The Mediating Role of Level of Education and Income on the Relationship between Political Ideology and Attitude towards Immigration
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32918
The Mediating Role of Level of Education and Income on the Relationship between Political Ideology and Attitude towards Immigration

Authors: Zohreh Bang Tavakoli, Shuktika Chatterjee


This study is investigating the impact of ideological structures in terms of conservative and liberal on shaping immigration acceptance attitudes under the contribution of socio-economic status. According to motivated reasoning theory, political ideology is identified as a recurrent impact on the formation of attitude, while conservatives tend to express more hostility toward immigrants in comparison to liberals which are proposed to be more tolerant towards immigrants. Our finding suggests that political ideology will structure individual attitudes when citizens socio-economic vulnerability and level of education are low enough to consider immigrants as a threat. Therefore, economic vulnerability is proposed to weaken the ideological predispositions’ resistance. There has been some threats and factors such as level of education and economic condition proposed by group competition theory and labor market competition theory as fundamental factors which can strengthen or weaken the effects of political ideology on individuals’ attitudes towards immigration; those mechanisms for liberals and conservatives will be operated differently.

Keywords: Conservative, immigration, liberal, political ideology.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 560


[1] Leon McDaniel, E., Nooruddin, I., & Faith Shortle, A. (2011). Divine boundaries: How religion shapes citizens’ attitudes toward immigrants. American Politics Research, 39(1), 205-233.
[2] Hainmueller, J., & Hopkins, D. J. (2015). The hidden American immigration consensus: A conjoint analysis of attitudes toward immigrants. American Journal of Political Science, 59(3), 529-548.
[3] Jost, J. T., Federico, C. M., & Napier, J. L. (2009). Political ideology: Its structure, functions, and elective affinities. Annual review of psychology, 60, 307-337.
[4] Martin, J. L., & Desmond, M. (2010, March). Political Position and Social Knowledge 1. In Sociological Forum (Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 1-26). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
[5] Ceobanu, A. M., & Escandell, X. (2010). Comparative analyses of public attitudes toward immigrants and immigration using multinational survey data: A review of theories and research. Annual review of sociology, 36, 309-328.
[6] Kunovich, R. M. (2013). Occupational Context and Anti-immigrant Prejudice. International Migration Review, 47(3), 643-685.
[7] Schlueter, E., & Davidov, E. (2013). Contextual sources of perceived group threat: Negative immigration-related news reports, immigrant group size and their interaction, Spain 1996– 2007. European Sociological Review, 29(2), 179-191.
[8] Zaller, J. R. (1992). The nature and origins of mass opinion. Cambridge University Press.
[9] Ganzach, Y. (2020). From intelligence to political ideology: Socioeconomic paths. Personality and Individual Differences, 164, 110095.
[10] Lancee, B. and Sarrasin, O. (2015). Educated Preferences or Selection Effects? A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Educational Attainment on Attitudes Towards Immigrants. European Sociological Review, 31(4):490–451.
[11] Schoon, I., Cheng, H., Gale, C. R., Batty, G. D., & Deary, I. J. (2010). Social status, cognitive ability, and educational attainment as predictors of liberal social attitudes and political trust. Intelligence, 38(1), 144-150.
[12] Burns, P., & Gimpel, J. G. (2000). Economic insecurity, prejudicial stereotypes, and public opinion on immigration policy. Political science quarterly, 115(2), 201-225.
[13] Jost, J. T. (2006). The end of the end of ideology. American psychologist, 61(7), 651.
[14] Brooks, C., Manza, J., & Cohen, E. D. (2016). Political ideology and immigrant acceptance. Socius, 2, 2378023116668881.
[15] Lodge, M., & Taber, C. S. (2013). The rationalizing voter. Cambridge University Press.
[16] Hainmueller, J., & Hiscox, M. J. (2007). Educated preferences: Explaining attitudes toward immigration in Europe. International organization, 399-442.
[17] Onraet, E., Van Hiel, A., Dhont, K., Hodson, G., Schittekatte, M., & De Pauw, S. (2015). The association of cognitive ability with right–wing ideological attitudes and prejudice: A meta–analytic review. European Journal of Personality, 29(6), 599-621.
[18] Scheve, K. F., & Slaughter, M. J. (2001). Labor market competition and individual preferences over immigration policy. Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(1), 133-145.
[19] Deary, I. J., Strand, S., Smith, P., & Fernandes, C. (2007). Intelligence and educational achievement. Intelligence, 35(1), 13-21.