Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 32020
Efficacy of Gamma Radiation on the Productivity of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Abstract:The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most serious pests in olive orchards in growing province in Iran. The female lay eggs in green olive fruit and larvae hatch inside the fruit, where they feed upon the fruit matters. One of the main ecologically friendly and species-specific systems of pest control is the sterile insect technique (SIT) which is based on the release of large numbers of sterilized insects. The objective of our work was to develop a SIT against B. oleae by using of gamma radiation for the laboratory and field trial in Iran. Oviposition of female mated by irradiated males is one of the main parameters to determine achievement of SIT. To conclude the sterile dose, pupae were placed under 0 to 160 Gy of gamma radiation. The main factor in SIT is the productivity of females which are mated by irradiated males. The emerged adults from irradiated pupae were mated with untreated adults of the same age by confining them inside the transparent cages. The fecundity of the irradiated males mated with non-irradiated females was decreased with the increasing radiation dose level. It was observed that the number of eggs and also the percentage of the egg hatching was significantly (P < 0.05) affected in either IM x NF crosses compared with NM x NF crosses in F1 generation at all doses. Also, the statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the mean number of eggs laid between irradiated and non-irradiated females crossed with irradiated males, which suggests that the males were susceptible to gamma radiation. The egg hatching percentage declined markedly with the increase of the radiation dose of the treated males in mating trials which demonstrated that egg hatch rate was dose dependent. Our results specified that gamma radiation affects the longevity of irradiated B. oleae larvae (established from irradiated pupae) and significantly increased their larval duration. Results show the gamma radiation, and SIT can be used successfully against olive fruit flies.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132355Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 818
 FAO, “Available from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC”, 21.6.2017.
 H. Noori and J. Shirazi, “A study on the population sampling of olive fruit fly adult, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae), using Mc Phil traps in Tarom Sofla region (Iran),” Acta Hortic. vol. 1057, pp. 293-300, 2014.
 P. Ramos, O. T. Jones and P. E. Howse, “The present status of the olive fruit fly (Dacus oleae (Gmel.)) in Granada, Spain, and techniques for monitoring its populations,” In: Proc CEC/IOBC Int Symposium, Fruit Flies of Economic Importance. Athens, Greece. Rotterdam: AA Balkema, pp. 38–40, 1982.
 H. V. Weems and J. L. Nation, “Olive Fruit Fly, Bacterocera oleae (Gmel.) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae),” University of Florida. Extention Institute of Food and Agricultural Science. EENY-2004, p.113.
 F. G. Zalom, R. A. Van Steenwyk, H. J. Burrack and M. W. Johnson, “Olive fruit fly,” University of California Pests in Gardens and Landscapes, 2009.
 K. M. Daane and M. W. Johnson, “Olive fruit fly: managing an ancient pest in modern times,” Ann. Rev. Entomol., vol. 55, pp. 151-169, 2010.
 V. A, Dyck, J. Hendrichs and A. S. Robinson, “Sterile Insect Technique: Principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management,” Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2005.
 FAO, “International standards for phytosanitary measures,” ISPM, no. 5, 2007.
 W. Klassen and C. F. Curtis, “History of the sterile insect technique,” In Sterile Insect Technique Principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management, V. A. Dyck, J. Hendrichs, and A. S. Robinson, eds. (The Netherlands, Springer), pp. 3-36, 2005.
 M. J. Vreysen, K. M. Saleh, M. Y. Ali, A. M. Abdulla, Z. R. Zhu, K. G. Juma, V. A. Dyck, A. R. Msangi, P. A. Mkonyi and H. U. Feldmann, “Glossina austeni (Dip¬tera: Glossinidae) eradicated on the island of Unguja, Zanzibar, using the sterile insect technique,” J. Econ. En¬tomol., vol. 93, pp. 123-135, 2000.
 H. Kuba, T. Kohama, H. Kakinohana, M. Yamagishi, K. Kinjo, Y. Sokei, T. Nakasone and Y. Nakamoto, “The successful eradication programs of the melon fly in Okinawa,” In Fruit fly pests: a world assessment of their biology and management, B. McPheron, and G. Steck, eds. (Delray Beach, Florida, St Lucie Press), pp. 543-550, 1996.
 R. Staten, M. Walters, R. Roberson and S. Birdsall, “Area-wide management/maximum suppression of pink bollworm in southern California,” Paper presented at: Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference, Na¬tional Cotton Council (Memphis, USA), 1999.
 A. Sproule, S. Broughton and N. Monzu, “Queens¬land fruit fly eradication campaign,” W.A. Department of Agriculture, ed. (Perth, Australia), 1992.
 J. A. Tsitsipis and A. Kontos, “Improved solid adult diet for the olive fruit fly Dacus oleae,” Entomol. Hellenica, vol. 1, pp. 24-29, 1983.
 M. E. Tzanakakis, “Small Scale Rearing,” pp. 105-118 In A. S. Robinson and G. Hooper (eds.), Fruit Flies: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, Amsterdam: Elsevier, vol. 3, pp. 105-118, 1989.
 N. F. Shehata, M. W. F. Younes and Y. A. Mahmoud, “Anatomical effects of gamma-ray on the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saund.) male gonads,” J. App. Sci. Res., vol. 2, pp. 510–513, 2006.
 A. Bakri, N. Heather, J. Hendrichs and I. Ferris, “Fifty years of radiation biology in entomology: Lessons learned from IDIDAS,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer., vol. 98, pp. 1–12, 2005.
 A. Allinghi, C. Gramajo, E. Willink, and J. Vilardi, “Induction of sterility in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) by gamma radiation,” Florida Entomolo., vol. 90, pp. 96–102, 2007.
 H. Huque and H. Ahmad, “Effect of gamma radiation on Dacus zonatus and Dacus cucurbitae,” Food Irradi., vol. 6, pp. 28–32, 1966.
 M. F. Mahmoud and M. Barta, “Effect of gamma radiation on the male sterility and other quality parameters of peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae),” Hort. Sci., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 54–62, 2011.
 A. R. Bughio, “Parental and inherited sterility induced by gamma radiation in male moths of the maize borer, Chilo partellus,” In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Modern Insect Control: Nuclear Techniques and Biotechnology, Vienna, pp. 413-421, 1988.
 H. A. Sallam, “Inherited sterility in progeny of irradiated male cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.), In: Working material from the Research Coordination Meeting on Radiation induced F1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area Wide Control, Joint FAO-IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Beijing, 1989.