Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32119
The Stigma of Mental Illness and the Way of Destigmatization: The Effects of Interactivity and Self-Construal

Authors: Doori Song, Hyun-Ji Lim, Yoo Jin Chung


Some believe that stigma is the worst side effect of the people who have mental illness. Mental illness researchers have focused on the influence of mass media on the stigmatization of the people with mental illness. However, no studies have investigated the effects of the interactive media, such as blogs, on the stigmatization of mentally ill people, even though the media have a significant influence on people in all areas of life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of interactivity in destigmatization of the mentally ill and the moderating effect of self-construal (independent versus interdependent self-construal) on the relation between interactivity and destigmatization. The findings suggested that people in the human-human interaction condition had less social distance toward people with mental illness. Additionally, participants with higher independence showed more favorable affection and less social distance toward mentally ill people. Finally, direct contact with mentally ill people increased a person-s positive affect toward people with mental illness. The current study should provide insights for mental health practitioners by suggesting how they can use interactive media to approach the public that stigmatizes the mentally ill.

Keywords: Mental health, destigmatization, interactivity, selfconstrual

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2258


[1] M. C. Angermeyer, and M. Herbert, "The Effect of Violent Attack by Schizophrenic Persons on The Attitude of the Public towards the Mentally Ill," Social Science and Medicine, vol. 43, no. 12, pp.1721- 1728, 1996.
[2] C. M. Bahk, "Drench Effects of Media Portrayal of Fatal Virus Disease on Health Locus of Control Beliefs," Health Communication, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 187-204, 2001.
[3] G. Domino, "Impact of the Film: One Flew over the Cuckoo-s Nest on Attitudes towards Mental Illness," Psychological Reports, vol. 53, pp. 179-182, 1983.
[4] D. H. Granello, P. S. Pauley, and A. Carmichael, "Relationship of the Media to Attitudes toward People with Mental Illness," Theory and Research, vol. 38, pp. 98-109, 1999.
[5] P. W. Corrigan, A. Green, R. Lundin, M. A. Kubiak, and D. L. Penn, "Familiarity with and Social Distance from People Who Have Serious Mental Illness," Psychiatric Services, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 953-958, 2001.
[6] D. L. Diefenbach, and M. D. West, "Television and Attitudes toward Mental Health Issues: Cultivation analysis and The Third-person Effect," Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 181-195, 2007.
[7] D. H. Granello, and P. S. Pauley, "Television Viewing Habits and Their Relationship to Tolerance Toward People with Mental Illness," Journal of Mental Health Counseling, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 162-175, 2000.
[8] M. C. Angermeyer, S. Dietrich, and M. Herbert, "Media Consumption and Desire for Social Distance towards People with Schizophrenia," European Psychiatry, vol. 20, 246-250, 2005.
[9] A. Bandura, "Social Learning Theory of Aggression," Journal of Communication, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 12-29, 1978.
[10] S. Dietrich, D. Heider, H. Matschinger, and M. C. Angermeyer, "Influence of Newspaper Reporting on Adolescents- Attitudes Toward People with Mental Illness," Social Psychiatry Psychiaty Epidemiol, vol. 41, pp. 318-322, 2006.
[11] M. Morgan, and N. Signorielli, Cultivation Analysis: New Directions in Media Effects Research. Newbury, California, 1990. Ch. 1.
[12] R. Wood, and A. Bandura, "Social Cognitive Theory of Organizational Management," The Academy of Management Review, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 361-384, 1989.
[13] J. Cutcliffe, and B. Hannigan, "Mass Media, ÔÇÿMonsters- and Mental Health Clients: the Need for Increased Lobbying, Journal of psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, vol. 8, pp. 315-321, 2001.
[14] O. Farnall, and K. A. Smith, "Reactions to People with Disabilities: Personal Contact versus Viewing of Specific Media Portrayals," Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 659- 672, 1999.
[15] B. G. Link, F. T. Cullen, J. Frank, and J. F. Wozniak, "The Social Rejection of Former Mental Patients: Understanding Why Labels Matter," American Journal of Sociology, vol. 92, pp. 1461-1500, 1987.
[16] D. L. Penn, C. Chamberlin, and K. T. Mueser, "The Effects of a Documentary Film about Schizophrenia on Psychiatric Stigma," Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 383-391. 2003.
[17] W. J. Potter, and K. Riddle, "A Content Analysis of The Media Effects Literature," Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 90-104, 2007.
[18] A. Mayer, and D. D. Barry, "Working with the Media to Destigmatize Mental Illness," Hospital and Community Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 1, pp.77-78, 1992.
[19] L. R. Lopez, "Adolescents- Attitude toward Mental Illness and Perceived Sources of Their Attitude: An Examination of Pilot Data," Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 271-280, 1991.
[20] L. Ha, and E. L. James, "Interactivity Reexamined: A Baseline Analysis of Early Business Web Sites," Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, vol. 45, pp. 65-74, 2008.
[21] G. J. Johnson, G. C. Bruner, and A. Kumar, "Interactivity and Its Facets Revisited," Journal of Advertising, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 35-52, 2006.
[22] S. Kiousis, "Interactivity: A Concept Explication," New Media & Society, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 355-383, 2002.
[23] S. J. McMillan, and J. S. Hwang, "Measures of Perceived Interactivity: An Exploration of the Role of Direction of Communication, User Control, and Time in Shaping Perceptions of Interactivity," Journal of Advertising, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 29-42, 2002.
[24] D. Sohn, and B. K. Lee, "Dimensions of Interactivity: Differential Effects of Social and Psychological Factors," Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, vol. 10, no. 3, 2005.
[25] G. Wu, "The Mediating Role of Perceived Interactivity in the Effect of Actual Interactivity on Attitude toward the Website," Journal of Interactive Advertising, vol. 5, no. 2, pp.29-39, 2005.
[26] J. F. Jensen, "Interactivity: Tracking a New Concept in Media and Communication Studies," Nordicom Review, vol. 19, pp. 185-204, 1998.
[27] J. B. Walther, "Interpersonal Effects in Computer-Mediated Interaction," Communication Research, vol. 19, no. 1, 52-90, 1992.
[28] B. L. Massey, and M. R. Levy, "Interactive Online Journalism at English Language Web Newspapers in Asia," Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 138-151, 1999.
[29] D. Sohn, C. Ci, and B. K. Lee, " The Moderating Effects of Expectation on the Patterns of the Interactivity-Attitude Relationship," Journal of Advertising, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 109-119, 2007.
[30] S. Rafaeli, and F. Sudweeks, "Networked Interactivity," Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, vol. 2, no. 4, 1997.
[31] G. Wu, "Perceived Interactivity and Attitude toward Website," in Conf. Presented, 1999 Annual Conference of American Academy of Advertising.
[32] Y. Liu, and L. J. Shrum, "What is Interactivity and Is It Always Such a Good Thing? Implications of Definition, Person, and Situation for the Influence of Interactivity on Advertising Effectiveness," Journal of Advertising, vol. 31, no. 4, 2002.
[33] C. Cho, and J. D. Leckenby, "Interactivity as a Measure of Advertising Effectiveness: Antecedents and Consequences of Interactivity in Web Advertising," in Conf. Presentation, 1999 Annual Conference of American Academy of Advertising.
[34] E. J. Downes, and S. J. McMillan, "Defining Interactivity: A Qualitative Identification of Key Dimensions," New Media & Society, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 157-179, 2000.
[35] S. J. McMillan, "Interactivity is in the Eye of the Beholder, Function, Perception, Involvement, and Attitude toward Web Sites," in Conf. Presentation, 2000 Annual Conference of American Academy of Advertising.
[36] H. Ko, C. Cho, and M. S. Roberts, "Internet Uses and Gratifications," Journal of Adverting, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 57-70, 2005.
[37] D. W. Schumann, and E. Thorson, Internet Advertising: Theory and Research. New Jersey, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate, Inc., 2007.
[38] G. S. Day, "Organizing for Interactivity," Journal of Interactive Marketing, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 47-53, 1998.
[39] H. Ko, "Internet Uses and Gratifications: A Structural Equation Model of Global Interactive Advertising," University of Florida, Gainesvill, FL, Unpublished.
[40] J. L. Aaker, and A. Y. Lee, ""I" Seek Pleasures and "We" Avoid Pains: The Role of Self-Regulatory Goals in Information Processing and Persuasion," Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 28, pp. 33-49, 2001.
[41] H. R. Markus, and S. Kitayama, "Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation," Psychological Review, vol. 98, no. 2, 1991.
[42] S. Ng, and J. H. Houston, "Exemplars or Beliefs? The Impacts of Self- View on the Nature and Relative influence of Brand Associations," Journal of Consume Research, vol. 32, pp. 519-529, 2006.
[43] T. M. Singelis, "Measurement of Independent and Interdependent Self- Construal," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 20, pp. 580-591, 1994.
[44] M. B. Brewer, and W. Gardner, ""We"? Levels of Collective Identity and Self Representations," Journal of Personality and social Psychology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp.83-93, 1996.
[45] A. T. Church, M. S. Katigbak, A. M. Del Prado, F. A. Ortiz, K. A. Mastor, Y. Harumi, J. Tanaka-Matsumi, J. D. J. Vagas-Flores, J. I. Reyes, F. A. White, L. G. Miramontes, J. A. S. Reyes, H. F. Cabrera, " Implicit Theories and Self-Perception of Traitedness Across Cultures: Toward Integration and Cultural and Trait Psychology Perpesctives," Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 37, pp. 694-716, 2006.
[46] E. Katz, "Mass Communication Research and the Study of Popular Culture: An Editorial Note on A Possible Future for this Journal," Studies in Public Communication, vol. 2, pp. 1-6, 1959.
[47] L. Leung, "User-generated Content on The Internet: An Examination of Gratifications, Civic, Engagement and Psychological Empowerment," New Media & Society, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1-21, 2009.
[48] D. R. Fortin, and R. R. Dholakia, "Interactivity and Vividness Effects on Social Presence and Involvement with a Web-based Advertisement," Journal of Business Research, vol. 58, pp. 387-396, 2005.
[49] C. L. Hsu, and J. C. Lin, "Acceptance of Blog Usage: The Roles of Technology Acceptance, Social Influence and Knowledge Sharing Motivation," Information & Management, vol. 45, pp. 65-74. 2008.
[50] R. Scoble, and S. Israel, Naked Conversations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
[51] S-U Yang, and J. S. Lim, "The Effects of Blog-Mediated Public Relations (BMPR) on Relational Trust," Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 341-359, 2009.
[52] P. Dwyer, "Building Trust with Corporate Blogs," in Conf. Proc. 2007 ICWSM.
[53] T. Kelleher and B. M. Miller, "Organizational Blogs and the Human Voice: Relational Strategies and Relational Outcomes," Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, vol. 11, pp. 395-414, 2006.
[54] A. Bandura, "Social Learning Theory of Aggression," Journal of Communication, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 21-41, 1999.
[55] A. Bandura, Media Effects. Mahwah, NJ, 2002. Ch. 6.
[56] J. Cohen, and P. Cohen, Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1983.
[57] B. S. Greenberg, Television as a Social Issue. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. pp. 390, 1988.