Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 740

Search results for: civil protection.

740 Volunteers’ Preparedness for Natural Disasters and EVANDE Project

Authors: A. Kourou, A. Ioakeimidou, E. Bafa, C. Fassoulas, M. Panoutsopoulou

Abstract:

The role of volunteers in disaster management is of decisive importance and the need of their involvement is well recognized, both for prevention measures and for disaster management. During major catastrophes, whereas professional personnel are outsourced, the role of volunteers is crucial. In Greece experience has shown that various groups operating in the civil protection mechanism like local administration staff or volunteers, in many cases do not have the necessary knowledge and information on best practices to act against natural disasters. One of the major problems is the lack of volunteers’ education and training. In the above given framework, this paper presents the results of a survey aimed to identify the level of education and preparedness of civil protection volunteers in Greece. Furthermore, the implementation of earthquake protection measures at individual, family and working level, are explored. More specifically, the survey questionnaire investigates issues regarding pre-earthquake protection actions, appropriate attitudes and behaviors during an earthquake and existence of contingency plans in the workplace. The questionnaires were administered to citizens from different regions of the country and who attend the civil protection training program: “Protect Myself and Others”. A closed-form questionnaire was developed for the survey, which contained questions regarding the following: a) knowledge of self-protective actions; b) existence of emergency planning at home; c) existence of emergency planning at workplace (hazard mitigation actions, evacuation plan, and performance of drills); and, d) respondents` perception about their level of earthquake preparedness. The results revealed a serious lack of knowledge and preparedness among respondents. Taking into consideration the aforementioned gap and in order to raise awareness and improve preparedness and effective response of volunteers acting in civil protection, the EVANDE project was submitted and approved by the European Commission (EC). The aim of that project is to educate and train civil protection volunteers on the most serious natural disasters, such as forest fires, floods, and earthquakes, and thus, increase their performance.

Keywords: Civil protection, earthquake preparedness, volunteers.

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739 Infrastructure means for Adaptive Camouflage

Authors: Jiri Barta, Albert Srnik

Abstract:

The paper deals with the perspectives and possibilities of "smart solutions" to critical infrastructure protection. It means that common computer aided technologies are used from the perspective of new, better protection of selected infrastructure objects. The paper is focused on the co-product of the Czech Defence Research Project - ADAPTIV. This project is carrying out by the University of Defence, Faculty of Economics and Management at the Department of Civil Protection. The project creates system and technology for adaptive cybernetic camouflage of armed forces objects, armaments, vehicles and troops and of mobilization infrastructure. These adaptive camouflage system and technology will be useful for army tactic activities protection and for decoys generation also. The fourth chapter of the paper concerns the possibilities of using the introduced technology to the protection of selected civil (economically important), critical infrastructure objects. The aim of this section is to introduce the scientific capabilities and potential of the University of Defence research results and solutions for the practice.

Keywords: ADAPTIV, Adaptive camouflage technology, CAMouflage, Cybernetic Active Camouflage

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738 Vr-GIS and Ar-GIS In Education: A Case Study

Authors: Ilario Gabriele Gerloni, Vincenza Carchiolo, Alessandro Longheu, Ugo Becciani, Eva Sciacca, Fabio Vitello

Abstract:

ICT tools and platforms endorse more and more educational process. Many models and techniques for people to be educated and trained about specific topics and skills do exist, as classroom lectures with textbooks, computers, handheld devices and others. The choice to what extent ICT is applied within learning contexts is related to personal access to technologies as well as to the infrastructure surrounding environment. Among recent techniques, the adoption of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) provides significant impulse in fully engaging users senses. In this paper, an application of AR/VR within Geographic Information Systems (GIS) context is presented. It aims to provide immersive environment experiences for educational and training purposes (e.g. for civil protection personnel), useful especially for situations where real scenarios are not easily accessible by humans. First acknowledgments are promising for building an effective tool that helps civil protection personnel training with risk reduction.

Keywords: Education, virtual reality, augmented reality, civil protection.

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737 Strengthening Legal Protection of Personal Data through Technical Protection Regulation in Line with Human Rights

Authors: Tomy Prihananto, Damar Apri Sudarmadi

Abstract:

Indonesia recognizes the right to privacy as a human right. Indonesia provides legal protection against data management activities because the protection of personal data is a part of human rights. This paper aims to describe the arrangement of data management and data management in Indonesia. This paper is a descriptive research with qualitative approach and collecting data from literature study. Results of this paper are comprehensive arrangement of data that have been set up as a technical requirement of data protection by encryption methods. Arrangements on encryption and protection of personal data are mutually reinforcing arrangements in the protection of personal data. Indonesia has two important and immediately enacted laws that provide protection for the privacy of information that is part of human rights.

Keywords: Indonesia, protection, personal data, privacy, human rights, encryption.

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736 File System-Based Data Protection Approach

Authors: Jaechun No

Abstract:

As data to be stored in storage subsystems tremendously increases, data protection techniques have become more important than ever, to provide data availability and reliability. In this paper, we present the file system-based data protection (WOWSnap) that has been implemented using WORM (Write-Once-Read-Many) scheme. In the WOWSnap, once WORM files have been created, only the privileged read requests to them are allowed to protect data against any intentional/accidental intrusions. Furthermore, all WORM files are related to their protection cycle that is a time period during which WORM files should securely be protected. Once their protection cycle is expired, the WORM files are automatically moved to the general-purpose data section without any user interference. This prevents the WORM data section from being consumed by unnecessary files. We evaluated the performance of WOWSnap on Linux cluster.

Keywords: Data protection, Protection cycle, WORM

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735 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: ESD (Electro-Static Discharge), SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), holding Voltage.

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734 Pilot Directional Protection Scheme Using Wireless Communication

Authors: Nitish Sharma, G. G. Karady

Abstract:

This paper presents a scheme for the protection of loop system from all type of faults using the direction of fault current. The presence of distributed generation in today’s system increases the complexity of fault detection as the power flow is bidirectional. Hence, protection scheme specific to this purpose needs to be developed. This paper shows a fast protection scheme using communication which can be fiber optic or wireless. In this paper, the possibility of wireless communication for protection is studied to exchange the information between the relays. The negative sequence and positive sequence directional elements are used to determine the direction of fault current. A PSCAD simulation is presented and validated using commercial SEL relays.

Keywords: Smart grid protection, pilot protection, power system simulation, wireless communication.

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733 Unequal Error Protection for Region of Interest with Embedded Zerotree Wavelet

Authors: T. Hirner, J. Polec

Abstract:

This paper describes a new method of unequal error protection (UEP) for region of interest (ROI) with embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm (EZW). ROI technique is important in applications with different parts of importance. In ROI coding, a chosen ROI is encoded with higher quality than the background (BG). Unequal error protection of image is provided by different coding techniques. In our proposed method, image is divided into two parts (ROI, BG) that consist of more important bytes (MIB) and less important bytes (LIB). The experimental results verify effectiveness of the design. The results of our method demonstrate the comparison of the unequal error protection (UEP) of image transmission with defined ROI and the equal error protection (EEP) over multiple noisy channels.

Keywords: embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW), equal error protection (EEP), region of interest (ROI), RS code, unequal error protection (UEP)

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732 Research on the Protection and Reuse Model of Historical Buildings in Chinese Airports

Authors: Jie Ouyang, Chen Nie

Abstract:

China had constructed a large number of military and civilian airports before and after World War II, and then began large-scale repairs, reconstructions or relocation of airports after the baptism of wars after World War I and World War II. The airport's historical area and its historical buildings such as terminals, hangars, and towers have adopted different protection strategies and reuse application strategies. This paper is based on the judgment of the value of airport historical buildings to study different protection and reuse strategies. The protection and reuse models of historical buildings are classified in three dimensions: the airport historical area, the airport historical building complex and its individual buildings, and combined with specific examples to discuss and summarize the technical characteristics, protection strategies and successful experiences of different modes of protection and reuse of historical areas and historical buildings of airports.

Keywords: Airport, airport area, historic airport building, protection, reuse model.

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731 Protection Plan of Medium Voltage Distribution Network in Tunisia

Authors: S. Chebbi, A. Meddeb

Abstract:

The distribution networks are often exposed to harmful incidents which can halt the electricity supply of the customer. In this context, we studied a real case of a critical zone of the Tunisian network which is currently characterized by the dysfunction of its plan of protection. In this paper, we were interested in the harmonization of the protection plan settings in order to ensure a perfect selectivity and a better continuity of service on the whole of the network.

Keywords: Distribution network Gabes-Tunisia, NEPLAN©DACH, protection plan settings, selectivity.

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730 Production Structures of Energy Based on Water Force, Its Infrastructure Protection, and Possible Causes of Failure

Authors: Gabriela-Andreea Despescu, Mădălina-Elena Mavrodin, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Florin Adrian Grădinaru

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the enhancement of a hydroelectric plant protection by coordinating protection measures / existing security and introducing new measures under a risk management process. In addition, plan identifies key critical elements of a hydroelectric plant, from its level vulnerabilities and threats it is subjected to in order to achieve the necessary protection measures to reduce the level of risk.

Keywords: Critical infrastructure, risk analysis, critical infrastructure protection, vulnerability, risk management, turbine, Impact analysis.

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729 Motion Protection System Design for a Parallel Motion Platform

Authors: Dongsu Wu, Hongbin Gu

Abstract:

A motion protection system is designed for a parallel motion platform with subsided cabin. Due to its complex structure, parallel mechanism is easy to encounter interference problems including link length limits, joints limits and self-collision. Thus a virtual spring algorithm in operational space is developed for the motion protection system to avoid potential damages caused by interference. Simulation results show that the proposed motion protection system can effectively eliminate interference problems and ensure safety of the whole motion platform.

Keywords: Motion protection, motion platform, parallelmechanism, Stewart platform, collision avoidance.

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728 The Use of Crisis Workplace Technology to Protect Communication Processes of Critical Infrastructure

Authors: Jiri Barta, Jiri F. Urbanek

Abstract:

This paper deals with a protection of the national and European infrastructure. It is issue nowadays. The paper deals with the perspectives and possibilities of "smart solutions" to critical infrastructure protection. The research project deals with computers aided technologies are used from the perspective of new, better protection of selected infrastructure objects. Protection is focused on communication and information channels. These communication and information channels are very important for the functioning of the system of protection of critical infrastructure elements.

Keywords: Interoperability, Communication systems, Controlling Process, Critical Infrastructure, Crisis Workplaces. Continuity.

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727 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3 and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, Holding voltage, Latch-up.

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726 Big Data: Big Challenges to Privacy and Data Protection

Authors: Abu Bakar Munir, Siti Hajar Mohd Yasin, Firdaus Muhammad-Sukki

Abstract:

This paper seeks to analyse the benefits of big data and more importantly the challenges it pose to the subject of privacy and data protection. First, the nature of big data will be briefly deliberated before presenting the potential of big data in the present days. Afterwards, the issue of privacy and data protection is highlighted before discussing the challenges of implementing this issue in big data. In conclusion, the paper will put forward the debate on the adequacy of the existing legal framework in protecting personal data in the era of big data.

Keywords: Big data, data protection, information, privacy.

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725 A Generalized Coordination Setting Method for Distribution Systems with Closed-loop

Authors: Kang-Le Guan, Seung-Jae Lee, Myeon-Song Choi

Abstract:

The protection issues in distribution systems with open and closed-loop are studied, and a generalized protection setting scheme based on the traditional over current protection theories is proposed to meet the new requirements. The setting method is expected to be easier realized using computer program, so that the on-line adaptive setting for coordination in distribution system can be implemented. An automatic setting program is created and several cases are taken into practice. The setting results are verified by the coordination curves of the protective devices which are plotted using MATLAB.

Keywords: protection setting, on-line system analysis, over current protection, closed-loop distribution system

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724 Challenges in Anti-Counterfeiting of Cyber-Physical Systems

Authors: Daniel Kliewe, Arno Kühn, Roman Dumitrescu, Jürgen Gausemeier

Abstract:

This paper examines the system protection for cyber-physical systems (CPS). CPS are particularly characterized by their networking system components. This means they are able to adapt to the needs of their users and its environment. With this ability, CPS have new, specific requirements on the protection against anti-counterfeiting, know-how loss and manipulation. They increase the requirements on system protection because piracy attacks can be more diverse, for example because of an increasing number of interfaces or through the networking abilities. The new requirements were identified and in a next step matched with existing protective measures. Due to the found gap the development of new protection measures has to be forced to close this gap. Moreover a comparison of the effectiveness between selected measures was realized and the first results are presented in this paper.

Keywords: Anti-counterfeiting, cyber physical systems, Intellectual property (IP) and knowledge management, system protection.

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723 Rural Tourism Planning from the Perspective of Water Resource Protection and Regional Integration: Taking Villages along Tongji Lake as an Example

Authors: Pianpian Zhang, Qingping Luo

Abstract:

Currently, there is a great tendency that more and more villages in China are trying to increase income by development of tourism. Especially in Zhejiang Province, 'Beautiful Rural Construction' provides an excellent opportunity for the development of tourism. In this context, development orientation, transportation routes and tourism service facilities are analyzed under the perspective of water resources protection and regional integration based on the development tourism industry of the six villages in Pujiang County, Zhejiang Province as a research object. In the program, the biggest issue is the contradiction between the ecological protection of the water and the development of economy. How to deal with the relationship between protection and development is the key to the design of this case. Furthermore, the six villages are regarded as a whole, connecting to each other by the system of five-path and the landscape along the lake. Every village has its own features, but cannot develop without one another. The article is actively exploring for suggestions and countermeasures to promote the development premised on protection and based on a regional view.

Keywords: Development, integration, protection, rural tourism.

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722 Recognition and Protection of Indigenous Society in Indonesia

Authors: Triyanto, Rima Vien Permata Hartanto

Abstract:

Indonesia is a legal state. The consequence of this status is the recognition and protection of the existence of indigenous peoples. This paper aims to describe the dynamics of legal recognition and protection for indigenous peoples within the framework of Indonesian law. This paper is library research based on literature. The result states that although the constitution has normatively recognized the existence of indigenous peoples and their traditional rights, in reality, not all rights were recognized and protected. The protection and recognition for indigenous people need to be strengthened.

Keywords: Indigenous peoples, customary law, state law, state of law.

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721 Lightning Protection Systems Design for Substations by Using Masts and Matlab

Authors: Le Viet Dung, K. Petcharaks

Abstract:

The economical criterion is accounted as the objective function to develop a computer program for designing lightning protection systems for substations by using masts and Matlab in this work. Masts are needed to be placed at desired locations; the program will then show mast heights whose sum is the smallest, i.e. satisfies the economical criterion. The program is helpful for engineers to quickly design a lightning protection system for a substation. To realize this work, methodology and limited conditions of the program, as well as an example of the program result, were described in this paper.

Keywords: lightning, protection, substation, computer.

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720 An Approach in the Improvement of the Reliability of Impedance Relay

Authors: D. Ouahdi, R. Ladjeroud, I. Habi

Abstract:

The distance protection mainly the impedance relay which is considered as the main protection for transmission lines can be subjected to impedance measurement error which is, mainly, due to the fault resistance and to the power fluctuation. Thus, the impedance relay may not operate for a short circuit at the far end of the protected line (case of the under reach) or operates for a fault beyond its protected zone (case of overreach). In this paper, an approach to fault detection by a distance protection, which distinguishes between the faulty conditions and the effect of overload operation mode, has been developed. This approach is based on the symmetrical components; mainly the negative sequence, and it is taking into account both the effect of fault resistance and the overload situation which both have an effect upon the reliability of the protection in terms of dependability for the former and security for the latter.

Keywords: Distance Protection, Fault Detection, negative sequence, overload, Transmission line.

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719 Self-protection Method for Flying Robots to Avoid Collision

Authors: Guosheng Wu, Luning Wang, Changyuan Fan, Xi Zhu

Abstract:

This paper provides a new approach to solve the motion planning problems of flying robots in uncertain 3D dynamic environments. The robots controlled by this method can adaptively choose the fast way to avoid collision without information about the shapes and trajectories of obstacles. Based on sphere coordinates the new method accomplishes collision avoidance of flying robots without any other auxiliary positioning systems. The Self-protection System gives robots self-protection abilities to work in uncertain 3D dynamic environments. Simulations illustrate the validity of the proposed method.

Keywords: Collision avoidance, Mobile robots, Motion-planning, Sphere coordinates, Self-protection.

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718 Investigation on Some Ergonomics and Psychological Strains of Common Militarism Protective Clothing

Authors: A. Ashjaran, A. Rashidi, R. Ghazi-Saeidi

Abstract:

Protective clothing limits heat transfer and hampers task performance due to the increased weight. Militarism protective clothing enables humans to operate in adverse environments. In the selection and evaluation of militarism protective clothing attention should be given to heat strain, ergonomic and fit issues next to the actual protection it offers. Fifty Male healthy subjects participated in the study. The subjects were dressed in shorts, T-shirts, socks, sneakers and four deferent kinds of militarism protective clothing such as CS, CSB, CS with NBC protection and CS with NBC- protection added. Ergonomically and psychological strains of every four cloths were investigated on subjects by walking on a treadmill (7km/hour) with a 19.7 kg backpack. As a result of these tests were showed that, the highest heart rate was found wearing the NBC-protection added outfit, the highest temperatures were observed wearing NBCprotection added, followed by respectively CS with NBC protection, CSB and CS and the highest value for thermal comfort (implying worst thermal comfort) was observed wearing NBC-protection added.

Keywords: Militarist protective clothing, Ergonomic, Heat strain, Thermal comfort

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717 Role of Environmental Focus in Legal Protection and Efficient Management of Wetlands in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: K. R. Balabiyev, A. O. Kaipbayeva

Abstract:

The article discusses the legal framework of the government’s environmental function and analyzes the role of the national policy in protection of wetlands. The problem is of interest for it deals with the most important branch of economy – utilization of Kazakhstan’s natural resources, protection of health and environmental wellbeing of the population. Development of a longterm environmental program addressing the protection of wetlands represents the final stage of the government’s environmental policy, and is a relatively new function for the public administration system. It appeared due to the environmental measures that require immediate decisions to be taken. It is an integral part of the effort in the field of management of state-owned natural resource, as well as of the measures aimed at efficient management of natural resources to avoid their early depletion or contamination.

Keywords: Environmental focus, government’s environmental function, protection of wetlands.

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716 Unequal Error Protection of Facial Features for Personal ID Images Coding

Authors: T. Hirner, J. Polec

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for an unequal error protection of facial features of personal ID images coding. We consider unequal error protection (UEP) strategies for the efficient progressive transmission of embedded image codes over noisy channels. This new method is based on the progressive image compression embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithm and UEP technique with defined region of interest (ROI). In this case is ROI equal facial features within personal ID image. ROI technique is important in applications with different parts of importance. In ROI coding, a chosen ROI is encoded with higher quality than the background (BG). Unequal error protection of image is provided by different coding techniques and encoding LL band separately. In our proposed method, image is divided into two parts (ROI, BG) that consist of more important bytes (MIB) and less important bytes (LIB). The proposed unequal error protection of image transmission has shown to be more appropriate to low bit rate applications, producing better quality output for ROI of the compresses image. The experimental results verify effectiveness of the design. The results of our method demonstrate the comparison of the UEP of image transmission with defined ROI with facial features and the equal error protection (EEP) over additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) channel.

Keywords: Embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW), equal error protection (EEP), facial features, personal ID images, region of interest (ROI), unequal error protection (UEP)

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715 Simulation of Surge Protection for a Direct Current Circuit

Authors: Pedro Luis Ferrer Penalver, Edmundo da Silva Braga

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of a simple surge protection for a direct current circuit was simulated. The protection circuit was developed from modified electric macro models of a gas discharge tube and a transient voltage suppressor diode. Moreover, a combination wave generator circuit was used as source of energy surges. The simulations showed that the circuit presented ensures immunity corresponding with test level IV of the IEC 61000-4-5:2014 international standard. The developed circuit can be modified to meet the requirements of any other equipment to be protected. Similarly, the parameters of the combination wave generator can be changed to provide different surge amplitudes.

Keywords: Combination wave generator, IEC 61000-4-5, Pspice simulation, surge protection.

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714 Three Phase Fault Analysis of DC-Link Rectifier using new Power Differential Protection Concept

Authors: A. Gamil, G. Herold

Abstract:

The concept of differential protection based on current quantities has been discussed in many paper and researches. For certificating and inverting of currents and voltages through converter systems, there is no conventional current differential relay, which can compare current quantities, because they are different in form and frequencies. An overview over a new concept of differential protection for converters based on instantaneous power quantities will be discussed in this paper. To drive the power quantities a mathematical background of the space vectors will be introduced. A simple DCLink is preceded in this paper and a power analysis description and simulation is derived using Matlab®/ SimulinkTM concerning a certain construction scheme of Power Differential Relay System. Finally a complete analysis of three phase fault in DC-Link Rectifier is discussed to ensure the ability of Power Differential Protection System to detect the fault in main and selectivity protection sections.

Keywords: Space Vectors, Power Differential Relay (PDR), Short Circuit Power, Diode Recovery Energy, Detected Power Differential Signal (DPDS), Power Space Vector (PSV), Power Space Vector Protection Area (PSVPA).

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713 The Need to Enhance Online Consumer Protection in KSA

Authors: Abdulrahman Aloufi

Abstract:

E-commerce has evolved to become a functional and mainstream tool of global trading, including in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Consequently, online consumers need protection just as much as consumers in the offline world. In 2019, the Ministry of Commerce in Saudi Arabia established a so-called ‘e-commerce law’; however, this law does not cover the court enforcement of contracts entered into by international vendors, so it is not applicable in cross-border situations. The purpose of this paper is to identify the gaps present in this new e-commerce law in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Consumer protection, e-commerce law, Saudi consumer, international vendor.

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712 European Ecological Network Natura 2000 - Opportunities and Threats

Authors: Adam Niewiadomski

Abstract:

The research objective of the project and article “European Ecological Network Natura 2000 – opportunities and threats” Natura 2000 sites constitute a form of environmental protection, several legal problems are likely to result. Most controversially, certain sites will be subject to two regimes of protection: as national parks and as Natura 2000 sites. This dualism of the legal regulation makes it difficult to perform certain legal obligations related to the regimes envisaged under each form of environmental protection. Which regime and which obligations resulting from the particular form of environmental protection have priority and should prevail? What should be done if these obligations are contradictory? Furthermore, an institutional problem consists in that no public administration authority has the power to resolve legal conflicts concerning the application of a particular regime on a given site. There are also no criteria to decide priority and superiority of one form of environmental protection over the other. Which regulations are more important, those that pertain to national parks or to Natura 2000 sites? In the light of the current regulations, it is impossible to give a decisive answer to these questions. The internal hierarchy of forms of environmental protection has not been determined, and all such forms should be treated equally.

Keywords: Natura 2000, European Ecological Network.

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711 Use of Recycled PVB as a Protection against Carbonation

Authors: Michael Tupý, Vít Petránek

Abstract:

The paper is focused on testing of the poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) layer which had the function of a CO2 insulating protection against concrete and mortar carbonation. The barrier efficiency of PVB was verified by the measurement of diffusion characteristics. Two different types of PVB were tested; original extruded PVB sheet and PVB sheet made from PVB dispersion which was obtained from recycled windshields. The work deals with the testing CO2 diffusion when polymer sheets were exposed to a CO2 atmosphere (10% v/v CO2) with 0% RH. The excellent barrier capability against CO2 permeability of original and also recycled types of PVB layers was observed. This application of PVB waste can bring advantageous use in civil engineering and significant environmental contribution.

Keywords: Windshield, Poly(vinyl butyral), Mortar, Diffusion, Carbonatation, Polymer waste.

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