Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 407

Search results for: illness perception

407 Self-Care Behavior and Performance Level Associated with Algerian Chronically Ill Patients

Authors: S. Aberkane, N. Djabali, S. Fafi, A. Baghezza

Abstract:

Chronic illnesses affect many Algerians. It is possible to investigate the impact of illness representations and coping on quality of life and whether illness representations are indirectly associated with quality of life through their influence on coping. This study aims at investigating the relationship between illness perception, coping strategies and quality of life with chronic illness. Illness perceptions are indirectly associated with the quality of life through their influence on coping mediation. A sample of 316 participants with chronic illness living in the region of Batna, Algeria, has been adopted in this study. A correlation statistical analysis is used to determine the relationship between illness perception, coping strategies, and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis was employed to highlight the predictive ability of the dimensions of illness perception and coping strategies on the dependent variables of quality of life, where mediation analysis is considered in the exploration of the indirect effect significance of the mediator. This study provides insights about the relationship between illness perception, coping strategies and quality of life in the considered sample (r = 0.39, p < 0.01). Therefore, it proves that there is an effect of illness identity perception, external and medical attributions related to emotional role, physical functioning, and mental health perceived, and these were fully mediated by the asking for assistance (c’= 0.04, p < 0.05), the guarding (c’= 0.00, p < 0.05), and the task persistence strategy (c’= 0.05, p < 0.05). The findings imply partial support for the common-sense model of illness representations in a chronic illness population. Directions for future research are highlighted, as well as implications for psychotherapeutic interventions which target unhelpful beliefs and maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy).

Keywords: Chronic illness, coping, illness perception, quality of life, self-regulation model.

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406 Consumption Insurance against the Chronic Illness: Evidence from Thailand

Authors: Yuthapoom Thanakijborisut

Abstract:

This paper studies consumption insurance against the chronic illness in Thailand. The study estimates the impact of household consumption in the chronic illness on consumption growth. Chronic illness is the health care costs of a person or a household’s decision in treatment for the long term; the causes and effects of the household’s ability for smooth consumption. The chronic illnesses are measured in health status when at least one member within the household faces the chronic illness. The data used is from the Household Social Economic Panel Survey conducted during 2007 and 2012. The survey collected data from approximately 6,000 households from every province, both inside and outside municipal areas in Thailand. The study estimates the change in household consumption by using an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model. The result shows that the members within the household facing the chronic illness would reduce the consumption by around 4%. This case indicates that consumption insurance in Thailand is quite sufficient against chronic illness.

Keywords: Consumption insurance, chronic illness, health care, Thailand.

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405 ME/CFS Health Outcomes: The Interaction of Mode of Illness Onset and Psychiatric Comorbidity

Authors: Mary Gloria C. Njoku, Leonard A. Jason, Nicole Porter, Molly Brown

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between mode of illness onset and psychiatric comorbidity on the health outcomes of persons with ME/CFS. A total of 114 individuals with ME/CFS participated in this study. Individuals completed a battery of baseline measures including the fatigue severity scale and measures of disability. Findings indicated that those with sudden illness onset had more impaired physical health functioning. In addition, among individuals with sudden onset, those without psychiatric comorbidity had greater fatigue severity and lower overall physical health than those with psychiatric comordibity. In contrast, among individuals with gradual illness onset, those with psychiatric comorbity had higher fatigue severity than those without comorbid psychiatric disorders. The health outcomes of individuals who have ME/CFS with or without psychiatric comorbidity are impacted by the mode of illness onset and this suggest that it is important to examine these factors in future research.

Keywords: Health Outcomes, ME/CFS, Mode of Illness Onset, Psychiatric Comorbidity.

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404 The Stigma of Mental Illness and the Way of Destigmatization: The Effects of Interactivity and Self-Construal

Authors: Doori Song, Hyun-Ji Lim, Yoo Jin Chung

Abstract:

Some believe that stigma is the worst side effect of the people who have mental illness. Mental illness researchers have focused on the influence of mass media on the stigmatization of the people with mental illness. However, no studies have investigated the effects of the interactive media, such as blogs, on the stigmatization of mentally ill people, even though the media have a significant influence on people in all areas of life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of interactivity in destigmatization of the mentally ill and the moderating effect of self-construal (independent versus interdependent self-construal) on the relation between interactivity and destigmatization. The findings suggested that people in the human-human interaction condition had less social distance toward people with mental illness. Additionally, participants with higher independence showed more favorable affection and less social distance toward mentally ill people. Finally, direct contact with mentally ill people increased a person-s positive affect toward people with mental illness. The current study should provide insights for mental health practitioners by suggesting how they can use interactive media to approach the public that stigmatizes the mentally ill.

Keywords: Mental health, destigmatization, interactivity, selfconstrual

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403 Eradication of Mental Illness through Buddhism

Authors: Deshar Bashu Dev

Abstract:

In this modern age, most people in developed and developing countries are affected by mental illness. There are many mental illnesses, and their differing symptoms impact peoples’ lives in different ways. These illnesses affect the way people think and feel, as well as how they behave with others. Mental illness results from compound interactions between the mind, body, and environment. New technologies and sciences make the world a better place. These technologies are becoming smarter and are being developed every day to help make daily life easier However, people suffer from mental illness in every part of the world. The philosophy propounded by the Buddha, Buddhism, teaches that all life is connected, from the microcosm to macrocosm. In the 2,500 years that elapsed since the death of the Buddha, his disciples have spread his teachings and developed sophisticated psycho-therapeutic methodologies. We can find many examples in Buddhist texts and in the modern age where Buddhist philosophy modern science could not solve. The Noble Eightfold Path, which is one of the main philosophies of Buddhism; it eradicates hatred and ill will and cultivates good deeds, kindness, and compassion. Buddhism, as a practice of dialectic conversation and mindfulness training, is full of rich therapeutic tools that the mental health community has adopted to help people. Similarly, Buddhist meditation is very necessary; it purifies thoughts and avoids unnecessary thinking. This research aims to study different causes of mental illness; analyzes the different approaches to eradicate mental illness problems and provides conclusions and recommendations present solutions through Buddhism in this modern age.

Keywords: Mental illness, Buddhism, mindfulness, Buddhist practices.

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402 A Study of Relationship between Mountaineering Participation Motivation and Risk Perception

Authors: Yen-Chieh Wen, Ching-Hui Lin

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to analyze climbers involved in motivation and risk perception and analysis of the predictive ability of the risk perception "mountaineering" involved in motivation. This study used questionnaires, to have to climb the 3000m high mountain in Taiwan climbers object to carry out an investigation in order to non-random sampling, a total of 231 valid questionnaires were. After statistical analysis, the study found that: 1. Climbers the highest climbers involved in motivation "to enjoy the natural beauty of the fun. 2 climbers for climbers "risk perception" the highest: the natural environment of risk. 3. Climbers “seeking adventure stimulate", “competence achievement" motivation highly predictive of risk perception. Based on these findings, this study not only practices the recommendations of the outdoor leisure industry, and also related research proposals for future researchers.

Keywords: Mountaineering, motivation, risk perception, decision-making.

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401 Fuzzy Inference Based Modelling of Perception Reaction Time of Drivers

Authors: U. Chattaraj, K. Dhusiya, M. Raviteja

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Perception reaction time of drivers is an outcome of human thought process, which is vague and approximate in nature and also varies from driver to driver. So, in this study a fuzzy logic based model for prediction of the same has been presented, which seems suitable. The control factors, like, age, experience, intensity of driving of the driver, speed of the vehicle and distance of stimulus have been considered as premise variables in the model, in which the perception reaction time is the consequence variable. Results show that the model is able to explain the impacts of the control factors on perception reaction time properly.

Keywords: Driver, fuzzy logic, perception reaction time, premise variable.

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400 The Influence of Mobile Phone's Forms in the User Perception

Authors: The Jaya Suteja, Stephany Tedjohartoko

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Not all types of mobile phone are successful in entering the market because some types of the mobile phone have a negative perception of user. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of mobile phone's characteristics in the local user perception. This research investigates the influence of QWERTY mobile phone's forms in the perception of Indonesian user. First, some alternatives of mobile phone-s form are developed based on a certain number of mobile phone's models. At the second stage, some word pairs as design attributes of the mobile phone are chosen to represent the user perception of mobile phone. At the final stage, a survey is conducted to investigate the influence of the developed form alternatives to the user perception. Based on the research, users perceive mobile phone's form with curved top and straight bottom shapes and mobile phone's form with slider and antenna as the most negative form. Meanwhile, mobile phone's form with curved top and bottom shapes and mobile phone-s form without slider and antenna are perceived by the user as the most positive form.

Keywords: Influence, mobile phone, form, user perception.

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399 A Structural Equation Model of Risk Perception of Rockfall for Revisit Intention

Authors: Ya-Fen Lee, Yun-Yao Chi

Abstract:

The study aims to explore the relationship between risk perception of rockfall and revisit intention using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. A total of 573 valid questionnaires are collected from travelers to Taroko National Park, Taiwan. The findings show the majority of travelers have the medium perception of rockfall risk, and are willing to revisit the Taroko National Park. The revisit intention to Taroko National Park is influenced by hazardous preferences, willingness-to-pay, obstruction and attraction. The risk perception has an indirect effect on revisit intention through influencing willingness-to-pay. The study results can be a reference for mitigation the rockfall disaster.

Keywords: Risk perception, rockfall, revisit intention, structural equation modeling.

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398 Mental Illness Stigma and Causal Beliefs: Among Potential Mental Health Professionals

Authors: Josephine S. Larkings, Patricia M. Brown

Abstract:

Mental health professionals views about mental illness is an important issue which has not received enough attention. The negative stigma associated with mental illness can have many negative consequences. Unfortunately, health professionals working with the mentally ill can also exhibit stigma. It has been suggested that causal explanations or beliefs around the causes of mental illness may influence stigma. This study aims to gain a greater insight into stigma through examining stigma among potential mental health professionals. Firstly, results found that potential mental health professionals had relatively low social distance t(205) = -3.62, p <.001. Secondly, an ANOVA indicated that the participants endorsed some causal beliefs more than others, F(1.82, 311.55) = 88.47, p < .001, partial n2 = .34. Moreover, participants endorsed the biological causal explanation the most. Thirdly, results indicated that combined contact (quality and quantity) and causal beliefs (biological, psychological, and environmental) explained a significant proportion of the variance in stigma, R2 = .35, adjusted R2 = .33, F(5, 153) = 16.66, p < .001. Quality of contact was the strongest predictor, with greater quality of contact associated with lower desired social distance. Also, quantity of contact, psychological and environmental causal explanations were also significant predictors of stigma. Greater quantity of contact and higher levels of environmental causal beliefs were associated with lower levels of stigma while psychological causal explanations were associated with higher levels of stigma. A series of multiple regression analyses were conducted that showed the three causal beliefs had different impacts on four factors of stigma (Authoritarian, Benevolence, Social restrictiveness, and Community mental health ideology). These analyses showed that psychological causal beliefs had the most positive impact. More research is required on this topic as it has important implications to the treatment and recovery for people suffering from mental illness.

Keywords: Causal beliefs, contact, health professionals, mental illness stigma, social distance.

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397 Perception and Implementation of Machine Translation Applications by the Iranian English Translators

Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to provide a relatively comprehensive preview of the Iranian English translators’ perception on Machine Translation. Furthermore, the study tries to shed light on the status of implementation of Machine Translation among the Iranian English Translators. To reach the aforementioned objectives, the Localization Industry Standards Association’s questioner for measuring perceptions with regard to the adoption of a technology innovation was adapted and used to investigate the perception and implementation of Machine Translation applications by the Iranian English language translators. The participants of the study were 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Machine Translation, as well as a positive perception of and attitude toward Machine Translation by the Iranian English translators.

Keywords: Translation Technology, Machine Translation, Perception and Implementation.

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396 Circadian Clock and Subjective Time Perception: A Simple Open Source Application for the Analysis of Induced Time Perception in Humans

Authors: Agata M. Kołodziejczyk, Mateusz Harasymczuk, Pierre-Yves Girardin, Lucie Davidová

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Subjective time perception implies connection to cognitive functions, attention, memory and awareness, but a little is known about connections with homeostatic states of the body coordinated by circadian clock. In this paper, we present results from experimental study of subjective time perception in volunteers performing physical activity on treadmill in various phases of their circadian rhythms. Subjects were exposed to several time illusions simulated by programmed timing systems. This study brings better understanding for further improvement of of work quality in isolated areas. 

Keywords: Biological clock, light, time illusions, treadmill.

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395 The Effect of Prior Characteristic on Perceived Prosocial Content in Media

Authors: Pawit Monkolprasit, Proud Arunrangsiwed

Abstract:

It was important to understand the impact of media in young adolescents. The animated film, Khun Tong Dang the Inspirations (2015), was purposefully created for teaching young children to have a positive personal trait. The current study used this film as the case study. The objective is to understand the relationship between the good characteristic of movie audiences and their perception of the good characteristic of a movie character. One-hundred students from various age ranges responded to quantitative questionnaires. The questions included their age, gender, perception about their own personal traits, perception about their experiences with others, and perception about the bravery, intelligence, and gratefulness of the character. It was found that a good personal trait has a strong relationship with the perception of bravery, intelligence, and gratefulness of the character.

Keywords: Impact of media, children, personal trait, prosocial content.

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394 Artificial Visual Percepts for Image Understanding

Authors: Jeewanee Bamunusinghe, Damminda Alahakoon

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Visual inputs are one of the key sources from which humans perceive the environment and 'understand' what is happening. Artificial systems perceive the visual inputs as digital images. The images need to be processed and analysed. Within the human brain, processing of visual inputs and subsequent development of perception is one of its major functionalities. In this paper we present part of our research project, which aims at the development of an artificial model for visual perception (or 'understanding') based on the human perceptive and cognitive systems. We propose a new model for perception from visual inputs and a way of understaning or interpreting images using the model. We demonstrate the implementation and use of the model with a real image data set.

Keywords: Image understanding, percept, visual perception.

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393 Gender Differences in the Perception of Advertising in Postmodern Era

Authors: J. Zavodny Pospisil, L. S. Zavodna, K. Cerna

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The goal of this paper is to identify the main differences in the way men and women perceive TV ads. This paper is based on a research project conducted partly as a review of relevant papers, which deals with gender influence on the cognitive process and postmodern perception of advertising. In addition to that, qualitative research was conducted by means of interviews and structured questionnaires. Furthermore, data acquired from the research were used to evaluate our objectives and hypotheses. The goal of this paper is to compare women's and men's perception of advertisement. Although women are able to perceive more details than men, men are more susceptible to sexual appeals in advertising. Significant differences were also found in the perception of sexual appeals in the context of gender.

Keywords: Advertising, consumer, emotion, gender, psychology of advertising.

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392 An Empirical Study of the Expectation- Perception Gap of I.S. Development

Authors: Linda, Sau-ling Lai

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This paper adopts a notion of expectation-perception gap of systems users as information systems (IS) failure. Problems leading to the expectation-perception gap are identified and modelled as five interrelated discrepancies or gaps throughout the process of information systems development (ISD). It describes an empirical study on how systems developers and users perceive the size of each gap and the extent to which each problematic issue contributes to the gap. The key to achieving success in ISD is to keep the expectationperception gap closed by closing all 5 pertaining gaps. The gap model suggests that most factors in IS failure are related to organizational, cognitive and social aspects of information systems design. Organization requirement analysis, being the weakest link of IS development, is particularly worthy of investigation.

Keywords: Information Systems Development, Expectation- Perception Gap, Gap Analysis, Organization Analysis.

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391 A Bionic Approach to Dynamic, Multimodal Scene Perception and Interpretation in Buildings

Authors: Rosemarie Velik, Dietmar Bruckner

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Today, building automation is advancing from simple monitoring and control tasks of lightning and heating towards more and more complex applications that require a dynamic perception and interpretation of different scenes occurring in a building. Current approaches cannot handle these newly upcoming demands. In this article, a bionically inspired approach for multimodal, dynamic scene perception and interpretation is presented, which is based on neuroscientific and neuro-psychological research findings about the perceptual system of the human brain. This approach bases on data from diverse sensory modalities being processed in a so-called neuro-symbolic network. With its parallel structure and with its basic elements being information processing and storing units at the same time, a very efficient method for scene perception is provided overcoming the problems and bottlenecks of classical dynamic scene interpretation systems.

Keywords: building automation, biomimetrics, dynamic scene interpretation, human-like perception, neuro-symbolic networks.

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390 Top-Down Influences to Multistable Perception: Evidence from Temporal Dynamics

Authors: Daria N. Podvigina, Tatiana V. Chernigovskaya

Abstract:

We have studied the temporal characteristics of bistable perception of the stimuli of two types: one involves alterations in a perceived depth and another one has an ambiguous content. We used the Necker lattice and lines of shadowed circles ambiguously perceived either as spheres or holes as stimuli of the first type. The Winson figure (the Eskimo/Indian picture) was a stimulus of the second type. We have analyzed how often the reversals occurred (reversal rate) and for how long each of the two interpretations, or percepts, was observed during one presentation (stability durations). For all three ambiguous images the reversal rate and the stability durations had similar values, which provide another evidence for a significant role of top-down processes in multistable perception.

Keywords: Multistable perception, perceived depth, reversal rate, top-down processes.

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389 Beef Cattle Farmers Perception toward Urea Mineral Molasses Block

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Tanrigiling Rasyid, Aslina Asnawi, Ikrar Muhammad Saleh, Ilham Rasyid

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Urea Mineral Molasses Block is very important for beef cattle, because it can increase beef production. The purpose of this research was to know beef cattle farmers’ perception towards Urea Mineral Molasses Block (UMMB). This research was conducted in Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2016. The population of this research were all beef cattle farmers. Sample was chosen through purposive sampling. Data were collected through observation and face to face with deep interview using questionnaire. Variables of perception consisted of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability and triability. There were 10 questions. The answer for each question was scored by 1, 2, 3 which refer to disagree, agree enough, strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively using frequency distribution. The research revealed that beef cattle farmers’ perception towards UMMB was categorized as strongly agree.

Keywords: Beef cattle, farmers, perception, urea mineral molasses block.

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388 Perception of Farmers and Agricultural Professionals on Changes in Productivity and Water Resources in Ethiopia

Authors: D. Mojo, Y. Todo, P. Matous

Abstract:

In this paper, perceptions of actors on changes in crop productivity, quantity and quality of water, and determinants of their perception are analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered logit model. Data collected from 297 Ethiopian farmers and 103 agricultural professionals from December 2009 to January 2010 are employed. Results show that the majority of the farmers and professionals recognized decline in water resources, reasoning climate changes and soil erosion as some of the causes. However, there is a variation in views on changes in productivity. The household asset, education level, age and geographical positions are found to affect farmers- perception on changes in crop productivity. But, the study underlines that there is no evidence that farmers- economic status, age, or education level affects recognition of degradation of water resources. Thus, more focus shall be given on providing them different coping mechanisms and alternative resource conserving technologies than educating about the problems.

Keywords: Agricultural Sustainability, Ethiopia, Perception, Productivity, Water Resources

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387 Ethics Perception of Pharmaceutical Companies

Authors: Blandina Šramová, Gabriela Kučeráková

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The paper is intended to declare and apply ethics, i. e. moral principles, rules in marketing environment. Ethical behavior of selected pharmaceutical companies in the Slovak Republic is the object of our research. The aim of our research is to determine perception of ethical behavior of the pharmaceutical industry in Slovakia by the medicine representatives in comparison with the assessment of doctors and patients. The experimental sample included 90 participants who were divided into three groups: medicine representatives of the pharmaceutical companies (N=30), doctors (N=30) and patients (N=30). The research method was a Questionnaire of ethical behavior, created by us, that describes individual areas included in the Code of ethics of the pharmaceutical industry in Slovakia. The results showed influence of professional status on ethical behavior perception, not gender. Higher perception was indicated at patients rather than doctors and medicine representatives.

Keywords: Ethics, corporate social responsibility, marketing, pharmaceutical industry.

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386 Food Quality Labels and their Perception by Consumers in the Czech Republic

Authors: Sarka Velcovska

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The paper deals with quality labels used in the food products market, especially with labels of quality, labels of origin, and labels of organic farming. The aim of the paper is to identify perception of these labels by consumers in the Czech Republic. The first part refers to the definition and specification of food quality labels that are relevant in the Czech Republic. The second part includes the discussion of marketing research results. Data were collected with personal questioning method. Empirical findings on 150 respondents are related to consumer awareness and perception of national and European food quality labels used in the Czech Republic, attitudes to purchases of labelled products, and interest in information regarding the labels. Statistical methods, in the concrete Pearson´s chi-square test of independence, coefficient of contingency, and coefficient of association are used to determinate if significant differences do exist among selected demographic categories of Czech consumers.

Keywords: Food quality labels, quality labels awareness, quality labels perception, marketing research.

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385 Perception of the Frequency and Importance of Peer Social Support by Students with Special Educational Needs in Inclusive Education

Authors: Lucia Hrebeňárová, Jarmila Žolnová, Veronika Palková

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Inclusive education of students with special educational needs has been on the increase in the Slovak Republic, facing many challenges. Preparedness of teachers for inclusive education is one of the most frequent issues; teachers lack skills when it comes to the use of effective instruction depending on the individual needs of students, improvement of classroom management and social skills, and support of inclusion within the classroom. Social support is crucial for the school success of students within inclusive settings. The aim of the paper is to analyse perception of the frequency and importance of peer social support by students with special educational needs in inclusive education. The data collection tool used was the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS). The research sample consisted of 953 fourth grade students – 141 students with special educational needs educated in an inclusive setting and 812 students of the standard population. No significant differences were found between the students with special educational needs and the students without special educational needs in an inclusive setting when it comes to the perception of frequency and importance of social support of schoolmates and friends. However, the perception of frequency and importance of a friend’s social support was higher than the perception of frequency and importance of a classmate’s social support in both groups of students.

Keywords: Inclusive education, peer social support, peer, student with special educational needs.

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384 A Study of Visitors, on Destination Image, Environmental Perception, Travel Experiences and Revisiting Willingness in Xinshe Leisure Agriculture Park

Authors: Chu-Chu, Liao

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of leisure agriculture park visitors on tourist destination image, environmental perception, travel experiences and revisiting willingness. This study used questionnaires to Xinshe leisure agriculture park visitors- targeted convenience sampling manner total of 636 valid questionnaires. Valid questionnaires by descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis, the study found that: 1. The agricultural park visitors- correlations exist between the destination image, perception of the environment, tourism experience and revisiting willingness. 2."Excellent facilities and services", "space atmosphere comfortable" and "the spacious paternity outdoor space" imagery, of visitors- "revisiting willingness predict. 3. Visitors- in leisure agriculture park "environmental perception" and "travel experience, future revisiting willingness predict. According to the analysis of the results, the study not only operate on the recommendations of the leisure farm owners also provide follow-up study direction for future researchers.

Keywords: Leisure farms, image, travel experience, revisiting willingness, environmental perception.

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383 Expatriation Success: Different Perceptions

Authors: Graziele Zwielewski, Suzana R. Tolfo

Abstract:

The globalization of markets, the need to develop competitive advantages and core competencies, among other things, lead organizations to increasingly cross borders to operate in other countries. The expatriation of professionals who go to work in another country besides their own becomes increasingly common. In order to generate data about this issue, research was conducted concerning the perception of expatriate employees concerning expatriation success. The research method used was case study through a qualitative approach. This research was done through interviews with five India expatriates and five China expatriates, interview with expatriate department heads and analysis of company documents. It was found that there are differences between the organizational perception and perception of expatriates of what constitutes mission success. The paper also provides suggestions for further research and suggestions for future expatriates.

Keywords: Expatriation success, International assignments, Success factors, Success for expatriates.

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382 Cartoon Effect and Ambient Illumination Based Depth Perception Assessment of 3D Video

Authors: G. Nur

Abstract:

Monitored 3-Dimensional (3D) video experience can be utilized as “feedback information” to fine tune the service parameters for providing a better service to the demanding 3D service customers. The 3D video experience which includes both video quality and depth perception is influenced by several contextual and content related factors (e.g., ambient illumination condition, content characteristics, etc) due to the complex nature of the 3D video. Therefore, effective factors on this experience should be utilized while assessing it. In this paper, structural information of the depth map sequences of the 3D video is considered as content related factor effective on the depth perception assessment. Cartoon-like filter is utilized to abstract the significant depth levels in the depth map sequences to determine the structural information. Moreover, subjective experiments are conducted using 3D videos associated with cartoon-like depth map sequences to investigate the effectiveness of ambient illumination condition, which is a contextual factor, on depth perception. Using the knowledge gained through this study, 3D video experience metrics can be developed to deliver better service to the 3D video service users. 

Keywords: 3D Video, Ambient Illumination, Cartoon Effect, Depth Perception.

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381 National Image in the Age of Mass Self-Communication: An Analysis of Internet Users' Perception of Portugal

Authors: L. Godinho, N. Teixeira

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Nowadays, massification of Internet access represents one of the major challenges to the traditional powers of the State, among which the power to control its external image. The virtual world has also sparked the interest of social sciences which consider it a new field of study, an immense open text where sense is expressed. In this paper, that immense text has been accessed to so as to understand the perception Internet users from all over the world have of Portugal. Ours is a quantitative and qualitative approach, as we have resorted to buzz, thematic and category analysis. The results confirm the predominance of sea stereotype in others' vision of the Portuguese people, and evidence that national image has adapted to network communication through processes of individuation and paganization.

Keywords: Internet, national image, perception, web analytics.

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380 Relationship between Criminal Behavior and Mental Illness in Teenagers

Authors: A. Chirita, L. Alexandru, D. Marcoci, C. Ene-Draghici

Abstract:

Minor law breaking seems more and more to be a part of adolescence behavior. An important risk factor which seems to influence delinquency appears to be the socio-economic one. According to Romanian statistics, during the first six months of 2012, 1,378 minors have committed various crimes, the most common being theft, sexual offenses and violent assaults. Drug-related offenses did not reach the gravity of those from high income countries of the European Union, but have a continuous upward during the last years. The aim of our research was to examine whether delinquency in adolescence is correlated to mental disorders or socio-economic and familial factors. Forensic psychiatric expertise was performed to 79 adolescents who committed offenses between 01 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. Teenagers, with ages between 12 and 17, were examined by day hospitalization in the University Clinic of Psychiatry Craiova.

Keywords: Adolescents, criminal behavior, mental illness.

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379 Family Carers' Experiences in Striving for Medical Care and Finding Their Solutions for Family Members with Mental Illnesses

Authors: Yu-Yu Wang, Shih-Hua Hsieh, Ru-Shian Hsieh

Abstract:

Wishes and choices being respected, and the right to be supported rather than coerced, have been internationally recognized as the human rights of persons with mental illness. In Taiwan, ‘coerced hospitalization’ has become difficult since the revision of the mental health legislation in 2007. Despite trend towards human rights, the real problem families face when their family members are in mental health crisis is the lack of alternative services. This study aims to explore: 1) When is hospitalization seen as the only solution by family members? 2) What are the barriers for arranging hospitalization, and how are they managed? 3) What have family carers learned, in their experiences of caring for their family members with mental illness? To answer these questions, qualitative approach was adopted, and focus group interviews were taken to collect data. This study includes 24 family carers. The main findings of this research include: First, hospital is the last resort for carers in helplessness. Family carers tend to do everything they could to provide care at home for their family members with mental illness. Carers seek hospitalization only when a patient’s behavior is too violent, weird, and/or abnormal, and beyond their ability to manage. Hospitalization, nevertheless, is never an easy choice. Obstacles emanate from the attitudes of the medical doctors, the restricted areas of ambulance service, and insufficient information from the carers’ part. On the other hand, with some professionals’ proactive assistance, access to medical care while in crisis becomes possible. Some family carers obtained help from the medical doctor, nurse, therapist and social workers. Some experienced good help from policemen, taxi drivers, and security guards at the hospital. The difficulty in accessing medical care prompts carers to work harder on assisting their family members with mental illness to stay in stable states. Carers found different ways of helping the ‘person’ to get along with the ‘illness’ and have better quality of life. Taking back ‘the right to control’ in utilizing medication, from passiveness to negotiating with medical doctors and seeking alternative therapies, are seen in many carers’ efforts. Besides, trying to maintain regular activities in daily life and play normal family roles are also experienced as important. Furthermore, talking with the patient as a person is also important. The authors conclude that in order to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness, it is crucial to make the medical care system more flexible and to make the services more humane: sufficient information should be provided and communicated, and efforts should be made to maintain the person’s social roles and to support the family.

Keywords: Family carers, coercive treatment, independent living, mental health crisis, persons with mental illness.

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378 Tourist’s Perception toward Implementation of Eco-Friendly Cleansers at Campsites in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand

Authors: T. Utarasakul

Abstract:

Khao Yai National Park is the First National Park in Thailand and approximately 800,000 tourists visited Khao Yai yearly. This study aimed to identify the perception of tourists in Khao Yai National Park according to the implementation of eco-friendly cleansers along their leisure in the campsites. Due to tourist’s activities in the park were affected on quality of environment; especially on water resource. Therefore, eco-friendly cleansers were used in campsites for tourists and restaurants during high tourist season. The results indicated positive effects of environmental friendly cleansers on water quality in Lam Ta Khong River, as well as the tourist’s perception on eco-friendly cleansers.

Keywords: Eco-friendly cleansers, Campsite, Khao Yai National Park.

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