Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 280

Search results for: IP scheduled throughput

280 A Conceptual Framework of Scheduled Waste Management in Highway Industry

Authors: Nurul Nadhirah Anuar, Muhammad Fauzi Abdul Ghani

Abstract:

Scheduled waste management is very important in environmental and health aspects. In delivering services, highway industry has been indirectly involved in producing scheduled wastes. This paper aims to define the scheduled waste, to provide a conceptual framework of the scheduled waste management in highway industry, to highlight the effect of improper management of scheduled waste and to encourage future researchers to identify and share the present practice of scheduled waste management in their country. The understanding on effective management of scheduled waste will help the operators of highway industry, the academicians, future researchers, and encourage a friendly environment around the world. The study on scheduled waste management in highway industry is very crucial as highway transverse and run along kilometers crossing the various type of environment, residential and schools. Using Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulations 2005 as a guide, this conceptual paper highlight several scheduled wastes produced by highway industry in Malaysia and provide a conceptual framework of scheduled waste management that focused on the highway industry. Understanding on scheduled waste management is vital in order to preserve the environment. Besides that, the waste substances are hazardous to human being. Many diseases have been associated with the improper management of schedule waste such as cancer, throat irritation and respiration problem.

Keywords: Asia Region, Environment, Highway Industry, Scheduled Waste.

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279 Optical Fiber Data Throughput in a Quantum Communication System

Authors: Arash Kosari, Ali Araghi

Abstract:

A mathematical model for an optical-fiber communication channel is developed which results in an expression that calculates the throughput and loss of the corresponding link. The data are assumed to be transmitted by using of separate photons with different polarizations. The derived model also shows the dependency of data throughput with length of the channel and depolarization factor. It is observed that absorption of photons affects the throughput in a more intensive way in comparison with that of depolarization. Apart from that, the probability of depolarization and the absorption of radiated photons are obtained.

Keywords: Absorption, data throughput, depolarization, optical fiber.

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278 Throughput Optimization on Wireless Networks by Increasing the Maximum Transmission Unit

Authors: Edward Guillén, Stephanne Rodríguez, Jhordany Rodríguez

Abstract:

Throughput enhancement can be achieved with two main approaches. The first one is by the increase of transmission rate and the second one is reducing the control traffic. This paper focuses on how the throughput can be enhanced by increasing Maximum Transmission Unit -MTU. Transmission of larger packets can cause a throughput improvement by reducing IP overhead. Analysis results are obtained by a mathematical model and simulation tools with a main focus on wireless channels.

Keywords: 802.11, Maximum Transfer Unit, throughput enhancement, wireless networks.

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277 Modelling of Multi-Agent Systems for the Scheduling of Multi-EV Charging from Power Limited Sources

Authors: Manan’Iarivo Rasolonjanahary, Chris Bingham, Nigel Schofield, Masoud Bazargan

Abstract:

This paper presents the research and application of model predictive scheduled charging of electric vehicles (EV) subject to limited available power resource. To focus on algorithm and operational characteristics, the EV interface to the source is modelled as a battery state equation during the charging operation. The researched methods allow for the priority scheduling of EV charging in a multi-vehicle regime and when subject to limited source power availability. Priority attribution for each connected EV is described. The validity of the developed methodology is shown through the simulation of different scenarios of charging operation of multiple connected EVs including non-scheduled and scheduled operation with various numbers of vehicles. Performance of the developed algorithms is also reported with the recommendation of the choice of suitable parameters.

Keywords: Model predictive control, non-scheduled, power limited sources, scheduled and stop-start battery charging.

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276 APPLE: Providing Absolute and Proportional Throughput Guarantees in Wireless LANs

Authors: Zhijie Ma, Qinglin Zhao, Hongning Dai, Huan Zhang

Abstract:

This paper proposes an APPLE scheme that aims at providing absolute and proportional throughput guarantees, and maximizing system throughput simultaneously for wireless LANs with homogeneous and heterogenous traffic. We formulate our objectives as an optimization problem, present its exact and approximate solutions, and prove the existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution. Simulations validate that APPLE scheme is accurate, and the approximate solution can well achieve the desired objectives already.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11e, throughput guarantee, priority.

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275 Embedded Throughput Improving of Low-rate EDR Packets for Lower-latency

Authors: M. A. M. El-Bendary, A. E. Abu El-Azm, N. A. El-Fishawy, F. Shawky, F. E. El-Samie

Abstract:

With increasing utilization of the wireless devices in different fields such as medical devices and industrial fields, the paper presents a method for simplify the Bluetooth packets with throughput enhancing. The paper studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the throughput of data over wireless networks. In fact, the Bluetooth and ZigBee are a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). With taking these two systems competition consideration, the paper proposes different schemes for improve the throughput of Bluetooth network over a reliable channel. The proposition depends on the Channel Quality Driven Data Rate (CQDDR) rules, which determines the suitable packet in the transmission process according to the channel conditions. The proposed packet is studied over additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channels. The Experimental results reveal the capability of extension of the PL length by 8, 16, 24 bytes for classic and EDR packets, respectively. Also, the proposed method is suitable for the low throughput Bluetooth.

Keywords: Bluetooth, throughput, adaptive packets, EDRpackets, CQDDR, low latency. Channel condition

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274 Analysis of Delay and Throughput in MANET for DSR Protocol

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti

Abstract:

A wireless Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes communicating without the need for a centralized administration, in which all nodes potentially contribute to the routing process.In this paper, we report the simulation results of four different scenarios for wireless ad hoc networks having thirty nodes. The performances of proposed networks are evaluated in terms of number of hops per route, delay and throughput with the help of OPNET simulator. Channel speed 1 Mbps and simulation time 600 sim-seconds were taken for all scenarios. For the above analysis DSR routing protocols has been used. The throughput obtained from the above analysis (four scenario) are compared as shown in Figure 3. The average media access delay at node_20 for two routes and at node_20 for four different scenario are compared as shown in Figures 4 and 5. It is observed that the throughput will degrade when it will follow different hops for same source to destination (i.e. it has dropped from 1.55 Mbps to 1.43 Mbps which is around 9.7%, and then dropped to 0.48Mbps which is around 35%).

Keywords: Throughput, Delay, DSR, OPNET, MANET, DSSS

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273 Production Throughput Modeling under Five Uncertain Variables Using Bayesian Inference

Authors: Amir Azizi, Amir Yazid B. Ali, Loh Wei Ping

Abstract:

Throughput is an important measure of performance of production system. Analyzing and modeling of production throughput is complex in today-s dynamic production systems due to uncertainties of production system. The main reasons are that uncertainties are materialized when the production line faces changes in setup time, machinery break down, lead time of manufacturing, and scraps. Besides, demand changes are fluctuating from time to time for each product type. These uncertainties affect the production performance. This paper proposes Bayesian inference for throughput modeling under five production uncertainties. Bayesian model utilized prior distributions related to previous information about the uncertainties where likelihood distributions are associated to the observed data. Gibbs sampling algorithm as the robust procedure of Monte Carlo Markov chain was employed for sampling unknown parameters and estimating the posterior mean of uncertainties. The Bayesian model was validated with respect to convergence and efficiency of its outputs. The results presented that the proposed Bayesian models were capable to predict the production throughput with accuracy of 98.3%.

Keywords: Bayesian inference, Uncertainty modeling, Monte Carlo Markov chain, Gibbs sampling, Production throughput

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272 An Improved Cooperative Communication Scheme for IoT System

Authors: Eui-Hak Lee, Jae-Hyun Ro, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In internet of things (IoT) system, the communication scheme with reliability and low power is required to connect a terminal. Cooperative communication can achieve reliability and lower power than multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. Cooperative communication increases the reliability with low power, but decreases a throughput. It has a weak point that the communication throughput is decreased. In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed to increase the communication throughput. The novel scheme is a transmission structure that increases transmission rate. A decoding scheme according to the novel transmission structure is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme increases the throughput without bit error rate (BER) performance degradation.

Keywords: Cooperative communication, IoT, STBC, Transmission rate.

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271 A Low-cost Reconfigurable Architecture for AES Algorithm

Authors: Yibo Fan, Takeshi Ikenaga, Yukiyasu Tsunoo, Satoshi Goto

Abstract:

This paper proposes a low-cost reconfigurable architecture for AES algorithm. The proposed architecture separates SubBytes and MixColumns into two parallel data path, and supports different bit-width operation for this two data path. As a result, different number of S-box can be supported in this architecture. The throughput and power consumption can be adjusted by changing the number of S-box running in this design. Using the TSMC 0.18μm CMOS standard cell library, a very low-cost implementation of 7K Gates is obtained under 182MHz frequency. The maximum throughput is 360Mbps while using 4 S-Box simultaneously, and the minimum throughput is 114Mbps while only using 1 S-Box

Keywords: AES, Reconfigurable architecture, low cost

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270 Uplink Throughput Prediction in Cellular Mobile Networks

Authors: Engin Eyceyurt, Josko Zec

Abstract:

The current and future cellular mobile communication networks generate enormous amounts of data. Networks have become extremely complex with extensive space of parameters, features and counters. These networks are unmanageable with legacy methods and an enhanced design and optimization approach is necessary that is increasingly reliant on machine learning. This paper proposes that machine learning as a viable approach for uplink throughput prediction. LTE radio metric, such as Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP), Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ), and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) are used to train models to estimate expected uplink throughput. The prediction accuracy with high determination coefficient of 91.2% is obtained from measurements collected with a simple smartphone application.

Keywords: Drive test, LTE, machine learning, uplink throughput prediction.

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269 VoIP Networks Performance Analysis with Encryption Systems

Authors: Edward Paul Guillen, Diego Alejandro Chacon

Abstract:

The VoIP networks as alternative method to traditional PSTN system has been implemented in a wide variety of structures with multiple protocols, codecs, software and hardware–based distributions. The use of cryptographic techniques let the users to have a secure communication, but the calculate throughput as well as the QoS parameters are affected according to the used algorithm. This paper analyzes the VoIP throughput and the QoS parameters with different commercial encryption methods. The measurement–based approach uses lab scenarios to simulate LAN and WAN environments. Security mechanisms such as TLS, SIAX2, SRTP, IPSEC and ZRTP are analyzed with μ-LAW and GSM codecs.

Keywords: VoIP, Secure VoIP, Throughput Analysis, VoIP QoS evaluation

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268 A Joint Routing-Scheduling Approach for Throughput Optimization in WMNs

Authors: Hossein Nourkhiz Mahjoub, Mohsen Shiva

Abstract:

Wireless Mesh Networking is a promising proposal for broadband data transmission in a large area with low cost and acceptable QoS. These features- trade offs in WMNs is a hot research field nowadays. In this paper a mathematical optimization framework has been developed to maximize throughput according to upper bound delay constraints. IEEE 802.11 based infrastructure backhauling mode of WMNs has been considered to formulate the MINLP optimization problem. Proposed method gives the full routing and scheduling procedure in WMN in order to obtain mentioned goals.

Keywords: Mixed-Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP), routing and scheduling, throughput, wireless mesh networks (WMNs)

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267 Compact Binary Tree Representation of Logic Function with Enhanced Throughput

Authors: Padmanabhan Balasubramanian, C. Ardil

Abstract:

An effective approach for realizing the binary tree structure, representing a combinational logic functionality with enhanced throughput, is discussed in this paper. The optimization in maximum operating frequency was achieved through delay minimization, which in turn was possible by means of reducing the depth of the binary network. The proposed synthesis methodology has been validated by experimentation with FPGA as the target technology. Though our proposal is technology independent, yet the heuristic enables better optimization in throughput even after technology mapping for such Boolean functionality; whose reduced CNF form is associated with a lesser literal cost than its reduced DNF form at the Boolean equation level. For cases otherwise, our method converges to similar results as that of [12]. The practical results obtained for a variety of case studies demonstrate an improvement in the maximum throughput rate for Spartan IIE (XC2S50E-7FT256) and Spartan 3 (XC3S50-4PQ144) FPGA logic families by 10.49% and 13.68% respectively. With respect to the LUTs and IOBUFs required for physical implementation of the requisite non-regenerative logic functionality, the proposed method enabled savings to the tune of 44.35% and 44.67% respectively, over the existing efficient method available in literature [12].

Keywords: Binary logic tree, FPGA based design, Boolean function, Throughput rate, CNF, DNF.

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266 A Comparison of Fuel Usage and Harvest Capacity in Self-Propelled Forage Harvesters

Authors: Brian H. Marsh

Abstract:

Self-propelled forage harvesters in the 850 horsepower range were tested over three years for fuel consumption, throughput and quality of chop for corn silage. Cut length had a significant effect on fuel consumption, throughput and some aspects of chop quality. Measure cut length was often different than theoretical length of cut. Where cut length was equivalent fuel consumption and throughput were equivalent across brands. Shortening cut length from 17 to 11mm increases fuel consumption 53 percent measured as Mg of silage harvested per gallon of fuel used and a 42 percent decrease in capacity as tons of fresh material per hour run time.

Keywords: Corn silage, forage harvester, fuel use, length of cut.

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265 Design Techniques and Implementation of Low Power High-Throughput Discrete Wavelet Transform Tilters for JPEG 2000 Standard

Authors: Grigorios D. Dimitroulakos, N. D. Zervas, N. Sklavos, Costas E. Goutis

Abstract:

In this paper, the implementation of low power, high throughput convolutional filters for the one dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform and its inverse are presented. The analysis filters have already been used for the implementation of a high performance DWT encoder [15] with minimum memory requirements for the JPEG 2000 standard. This paper presents the design techniques and the implementation of the convolutional filters included in the JPEG2000 standard for the forward and inverse DWT for achieving low-power operation, high performance and reduced memory accesses. Moreover, they have the ability of performing progressive computations so as to minimize the buffering between the decomposition and reconstruction phases. The experimental results illustrate the filters- low power high throughput characteristics as well as their memory efficient operation.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform; JPEG2000 standard; VLSI design; Low Power-Throughput-optimized filters

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264 Time Synchronization between the eNBs in E-UTRAN under the Asymmetric IP Network

Authors: M. Kollar, A. Zieba

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a method for a time synchronization between the two eNodeBs (eNBs) in E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) network. The two eNBs are cooperating in so-called inter eNB CA (Carrier Aggregation) case and connected via asymmetrical IP network. We solve the problem by using broadcasting signals generated in E-UTRAN as synchronization signals. The results show that the time synchronization with the proposed method is possible with the error significantly less than 1 ms which is sufficient considering the time transmission interval is 1 ms in E-UTRAN. This makes this method (with low complexity) more suitable than Network Time Protocol (NTP) in the mobile applications with generated broadcasting signals where time synchronization in asymmetrical network is required.

Keywords: E-UTRAN, IP scheduled throughput, initial burst delay, synchronization, NTP, delay, asymmetric network.

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263 A New Approach for Recoverable Timestamp Ordering Schedule

Authors: Hassan M. Najadat

Abstract:

A new approach for timestamp ordering problem in serializable schedules is presented. Since the number of users using databases is increasing rapidly, the accuracy and needing high throughput are main topics in database area. Strict 2PL does not allow all possible serializable schedules and so does not result high throughput. The main advantages of the approach are the ability to enforce the execution of transaction to be recoverable and the high achievable performance of concurrent execution in central databases. Comparing to Strict 2PL, the general structure of the algorithm is simple, free deadlock, and allows executing all possible serializable schedules which results high throughput. Various examples which include different orders of database operations are discussed.

Keywords: Concurrency control, schedule, timestamp, transaction.

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262 A Hybrid Model of ARIMA and Multiple Polynomial Regression for Uncertainties Modeling of a Serial Production Line

Authors: Amir Azizi, Amir Yazid b. Ali, Loh Wei Ping, Mohsen Mohammadzadeh

Abstract:

Uncertainties of a serial production line affect on the production throughput. The uncertainties cannot be prevented in a real production line. However the uncertain conditions can be controlled by a robust prediction model. Thus, a hybrid model including autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and multiple polynomial regression, is proposed to model the nonlinear relationship of production uncertainties with throughput. The uncertainties under consideration of this study are demand, breaktime, scrap, and lead-time. The nonlinear relationship of production uncertainties with throughput are examined in the form of quadratic and cubic regression models, where the adjusted R-squared for quadratic and cubic regressions was 98.3% and 98.2%. We optimized the multiple quadratic regression (MQR) by considering the time series trend of the uncertainties using ARIMA model. Finally the hybrid model of ARIMA and MQR is formulated by better adjusted R-squared, which is 98.9%.

Keywords: ARIMA, multiple polynomial regression, production throughput, uncertainties

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261 Throughput Analysis over Power Line Communication Channel in an Electric Noisy Scenario

Authors: Edward P. Guillen, Julián J. López, Cesar Y. Barahona

Abstract:

Powerline Communications –PLC– as an alternative method for broadband networking, has the advantage of transmitting over channels already used for electrical distribution or even transmission. But these channels have been not designed with usual wired channels requirements for broadband applications such as stable impedance or known attenuation, and the network have to reject noises caused by electrical appliances that share the same channel. Noise control standards are difficult to complain or simply do not exist on Latin-American environments. This paper analyzes PLC throughput for home connectivity by probing noisy channel scenarios in a PLC network and the statistical results are shown.

Keywords: Power Line Communications, OFDM, Noise Analysis, Throughput Analysis, PLC, Home Network.

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260 VFAST TCP: A delay-based enhanced version of FAST TCP

Authors: Salem Belhaj, Moncef Tagina

Abstract:

This paper is aimed at describing a delay-based endto- end (e2e) congestion control algorithm, called Very FAST TCP (VFAST), which is an enhanced version of FAST TCP. The main idea behind this enhancement is to smoothly estimate the Round-Trip Time (RTT) based on a nonlinear filter, which eliminates throughput and queue oscillation when RTT fluctuates. In this context, an evaluation of the suggested scheme through simulation is introduced, by comparing our VFAST prototype with FAST in terms of throughput, queue behavior, fairness, stability, RTT and adaptivity to changes in network. The achieved simulation results indicate that the suggested protocol offer better performance than FAST TCP in terms of RTT estimation and throughput.

Keywords: Fast tcp, RTT, delay estimation, delay-based congestion control, high speed TCP, large bandwidth delay product.

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259 The Operating Behaviour of Unbalanced Unpaced Merging Assembly Lines

Authors: S. Shaaban, T. McNamara, S. Hudson

Abstract:

This paper reports on the performance of deliberately unbalanced, reliable, non-automated and assembly lines that merge, whose workstations differ in terms of their mean operation times. Simulations are carried out on 5- and 8-station lines with 1, 2 and 4 buffer capacity units, % degrees of line imbalance of 2, 5 and 12, and 24 different patterns of means imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput and average buffer level were gathered, statistically analysed and compared to a merging balanced line counterpart. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing order for each of the parallel merging lines, with the first generally resulting in a lower throughput and the second leading to a lower average buffer level than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: Average buffer level, merging lines, simulation, throughput, unbalanced.

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258 Dynamic Load Balancing Strategy for Grid Computing

Authors: Belabbas Yagoubi, Yahya Slimani

Abstract:

Workload and resource management are two essential functions provided at the service level of the grid software infrastructure. To improve the global throughput of these software environments, workloads have to be evenly scheduled among the available resources. To realize this goal several load balancing strategies and algorithms have been proposed. Most strategies were developed in mind, assuming homogeneous set of sites linked with homogeneous and fast networks. However for computational grids we must address main new issues, namely: heterogeneity, scalability and adaptability. In this paper, we propose a layered algorithm which achieve dynamic load balancing in grid computing. Based on a tree model, our algorithm presents the following main features: (i) it is layered; (ii) it supports heterogeneity and scalability; and, (iii) it is totally independent from any physical architecture of a grid.

Keywords: Grid computing, load balancing, workload, tree based model.

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257 Scheduled Maintenance and Downtime Cost in Aircraft Maintenance Management

Authors: Remzi Saltoglu, Nazmia Humaira, Gokhan Inalhan

Abstract:

During aircraft maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the budget of the maintenance. Usually, this calculation includes only the costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. However, in some of those, downtime cost is neglected claiming that grounding is a natural fact of maintenance; therefore, it is not considered as part of the analytical decision-making process. Based on the normalized data, we introduce downtime cost with its monetary value and add its seasonal character. We envision that the rest of the model, which works together with the downtime cost, could be checked with the real life cases, through the review of MRO cost and airline spending in the particular and scheduled maintenance events.

Keywords: Aircraft maintenance, downtime, downtime cost, maintenance cost.

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256 Average Switching Thresholds and Average Throughput for Adaptive Modulation using Markov Model

Authors: Essam S. Altubaishi

Abstract:

The motivation for adaptive modulation and coding is to adjust the method of transmission to ensure that the maximum efficiency is achieved over the link at all times. The receiver estimates the channel quality and reports it back to the transmitter. The transmitter then maps the reported quality into a link mode. This mapping however, is not a one-to-one mapping. In this paper we investigate a method for selecting the proper modulation scheme. This method can dynamically adapt the mapping of the Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) into a link mode. It enables the use of the right modulation scheme irrespective of changes in the channel conditions by incorporating errors in the received data. We propose a Markov model for this method, and use it to derive the average switching thresholds and the average throughput. We show that the average throughput of this method outperforms the conventional threshold method.

Keywords: Adaptive modulation and coding, CDMA, Markov model.

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255 An Adaptive ARQ – HARQ Method with Two RS Codes

Authors: Michal Martinovič, Jaroslav Polec, Kvetoslava Kotuliaková

Abstract:

In this paper we proposed multistage adaptive ARQ/HARQ/HARQ scheme. This method combines pure ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest) mode in low channel bit error rate and hybrid ARQ method using two different Reed-Solomon codes in middle and high error rate conditions. It follows, that our scheme has three stages. The main goal is to increase number of states in adaptive HARQ methods and be able to achieve maximum throughput for every channel bit error rate. We will prove the proposal by calculation and then with simulations in land mobile satellite channel environment. Optimization of scheme system parameters is described in order to maximize the throughput in the whole defined Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) range in selected channel environment.

Keywords: Signal-to-noise ratio, throughput, forward error correction (FEC), pure and hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ).

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254 The Performance of an 802.11g/Wi-Fi Network Whilst Streaming Voice Content

Authors: P. O. Umenne, Odhiambo Marcel O.

Abstract:

A simple network model is developed in OPNET to study the performance of the Wi-Fi protocol. The model is simulated in OPNET and performance factors such as load, throughput and delay are analysed from the model. Four applications such as oracle, http, ftp and voice are applied over the Wireless LAN network to determine the throughput. The voice application utilises a considerable amount of bandwidth of up to 5Mbps, as a result the 802.11g standard of the Wi-Fi protocol was chosen which can support a data rate of up to 54Mbps. Results indicate that when the load in the Wi-Fi network is increased the queuing delay on the point-to-point links in the Wi-Fi network significantly reduces until it is comparable to that of WiMAX. In conclusion, the queuing delay of the Wi-Fi protocol for the network model simulated was about 0.00001secs comparable to WiMAX network values.

Keywords: WLAN-Wireless Local Area Network, MIMO-Multiple Input Multiple Output, Queuing delay, Throughput, AP-Access Point, IP-Internet protocol, TOS-Type of Service.

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253 Optimizing TCP Vegas- Performance with Packet Spacing and Effect of Variable FTP Packet Size over Wireless IPv6 Network

Authors: B. S. Yew , B. L. Ong , R. B. Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper describes the performance of TCP Vegas over the wireless IPv6 network. The performance of TCP Vegas is evaluated using network simulator (ns-2). The simulation experiment investigates how packet spacing affects the network delay, network throughput and network efficiency of TCP Vegas. Moreover, we investigate how the variable FTP packet sizes affect the network performance. The result of the simulation experiment shows that as the packet spacing is implements, the network delay is reduces, network throughput and network efficiency is optimizes. As the FTP packet sizes increase, the ratio of delay per throughput decreases. From the result of experiment, we propose the appropriate packet size in transmitting file transfer protocol application using TCP Vegas with packet spacing enhancement over wireless IPv6 environment in ns-2. Additionally, we suggest the appropriate ratio in determining the appropriate RTT and buffer size in a network.

Keywords: TCP Vegas, Packet Spacing, Packet Size, Wireless IPv6, ns-2

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252 Studies on Determination of the Optimum Distance Between the Tmotes for Optimum Data Transfer in a Network with WLL Capability

Authors: N C Santhosh Kumar, N K Kishore

Abstract:

Using mini modules of Tmotes, it is possible to automate a small personal area network. This idea can be extended to large networks too by implementing multi-hop routing. Linking the various Tmotes using Programming languages like Nesc, Java and having transmitter and receiver sections, a network can be monitored. It is foreseen that, depending on the application, a long range at a low data transfer rate or average throughput may be an acceptable trade-off. To reduce the overall costs involved, an optimum number of Tmotes to be used under various conditions (Indoor/Outdoor) is to be deduced. By analyzing the data rates or throughputs at various locations of Tmotes, it is possible to deduce an optimal number of Tmotes for a specific network. This paper deals with the determination of optimum distances to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of the entire sensor network with Wireless Local Loop (WLL) capability.

Keywords: Average throughput, data rate, multi-hop routing, optimum data transfer, throughput, Tmotes, wireless local loop.

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251 Seamless Flow of Voluminous Data in High Speed Network without Congestion Using Feedback Mechanism

Authors: T.Sheela, Dr.J.Raja

Abstract:

Continuously growing needs for Internet applications that transmit massive amount of data have led to the emergence of high speed network. Data transfer must take place without any congestion and hence feedback parameters must be transferred from the receiver end to the sender end so as to restrict the sending rate in order to avoid congestion. Even though TCP tries to avoid congestion by restricting the sending rate and window size, it never announces the sender about the capacity of the data to be sent and also it reduces the window size by half at the time of congestion therefore resulting in the decrease of throughput, low utilization of the bandwidth and maximum delay. In this paper, XCP protocol is used and feedback parameters are calculated based on arrival rate, service rate, traffic rate and queue size and hence the receiver informs the sender about the throughput, capacity of the data to be sent and window size adjustment, resulting in no drastic decrease in window size, better increase in sending rate because of which there is a continuous flow of data without congestion. Therefore as a result of this, there is a maximum increase in throughput, high utilization of the bandwidth and minimum delay. The result of the proposed work is presented as a graph based on throughput, delay and window size. Thus in this paper, XCP protocol is well illustrated and the various parameters are thoroughly analyzed and adequately presented.

Keywords: Bandwidth-Delay Product, Congestion Control, Congestion Window, TCP/IP

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