Performance Assessment of Carrier Aggregation-Based Indoor Mobile Networks
The intelligent management and optimisation of radio resource technologies will lead to a considerable improvement in the overall performance in Next Generation Networks (NGNs). Carrier Aggregation (CA) technology, also known as Spectrum Aggregation, enables more efficient use of the available spectrum by combining multiple Component Carriers (CCs) in a virtual wideband channel. LTE-A (Long Term Evolution–Advanced) CA technology can combine multiple adjacent or separate CCs in the same band or in different bands. In this way, increased data rates and dynamic load balancing can be achieved, resulting in a more reliable and efficient operation of mobile networks and the enabling of high bandwidth mobile services. In this paper, several distinct CA deployment strategies for the utilisation of spectrum bands are compared in indoor-outdoor scenarios, simulated via the recently-developed Realistic Indoor Environment Generator (RIEG). We analyse the performance of the User Equipment (UE) by integrating the average throughput, the level of fairness of radio resource allocation, and other parameters, into one summative assessment termed a Comparative Factor (CF). In addition, comparison of non-CA and CA indoor mobile networks is carried out under different load conditions: varying numbers and positions of UEs. The experimental results demonstrate that the CA technology can improve network performance, especially in the case of indoor scenarios. Additionally, we show that an increase of carrier frequency does not necessarily lead to improved CF values, due to high wall-penetration losses. The performance of users under bad-channel conditions, often located in the periphery of the cells, can be improved by intelligent CA location. Furthermore, a combination of such a deployment and effective radio resource allocation management with respect to user-fairness plays a crucial role in improving the performance of LTE-A networks.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1340430Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 342
 D. Lopez-Perez, X. Chu; I. Guvenc, “On the Expanded Region of Picocells in Heterogeneous Networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Signal Process. 2012, 6, pp. 281–294.
 M. Rupp, S. Schwarz, and M. Taranetz, The Vienna LTE Advanced Simulators: Up and Downlink, Link and System Level Simulation, 1st ed., ser. Signals and Communication Technology. Springer Singapore, 2016.
 M. Alotaibi, M. Sirbu, and J. Peha, ‘‘Impact of spectrum aggregation technology and frequency on cellular networks performance,’’ in Proc. IEEE Conf. Dyn. Spectr. Access Netw. (DySPAN), Sept./Oct. 2015, pp. 326–335.
 X. Lin, J. G. Andrews, A. Ghosh, “Modeling analysis and design for carrier aggregation in heterogeneous cellular networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 4002-4015, Sep. 2013.
 H. Shajaiah, A. Abdel-Hadi, and C. Clancy, “Utility Proportional Fairness Resource Allocation with Carrier Aggregation in 4G-LTE,” in Military Communications Conference, MILCOM 2013 - 2013 IEEE, pp. 412–417, Nov 2013.
 H. Shajaiah, A. Khawar, A. Abdel-Hadi, and T. Clancy, “Resource allocation with carrier aggregation in LTE Advanced cellular system sharing spectrum with S-band radar,” in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DYSPAN), 2014 IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 34– 37, April 2014.
 H. Shajaiah, A. Abdelhadi, and T. C. Clancy, “A price selective centralized algorithm for resource allocation with carrier aggregation in LTE cellular networks,” arXiv: 1408.4151, Accepted in WCNC, 2015.
 H. Shajaiah, A. Abdelhadi, T. C. Clancy, “Towards an application-aware resource scheduling with carrier aggregation in cellular systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 129-132, Jan. 2016.
 I.-H. Hou and C. S. Chen, “Self-organized resource allocation in LTE systems with weighted proportional fairness,” in Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 5348–5353, June 2012.
 S. Stefanatos, F. Foukalas; T.A. Tsiftsis, “Low Complexity Resource Allocation for Massive Carrier Aggregation”. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 66, pp. 9614–9619, 2017.
 L. Kiwoli, S. Anael, E. Manasseh, “Performance Analysis of Carrier Aggregation for Various Mobile Network Implementations Scenario Based on Spectrum Allocated,” International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks, pp. 41-53, 2017.
 A. Tanner, Master Thesis on “LTE-A 3CC carrier aggregation,” Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, May, 2016.
 F. Meucci; O. Cabral; F.J. Velez; A. Mihovska; N.R. Prasad, “Spectrum aggregation with multi-band user allocation over two frequency bands,”. In Proceedings of the IEEE MobileWiMAX Symposium, Napa, CA, USA, 9–10 July 2009; pp. 81–86.
 S. Songsong, F. Chunyan; G. A. Caili, “Resource Scheduling Algorithm Based on User Grouping for LTE-advanced System with Carrier Aggregation,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computer Network and Multimedia Technology (CNMT 2009), Wuhan, China, 18–20 December 2009; pp. 1–4.
 Y. Wang, K. Pedersen, P. E. Mogensen, T.B. Sørensen, “Resource allocation considerations for multi-carrier LTE-Advanced systems operating in backward compatible mode,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 20th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Toyko, Japan, 13–16 September 2009; pp. 370–374.
 L. Liu, M. Li, et al., “Component carrier management for carrier aggregation in LTE-advanced system”, in Proceedings of the IEEE 73rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Budapest, Hungary, 15–18 May 2011; pp. 1–6.
 H.-S. Liao, P.Y. Chen, W.-T. Chen, “An efficient downlink radio resource allocation with carrier aggregation in LTE-advanced networks,” IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 2014, vol. 13, pp. 2229–2239.
 E. Dahlman, S. Parkvall and J. Sköld, 4G LTE/LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband, Oxford: Academic Press, 2011.
 M. Al-Shibly, M. Habaebi and J. Chebil, “Carrier Aggregation in Long Term Evolution-Advanced,” in Control and System Graduate Research Colloquium (ICSGRC), Shah Alam, Selangor, 2012.
 L. Liu, M. Li, J. Zhou, X. She, L. Chen, Y. Sagae and M. Iwamura, “Component Carrier Management for Carrier Aggregation in LTE Advanced System,” in Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Budapest, 2011.
 Z. Valkova-Jarvis, V. Stoynov, “Novel Throughput Quantile Averaging Methods for the Proportional Fair Algorithm in Indoor Mobile Networks,” 2017 Advances in Wireless and Optical Communications (RTUWO), Riga, Latvia, 2-3 November, 2017, pp.198 - 202.
 V. Stoynov, Z.Valkova-Jarvis, “Aggregated Assessment of Downlink Resource Scheduling Techniques in Indoor Environments via a Comparative Factor,” ELMAR 2017, Zadar, Croatia, 18-20 September, 2017, pp. 185-188