Search results for: definition of technology.
2644 Concept for Determining the Focus of Technology Monitoring Activities
Authors: Guenther Schuh, Christina Koenig, Nico Schoen, Markus Wellensiek
Identification and selection of appropriate product and manufacturing technologies are key factors for competitiveness and market success of technology-based companies. Therefore, many companies perform technology intelligence (TI) activities to ensure the identification of evolving technologies at the right time. Technology monitoring is one of the three base activities of TI, besides scanning and scouting. As the technological progress is accelerating, more and more technologies are being developed. Against the background of limited resources it is therefore necessary to focus TI activities. In this paper we propose a concept for defining appropriate search fields for technology monitoring. This limitation of search space leads to more concentrated monitoring activities. The concept will be introduced and demonstrated through an anonymized case study conducted within an industry project at the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT. The described concept provides a customized monitoring approach, which is suitable for use in technology-oriented companies. It is shown in this paper that the definition of search fields and search tasks are suitable methods to define topics of interest and thus to align monitoring activities. Current as well as planned product, production and material technologies and existing skills, capabilities and resources form the basis for derivation of relevant search areas. To further improve the concept of technology monitoring the proposed concept should be extended during future research e.g. by the definition of relevant monitoring parameters.
Keywords: Monitoring radar, search field, technology intelligence, technology monitoring.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2940
2643 A New Definition of the Intrinsic Mode Function
Authors: Zhihua Yang, Lihua Yang
This paper makes a detailed analysis regarding the definition of the intrinsic mode function and proves that Condition 1 of the intrinsic mode function can really be deduced from Condition 2. Finally, an improved definition of the intrinsic mode function is given.
Keywords: Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Hilbert-Huang transform(HHT), Intrinsic Mode Function(IMF).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3414
2642 Technology and Its Social Implications: Myths and Realities in the Interpretation of the Concept
Authors: E. V. Veraszto, J. T. F. Camargo, D. Silva, N. A. Miranda, F. O. Simon, S. F. Amaral, L. V. Freitas
The concept of technology as well as itself has evolved continuously over time, such that, nowadays, this concept is still marked by myths and realities. Even the concept of science is frequently misunderstood as technology. In this way, this paper presents different forms of interpretation of the concept of technology in the course of history, as well as the social and cultural aspects associated with it, through an analysis made by means of insights from sociological studies of science and technology and its multiple relations with society. Through the analysis of contents, the paper presents a classification of how technology is interpreted in the social sphere and search channel efforts to show how a broader understanding can contribute to better interpretations of how scientific and technological development influences the environment in which we operate. The text also presents a particular point of view for the interpretation of the concept from the analysis throughout the whole work.
Keywords: Technology, conceptions of technology, technological myths, definition of technology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1397
2641 Definition in Law: Transgender Identities and Marriage
Authors: Kimberly Tao
This paper looks at transgender identities and the law in the context of marriage. It particularly focuses on the role of language and definition in classifying transgendered individuals into a legal category. Two lines of cases in transgender jurisprudence are examined. The former cases decided the definition of 'man' and 'woman' on the basis of biological criteria while the latter cases held that biological factors should not be the sole criterion for defining a man or a woman. Three categories were found to classify transgender people, namely male, female and "monstrous". Since transgender people challenge the core gender distinction that the law stresses, they are often regarded as problematic and monstrous which caused them to be subjected to severe legal consequences. This paper discusses these issues by analyzing and comparing different cases in transgender jurisprudence as well as examining how these issues play out in contemporary Hong Kong.
Keywords: Trangender, Monstrousness, Categorization, Definition.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2093
2640 Solving Definition and Relation Problems in English Navigation Terminology
Authors: Ayşe Yurdakul, Eckehard Schnieder
Because of the increasing multidisciplinarity and multilinguality, communication problems in different technical fields grow more and more. Therefore, each technical field has its own specific language, terminology which is characterized by the different definition of terms. In addition to definition problems, there are also relation problems between terms. Among these problems of relation, there are the synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy/hyponymy, ambiguity, risk of confusion and translation problems etc.
Thus, the terminology management system iglos of the Institute for Traffic Safety and Automation Engineering of the Technische Universität Braunschweig has the target to solve these problems by a methodological standardisation of term definitions with the aid of the iglos sign model and iglos relation types. The focus of this paper should be on solving definition and relation problems between terms in English navigation terminology.
Keywords: Iglos, iglos sign model, methodological resolutions, navigation terminology, common language, technical language, positioning, definition problems, relation problems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1536
2639 Software Engineering Interoperable Environment for University Process Workflow and Document Management
Authors: Bekim Fetaji, Majlinda Fetaji, Mirlinda Ebibi
Abstract:The objective of the research was focused on the design, development and evaluation of a sustainable web based network system to be used as an interoperable environment for University process workflow and document management. In this manner the most of the process workflows in Universities can be entirely realized electronically and promote integrated University. Definition of the most used University process workflows enabled creating electronic workflows and their execution on standard workflow execution engines. Definition or reengineering of workflows provided increased work efficiency and helped in having standardized process through different faculties. The concept and the process definition as well as the solution applied as Case study are evaluated and findings are reported.
Keywords: design process workflows, workflow and documentmanagement, Business Process, software engineeringProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1182
2638 Universal Metadata Definition
Authors: Mohib ur Rehman, Mohammad Haseeb Anwer, Nadeem Iftikhar
Abstract:The need to have standards has always been a priority of all the disciplines in the world. Today, standards such as XML and USB are trying to create a universal interface for their respective areas. The information regarding every family in the discipline addressed, must have a lot in common, known as Metadata. A lot of work has been done in specific domains such as IEEE LOM and MPEG-7 but they do not appeal to the universality of creating Metadata for all entities, where we take an entity (object) as, not restricted to Software Terms. This paper tries to address this problem of universal Metadata Definition which may lead to increase in precision of search.
Keywords: Metadata, Standard, Universal, XML.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1611
2637 Classification of Construction Projects
Authors: M. Safa, A. Sabet, S. MacGillivray, M. Davidson, K. Kaczmarczyk, C. T. Haas, G. E. Gibson, D. Rayside
Abstract:In order to address construction project requirements and specifications, scholars and practitioners need to establish taxonomy according to a scheme that best fits their need. While existing characterization methods are continuously being improved, new ones are devised to cover project properties which have not been previously addressed. One such method, the Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI), has received limited consideration strictly as a classification scheme. Developed by the Construction Industry Institute (CII) in 1996, the PDRI has been refined over the last two decades as a method for evaluating a project's scope definition completeness during front-end planning (FEP). The main contribution of this study is a review of practical project classification methods, and a discussion of how PDRI can be used to classify projects based on their readiness in the FEP phase. The proposed model has been applied to 59 construction projects in Ontario, and the results are discussed.
Keywords: Project classification, project definition rating index (PDRI), project goals alignment, risk.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4998
2636 Beyond Taguchi’s Concept of the Quality Loss Function
Authors: Atul Dev, Pankaj Jha
Dr. Genichi Taguchi looked at quality in a broader term and gave an excellent definition of quality in terms of loss to society. However the scope of this definition is limited to the losses imparted by a poor quality product to the customer only and are considered during the useful life of the product and further in a certain situation this loss can even be zero. In this paper, it has been proposed that the scope of quality of a product shall be further enhanced by considering the losses imparted by a poor quality product to society at large, due to associated environmental and safety related factors, over the complete life cycle of the product. Moreover, though these losses can be further minimized with the use of techno-safety interventions, the net losses to society however can never be made zero. This paper proposes an entirely new approach towards defining product quality and is based on Taguchi’s definition of quality.
Keywords: Existing concept, goal post philosophy, life cycle, proposed concept, quality loss function.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1662
2635 Government (Big) Data Ecosystem: Definition, Classification of Actors, and Their Roles
Authors: Syed Iftikhar Hussain Shah, Vasilis Peristeras, Ioannis Magnisalis
Organizations, including governments, generate (big) data that are high in volume, velocity, veracity, and come from a variety of sources. Public Administrations are using (big) data, implementing base registries, and enforcing data sharing within the entire government to deliver (big) data related integrated services, provision of insights to users, and for good governance. Government (Big) data ecosystem actors represent distinct entities that provide data, consume data, manipulate data to offer paid services, and extend data services like data storage, hosting services to other actors. In this research work, we perform a systematic literature review. The key objectives of this paper are to propose a robust definition of government (big) data ecosystem and a classification of government (big) data ecosystem actors and their roles. We showcase a graphical view of actors, roles, and their relationship in the government (big) data ecosystem. We also discuss our research findings. We did not find too much published research articles about the government (big) data ecosystem, including its definition and classification of actors and their roles. Therefore, we lent ideas for the government (big) data ecosystem from numerous areas that include scientific research data, humanitarian data, open government data, industry data, in the literature.
Keywords: Big data, big data ecosystem, classification of big data actors, big data actors roles, definition of government (big) data ecosystem, data-driven government, eGovernment, gaps in data ecosystems, government (big) data, public administration, systematic literature review.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1627
2634 Definition of Cognitive Infocommunications and an Architectural Implementation of Cognitive Infocommunications Systems
Authors: Peter Baranyi, Gyorgy Persa, Adam Csapo
Abstract:Cognitive Infocommunications (CogInfoCom) is a new research direction which has emerged as the synergic convergence of infocommunications and the cognitive sciences. In this paper, we provide the definition of CogInfoCom, and propose an architectural framework for the interaction-oriented design of CogInfoCom systems. We provide the outlines of an application example of the interaction-oriented architecture, and briefly discuss its main characteristics.
Keywords: Cognitive infocommunications, CogInfoCom, Cognitive Infocommunication Channels, CogInfoCom channelsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1625
2633 Defining Programming Problems as Learning Objects
Authors: José Paulo Leal, Ricardo Queirós
Abstract:Standards for learning objects focus primarily on content presentation. They were already extended to support automatic evaluation but it is limited to exercises with a predefined set of answers. The existing standards lack the metadata required by specialized evaluators to handle types of exercises with an indefinite set of solutions. To address this issue existing learning object standards were extended to the particular requirements of a specialized domain. A definition of programming problems as learning objects, compatible both with Learning Management Systems and with systems performing automatic evaluation of programs, is presented in this paper. The proposed definition includes metadata that cannot be conveniently represented using existing standards, such as: the type of automatic evaluation; the requirements of the evaluation engine; and the roles of different assets - tests cases, program solutions, etc. The EduJudge project and its main services are also presented as a case study on the use of the proposed definition of programming problems as learning objects.
Keywords: Content Packaging, eLearning Services, Interoperability, Learning Objects.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1436
2632 Compensation–Based Current Decomposition
Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mircea Dobriceanu
Abstract:This paper deals with the current space-vector decomposition in three-phase, three-wire systems on the basis of some case studies. We propose four components of the current spacevector in terms of DC and AC components of the instantaneous active and reactive powers. The term of supplementary useless current vector is also pointed out. The analysis shows that the current decomposition which respects the definition of the instantaneous apparent power vector is useful for compensation reasons only if the supply voltages are sinusoidal. A modified definition of the components of the current is proposed for the operation under nonsinusoidal voltage conditions.
Keywords: Active current, Active filtering, p–q theory, Reactive current.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1384
2631 A Methodology for Definition of Road Networks in Rural Areas of Nepal
Authors: J. K. Shrestha, A. Benta, R. B. Lopes, N. Lopes
Abstract:This work provides a practical method for the development of rural road networks in rural areas of developing countries. The proposed methodology enables to determine obligatory points in the rural road network maximizing the number of settlements that have access to basic services within a given maximum distance. The proposed methodology is simple and practical, hence, highly applicable to real-world scenarios, as demonstrated in the definition of the road network for the rural areas of Nepal.
Keywords: Minimum spanning tree, nodal points, rural road network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2725
2630 Database Modelling Using WSML in the Specification of a Banking Application
Authors: Omid Sharifi, Member, ACM, Zeki Bayram, Member, ACM
Abstract:We demonstrate through a sample application, Ebanking, that the Web Service Modelling Language Ontology component can be used as a very powerful object-oriented database design language with logic capabilities. Its conceptual syntax allows the definition of class hierarchies, and logic syntax allows the definition of constraints in the database. Relations, which are available for modelling relations of three or more concepts, can be connected to logical expressions, allowing the implicit specification of database content. Using a reasoning tool, logic queries can also be made against the database in simulation mode.
Keywords: Semantic web, ontology, E-banking, database, WSML, WSMO, E-R diagram.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1804
2629 A Review of Survey Methodology Employedin IT Outsourcing
Authors: B. Terzioglu, E.S.K. Chan
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on methodological aspects of the information technology outsourcing (ITO) surveys, in an attempt to improve the data quality and reporting in survey research. It is based on a review of thirty articles on ITO surveys and focuses on two commonly explored dimensions of ITO, namely what are outsourced and why should there be ITO. This study highlights weaknesses in ITO surveys including lack of a clear definition of population, lack of information regarding the sampling method used, not citing the response rate, no information pertaining to pilot testing of survey instrument and absence of information on internal validity in the use or reporting of surveys. This study represents an attempt with a limited scope to point to shortfalls in the use survey methodology in ITO, and thus raise awareness among researchers in enhancing the reliability of survey findings.
Keywords: ITO, information technology outsourcing, survey methodologyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1744
2628 Roles and Responsibilities to Success of IT Project in an Organization
Authors: Vahhab Attar Olyaee, Fouad Attar Olyaee
Abstract:Many IT projects come to failure because of having technical approach, focusing on the final product and lack of proper attention to strategic alignment. Project management models quite often have technical management view , , , . These models focus greatly on the finalization of the project product and the delivery of the product to the customer. However, many project problems are due to lack of attention to the needs and capabilities of the organizations or disregarding how to deploy and use the product in the organization. In this regard, in the current research we are trying to present a solution with the purpose of raising the value of the project in an organization. This way, the project outputs will be properly deployed in the organization. Therefore, a comprehensive model is presented which takes into account the whole processes from initial step of project definition to the deployment of the final outputs in the organization and then the definition of all roles and responsibilities to put the model into practice. Taking into account the opinions of experts and project managers, to prove the performance of the model, the project problems were recognized and based on the model, categorized and analyzed. And at the end it is made clear that ignoring the proper definition of the project and not having a proper understanding of the expected value on the one hand and not supervising the emerged value in the process of production and installment are among the most important factors that bring a project to failure.
Keywords: IT Governance, Project Model, Roles and Responsibilities of ProjectProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1490
2627 The Consumer Private Space: What is and How it can be Approached without Affecting the Consumer's Privacy
Authors: Calin Veghes
The concept of privacy, seen in connection to the consumer's private space and personalization, has recently gained a higher importance as a consequence of the increasing marketing efforts of the organizations based on the capturing, processing and usage of consumer-s personal data.Paper intends to provide a definition of the consumer-s private space based on the types of personal data the consumer is willing to disclose, to assess the attitude toward personalization and to identify the means preferred by consumers to control their personal data and defend their private space. Several implications generated through the definition of the consumer-s private space are identified and weighted from both the consumers- and organizations- perspectives.
Keywords: Consumer private space, personalization, privacy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1435
2626 Extending the Quantum Entropy to Multidimensional Signal Processing
Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel
Abstract:This paper treats different aspects of entropy measure in classical information theory and statistical quantum mechanics, it presents the possibility of extending the definition of Von Neumann entropy to image and array processing. In the first part, we generalize the quantum entropy using singular values of arbitrary rectangular matrices to measure the randomness and the quality of denoising operation, this new definition of entropy can be implemented to compare the performance analysis of filtering methods. In the second part, we apply the concept of pure state in quantum formalism to generalize the maximum entropy method for narrowband and farfield source localization problem. Several computer simulation results are illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.
Keywords: Von Neumann entropy, Filtering, array, DoA, Maximum Entropy Method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2382
2625 Shannon-Weaver Biodiversity of Neutrophils in Fractal Networks of Immunofluorescence for Medical Diagnostics
Abstract:We develop new nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence analysis for a sensitive technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence due to oxidative activity in the peripheral blood neutrophils. Histograms in flow cytometry experiments represent a fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of fluorescence intensity. We used the Shannon-Weaver index for definition of neutrophils- biodiversity and Hurst index for definition of fractal-s correlations in immunofluorescence for different donors, as the basic quantitative criteria for medical diagnostics of health status. We analyze frequencies of flashes, information, Shannon entropies and their fractals in immunofluorescence networks due to reduction of histogram range. We found the number of simplest universal correlations for biodiversity, information and Hurst index in diagnostics and classification of pathologies for wide spectra of diseases. In addition is determined the clear criterion of a common immunity and human health status in a form of yes/no answers type. These answers based on peculiarities of information in immunofluorescence networks and biodiversity of neutrophils. Experimental data analysis has shown the existence of homeostasis for information entropy in oxidative activity of DNA in neutrophil nuclei for all donors.
Keywords: blood and cells fluorescence in diagnostics ofdiseases, cytometric histograms, entropy and information in fractalnetworks of oxidative activity of DNA, long-range chromosomalcorrelations in living cells.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1579
2624 Proposal of Design Method in the Semi-Acausal System Model
Authors: Junji Kaneko, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Tadayuki Kyoutani, Siti Ruhana Omar, Oke Oktavianty
This study is used as a definition method to the value and function in manufacturing sector. In concurrence of discussion about present condition of modeling method, until now definition of 1D-CAE is ambiguity and not conceptual. Across all the physic fields, those methods are defined with the formulation of differential algebraic equation which only applied time derivation and simulation. At the same time, we propose semi-acausal modeling concept and differential algebraic equation method as a newly modeling method which the efficiency has been verified through the comparison of numerical analysis result between the semi-acausal modeling calculation and FEM theory calculation.
Keywords: System Model, Physical Models, Empirical Models, Conservation Law, Differential Algebraic Equation, Object-Oriented.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2039
2623 Research on Software Security Testing
Authors: Gu Tian-yang, Shi Yin-sheng, Fang You-yuan
Software security testing is an important means to ensure software security and trustiness. This paper first mainly discusses the definition and classification of software security testing, and investigates methods and tools of software security testing widely. Then it analyzes and concludes the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and the scope of application, presents a taxonomy of security testing tools. Finally, the paper points out future focus and development directions of software security testing technology.
Keywords: security testing, security functional testing, securityvulnerability testing, testing method, testing toolProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4891
2622 The Nature of Intelligence and Its Forms: An Ontological-Modeling Approach
Authors: Husam El-Asfour, Fateh Adhnouss, Kenneth McIsaac, AbdulMutalib Wahaishi, Raafat Aburukba, Idris El-Feghia
Although intelligence is commonly referred to as the observable behavior in various fields and domains, it must also be shown how it develops by exhibiting multiple forms and without observing the inherent behavior. There have been several official and informal definitions of intelligence in various areas; however, no scientific agreement on a definition has been agreed upon. There must be a single definition, structure, and precise modeling for articulating how intelligence is perceived by people and machines in order to comprehend intelligence. Another key challenge is defining the different environment types based on the integral elements (agents) and their possible interactions. On the basis of conceptualization, this paper proposes a formal model for defining and developing intelligence. Forms of intelligence are derived from an ontological view, and thus intelligence is defined, described, and modeled based on the various types of environments.
Keywords: Intelligence, forms, transformation, conceptualization, ontological view.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 73
2621 The CommonSense Platform for Conducting Multiple Participant Field-Experiments Using Mobile-Phones
Authors: Y. Hoffner, Y. Rusho, S. Rubach, S. Abargil
This paper presents CommonSense, a platform that provides researchers with the infrastructure and tools that enable the efficient and smooth creation, execution and processing of multiple participant experiments taking place outside the laboratory environment. The platform provides the infrastructure and tools to accompany the researchers throughout the life cycle of an experiment – from its inception, through its execution, to its processing and termination. The approach of our platform is based on providing a comprehensive solution, which puts emphasis on the support for the entire life-cycle of an experiment, starting from its definition, the setting up and the configuration of the platform, through the management of the experiment itself and its post processing. Some of the components that support those processes are constructed and configured automatically from the experiment definition.
Keywords: Mobile applications, mobile experiments, web experiments, software system architecture.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 222
2620 Identifying Critical Success Factors for Data Quality Management through a Delphi Study
Authors: Maria Paula Santos, Ana Lucas
Organizations support their operations and decision making on the data they have at their disposal, so the quality of these data is remarkably important and Data Quality (DQ) is currently a relevant issue, the literature being unanimous in pointing out that poor DQ can result in large costs for organizations. The literature review identified and described 24 Critical Success Factors (CSF) for Data Quality Management (DQM) that were presented to a panel of experts, who ordered them according to their degree of importance, using the Delphi method with the Q-sort technique, based on an online questionnaire. The study shows that the five most important CSF for DQM are: definition of appropriate policies and standards, control of inputs, definition of a strategic plan for DQ, organizational culture focused on quality of the data and obtaining top management commitment and support.
Keywords: Critical success factors, data quality, data quality management, Delphi, Q-Sort.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 901
2619 The Transfer of Energy Technologies in a Developing Country Context Towards Improved Practice from Past Successes and Failures
Authors: Lindiwe O. K. Mabuza, Alan C. Brent, Maxwell Mapako
Technology transfer of renewable energy technologies is very often unsuccessful in the developing world. Aside from challenges that have social, economic, financial, institutional and environmental dimensions, technology transfer has generally been misunderstood, and largely seen as mere delivery of high tech equipment from developed to developing countries or within the developing world from R&D institutions to society. Technology transfer entails much more, including, but not limited to: entire systems and their component parts, know-how, goods and services, equipment, and organisational and managerial procedures. Means to facilitate the successful transfer of energy technologies, including the sharing of lessons are subsequently extremely important for developing countries as they grapple with increasing energy needs to sustain adequate economic growth and development. Improving the success of technology transfer is an ongoing process as more projects are implemented, new problems are encountered and new lessons are learnt. Renewable energy is also critical to improve the quality of lives of the majority of people in developing countries. In rural areas energy is primarily traditional biomass. The consumption activities typically occur in an inefficient manner, thus working against the notion of sustainable development. This paper explores the implementation of technology transfer in the developing world (sub-Saharan Africa). The focus is necessarily on RETs since most rural energy initiatives are RETs-based. Additionally, it aims to highlight some lessons drawn from the cited RE projects and identifies notable differences where energy technology transfer was judged to be successful. This is done through a literature review based on a selection of documented case studies which are judged against the definition provided for technology transfer. This paper also puts forth research recommendations that might contribute to improved technology transfer in the developing world. Key findings of this paper include: Technology transfer cannot be complete without satisfying pre-conditions such as: affordability, maintenance (and associated plans), knowledge and skills transfer, appropriate know how, ownership and commitment, ability to adapt technology, sound business principles such as financial viability and sustainability, project management, relevance and many others. It is also shown that lessons are learnt in both successful and unsuccessful projects.
Keywords: Technology transfer, technology management, renewable energy, sustainable development.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1488
2618 Modern State of the Universal Modeling for Centrifugal Compressors
Authors: Y. Galerkin, K. Soldatova, A. Drozdov
The 6th version of Universal modeling method for centrifugal compressor stage calculation is described. Identification of the new mathematical model was made. As a result of identification the uniform set of empirical coefficients is received. The efficiency definition error is 0,86 % at a design point. The efficiency definition error at five flow rate points (except a point of the maximum flow rate) is 1,22 %. Several variants of the stage with 3D impellers designed by 6th version program and quasi threedimensional calculation programs were compared by their gas dynamic performances CFD (NUMECA FINE TURBO). Performance comparison demonstrated general principles of design validity and leads to some design recommendations.
Keywords: Compressor design, loss model, performance prediction, test data, model stages, flow rate coefficient, work coefficient.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1734
2617 Exploitation of Public Technology for Industrial Use
Authors: Seongykyoon Jeong, Sungki Lee, Jaeyun Kim, Seunghun Oh, Kiho Kwak
The purpose of study is to demonstrate how the characteristics of technology and the process required for development of technology affect technology transfer from public organisations to industry on the technology level. In addition, using the advantage of the analytic level and the novel means of measuring technology convergence, we examine the characteristics of converging technologies as compared to non-converging technologies in technology transfer process. In sum, our study finds that a technology from the public sector is likely to be transferred when its readiness level is closer to generation of profit, when its stage of life cycle is early and when its economic values is high. Our findings also show that converging technologies are less likely to be transferred.
Keywords: Interdisciplinary, Technology transfer, Technology convergence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1561
2616 The Occurrence of Fungi in Activated Sludge from MBRs
Authors: Mohamed F. Awad, M. Kraume
Abstract:The objective of this study is to evaluate the occurrence of fungi in aerobic and anoxic activated sludge from membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Thirty-six samples of both aerobic and anoxic activated sludge were taken from 2 MBR treating domestic wastewater. Over a period of eight months 2 samples from each plant were taken per month. The samples were prepared for count and definition of fungi. The obtained data show that, sixty species belonging to 27 genera were collected from activated sludge samples under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Regarding to the fungi definition, under aerobic condition the Geotrichum was found at (8.8%) followed by Penicillium (75.0%), Yeasts (65.7%) and Trichoderma (55.5%), while Yeasts (77.1%) Geotrichum candidumand Penicillium (61.1%) species were the most prevalent in anoxic activated sludge. The results indicate that activated sludge is habitat for growth and sporulation of different groups of fungi, both saprophytic and pathogenic.
Keywords: Aerobic conditions, Anoxic conditions, Activated sludge, Membrane bioreactor, Fungi.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2014
2615 Application the Statistical Conditional Entropy Function for Definition of Cause-and-Effect Relations during Primary Soil Formation
Authors: Vladimir K. Mukhomorov
Abstract:Within the framework of a method of the information theory it is offered statistics and probabilistic model for definition of cause-and-effect relations in the coupled multicomponent subsystems. The quantitative parameter which is defined through conditional and unconditional entropy functions is introduced. The method is applied to the analysis of the experimental data on dynamics of change of the chemical elements composition of plants organs (roots, reproductive organs, leafs and stems). Experiment is directed on studying of temporal processes of primary soil formation and their connection with redistribution dynamics of chemical elements in plant organs. This statistics and probabilistic model allows also quantitatively and unambiguously to specify the directions of the information streams on plant organs.
Keywords: Chemical elements, entropy function, information, plants.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1261