Search results for: Source separation
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1776

Search results for: Source separation

1776 Blind Source Separation Using Modified Gaussian FastICA

Authors: V. K. Ananthashayana, Jyothirmayi M.

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of source separation in images. We propose a FastICA algorithm employing a modified Gaussian contrast function for the Blind Source Separation. Experimental result shows that the proposed Modified Gaussian FastICA is effectively used for Blind Source Separation to obtain better quality images. In this paper, a comparative study has been made with other popular existing algorithms. The peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and improved signal to noise ratio (ISNR) are used as metrics for evaluating the quality of images. The ICA metric Amari error is also used to measure the quality of separation.

Keywords: Amari error, Blind Source Separation, Contrast function, Gaussian function, Independent Component Analysis.

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1775 Application of a Time-Frequency-Based Blind Source Separation to an Instantaneous Mixture of Secondary Radar Sources

Authors: M. Tria, M. Benidir, E. Chaumette

Abstract:

In Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) systems, it is more difficult to locate and recognise aircrafts in the neighbourhood of civil airports since aerial traffic becomes greater. Here, we propose to apply a recent Blind Source Separation (BSS) algorithm based on Time-Frequency Analysis, in order to separate messages sent by different aircrafts and falling in the same radar beam in reception. The above source separation method involves joint-diagonalization of a set of smoothed version of spatial Wigner-Ville distributions. The technique makes use of the difference in the t-f signatures of the nonstationary sources to be separated. Consequently, as the SSR sources emit different messages at different frequencies, the above fitted to this new application. We applied the technique in simulation to separate SSR replies. Results are provided at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Blind Source Separation, Time-Frequency Analysis, Secondary Radar

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1774 An Approach to Solving a Permutation Problem of Frequency Domain Independent Component Analysis for Blind Source Separation of Speech Signals

Authors: Masaru Fujieda, Takahiro Murakami, Yoshihisa Ishida

Abstract:

Independent component analysis (ICA) in the frequency domain is used for solving the problem of blind source separation (BSS). However, this method has some problems. For example, a general ICA algorithm cannot determine the permutation of signals which is important in the frequency domain ICA. In this paper, we propose an approach to the solution for a permutation problem. The idea is to effectively combine two conventional approaches. This approach improves the signal separation performance by exploiting features of the conventional approaches. We show the simulation results using artificial data.

Keywords: Blind source separation, Independent componentanalysis, Frequency domain, Permutation ambiguity.

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1773 An Approach for Blind Source Separation using the Sliding DFT and Time Domain Independent Component Analysis

Authors: Koji Yamanouchi, Masaru Fujieda, Takahiro Murakami, Yoshihisa Ishida

Abstract:

''Cocktail party problem'' is well known as one of the human auditory abilities. We can recognize the specific sound that we want to listen by this ability even if a lot of undesirable sounds or noises are mixed. Blind source separation (BSS) based on independent component analysis (ICA) is one of the methods by which we can separate only a special signal from their mixed signals with simple hypothesis. In this paper, we propose an online approach for blind source separation using the sliding DFT and the time domain independent component analysis. The proposed method can reduce calculation complexity in comparison with conventional methods, and can be applied to parallel processing by using digital signal processors (DSPs) and so on. We evaluate this method and show its availability.

Keywords: Cocktail party problem, blind Source Separation(BSS), independent component analysis, sliding DFT, onlineprocessing.

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1772 Blind Source Separation based on the Estimation for the Number of the Blind Sources under a Dynamic Acoustic Environment

Authors: Takaaki Ishibashi

Abstract:

Independent component analysis can estimate unknown source signals from their mixtures under the assumption that the source signals are statistically independent. However, in a real environment, the separation performance is often deteriorated because the number of the source signals is different from that of the sensors. In this paper, we propose an estimation method for the number of the sources based on the joint distribution of the observed signals under two-sensor configuration. From several simulation results, it is found that the number of the sources is coincident to that of peaks in the histogram of the distribution. The proposed method can estimate the number of the sources even if it is larger than that of the observed signals. The proposed methods have been verified by several experiments.

Keywords: blind source separation, independent component analysys, estimation for the number of the blind sources, voice activity detection, target extraction.

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1771 A Double Referenced Contrast for Blind Source Separation

Authors: Atman Jbari, Abdellah Adib, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of blind source separation (BSS). To recover original signals, from linear instantaneous mixtures, we propose a new contrast function based on the use of a double referenced system. Our approach assumes statistical independence sources. The reference vectors will be incrusted in the cumulant to evaluate the independence. The estimation of the separating matrix will be performed in two steps: whitening observations and joint diagonalization of a set of referenced cumulant matrices. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested approach.

Keywords: Blind source separation, Referenced Cumulant, Contrast, Joint Diagonalization.

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1770 Floating-Point Scaling for BSS Gain Control

Authors: Abdelmalek Fermas, Adel Belouchrani, Otmane Ait Mohamed

Abstract:

In Blind Source Separation (BSS) processing, taking advantage of scaling factor indetermination and based on the floatingpoint representation, we propose a scaling technique applied to the separation matrix, to avoid the saturation or the weakness in the recovered source signals. This technique performs an Automatic Gain Control (AGC) in an on-line BSS environment. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by using the implementation of a division free BSS algorithm with two input, two output. This technique is computationally cheaper and efficient for a hardware implementation.

Keywords: Automatic Gain Control, Blind Source Separation, Floating-Point Representation, FPGA Implementation.

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1769 A Semi- One Time Pad Using Blind Source Separation for Speech Encryption

Authors: Long Jye Sheu, Horng-Shing Chiou, Wei Ching Chen

Abstract:

We propose a new perspective on speech communication using blind source separation. The original speech is mixed with key signals which consist of the mixing matrix, chaotic signals and a random noise. However, parts of the keys (the mixing matrix and the random noise) are not necessary in decryption. In practice implement, one can encrypt the speech by changing the noise signal every time. Hence, the present scheme obtains the advantages of a One Time Pad encryption while avoiding its drawbacks in key exchange. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme is immune against traditional attacks.

Keywords: one time pad, blind source separation, independentcomponent analysis, speech encryption.

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1768 Adaptive Filtering in Subbands for Supervised Source Separation

Authors: Bruna Luisa Ramos Prado Vasques, Mariane Rembold Petraglia, Antonio Petraglia

Abstract:

This paper investigates MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) adaptive filtering techniques for the application of supervised source separation in the context of convolutive mixtures. From the observation that there is correlation among the signals of the different mixtures, an improvement in the NSAF (Normalized Subband Adaptive Filter) algorithm is proposed in order to accelerate its convergence rate. Simulation results with mixtures of speech signals in reverberant environments show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm with respect to the performances of the NLMS (Normalized Least-Mean-Square) and conventional NSAF, considering both the convergence speed and SIR (Signal-to-Interference Ratio) after convergence.

Keywords: Adaptive filtering, multirate processing, normalized subband adaptive filter, source separation.

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1767 A Mixing Matrix Estimation Algorithm for Speech Signals under the Under-Determined Blind Source Separation Model

Authors: Jing Wu, Wei Lv, Yibing Li, Yuanfan You

Abstract:

The separation of speech signals has become a research hotspot in the field of signal processing in recent years. It has many applications and influences in teleconferencing, hearing aids, speech recognition of machines and so on. The sounds received are usually noisy. The issue of identifying the sounds of interest and obtaining clear sounds in such an environment becomes a problem worth exploring, that is, the problem of blind source separation. This paper focuses on the under-determined blind source separation (UBSS). Sparse component analysis is generally used for the problem of under-determined blind source separation. The method is mainly divided into two parts. Firstly, the clustering algorithm is used to estimate the mixing matrix according to the observed signals. Then the signal is separated based on the known mixing matrix. In this paper, the problem of mixing matrix estimation is studied. This paper proposes an improved algorithm to estimate the mixing matrix for speech signals in the UBSS model. The traditional potential algorithm is not accurate for the mixing matrix estimation, especially for low signal-to noise ratio (SNR).In response to this problem, this paper considers the idea of an improved potential function method to estimate the mixing matrix. The algorithm not only avoids the inuence of insufficient prior information in traditional clustering algorithm, but also improves the estimation accuracy of mixing matrix. This paper takes the mixing of four speech signals into two channels as an example. The results of simulations show that the approach in this paper not only improves the accuracy of estimation, but also applies to any mixing matrix.

Keywords: Clustering algorithm, potential function, speech signal, the UBSS model.

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1766 A Robust Watermarking using Blind Source Separation

Authors: Anil Kumar, K. Negrat, A. M. Negrat, Abdelsalam Almarimi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a robust and secure algorithm for watermarking, the watermark is first transformed into the frequency domain using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Then the entire DWT coefficient except the LL (Band) discarded, these coefficients are permuted and encrypted by specific mixing. The encrypted coefficients are inserted into the most significant spectral components of the stego-image using a chaotic system. This technique makes our watermark non-vulnerable to the attack (like compression, and geometric distortion) of an active intruder, or due to noise in the transmission link.

Keywords: Blind source separation (BSS), Chaotic system, Watermarking, DWT.

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1765 Issues in Spectral Source Separation Techniques for Plant-wide Oscillation Detection and Diagnosis

Authors: A.K. Tangirala, S. Babji

Abstract:

In the last few years, three multivariate spectral analysis techniques namely, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) have emerged as effective tools for oscillation detection and isolation. While the first method is used in determining the number of oscillatory sources, the latter two methods are used to identify source signatures by formulating the detection problem as a source identification problem in the spectral domain. In this paper, we present a critical drawback of the underlying linear (mixing) model which strongly limits the ability of the associated source separation methods to determine the number of sources and/or identify the physical source signatures. It is shown that the assumed mixing model is only valid if each unit of the process gives equal weighting (all-pass filter) to all oscillatory components in its inputs. This is in contrast to the fact that each unit, in general, acts as a filter with non-uniform frequency response. Thus, the model can only facilitate correct identification of a source with a single frequency component, which is again unrealistic. To overcome this deficiency, an iterative post-processing algorithm that correctly identifies the physical source(s) is developed. An additional issue with the existing methods is that they lack a procedure to pre-screen non-oscillatory/noisy measurements which obscure the identification of oscillatory sources. In this regard, a pre-screening procedure is prescribed based on the notion of sparseness index to eliminate the noisy and non-oscillatory measurements from the data set used for analysis.

Keywords: non-negative matrix factorization, PCA, source separation, plant-wide diagnosis

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1764 An Efficient Separation for Convolutive Mixtures

Authors: Salah Al-Din I. Badran, Samad Ahmadi, Dylan Menzies, Ismail Shahin

Abstract:

This paper describes a new efficient blind source separation method; in this method we uses a non-uniform filter bank and a new structure with different sub-bands. This method provides a reduced permutation and increased convergence speed comparing to the full-band algorithm. Recently, some structures have been suggested to deal with two problems: reducing permutation and increasing the speed of convergence of the adaptive algorithm for correlated input signals. The permutation problem is avoided with the use of adaptive filters of orders less than the full-band adaptive filter, which operate at a sampling rate lower than the sampling rate of the input signal. The decomposed signals by analysis bank filter are less correlated in each sub-band than the input signal at full-band, and can promote better rates of convergence.

Keywords: Blind source separation (BSS), estimates, full-band, mixtures, Sub-band.

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1763 Separation Characteristics of Dissolved Gases from Water Concurrently Variable Mixed with Exhalations for the Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Pil Woo Heo

Abstract:

Water contains dissolved oxygen that a fish needs to breathe. It is important to increase the amounts of separation of dissolved oxygen from water for diverse applications using the separation system. In this paper, a separation system of dissolved gases from water concurrently variable mixed with the exhalations using a compressor is proposed. This system takes use of exhalations to increase the amounts of separation of dissolved oxygen from water. A compressor with variable off-time and on-time is used to control the exhalations mixed with inlet water. Exhalations contain some portion of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen. Separation of dissolved gases containing dissolved oxygen is enhanced by using exhalations. The amounts of separation and the compositions of carbon dioxide and oxygen are measured. Higher amounts of separation can make the size of the separation device smaller, and then, application areas are diversified.

Keywords: Concurrently, variable mixed, exhalations, separation, hollow fiber.

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1762 Study of Cahn-Hilliard Equation to Simulate Phase Separation

Authors: Nara Guimarães, Marcelo Aquino Martorano, Douglas Gouvêa

Abstract:

An investigation into Cahn-Hilliard equation was carried out through numerical simulation to identify a possible phase separation for one and two dimensional domains. It was observed that this equation can reproduce important mass fluxes necessary for phase separation within the miscibility gap and for coalescence of particles.

Keywords: Cahn-Hilliard equation, miscibility gap, phase separation.

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1761 Immobilized Liquid Membrane for Propylene- Propane Separation

Authors: Maryam TakhtRavanchi, Tahereh Kaghazchi, Ali Kargari

Abstract:

Separation of propylene-propane mixture using immobilized liquid membrane was investigated. The effect of transmembrane pressure and carrier concentration on membrane separation performance was studied. It was observed that for 30:70 (vol. %) propylene-propane mixture, at pressure of 120kPa and carrier concentration of 20wt. %, a separation factor of 474 was obtained.

Keywords: Facilitated Transport, Immobilized Liquid Membrane, Propylene-Propane Separation, Silver Nitrate.

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1760 Blind Source Separation for Convoluted Signals Based on Properties of Acoustic Transfer Function in Real Environments

Authors: Takaaki Ishibashi

Abstract:

Frequency domain independent component analysis has a scaling indeterminacy and a permutation problem. The scaling indeterminacy can be solved by use of a decomposed spectrum. For the permutation problem, we have proposed the rules in terms of gain ratio and phase difference derived from the decomposed spectra and the source-s coarse directions. The present paper experimentally clarifies that the gain ratio and the phase difference work effectively in a real environment but their performance depends on frequency bands, a microphone-space and a source-microphone distance. From these facts it is seen that it is difficult to attain a perfect solution for the permutation problem in a real environment only by either the gain ratio or the phase difference. For the perfect solution, this paper gives a solution to the problems in a real environment. The proposed method is simple, the amount of calculation is small. And the method has high correction performance without depending on the frequency bands and distances from source signals to microphones. Furthermore, it can be applied under the real environment. From several experiments in a real room, it clarifies that the proposed method has been verified.

Keywords: blind source separation, frequency domain independent component analysys, permutation correction, scale adjustment, target extraction.

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1759 Application of Formal Methods for Designing a Separation Kernel for Embedded Systems

Authors: Kei Kawamorita, Ryouta Kasahara, Yuuki Mochizuki, Kenichiro Noguchi

Abstract:

A separation-kernel-based operating system (OS) has been designed for use in secure embedded systems by applying formal methods to the design of the separation-kernel part. The separation kernel is a small OS kernel that provides an abstract distributed environment on a single CPU. The design of the separation kernel was verified using two formal methods, the B method and the Spin model checker. A newly designed semi-formal method, the extended state transition method, was also applied. An OS comprising the separation-kernel part and additional OS services on top of the separation kernel was prototyped on the Intel IA-32 architecture. Developing and testing of a prototype embedded application, a point-of-sale application, on the prototype OS demonstrated that the proposed architecture and the use of formal methods to design its kernel part are effective for achieving a secure embedded system having a high-assurance separation kernel.

Keywords: B method, embedded systems, extended state transition, formal methods, separation kernel, Spin.

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1758 A Frequency Grouping Approach for Blind Deconvolution of Fairly Motionless Sources

Authors: E. S. Gower, T. Tsalaile, E. Rakgati, M. O. J. Hawksford

Abstract:

A frequency grouping approach for multi-channel instantaneous blind source separation (I-BSS) of convolutive mixtures is proposed for a lower net residual inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-channel interference (ICI) than the conventional short-time Fourier transform (STFT) approach. Starting in the time domain, STFTs are taken with overlapping windows to convert the convolutive mixing problem into frequency domain instantaneous mixing. Mixture samples at the same frequency but from different STFT windows are grouped together forming unique frequency groups. The individual frequency group vectors are input to the I-BSS algorithm of choice, from which the output samples are dispersed back to their respective STFT windows. After applying the inverse STFT, the resulting time domain signals are used to construct the complete source estimates via the weighted overlap-add method (WOLA). The proposed algorithm is tested for source deconvolution given two mixtures, and simulated along with the STFT approach to illustrate its superiority for fairly motionless sources.

Keywords: Blind source separation, short-time Fouriertransform, weighted overlap-add method

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1757 Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Tire-Road Separation in Quarter-Car Model

Authors: Quy Dang Nguyen, Reza Nakhaie Jazar

Abstract:

The paper investigates vibration dynamics of tire-road separation for a quarter-car model; this separation model is developed to be close to the real situation considering the tire is able to separate from the ground plane. A set of piecewise linear mathematical models is developed and matches the in-contact and no-contact states to be considered as mother models for further investigations. The bound dynamics are numerically simulated in the time response and phase portraits. The separation analysis may determine which values of suspension parameters can delay and avoid the no-contact phenomenon, which results in improving ride comfort and eliminating the potentially dangerous oscillation. Finally, model verification is carried out in the MSC-ADAMS environment.

Keywords: Quarter-car vibrations, tire-road separation, separation analysis, separation dynamics, ride comfort, ADAMS validation.

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1756 Design of Laboratory Pilot Reactor for Filtering and Separation of Water – oil Emulsions

Authors: Irena Markovska, Nikolai Zaicev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Dimitar Georgiev, Yancho Hristov

Abstract:

The present paper deals with problems related to the possibilities to use fractal systems to solve some important scientific and practical problems connected with filtering and separation of aqueous phases from organic ones. For this purpose a special separator have been designed. The reactor was filled with a porous material with fractal dimension, which is an integral part of the set for filtration and separation of emulsions. As a model emulsion hexadecan mixture with water in equal quantities (1:1) was used. We examined the hydrodynamics of the separation of the emulsion at different rates of submission of the entrance of the reactor.

Keywords: pilot reactor, fractal systems, separation, emulsions

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1755 Separation of Dissolved Gases from Water for a Portable Underwater Breathing

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

Water contains oxygen which may make a human breathe under water like a fish. Centrifugal separator can separate dissolved gases from water. Carrier solution can increase the separation of dissolved oxygen from water. But, to develop an breathing device for a human under water, the enhancement of separation of dissolved gases including oxygen and portable devices which have dc battery based device and proper size are needed. In this study, we set up experimental device for analyzing separation characteristics of dissolved gases including oxygen from water using a battery based portable vacuum pump. We characterized vacuum state, flow rate of separation of dissolved gases and oxygen concentration which were influenced by the manufactured vacuum pump.

Keywords: Portable, breathing, water, separation, battery.

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1754 On-line Speech Enhancement by Time-Frequency Masking under Prior Knowledge of Source Location

Authors: Min Ah Kang, Sangbae Jeong, Minsoo Hahn

Abstract:

This paper presents the source extraction system which can extract only target signals with constraints on source localization in on-line systems. The proposed system is a kind of methods for enhancing a target signal and suppressing other interference signals. But, the performance of proposed system is superior to any other methods and the extraction of target source is comparatively complete. The method has a beamforming concept and uses an improved time-frequency (TF) mask-based BSS algorithm to separate a target signal from multiple noise sources. The target sources are assumed to be in front and test data was recorded in a reverberant room. The experimental results of the proposed method was evaluated by the PESQ score of real-recording sentences and showed a noticeable speech enhancement.

Keywords: Beam forming, Non-stationary noise reduction, Source separation, TF mask.

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1753 Performance Improvement of a Supersonic External Compression Inlet by Heat Source Addition

Authors: Mohammad Reza Soltani, Mohammad Farahani, Javad Sepahi Younsi

Abstract:

Heat source addition to the axisymmetric supersonic inlet may improve the performance parameters, which will increase the inlet efficiency. In this investigation the heat has been added to the flow field at some distance ahead of an axisymmetric inlet by adding an imaginary thermal source upstream of cowl lip. The effect of heat addition on the drag coefficient, mass flow rate and the overall efficiency of the inlet have been investigated. The results show that heat addition causes flow separation, hence to prevent this phenomena, roughness has been added on the spike surface. However, heat addition reduces the drag coefficient and the inlet mass flow rate considerably. Furthermore, the effects of position, size, and shape on the inlet performance were studied. It is found that the thermal source deflects the flow streamlines. By improper location of the thermal source, the optimum condition has been obtained. For the optimum condition, the drag coefficient is considerably reduced and the inlet mass flow rate and its efficiency have been increased slightly. The optimum shape of the heat source is obtained too.

Keywords: Drag coefficient, heat source, performanceparameters, supersonic inlet.

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1752 Graphene/ZnO/Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Film for Separation of Oil-Water Mixture

Authors: Suboohi Shervani, Jingjing Ling, Jiabin Liu, Tahir Husain

Abstract:

Offshore oil-spill has become the most emerging problem in the world. In the current paper, a graphene/ZnO/polymer nanocomposite thin film is coated on stainless steel mesh via layer by layer deposition method. The structural characterization of materials is determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and separation efficiency have been measured via gas chromatography – flame ionization detector (GC-FID). TPHs are reduced to 2 ppm and separation efficiency of the nanocomposite coated mesh is reached ≥ 99% for the final sample. The nanocomposite coated mesh acts as a promising candidate for the separation of oil- water mixture.

Keywords: Oil-spill, graphene, oil-water separation, nanocomposite.

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1751 Triboelectric Separation of Binary Plastic Mixture

Authors: M. Saeki

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the performance of a triboelectric separator of plastic mixtures used for recycling. The separator consists of four cylindrical electrodes. The principle behind the separation technique is based on the difference in the Coulomb force acting on the plastic particles after triboelectric charging. The separation of mixtures of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) using this method was studied. The effects of the triboelectric charging time and applied voltage on the separation efficiency were investigated. The experimental results confirm that it is possible to obtain a high purity and recovery rate for the initial compositions considered in this study.

Keywords: Coulomb force, recycling, triboelectric separator, waste plastics.

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1750 Wavelet Enhanced CCA for Minimization of Ocular and Muscle Artifacts in EEG

Authors: B. S. Raghavendra, D. Narayana Dutt

Abstract:

Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are often contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts. In this paper, the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used as blind source separation (BSS) technique (BSS-CCA) to decompose the artifact contaminated EEG into component signals. We combine the BSSCCA technique with wavelet filtering approach for minimizing both ocular and muscle artifacts simultaneously, and refer the proposed method as wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA. In this approach, after careful visual inspection, the muscle artifact components are discarded and ocular artifact components are subjected to wavelet filtering to retain high frequency cerebral information, and then clean EEG is reconstructed. The performance of the proposed wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA method is tested on real EEG recordings contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts, for which power spectral density is used as a quantitative measure. Our results suggest that the proposed hybrid approach minimizes ocular and muscle artifacts effectively, minimally affecting underlying cerebral activity in EEG recordings.

Keywords: Blind source separation, Canonical correlationanalysis, Electroencephalogram, Muscle artifact, Ocular artifact, Power spectrum, Wavelet threshold.

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1749 DNS of a Laminar Separation Bubble

Authors: N. K. Singh, S. Sarkar

Abstract:

Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study the evolution of a boundary layer that was laminar initially followed by separation and then reattachment owing to generation of turbulence. This creates a closed region of recirculation, known as the laminar-separation bubble. The present simulation emulates the flow environment encountered in a modern LP turbine blade, where a laminar separation bubble may occur on the suction surface. The unsteady, incompressible three-dimensional (3-D) Navier-Stokes (NS) equations have been solved over a flat plate in the Cartesian coordinates. The adverse pressure gradient, which causes the flow to separate, is created by a boundary condition. The separated shear layer undergoes transition through appearance of ╬ø vortices, stretching of these create longitudinal streaks. Breakdown of the streaks into small and irregular structures makes the flow turbulent downstream.

Keywords: Adverse pressure gradient, direct numerical simulation, laminar separation bubble.

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1748 Numerical Study of Microscale Gas Flow-Separation Using Explicit Finite Volume Method

Authors: A. Chaudhuri, C. Guha, T. K. Dutta

Abstract:

Pressure driven microscale gas flow-separation has been investigated by solving the compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) system of equations. A two dimensional explicit finite volume (FV) compressible flow solver has been developed using modified advection upwind splitting methods (AUSM+) with no-slip/first order Maxwell-s velocity slip conditions to predict the flowseparation behavior in microdimensions. The effects of scale-factor of the flow geometry and gas species on the microscale gas flowseparation have been studied in this work. The intensity of flowseparation gets reduced with the decrease in scale of the flow geometry. In reduced dimension, flow-separation may not at all be present under similar flow conditions compared to the larger flow geometry. The flow-separation patterns greatly depend on the properties of the medium under similar flow conditions.

Keywords: AUSM+, FVM, Flow-separation, Microflow.

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1747 Separation of Chlorinated Plastics and Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Hazardous Automotive Shredder Residue

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Byeong-Kyu Lee

Abstract:

In the present study, feasibility of the selective surface hydrophilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by microwave treatment was evaluated to facilitate the separation from automotive shredder residue (ASR), by the froth flotation. The combination of 60 sec microwave treatment with PAC, a sharp and significant decrease about 16.5° contact angle of PVC was observed in ASR plastic compared with other plastics. The microwave treatment with the addition of PAC resulted in a synergetic effect for the froth flotation, which may be a result of the 90% selective separation of PVC from ASR plastics, with 82% purity. While, simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR soil/residues. The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. Microwave treatment can be a simple and effective method for PVC separation from ASR plastics.

Keywords: Automotive shredder residue, microwave treatment, chlorinated plastics, separation, heavy metals, Immobilization, separation.

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