Search results for: knowledge base and user interface.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4008

Search results for: knowledge base and user interface.

4008 Decision Support System “Crop-9-DSS“ for Identified Crops

Authors: Ganesan V.

Abstract:

Application of Expert System in the area of agriculture would take the form of Integrated Crop Management decision aids and would encompass water management, fertilizer management, crop protection systems and identification of implements. In order to remain competitive, the modern farmer often relies on agricultural specialists and advisors to provide information for decision-making. An expert system normally composed of a knowledge base (information, heuristics, etc.), inference engine (analyzes knowledge base), and end user interface (accepting inputs, generating outputs). Software named 'CROP-9-DSS' incorporating all modern features like, graphics, photos, video clippings etc. has been developed. This package will aid as a decision support system for identification of pest and diseases with control measures, fertilizer recommendation system, water management system and identification of farm implements for leading crops of Kerala (India) namely Coconut, Rice, Cashew, Pepper, Banana, four vegetables like Amaranthus, Bhindi, Brinjal and Cucurbits. 'CROP-9-DSS' will act as an expert system to agricultural officers, scientists in the field of agriculture and extension workers for decision-making and help them in suggesting suitable recommendations.

Keywords: Diagnostic, inference engine, knowledge base and user interface.

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4007 Producing Graphical User Interface from Activity Diagrams

Authors: Ebitisam K. Elberkawi, Mohamed M. Elammari

Abstract:

Graphical User Interface (GUI) is essential to programming, as is any other characteristic or feature, due to the fact that GUI components provide the fundamental interaction between the user and the program. Thus, we must give more interest to GUI during building and development of systems. Also, we must give a greater attention to the user who is the basic corner in the dealing with the GUI. This paper introduces an approach for designing GUI from one of the models of business workflows which describe the workflow behavior of a system, specifically through Activity Diagrams (AD).

Keywords: Activity Diagram, Graphical User Interface.

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4006 The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media - A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabians on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook

Authors: Hana Almakky, Reza Sahandi, Jacqui Taylor

Abstract:

Social media continues to grow, and user interfaces may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are incorporated into their design. Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated to other languages, including Arabic. Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the original design and users’ preferences may be influenced by their culture, which should be considered in the user interface design. Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture. Therefore, this paper, using a survey, investigates the preferences of Saudi Arabians on the Arabic version of the user interface of Facebook.

Keywords: Culture, Facebook, Saudi Arabia, Social media, User Interface Design.

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4005 Development of User Interface for Multiple Devices Connecting Path Planning System for Bus Network

Authors: Takahiro Takayama, Takao Kawamura, Toshihiko Sasama, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Recently, web services to access from many type devices are often used. We have developed the shortest path planning system called "Bus-Net" in Tottori prefecture as a web application to sustain the public transport. And it used the same user interface for both devices. To support both devices, the interface cannot use JavaScript and so on. Thus, we developed the method that use individual user interface for each device type to improve its convenience. To be concrete, we defined formats of condition input to the path planning system and result output from it and separate the system into the request processing part and user interface parts that depend on device types. By this method, we have also developed special device for Bus-Net named "Intelligent-Bus-Stop".

Keywords: Bus, Path planning, Public transport, User interface

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4004 User Interface Oriented Application Development (UIOAD)

Authors: Mahmood Doroodchi, Babak K. Farahani, Mahmoud Moravej

Abstract:

A fast and efficient model of application development called user interface oriented application development (UIOAD) is proposed. This approach introduces a convenient way for users to develop a platform independent client-server application.

Keywords: Software Development, XML, XForms, XUL, eForm, User Interface.

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4003 Design Method for Knowledge Base Systems in Education Using COKB-ONT

Authors: Nhon Do, Tuyen Trong Tran, Phan Hoai Truong

Abstract:

Nowadays e-Learning is more popular, in Vietnam especially. In e-learning, materials for studying are very important. It is necessary to design the knowledge base systems and expert systems which support for searching, querying, solving of problems. The ontology, which was called Computational Object Knowledge Base Ontology (COB-ONT), is a useful tool for designing knowledge base systems in practice. In this paper, a design method for knowledge base systems in education using COKB-ONT will be presented. We also present the design of a knowledge base system that supports studying knowledge and solving problems in higher mathematics.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, knowledge base systems, ontology, educational software.

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4002 An AR/VR Based Approach Towards the Intuitive Control of Mobile Rescue Robots

Authors: Jürgen Roßmann, André Kupetz, Roland Wischnewski

Abstract:

An intuitive user interface for the teleoperation of mobile rescue robots is one key feature for a successful exploration of inaccessible and no-go areas. Therefore, we have developed a novel framework to embed a flexible and modular user interface into a complete 3-D virtual reality simulation system. Our approach is based on a client-server architecture to allow for a collaborative control of the rescue robot together with multiple clients on demand. Further, it is important that the user interface is not restricted to any specific type of mobile robot. Therefore, our flexible approach allows for the operation of different robot types with a consistent concept and user interface. In laboratory tests, we have evaluated the validity and effectiveness of our approach with the help of two different robot platforms and several input devices. As a result, an untrained person can intuitively teleoperate both robots without needing a familiarization time when changing the operating robot.

Keywords: Teleoperation of mobile robots, augmented reality, user interface, virtual reality.

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4001 Styling Influence to the Loyalty for Knowledge Sharing on WikID

Authors: Regine W. Vroom, Bart Bleijerveld, Joost Schulze

Abstract:

WikID is a wiki for industrial design engineers. An important aspect for the viability of a wiki is the loyalty of the user community to share their information and knowledge by adding this knowledge to the wiki. For the initiators of a wiki it is therefore important to use every aspect to stimulate the user community to actively participate. In this study the focus is on the styling of the website. The central question is: How could the WikID website be visually designed to achieve a user experience which will incite the user to actively participate in the WikID community? After a literature study on the influencing factors of a website, a new interface has been designed by applying the rules found, in order to expand this website-s active user community. An online questionnaire regarding the old or the new website gave insights in the opinions of users. As expected, the new website was rated more positively than the old website. However, the differences are limited.

Keywords: Industrial Design Engineering Knowledge, Wiki, Stimulate Knowledge Sharing, Influence of a wiki styling to thewillingness of users to participate.

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4000 EnArgus: A Knowledge-Based Search Application for Energy Research Projects

Authors: Frederike Ohrem, Lukas Sikorski, Bastian Haarmann

Abstract:

Often the users of a semantic search application are facing the problem that they do not find appropriate terms for their search. This holds especially if the data to be searched is from a technical field in which the user does not have expertise. In order to support the user finding the results he seeks, we developed a domain-specific ontology and implemented it into a search application. The ontology serves as a knowledge base, suggesting technical terms to the user which he can add to his query. In this paper, we present the search application and the underlying ontology as well as the project EnArgus in which the application was developed.

Keywords: Information system, knowledge representation, ontology, semantic search.

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3999 Development of Optimized User Interface of Public Transit Navigator for a Smartphone

Authors: Masahiro Taketa, Masaki Ito, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

We develop a new interface for Bus-Net which is optimized for a smartphone. We are continuing to develop the shortest path planning system of public transportation called "Bus-Net" in Tottori prefecture as web application to improve the usability of public transportation. Recent trend of computing platform, however has shifted to an advanced mobile device called a smartphone such as iPhone and Android in Japan. A smartphone has different characters with existing feature phone in terms of OS, large touche panel, and several other features. We derive a guideline to design the new interface for a smartphone to full use of the functionality. The guideline is about simplicity of user-s operation, location awareness and usability. We developed the new interface for “Bus-Net" on iPhone referring to the guideline. Due to the evaluation, the application interface we developed is better than the existing web-based interface in terms of the usability.

Keywords: Path Planning, Public Transportation, Smartphone, User Interface

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3998 Automatic Rearrangement of Localized Graphical User Interface

Authors: Ágoston Winkler, Sándor Juhász

Abstract:

The localization of software products is essential for reaching the users of the international market. An important task for this is the translation of the user interface into local national languages. As graphical interfaces are usually optimized for the size of the texts in the original language, after the translation certain user controls (e.g. text labels and buttons in dialogs) may grow in such a manner that they slip above each other. This not only causes an unpleasant appearance but also makes the use of the program more difficult (or even impossible) which implies that the arrangement of the controls must be corrected subsequently. The correction should preserve the original structure of the interface (e.g. the relation of logically coherent controls), furthermore, it is important to keep the nicely proportioned design: the formation of large empty areas should be avoided. This paper describes an algorithm that automatically rearranges the controls of a graphical user interface based on the principles above. The algorithm has been implemented and integrated into a translation support system and reached results pleasant for the human eye in most test cases.

Keywords: Graphical user interface, GUI, natural languages, software localization, translation support systems.

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3997 MATLAB-Based Graphical User Interface (GUI) for Data Mining as a Tool for Environment Management

Authors: M. Awawdeh, A. Fedi

Abstract:

The application of data mining to environmental monitoring has become crucial for a number of tasks related to emergency management. Over recent years, many tools have been developed for decision support system (DSS) for emergency management. In this article a graphical user interface (GUI) for environmental monitoring system is presented. This interface allows accomplishing (i) data collection and observation and (ii) extraction for data mining. This tool may be the basis for future development along the line of the open source software paradigm.

Keywords: Data Mining, Environmental data, Mathematical Models, Matlab Graphical User Interface.

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3996 An Approach to Task Modeling for User Interface Design

Authors: Costin Pribeanu

Abstract:

The model-based approach to user interface design relies on developing separate models capturing various aspects about users, tasks, application domain, presentation and dialog structures. This paper presents a task modeling approach for user interface design and aims at exploring mappings between task, domain and presentation models. The basic idea of our approach is to identify typical configurations in task and domain models and to investigate how they relate each other. A special emphasis is put on applicationspecific functions and mappings between domain objects and operational task structures. In this respect, we will address two layers in task decomposition: a functional (planning) layer and an operational layer.

Keywords: task modeling, user interface design, unit tasks, basic tasks, operational task model.

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3995 A Web-Based Self-Learning Grammar for Spoken Language Understanding

Authors: S. M. Biondi, V. Catania, R. Di Natale, A. R. Intilisano, D. Panno

Abstract:

One of the major goals of Spoken Dialog Systems (SDS) is to understand what the user utters. In the SDS domain, the Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) Module classifies user utterances by means of a pre-definite conceptual knowledge. The SLU module is able to recognize only the meaning previously included in its knowledge base. Due the vastity of that knowledge, the information storing is a very expensive process. Updating and managing the knowledge base are time-consuming and error-prone processes because of the rapidly growing number of entities like proper nouns and domain-specific nouns. This paper proposes a solution to the problem of Name Entity Recognition (NER) applied to a SDS domain. The proposed solution attempts to automatically recognize the meaning associated with an utterance by using the PANKOW (Pattern based Annotation through Knowledge On the Web) method at runtime. The method being proposed extracts information from the Web to increase the SLU knowledge module and reduces the development effort. In particular, the Google Search Engine is used to extract information from the Facebook social network.

Keywords: Spoken Dialog System, Spoken Language Understanding, Web Semantic, Name Entity Recognition.

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3994 Task Modeling for User Interface Design: A Layered Approach

Authors: Costin Pribeanu

Abstract:

The model-based approach to user interface design relies on developing separate models that are capturing various aspects about users, tasks, application domain, presentation and dialog representations. This paper presents a task modeling approach for user interface design and aims at exploring the mappings between task, domain and presentation models. The basic idea of our approach is to identify typical configurations in task and domain models and to investigate how they relate each other. A special emphasis is put on application-specific functions and mappings between domain objects and operational task structures. In this respect, we will distinguish between three layers in the task decomposition: a functional layer, a planning layer, and an operational layer.

Keywords: task modeling, user interface design, unit tasks, basic tasks, operational task model

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3993 Building a Hierarchical, Granular Knowledge Cube

Authors: Alexander Denzler, Marcel Wehrle, Andreas Meier

Abstract:

A knowledge base stores facts and rules about the world that applications can use for the purpose of reasoning. By applying the concept of granular computing to a knowledge base, several advantages emerge. These can be harnessed by applications to improve their capabilities and performance. In this paper, the concept behind such a construct, called a granular knowledge cube, is defined, and its intended use as an instrument that manages to cope with different data types and detect knowledge domains is elaborated. Furthermore, the underlying architecture, consisting of the three layers of the storing, representing, and structuring of knowledge, is described. Finally, benefits as well as challenges of deploying it are listed alongside application types that could profit from having such an enhanced knowledge base.

Keywords: Granular computing, granular knowledge, hierarchical structuring, knowledge bases.

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3992 An Ontology for Knowledge Representation and Applications

Authors: Nhon Do

Abstract:

Ontology is a terminology which is used in artificial intelligence with different meanings. Ontology researching has an important role in computer science and practical applications, especially distributed knowledge systems. In this paper we present an ontology which is called Computational Object Knowledge Base Ontology. It has been used in designing some knowledge base systems for solving problems such as the system that supports studying knowledge and solving analytic geometry problems, the program for studying and solving problems in Plane Geometry, the knowledge system in linear algebra.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, knowledge representation, knowledge base system, ontology.

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3991 Improved Algorithms for Construction of Interface Agent Interaction Model

Authors: Huynh Quyet Thang, Le Hai Quan

Abstract:

Interaction Model plays an important role in Modelbased Intelligent Interface Agent Architecture for developing Intelligent User Interface. In this paper we are presenting some improvements in the algorithms for development interaction model of interface agent including: the action segmentation algorithm, the action pair selection algorithm, the final action pair selection algorithm, the interaction graph construction algorithm and the probability calculation algorithm. The analysis of the algorithms also presented. At the end of this paper, we introduce an experimental program called “Personal Transfer System".

Keywords: interface agent, interaction model, user model.

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3990 Animated Versus Static User Interfaces: A Study of Mathsigner™

Authors: Scott Dyer, Nicoletta Adamo-Villani

Abstract:

In this paper we report a study aimed at determining the effects of animation on usability and appeal of educational software user interfaces. Specifically, the study compares 3 interfaces developed for the Mathsigner™ program: a static interface, an interface with highlighting/sound feedback, and an interface that incorporates five Disney animation principles. The main objectives of the comparative study were to: (1) determine which interface is the most effective for the target users of Mathsigner™ (e.g., children ages 5-11), and (2) identify any Gender and Age differences in using the three interfaces. To accomplish these goals we have designed an experiment consisting of a cognitive walkthrough and a survey with rating questions. Sixteen children ages 7-11 participated in the study, ten males and six females. Results showed no significant interface effect on user task performance (e.g., task completion time and number of errors); however, interface differences were seen in rating of appeal, with the animated interface rated more 'likeable' than the other two. Task performance and rating of appeal were not affected significantly by Gender or Age of the subjects.

Keywords: Animation, Animated interfaces, EducationalSoftware, Human Computer Interaction, Multimedia.

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3989 A New Version of Annotation Method with a XML-based Knowledge Base

Authors: Mohammad Yasrebi, Somayeh Khosravi

Abstract:

Machine-understandable data when strongly interlinked constitutes the basis for the SemanticWeb. Annotating web documents is one of the major techniques for creating metadata on the Web. Annotating websitexs defines the containing data in a form which is suitable for interpretation by machines. In this paper, we present a better and improved approach than previous [1] to annotate the texts of the websites depends on the knowledge base.

Keywords: Knowledge base, ontology, semantic annotation, XML.

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3988 Issues in the User Interface Design of a Content Rich Vocational Training Application for Digitally Illiterate Users

Authors: Jamie Otelsberg, Nagarajan Akshay, Rao R. Bhavani

Abstract:

This paper discusses our preliminary experiences in the design of a user interface of a computerized content-rich vocational training courseware meant for users with little or no computer experience. In targeting a growing population with limited access to skills training of any sort, we faced numerous challenges, including language and cultural differences, resource limits, gender boundaries and, in many cases, the simple lack of trainee motivation. With the size of the unskilled population increasing much more rapidly than the numbers of sufficiently skilled teachers, there is little choice but to develop teaching techniques that will take advantage of emerging computer-based training technologies. However, in striving to serve populations with minimal computer literacy, one must carefully design the user interface to accommodate their cultural, social, educational, motivational and other differences. Our work, which uses computer based and haptic simulation technologies to deliver training to these populations, has provided some useful insights on potential user interface design approaches.

Keywords: User interface design, digitally illiterate, vocational training, navigation issues, computer human interaction, human factors.

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3987 Development of User Interface for Path Planning System for Bus Network and On-demand Bus Reservation System

Authors: Seiichi Tamagawa, Takao Kawamura, Toshihiko Sasama, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Route bus system is one of fundamental transportation device for aged people and students, and has an important role in every province. However, passengers decrease year by year, therefore the authors have developed the system called "Bus-Net" as a web application to sustain the public transport. But there are two problems in Bus-Net. One is the user interface that does not consider the variety of the device, and the other is the path planning system that dose not correspond to the on-demand bus. Then, Bus-Net was improved to be able to utilize the variety of the device, and a new function corresponding to the on-demand bus was developed.

Keywords: Route Bus, Path Planning System, User Interface, Ondemandbus, Reservation system.

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3986 ConductHome: Gesture Interface Control of Home Automation Boxes

Authors: J. Branstett, V. Gagneux, A. Leleu, B. Levadoux, J. Pascale

Abstract:

This paper presents the interface ConductHome which controls home automation systems with a Leap Motion using “invariant gesture protocols”. This interface is meant to simplify the interaction of the user with its environment. A hardware part allows the Leap Motion to be carried around the house. A software part interacts with the home automation box and displays the useful information for the user. An objective of this work is the development of a natural/invariant/simple gesture control interface to help elder people/people with disabilities.

Keywords: Automation, ergonomics, gesture recognition, interoperability, leap motion, invariant.

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3985 Multivalued Knowledge-Base based on Multivalued Datalog

Authors: Agnes Achs

Abstract:

The basic aim of our study is to give a possible model for handling uncertain information. This model is worked out in the framework of DATALOG. The concept of multivalued knowledgebase will be defined as a quadruple of any background knowledge; a deduction mechanism; a connecting algorithm, and a function set of the program, which help us to determine the uncertainty levels of the results. At first the concept of fuzzy Datalog will be summarized, then its extensions for intuitionistic- and interval-valued fuzzy logic is given and the concept of bipolar fuzzy Datalog is introduced. Based on these extensions the concept of multivalued knowledge-base will be defined. This knowledge-base can be a possible background of a future agent-model.

Keywords: Fuzzy-, intuitionistic-, bipolar datalog, multivalued knowledge-base

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3984 On the Parameter Optimization of Fuzzy Inference Systems

Authors: Erika Martinez Ramirez, Rene V. Mayorga

Abstract:

Nowadays, more engineering systems are using some kind of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for the development of their processes. Some well-known AI techniques include artificial neural nets, fuzzy inference systems, and neuro-fuzzy inference systems among others. Furthermore, many decision-making applications base their intelligent processes on Fuzzy Logic; due to the Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) capability to deal with problems that are based on user knowledge and experience. Also, knowing that users have a wide variety of distinctiveness, and generally, provide uncertain data, this information can be used and properly processed by a FIS. To properly consider uncertainty and inexact system input values, FIS normally use Membership Functions (MF) that represent a degree of user satisfaction on certain conditions and/or constraints. In order to define the parameters of the MFs, the knowledge from experts in the field is very important. This knowledge defines the MF shape to process the user inputs and through fuzzy reasoning and inference mechanisms, the FIS can provide an “appropriate" output. However an important issue immediately arises: How can it be assured that the obtained output is the optimum solution? How can it be guaranteed that each MF has an optimum shape? A viable solution to these questions is through the MFs parameter optimization. In this Paper a novel parameter optimization process is presented. The process for FIS parameter optimization consists of the five simple steps that can be easily realized off-line. Here the proposed process of FIS parameter optimization it is demonstrated by its implementation on an Intelligent Interface section dealing with the on-line customization / personalization of internet portals applied to E-commerce.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy InferenceSystems, Nonlinear Optimization.

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3983 From Modeling of Data Structures towards Automatic Programs Generating

Authors: Valentin P. Velikov

Abstract:

Automatic program generation saves time, human resources, and allows receiving syntactically clear and logically correct modules. The 4-th generation programming languages are related to drawing the data and the processes of the subject area, as well as, to obtain a frame of the respective information system. The application can be separated in interface and business logic. That means, for an interactive generation of the needed system to be used an already existing toolkit or to be created a new one.

Keywords: Computer science, graphical user interface, user dialog interface, dialog frames, data modeling, subject area modeling.

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3982 Audio User Interface for Visually Impaired Computer Users: in a Two Dimensional Audio Environment

Authors: Ravihansa Rajapakse, Malshika Dias, Kanishka Weerasekara, Anuja Dharmaratne, Prasad Wimalaratne

Abstract:

In this paper we discuss a set of guidelines which could be adapted when designing an audio user interface for the visually impaired. It is based on an audio environment that is focused on audio positioning. Unlike current applications which only interpret Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the visually impaired, this particular audio environment bypasses GUI to provide a direct auditory output. It presents the capability of two dimensional (2D) navigation on audio interfaces. This paper highlights the significance of a 2D audio environment with spatial information in the context of the visually impaired. A thorough usability study has been conducted to prove the applicability of proposed design guidelines for these auditory interfaces. While proving these guidelines, previously unearthed design aspects have been revealed in this study.

Keywords: Human Computer Interaction, Audio User Interfaces, 2D Audio Environment, Visually Impaired Users

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3981 Ubiquitous Life People Informatics Engine (U-Life PIE): Wearable Health Promotion System

Authors: Yi-Ping Lo, Shi-Yao Wei, Chih-Chun Ma

Abstract:

Since Google launched Google Glass in 2012, numbers of commercial wearable devices were released, such as smart belt, smart band, smart shoes, smart clothes ... etc. However, most of these devices perform as sensors to show the readings of measurements and few of them provide the interactive feedback to the user. Furthermore, these devices are single task devices which are not able to communicate with each other. In this paper a new health promotion system, Ubiquitous Life People Informatics Engine (U-Life PIE), will be presented. This engine consists of People Informatics Engine (PIE) and the interactive user interface. PIE collects all the data from the compatible devices, analyzes this data comprehensively and communicates between devices via various application programming interfaces. All the data and informations are stored on the PIE unit, therefore, the user is able to view the instant and historical data on their mobile devices any time. It also provides the real-time hands-free feedback and instructions through the user interface visually, acoustically and tactilely. These feedback and instructions suggest the user to adjust their posture or habits in order to avoid the physical injuries and prevent illness.

Keywords: Machine learning, user interface, user experience, Internet of things, health promotion.

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3980 Knowledge Representation and Retrieval in Design Project Memory

Authors: Smain M. Bekhti, Nada T. Matta

Abstract:

Knowledge sharing in general and the contextual access to knowledge in particular, still represent a key challenge in the knowledge management framework. Researchers on semantic web and human machine interface study techniques to enhance this access. For instance, in semantic web, the information retrieval is based on domain ontology. In human machine interface, keeping track of user's activity provides some elements of the context that can guide the access to information. We suggest an approach based on these two key guidelines, whilst avoiding some of their weaknesses. The approach permits a representation of both the context and the design rationale of a project for an efficient access to knowledge. In fact, the method consists of an information retrieval environment that, in the one hand, can infer knowledge, modeled as a semantic network, and on the other hand, is based on the context and the objectives of a specific activity (the design). The environment we defined can also be used to gather similar project elements in order to build classifications of tasks, problems, arguments, etc. produced in a company. These classifications can show the evolution of design strategies in the company.

Keywords: Project Memory, Knowledge re-use, Design rationale, Knowledge representation.

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3979 Performance Analysis of Energy-Efficient Home Femto Base Stations

Authors: Yun Won Chung

Abstract:

The energy consumption of home femto base stations (BSs) can be reduced, by turning off the Wi-Fi radio interface when there is no mobile station (MS) under the coverage of the BSs or MSs do not transmit or receive data packet for long time, especially in late night. In the energy-efficient home femto BSs, if MSs have any data packet to transmit and the Wi-Fi radio interface in off state, MSs wake up the Wi-Fi radio interface of home femto BSs by using additional low power radio interface. In this paper, the performance of the energy-efficient home femto BSs from the aspect of energy consumption and cumulative average delay, and show the effect of various parameters on energy consumption and cumulative average delay. From the results, the tradeoff relationship between energy consumption and cumulative average delay is shown and thus, appropriate operation should be needed to balance the tradeoff.

Keywords: energy consumption, power saving, femto base station.

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