Search results for: e-commerce fairness
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: e-commerce fairness

58 Factors Influencing B2c eCommerce Diffusion

Authors: R. Mangiaracina, A. Perego, F. Campari

Abstract:

Despite the fact that B2c eCommerce has become important in numerous economies, its adoption varies from country to country. This paper aims to identify the factors affecting (enabling or inhibiting) B2c eCommerce and to determine their quantitative impact on the diffusion of online sales across countries. A dynamic panel model analyzing the relationship between 13 factors (Macroeconomic, Demographic, Socio-Cultural, Infrastructural and Offer related) stemming from a complete literature analysis and the B2c eCommerce value in 45 countries over 9 years has been developed. Having a positive correlation coefficient, GDP, mobile penetration, Internet user penetration and credit card penetration resulted as enabling drivers of the B2c eCommerce value across countries, whereas, having a negative correlation coefficient,equal distribution of income and the development of traditional retailing network act as inhibiting factors.

Keywords: B2c eCommerce diffusion, influencing factors, dynamic panel model

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57 Use of Ecommerce Websites in Developing Countries

Authors: Vera Pujani

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investiagte the use of the ecommerce website in Indonesia as a developing country. The ecommerce website has been identified having the significant impact on business activities in particular solving the geographical problem for islanded countries likes Indonesia. Again, website is identified as a crucial marketing tool. This study presents the effect of quality and features on the use and user satisfaction employing ecommerce websites. Survey method for 115 undergraduate students of Management Department in Andalas University who are attending Management Information Systems (SIM) class have been undertaken. The data obtained is analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using SmartPLS program. This result found that quality of system and information, feature as well satisfaction influencing the use ecommerce website in Indonesia contexts.

Keywords: Use, Developing Country, Satisfaction, Website

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56 E-Commerce Adoption and Implementation in Automobile Industry: A Case Study

Authors: Amitrajit Sarkar

Abstract:

The use of Electronic Commerce (EC) technologies enables Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to improve their efficiency and competitive position. Much of the literature proposes an extensive set of benefits for organizations that choose to adopt and implement ECommerce systems. Factors of Business –to-business (B2B) E-Commerce adoption and implementation have been extensively investigated. Despite enormous attention given to encourage Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to adopt and implement E-Commerce, little research has been carried out in identifying the factors of Business-to-Consumer ECommerce adoption and implementation for SMEs. To conduct the study, Tornatsky and Fleischer model was adopted and tested in four SMEs located in Christchurch, New Zealand. This paper explores the factors that impact the decision and method of adoption and implementation of ECommerce systems in automobile industry. Automobile industry was chosen because the product they deal with i.e. cars are not a common commodity to be sold online, despite this fact the eCommerce penetration in automobile industry is high. The factors that promote adoption and implementation of E-Commerce technologies are discussed, together with the barriers. This study will help SME owners to effectively handle the adoption and implementation process and will also improve the chance of successful E-Commerce implementation. The implications of the findings for managers, consultants, and government organizations engaged in promoting E-Commerce adoption and implementation in small businesses and future research are discussed.

Keywords: E-Commerce in SMEs, E-Commerce in automobile industry, B2C E-Commerce, E-Commerce adoption and Implementation, E-Commerce Website Implementation, E-Commerce Models.

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55 The Factors Influencing Successful Implementation of E-Commerce within SMEs Businesses

Authors: Supattra Kanchanopast

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to identify factors that influenced the success of e-commerce implementation within SMEs businesses. In order to achieve the objectives of this research, the researcher collected data from random firms in Thailand, both the users and those who are not using the e-commerce. The data was comprised of the results of 310 questionnaires, as well as 10 interviews with owner/managers of businesses who are currently using e-commerce successfully. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, which included frequency, percentages, mean, and the standard deviation of pertinent factors. Independent t-test and one-way ANOVA test were also used. The findings of this research revealed that 50% of all the firms surveyed had e-commerce website, whereas, over 20% of all firms surveyed had developing an ecommerce strategy. The result findings also indicate that organizational factors, technological factors and environment factors as significant factors effecting success of e-commerce implementation in SMEs. From the hypotheses testing, the findings revealed that the different level of support use ecommerce by owner/manager had different success in e-commerce implementation. Moreover, the difference in e-commerce management approach affected the success in terms of higher total sales for the business or higher number of retained or returning customers.

Keywords: Electronic commerce, Implementation of ECommerce, small and medium sized enterprises, SMEs, Website, success factors.

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54 A Study on the Relationship between Transaction Fairness, Social Capital, Supply Chain Integration and Sustainability: Focusing on Manufacturing Companies of South Korea

Authors: Sung-Min Park, Chan Kwon Park, Chae-Bogk Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between transaction fairness, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability. Based on the previous studies, measurement items were determined by using SPSS 22 and exploratory factor analysis was performed, and again, using AMOS 21 for confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis was performed by using study items that satisfy reliability, validity, and appropriateness of measurement model. It has shown that transaction fairness has a (+) significant effect on social capital, social capital on supply chain integration, supply chain integration on economic sustainability and social sustainability, and has a (+), but not significant effect on environmental sustainability. It has shown that supply chain integration has been proven to play a role as a parameter between social capital and economic and social sustainability, but not as a parameter between environmental sustainability. Through this study, it is suggested that clearly examining the relationship between fairness of trade, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability, maintaining fairness of the transaction make formation of social capital, and further integration of supply chain, and achieve sustainability of entire supply chain.

Keywords: Transaction fairness, social capital, supply chain integration, sustainability.

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53 Intelligent Mobile Search Oriented to Global e-Commerce

Authors: Abdelkader Dekdouk

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a novel approach for searching eCommerce products using a mobile phone, illustrated by a prototype eCoMobile. This approach aims to globalize the mobile search by integrating the concept of user multilinguism into it. To show that, we particularly deal with English and Arabic languages. Indeed the mobile user can formulate his query on a commercial product in either language (English/Arabic). The description of his information need on commercial products relies on the ontology that represents the conceptualization of the product catalogue knowledge domain defined in both English and Arabic languages. A query expressed on a mobile device client defines the concept that corresponds to the name of the product followed by a set of pairs (property, value) specifying the characteristics of the product. Once a query is submitted it is then communicated to the server side which analyses it and in its turn performs an http request to an eCommerce application server (like Amazon). This latter responds by returning an XML file representing a set of elements where each element defines an item of the searched product with its specific characteristics. The XML file is analyzed on the server side and then items are displayed on the mobile device client along with its relevant characteristics in the chosen language.

Keywords: Mobile computing, search engine, multilingualglobal eCommerce, ontology, XML.

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52 Cross Layer Optimization for Fairness Balancing Based on Adaptively Weighted Utility Functions in OFDMA Systems

Authors: Jianwei Wang, Timo Korhonen, Yuping Zhao

Abstract:

Cross layer optimization based on utility functions has been recently studied extensively, meanwhile, numerous types of utility functions have been examined in the corresponding literature. However, a major drawback is that most utility functions take a fixed mathematical form or are based on simple combining, which can not fully exploit available information. In this paper, we formulate a framework of cross layer optimization based on Adaptively Weighted Utility Functions (AWUF) for fairness balancing in OFDMA networks. Under this framework, a two-step allocation algorithm is provided as a sub-optimal solution, whose control parameters can be updated in real-time to accommodate instantaneous QoS constrains. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves high throughput while balancing the fairness among multiple users.

Keywords: OFDMA, Fairness, AWUF, QoS.

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51 The New AIMD Congestion Control Algorithm

Authors: Hayder Natiq Jasem, Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain, Mohamed Othman, Shamala Subramaniam

Abstract:

Congestion control is one of the fundamental issues in computer networks. Without proper congestion control mechanisms there is the possibility of inefficient utilization of resources, ultimately leading to network collapse. Hence congestion control is an effort to adapt the performance of a network to changes in the traffic load without adversely affecting users perceived utilities. AIMD (Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease) is the best algorithm among the set of liner algorithms because it reflects good efficiency as well as good fairness. Our control model is based on the assumption of the original AIMD algorithm; we show that both efficiency and fairness of AIMD can be improved. We call our approach is New AIMD. We present experimental results with TCP that match the expectation of our theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Congestion control, Efficiency, Fairness, TCP, AIMD.

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50 Multichannel Scheme under Max-Min Fairness Environment for Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Hans R. Márquez, Cesar Hernández, Ingrid Páez

Abstract:

This paper develops a multiple channel assignment model, which allows to take advantage of spectrum opportunities in cognitive radio networks in the most efficient way. The developed scheme allows making several assignments of available and frequency adjacent channel, which require a bigger bandwidth, under an equality environment. The hybrid assignment model it is made by two algorithms, one that makes the ranking and selects available frequency channels and the other one in charge of establishing the Max-Min Fairness for not restrict the spectrum opportunities for all the other secondary users, who also claim to make transmissions. Measurements made were done for average bandwidth, average delay, as well as fairness computation for several channel assignments. Reached results were evaluated with experimental spectrum occupational data from captured GSM frequency band. The developed model shows evidence of improvement in spectrum opportunity use and a wider average transmission bandwidth for each secondary user, maintaining equality criteria in channel assignment.

Keywords: Bandwidth, fairness, multichannel, secondary users.

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49 Per Flow Packet Scheduling Scheme to Improve the End-to-End Fairness in Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Network

Authors: K. Sasikala, R. S. D Wahidabanu

Abstract:

Various fairness models and criteria proposed by academia and industries for wired networks can be applied for ad hoc wireless network. The end-to-end fairness in an ad hoc wireless network is a challenging task compared to wired networks, which has not been addressed effectively. Most of the traffic in an ad hoc network are transport layer flows and thus the fairness of transport layer flows has attracted the interest of the researchers. The factors such as MAC protocol, routing protocol, the length of a route, buffer size, active queue management algorithm and the congestion control algorithms affects the fairness of transport layer flows. In this paper, we have considered the rate of data transmission, the queue management and packet scheduling technique. The ad hoc network is dynamic in nature due to various parameters such as transmission of control packets, multihop nature of forwarding packets, changes in source and destination nodes, changes in the routing path influences determining throughput and fairness among the concurrent flows. In addition, the effect of interaction between the protocol in the data link and transport layers has also plays a role in determining the rate of the data transmission. We maintain queue for each flow and the delay information of each flow is maintained accordingly. The pre-processing of flow is done up to the network layer only. The source and destination address information is used for separating the flow and the transport layer information is not used. This minimizes the delay in the network. Each flow is attached to a timer and is updated dynamically. Finite State Machine (FSM) is proposed for queue and transmission control mechanism. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in ns-2 simulation environment. The throughput and fairness based on mobility for different flows used as performance metrics. We have compared the performance of the proposed approach with ATP and the transport layer information is used. This minimizes the delay in the network. Each flow is attached to a timer and is updated dynamically. Finite State Machine (FSM) is proposed for queue and transmission control mechanism. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in ns-2 simulation environment. The throughput and fairness based on not mobility for different flows used as performance metrics. We have compared the performance of the proposed approach with ATP and MC-MLAS and the performance of the proposed approach is encouraging.

Keywords: ATP, End-to-End fairness, FSM, MAC, QoS.

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48 A Survey on Supply Chain Management and E Commerce Technology Adoption among Logistics Service Providers in Johor

Authors: Mohd Iskandar bin Illyas Tan, Iziati Saadah bt Ibrahim

Abstract:

Logistics is part of the supply chain processes that plans, implements, and controls the efficient and effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer requirements. This research aims to investigate the current status and future direction of the use of Information Technology (IT) for logistics, focusing on Supply Chain Management (SCM) and E-Commerce adoption in Johor. Therefore, this research stresses on the type of technology being adopted, factors, benefits and barriers affecting the innovation in SCM and ECommerce technology adoption among Logistics Service Providers (LSP). A mailed questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data from 265 logistics companies in Johor. The research revealed that SCM technology adoption among LSP was higher as they had adopted SCM technology in various business processes while they perceived a high level of benefits from SCM adoption. Obviously, ECommerce technology adoption among LSP is relatively low.

Keywords: E-Commerce, Johor, Logistics Service Providers, Supply Chain Management.

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47 Power of Involvement over Rewards for Retention Likelihood in IT Professionals

Authors: Humayun Rashid, Lin Zhao

Abstract:

Retention in the IT profession is critical for organizations to stay competitive and operate reliably in the dynamic business environment. Most organizations rely on compensation and rewards as primary tools to enhance retention of employees. In this quantitative survey-based study conducted at a large global bank, we analyze the perceptions of 575 information technology (IT) software professionals in India and Malaysia and find that fairness of rewards has very little impact on retention likelihood. It is far more important to actively involve employees in organizational activities. In addition, our findings indicate that involvement is far more important than information flow: the typical organizational communication to keep employees informed.

Keywords: fairness of rewards, information flow, informationinvolvement, retention

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46 Downlink Scheduling and Radio Resource Allocation in Adaptive OFDMA Wireless Communication Systems for User-Individual QoS

Authors: Lu Yanhui, Wang Chunming, Yin Changchuan, Yue Guangxin

Abstract:

In this paper, we address the problem of adaptive radio resource allocation (RRA) and packet scheduling in the downlink of a cellular OFDMA system, and propose a downlink multi-carrier proportional fair (MPF) scheduler and its joint with adaptive RRA algorithm to distribute radio resources among multiple users according to their individual QoS requirements. The allocation and scheduling objective is to maximize the total throughput, while at the same time maintaining the fairness among users. The simulation results demonstrate that the methods presented provide for user more explicit fairness relative to RRA algorithm, but the joint scheme achieves the higher sum-rate capacity with flexible parameters setting compared with MPF scheduler.

Keywords: OFDMA, adaptive radio resource allocation, scheduling, QoS.

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45 A Collusion-Resistant Distributed Signature Delegation Based on Anonymous Mobile Agent

Authors: Omaima Bamasak

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel method that allows an agent host to delegate its signing power to an anonymous mobile agent in such away that the mobile agent does not reveal any information about its host-s identity and, at the same time, can be authenticated by the service host, hence, ensuring fairness of service provision. The solution introduces a verification server to verify the signature generated by the mobile agent in such a way that even if colluding with the service host, both parties will not get more information than what they already have. The solution incorporates three methods: Agent Signature Key Generation method, Agent Signature Generation method, Agent Signature Verification method. The most notable feature of the solution is that, in addition to allowing secure and anonymous signature delegation, it enables tracking of malicious mobile agents when a service host is attacked. The security properties of the proposed solution are analyzed, and the solution is compared with the most related work.

Keywords: Anonymous signature delegation, collusion resistance, e-commerce fairness, mobile agent security.

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44 XML based Safe and Scalable Multi-Agent Development Framework

Authors: Rinkaj Goyal, Pravin Chandra, Yogesh Singh

Abstract:

In this paper we describe our efforts to design and implement an agent development framework that has the potential to scale to the size of any underlying network suitable for various ECommerce activities. The main novelty in our framework is it-s capability to allow the development of sophisticated, secured agents which are simple enough to be practical. We have adopted FIPA agent platform reference Model as backbone for implementation along with XML for agent Communication and Java Cryptographic Extension and architecture to realize the security of communication information between agents. The advantage of our architecture is its support of agents development in different languages and Communicating with each other using a more open standard i.e. XML

Keywords: Agent, Agent Development Framework, Agent Coordination, Security

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43 An Enhanced Cryptanalytic Attack on Knapsack Cipher using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Poonam Garg, Aditya Shastri, D.C. Agarwal

Abstract:

With the exponential growth of networked system and application such as eCommerce, the demand for effective internet security is increasing. Cryptology is the science and study of systems for secret communication. It consists of two complementary fields of study: cryptography and cryptanalysis. The application of genetic algorithms in the cryptanalysis of knapsack ciphers is suggested by Spillman [7]. In order to improve the efficiency of genetic algorithm attack on knapsack cipher, the previously published attack was enhanced and re-implemented with variation of initial assumptions and results are compared with Spillman results. The experimental result of research indicates that the efficiency of genetic algorithm attack on knapsack cipher can be improved with variation of initial assumption.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Knapsack cipher, Key search.

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42 Electronic Markets has Weakened the “Tradeoff between Reach and Richness“ in the Internet

Authors: Haroon Altarawneh, Sattam Allahawiah

Abstract:

This paper has two main ideas. Firstly, it describes Evans and Wurster-s concepts “the trade-off between reach and richness", and relates them to the impact of technology on the virtual markets. Authors Evans and Wurster see the transfer of information as a 'trade'off between richness and reach-. Reach refers to the number of people who share particular information, with Richness ['Rich'] being a more complex concept combining: bandwidth, customization, interactivity, reliability, security and currency. Traditional shopping limits the number of shops the shopper is able to visit due to time and other cost constraints; the time spent traveling consequently leaves the shopper with less time to evaluate the product. The paper concludes that although the Web provides Reach, offering Richness and the sense of community required for creating and sustaining relationships with potential clients could be difficult.

Keywords: Internet, Web sites, Richness and Reach, Ecommerce, virtual markets.

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41 New Methods for E-Commerce Databases Designing in Semantic Web Systems (Modern Systems)

Authors: Karim Heidari, Serajodin Katebi, Ali Reza Mahdavi Far

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study Database Models to use them efficiently in E-commerce websites. In this paper we are going to find a method which can save and retrieve information in Ecommerce websites. Thus, semantic web applications can work with, and we are also going to study different technologies of E-commerce databases and we know that one of the most important deficits in semantic web is the shortage of semantic data, since most of the information is still stored in relational databases, we present an approach to map legacy data stored in relational databases into the Semantic Web using virtually any modern RDF query language, as long as it is closed within RDF. To achieve this goal we study XML structures for relational data bases of old websites and eventually we will come up one level over XML and look for a map from relational model (RDM) to RDF. Noting that a large number of semantic webs get advantage of relational model, opening the ways which can be converted to XML and RDF in modern systems (semantic web) is important.

Keywords: E-Commerce, Semantic Web, Database, XML, RDF.

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40 The Success of E-Collaborative in E-Commerce: The Study of B2C Business in Thailand

Authors: Wanida Suwunniponth

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to study the influencing factors that contributed to the success of e-collaborative in e-commerce of B2C (Business to Customer) business in Bangkok, Thailand. The influencing factors included organization, people, information technology and the process of e-collaborative. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 200 small e-commerce businesses and the path analysis was utilized as the tool for data analysis. By using the path analysis, it was revealed that the factors concerning with organization, people and information technology played an influence on e-collaborative process and the success of ecollaborative, whereas the process of e-collaborative factor manipulated its success. The findings suggested that B2C ecommerce business in Thailand should opt in improvement approach in terms of managerial structure, leaderships, staff’s skills and knowledge, and investment of information technology in order to capacitate higher efficiency of e-collaborative process that would result in profit and competitive advantage.

Keywords: E-collaborative, E-commerce, B2C.

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39 The Implications of Technological Advancements on the Constitutional Principles of Contract Law

Authors: Laura Çami (Vorpsi), Xhon Skënderi

Abstract:

In today's rapidly evolving technological landscape, the traditional principles of contract law are facing significant challenges. The emergence of new technologies, such as electronic signatures, smart contracts, and online dispute resolution mechanisms, is transforming the way contracts are formed, interpreted, and enforced. This paper examines the implications of these technological advancements on the constitutional principles of contract law. One of the fundamental principles of contract law is freedom of contract, which ensures that parties have the autonomy to negotiate and enter into contracts as they see fit. However, the use of technology in the contracting process has the potential to disrupt this principle. For example, online platforms and marketplaces often offer standard-form contracts, which may not reflect the specific needs or interests of individual parties. This raises questions about the equality of bargaining power between parties and the extent to which parties are truly free to negotiate the terms of their contracts. Another important principle of contract law is the requirement of consideration, which requires that each party receives something of value in exchange for their promise. The use of digital assets, such as cryptocurrencies, has created new challenges in determining what constitutes valuable consideration in a contract. Due to the ambiguity in this area, disagreements about the legality and enforceability of such contracts may arise. Furthermore, the use of technology in dispute resolution mechanisms, such as online arbitration and mediation, may raise concerns about due process and access to justice. The use of algorithms and artificial intelligence to determine the outcome of disputes may also raise questions about the impartiality and fairness of the process. Finally, it should be noted that there are many different and complex effects of technical improvements on the fundamental constitutional foundations of contract law. As technology continues to evolve, it will be important for policymakers and legal practitioners to consider the potential impacts on contract law and to ensure that the principles of fairness, equality, and access to justice are preserved in the contracting process.

Keywords: Technological advancements, constitutional principles, contract law, smart contracts, online dispute resolution, freedom of contract.

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38 Performance Assessment of Carrier Aggregation-Based Indoor Mobile Networks

Authors: Viktor R. Stoynov, Zlatka V. Valkova-Jarvis

Abstract:

The intelligent management and optimisation of radio resource technologies will lead to a considerable improvement in the overall performance in Next Generation Networks (NGNs). Carrier Aggregation (CA) technology, also known as Spectrum Aggregation, enables more efficient use of the available spectrum by combining multiple Component Carriers (CCs) in a virtual wideband channel. LTE-A (Long Term Evolution–Advanced) CA technology can combine multiple adjacent or separate CCs in the same band or in different bands. In this way, increased data rates and dynamic load balancing can be achieved, resulting in a more reliable and efficient operation of mobile networks and the enabling of high bandwidth mobile services. In this paper, several distinct CA deployment strategies for the utilisation of spectrum bands are compared in indoor-outdoor scenarios, simulated via the recently-developed Realistic Indoor Environment Generator (RIEG). We analyse the performance of the User Equipment (UE) by integrating the average throughput, the level of fairness of radio resource allocation, and other parameters, into one summative assessment termed a Comparative Factor (CF). In addition, comparison of non-CA and CA indoor mobile networks is carried out under different load conditions: varying numbers and positions of UEs. The experimental results demonstrate that the CA technology can improve network performance, especially in the case of indoor scenarios. Additionally, we show that an increase of carrier frequency does not necessarily lead to improved CF values, due to high wall-penetration losses. The performance of users under bad-channel conditions, often located in the periphery of the cells, can be improved by intelligent CA location. Furthermore, a combination of such a deployment and effective radio resource allocation management with respect to user-fairness plays a crucial role in improving the performance of LTE-A networks.

Keywords: Comparative factor, carrier aggregation, indoor mobile network, resource allocation.

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37 The Impact of Semantic Web on E-Commerce

Authors: Karim Heidari

Abstract:

Semantic Web Technologies enable machines to interpret data published in a machine-interpretable form on the web. At the present time, only human beings are able to understand the product information published online. The emerging semantic Web technologies have the potential to deeply influence the further development of the Internet Economy. In this paper we propose a scenario based research approach to predict the effects of these new technologies on electronic markets and business models of traders and intermediaries and customers. Over 300 million searches are conducted everyday on the Internet by people trying to find what they need. A majority of these searches are in the domain of consumer ecommerce, where a web user is looking for something to buy. This represents a huge cost in terms of people hours and an enormous drain of resources. Agent enabled semantic search will have a dramatic impact on the precision of these searches. It will reduce and possibly eliminate information asymmetry where a better informed buyer gets the best value. By impacting this key determinant of market prices semantic web will foster the evolution of different business and economic models. We submit that there is a need for developing these futuristic models based on our current understanding of e-commerce models and nascent semantic web technologies. We believe these business models will encourage mainstream web developers and businesses to join the “semantic web revolution."

Keywords: E-Commerce, E-Business, Semantic Web, XML.

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36 Time Organization for Urban Mobility Decongestion: A Methodology for People’s Profile Identification

Authors: Yassamina Berkane, Leïla Kloul, Yoann Demoli

Abstract:

Quality of life, environmental impact, congestion of mobility means, and infrastructures remain significant challenges for urban mobility. Solutions like car sharing, spatial redesign, eCommerce, and autonomous vehicles will likely increase the unit veh-km and the density of cars in urban traffic, thus reducing congestion. However, the impact of such solutions is not clear for researchers. Congestion arises from growing populations that must travel greater distances to arrive at similar locations (e.g., workplaces, schools) during the same time frame (e.g., rush hours). This paper first reviews the research and application cases of urban congestion methods through recent years. Rethinking the question of time, it then investigates people’s willingness and flexibility to adapt their arrival and departure times from workplaces. We use neural networks and methods of supervised learning to apply a methodology for predicting peoples’ intentions from their responses in a questionnaire. We created and distributed a questionnaire to more than 50 companies in the Paris suburb. Obtained results illustrate that our methodology can predict peoples’ intentions to reschedule their activities (work, study, commerce, etc.).

Keywords: Urban mobility, decongestion, machine learning, neural network.

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35 A Theoretical Hypothesis on Ferris Wheel Model of University Social Responsibility

Authors: Le Kang

Abstract:

According to the nature of the university, as a free and responsible academic community, USR is based on a different foundation —academic responsibility, so the Pyramid and the IC Model of CSR could not fully explain the most distinguished feature of USR. This paper sought to put forward a new model— Ferris Wheel Model, to illustrate the nature of USR and the process of achievement. The Ferris Wheel Model of USR shows the university creates a balanced, fairness and neutrality systemic structure to afford social responsibilities; that makes the organization could obtain a synergistic effect to achieve more extensive interests of stakeholders and wider social responsibilities.

Keywords: USR, Achievement model, Ferris wheel model.

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34 Fairness and Quality of Service Issues and Analysis of IEEE 802.11e Wireless LAN

Authors: Ammar Abbas, Ibrahim M. Hussain, Osama M. Hussain

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.11e which is an enhanced version of the 802.11 WLAN standards incorporates the Quality of Service (QoS) which makes it a better choice for multimedia and real time applications. In this paper we study various aspects concerned with 802.11e standard. Further, the analysis results for this standard are compared with the legacy 802.11 standard. Simulation results show that IEEE 802.11e out performs legacy IEEE 802.11 in terms of quality of service due to its flow differentiated channel allocation and better queue management architecture. We also propose a method to improve the unfair allocation of bandwidth for downlink and uplink channels by varying the medium access priority level.

Keywords: Wireless, IEEE 802.11e, EDCA, Throughput, QoS, MAC.

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33 Seat Assignment Problem Optimization

Authors: Mohammed Salem Alzahrani

Abstract:

In this paper the optimality of the solution of an existing real word assignment problem known as the seat assignment problem using Seat Assignment Method (SAM) is discussed. SAM is the newly driven method from three existing methods, Hungarian Method, Northwest Corner Method and Least Cost Method in a special way that produces the easiness & fairness among all methods that solve the seat assignment problem.

Keywords: Assignment Problem, Hungarian Method, Least Cost Method, Northwest Corner Method, Seat Assignment Method (SAM), A Real Word Assignment Problem.

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32 A New Scheduling Algorithm Based on Traffic Classification Using Imprecise Computation

Authors: Farzad Abtahi, Sahar Khanmohamadi, Bahram Sadeghi Bigham

Abstract:

Wireless channels are characterized by more serious bursty and location-dependent errors. Many packet scheduling algorithms have been proposed for wireless networks to guarantee fairness and delay bounds. However, most existing schemes do not consider the difference of traffic natures among packet flows. This will cause the delay-weight coupling problem. In particular, serious queuing delays may be incurred for real-time flows. In this paper, it is proposed a scheduling algorithm that takes traffic types of flows into consideration when scheduling packets and also it is provided scheduling flexibility by trading off video quality to meet the playback deadline.

Keywords: Data communication, Real-time, Scheduling, Video transport.

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31 Comparative Study of Scheduling Algorithms for LTE Networks

Authors: Samia Dardouri, Ridha Bouallegue

Abstract:

Scheduling is the process of dynamically allocating physical resources to User Equipment (UE) based on scheduling algorithms implemented at the LTE base station. Various algorithms have been proposed by network researchers as the implementation of scheduling algorithm which represents an open issue in Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard. This paper makes an attempt to study and compare the performance of PF, MLWDF and EXP/PF scheduling algorithms. The evaluation is considered for a single cell with interference scenario for different flows such as Best effort, Video and VoIP in a pedestrian and vehicular environment using the LTE-Sim network simulator. The comparative study is conducted in terms of system throughput, fairness index, delay, packet loss ratio (PLR) and total cell spectral efficiency.

Keywords: LTE, Multimedia flows, Scheduling algorithms.

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30 Peaceful Coexistence of IEEE 802.11 and IEEE802.16 Standards in 5GHz Unlicensed Bands

Authors: Raoul Zamblé, Michel Babri, Souleymane Oumtanaga, Boubacar Barry, Claude Lishou

Abstract:

Cognitive radio devices have been considered as a key technology for next-generation of wireless communication. These devices in the context of IEEE 802.11 standards and IEEE 802.16 standards, can opportunistically utilize the wireless spectrum to achieve better user performance and improve the overall spectrumutilization efficiency, mainly in the unlicensed 5 GHz bands. However, opportunistic use of wireless spectrum creates news problems such as peaceful coexistence with other wireless technologies, such as the radiolocation systems, as well as understanding the influence of interference that each of these networks can create. In this paper, we suggest a dynamic access model that considerably reduces this interference and allows efficiency and fairness use of the wireless spectrum.

Keywords: Dynamic access, exclusive access, spectrumopportunities, unlicensed band.

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29 Seat Assignment Model for Student Admissions Process at Saudi Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Mohammed Salem Alzahrani

Abstract:

In this paper, student admission process is studied to optimize the assignment of vacant seats with three main objectives. Utilizing all vacant seats, satisfying all programs of study admission requirements and maintaining fairness among all candidates are the three main objectives of the optimization model. Seat Assignment Method (SAM) is used to build the model and solve the optimization problem with help of Northwest Coroner Method and Least Cost Method. A closed formula is derived for applying the priority of assigning seat to candidate based on SAM.

Keywords: Admission Process Model, Assignment Problem, Hungarian Method, Least Cost Method, Northwest Corner Method, Seat Assignment Method (SAM).

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