Islam, Mohammad Rakibul Islam
Abstract:In this paper, we consider a non-identically independently distributed (non-i.i.d.) Hoyt fading single-input multiple-out put (SIMO) channel, where the transmitter sends some confidential information to the legitimate receiver in presence of an eavesdropper. We formulated the probability of non-zero secrecy mutual information; secure outage probability and average secrecy mutual information (SMI) for the SIMO wireless communication system. The calculation has been carried out using small limit argument approximation (SLAA) on zeroth-order modified Bessel function of first kind. In our proposed model, an eavesdropper observes transmissions of information through another Hoyt fading channel. First, we derived the analytical expression for non-zero secrecy mutual information. Then, we find the secure outage probability to investigate the outage behavior of the proposed model. Finally, we find the average secrecy mutual information. We consider that the channel state information (CSI) is known to legitimate receiver.
Keywords: Hoyt fading, main channel, eavesdropper channel, secure outage probability, average secrecy mutual information.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1116
7349 Combined Source and Channel Coding for Image Transmission Using Enhanced Turbo Codes in AWGN and Rayleigh Channel
Authors: N. S. Pradeep, M. Balasingh Moses, V. Aarthi
Abstract:Any signal transmitted over a channel is corrupted by noise and interference. A host of channel coding techniques has been proposed to alleviate the effect of such noise and interference. Among these Turbo codes are recommended, because of increased capacity at higher transmission rates and superior performance over convolutional codes. The multimedia elements which are associated with ample amount of data are best protected by Turbo codes. Turbo decoder employs Maximum A-posteriori Probability (MAP) and Soft Output Viterbi Decoding (SOVA) algorithms. Conventional Turbo coded systems employ Equal Error Protection (EEP) in which the protection of all the data in an information message is uniform. Some applications involve Unequal Error Protection (UEP) in which the level of protection is higher for important information bits than that of other bits. In this work, enhancement to the traditional Log MAP decoding algorithm is being done by using optimized scaling factors for both the decoders. The error correcting performance in presence of UEP in Additive White Gaussian Noise channel (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading are analyzed for the transmission of image with Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) as source coding technique. This paper compares the performance of log MAP, Modified log MAP (MlogMAP) and Enhanced log MAP (ElogMAP) algorithms used for image transmission. The MlogMAP algorithm is found to be best for lower Eb/N0 values but for higher Eb/N0 ElogMAP performs better with optimized scaling factors. The performance comparison of AWGN with fading channel indicates the robustness of the proposed algorithm. According to the performance of three different message classes, class3 would be more protected than other two classes. From the performance analysis, it is observed that ElogMAP algorithm with UEP is best for transmission of an image compared to Log MAP and MlogMAP decoding algorithms.
Keywords: AWGN, BER, DCT, Fading, MAP, UEP.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1555
7348 Assessment of Channel Unavailability Effect on the Wireless Networks Teletraffic Modeling and Analysis
Authors: Eman S. El-Din, Hesham M. El-Badawy, Salwa H. Elramly
Abstract:Whereas cellular wireless communication systems are subject to short-and long-term fading. The effect of wireless channel has largely been ignored in most of the teletraffic assessment researches. In this paper, a mathematical teletraffic model is proposed to estimate blocking and forced termination probabilities of cellular wireless networks as a result of teletraffic behavior as well as the outage of the propagation channel. To evaluate the proposed teletraffic model, gamma inter-arrival and general service time distributions have been considered based on wireless channel fading effect. The performance is evaluated and compared with the classical model. The proposed model is dedicated and investigated in different operational conditions. These conditions will consider not only the arrival rate process, but also, the different faded channels models.
Keywords: Cellular wireless networks, outage probability, traffic model, gamma inter-arrival distribution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1371
7347 Clustering Unstructured Text Documents Using Fading Function
Authors: Pallav Roxy, Durga Toshniwal
Abstract:Clustering unstructured text documents is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as document archive filtering, document organization and topic detection and subject tracing. In the real world, some of the already clustered documents may not be of importance while new documents of more significance may evolve. Most of the work done so far in clustering unstructured text documents overlooks this aspect of clustering. This paper, addresses this issue by using the Fading Function. The unstructured text documents are clustered. And for each cluster a statistics structure called Cluster Profile (CP) is implemented. The cluster profile incorporates the Fading Function. This Fading Function keeps an account of the time-dependent importance of the cluster. The work proposes a novel algorithm Clustering n-ary Merge Algorithm (CnMA) for unstructured text documents, that uses Cluster Profile and Fading Function. Experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed technique are also included.
Keywords: Clustering, Text Mining, Unstructured TextDocuments, Fading Function.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1890
7346 Low-Complexity Channel Estimation Algorithm for MIMO-OFDM Systems
Authors: Ali Beydoun, Hamzé H. Alaeddine
Abstract:One of the main challenges in MIMO-OFDM system to achieve the expected performances in terms of data rate and robustness against multi-path fading channels is the channel estimation. Several methods were proposed in the literature based on either least square (LS) or minimum mean squared error (MMSE) estimators. These methods present high implementation complexity as they require the inversion of large matrices. In order to overcome this problem and to reduce the complexity, this paper presents a solution that benefits from the use of the STBC encoder and transforms the channel estimation process into a set of simple linear operations. The proposed method is evaluated via simulation in AWGN-Rayleigh fading channel. Simulation results show a maximum reduction of 6.85% of the bit error rate (BER) compared to the one obtained with the ideal case where the receiver has a perfect knowledge of the channel.
Keywords: Channel estimation, MIMO, OFDM, STBC, CAZAC sequence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 660
7345 Learning Materials for Enhancing Sustainable Colour Fading Process of Fashion Products
Authors: C. W. Kan, H. F. Cheung, Y. S. Lee
This study examines the results of colour fading of cotton fabric by plasma-induced ozone treatment, with an aim to provide learning materials for fashion designers when designing colour fading effects in fashion products. Cotton knitted fabrics were dyed with red reactive dye with a colour depth of 1.5% and were subjected to ozone generated by a commercially available plasma machine for colour fading. The plasma-induced ozone treatment was conducted with different parameters: (i) air concentration = 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%; (ii) water content in fabric = 35% and 45%, and (iii) treatment time = 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes. Finally, the colour properties of the plasma–induced ozone treated fabric were measured by spectrophotometer under illuminant D65 to obtain the CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b* values.
Keywords: Learning materials, colour fading, colour properties, fashion products.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1699
7344 Selection of Rayleigh Damping Coefficients for Seismic Response Analysis of Soil Layers
Authors: Huai-Feng Wang, Meng-Lin Lou, Ru-Lin Zhang
Abstract:One good analysis method in seismic response analysis is direct time integration, which widely adopts Rayleigh damping. An approach is presented for selection of Rayleigh damping coefficients to be used in seismic analyses to produce a response that is consistent with Modal damping response. In the presented approach, the expression of the error of peak response, acquired through complete quadratic combination method, and Rayleigh damping coefficients was set up and then the coefficients were produced by minimizing the error. Two finite element modes of soil layers, excited by 28 seismic waves, were used to demonstrate the feasibility and validity.
Keywords: Rayleigh damping, modal damping, damping coefficients, seismic response analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2618
7343 Study of Rayleigh-Bénard-Brinkman Convection Using LTNE Model and Coupled, Real Ginzburg-Landau Equations
Authors: P. G. Siddheshwar, R. K. Vanishree, C. Kanchana
Abstract:A local nonlinear stability analysis using a eight-mode expansion is performed in arriving at the coupled amplitude equations for Rayleigh-Bénard-Brinkman convection (RBBC) in the presence of LTNE effects. Streamlines and isotherms are obtained in the two-dimensional unsteady finite-amplitude convection regime. The parameters’ influence on heat transport is found to be more pronounced at small time than at long times. Results of the Rayleigh-Bénard convection is obtained as a particular case of the present study. Additional modes are shown not to significantly influence the heat transport thus leading us to infer that five minimal modes are sufficient to make a study of RBBC. The present problem that uses rolls as a pattern of manifestation of instability is a needed first step in the direction of making a very general non-local study of two-dimensional unsteady convection. The results may be useful in determining the preferred range of parameters’ values while making rheometric measurements in fluids to ascertain fluid properties such as viscosity. The results of LTE are obtained as a limiting case of the results of LTNE obtained in the paper.
Keywords: Rayleigh-Bénard convection, heat transport, porous media, generalized Lorenz model, coupled Ginzburg-Landau model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 794