Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: NTP

9 Time Synchronization between the eNBs in E-UTRAN under the Asymmetric IP Network

Authors: M. Kollar, A. Zieba

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a method for a time synchronization between the two eNodeBs (eNBs) in E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) network. The two eNBs are cooperating in so-called inter eNB CA (Carrier Aggregation) case and connected via asymmetrical IP network. We solve the problem by using broadcasting signals generated in E-UTRAN as synchronization signals. The results show that the time synchronization with the proposed method is possible with the error significantly less than 1 ms which is sufficient considering the time transmission interval is 1 ms in E-UTRAN. This makes this method (with low complexity) more suitable than Network Time Protocol (NTP) in the mobile applications with generated broadcasting signals where time synchronization in asymmetrical network is required.

Keywords: E-UTRAN, IP scheduled throughput, initial burst delay, synchronization, NTP, delay, asymmetric network.

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8 Inter-Specific Differences in Leaf Phenology, Growth of Seedlings of Cork OAK (Quercus suber L.), Zeen Oak (Quercus canariensis Willd.) and Their Hybrid Afares Oak (Quercus afares Pomel) in the Nursery

Authors: S. Mhamdi, O. Brendel, P. Montpied, K. Ben Yahia, N. Saouyah, B. Hasnaoui, E. Dreyer

Abstract:

Leaf Life Span (LLS) is used to classify trees into two main groups: evergreen and deciduous species. It varies according to the forms of life between taxonomic groups. Co-occurrence of deciduous and evergreen oaks is common in some Mediterranean type climate areas. Nevertheless, in the Tunisian forests, there is no enough information about the functional inter-specific diversity among oak species, especially in the mixed stand marked by the simultaneous presence of Q. suber L., Q. canariensis Willd. and their hybrid (Q. afares), the latter being an endemic oak species threatened with extinction. This study has been conducted to estimate the LLS, the relative growth rate, and the count of different growth flushes of samplings in semi-controlled conditions. Our study took 17 months, with an observation's interval of 4 weeks. The aim is to characterize and compare the hybrid species to the parental ones. Differences were observed among species, both for phenology and growth. Indeed, Q. suber saplings reached higher total height and number of growth flushes then Q. canariensis, while Q. afares showed much less growth flushes than the parental species. The LLS of parental species has exceeded the duration of the experiment, but their hybrid lost all leaves on all cohorts. The short LLSs of hybrid species are in accordance with this phenology in the field, but for Q. canariensis there was a contrast with observations in the field where phenology is strictly annual. This study allowed us to differentiate the hybrid from both parental species.

Keywords: Leaf life span, growth, hybrid, evergreen, deciduous, seedlings, Q. afares Pomel, Q. suber L., Q. canariensis Willd.

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7 Assessment of Procurement-Demand of Milk Plant Using Quality Control Tools: A Case Study

Authors: Jagdeep Singh, Prem Singh

Abstract:

Milk is considered as an essential and complete food. The present study was conducted at Milk Plant Mohali especially in reference to the procurement section where the cash inflow was maximum, with the objective to achieve higher productivity and reduce wastage of milk. In milk plant it was observed that during the month of Jan-2014 to March-2014 the average procurement of milk was Rs. 4, 19, 361 liter per month and cost of procurement of milk is Rs 35/- per liter. The total cost of procurement thereby equal to Rs. 1crore 46 lakh per month, but there was mismatch in procurementproduction of milk, which leads to an average loss of Rs. 12, 94, 405 per month. To solve the procurement-production problem Quality Control Tools like brainstorming, Flow Chart, Cause effect diagram and Pareto analysis are applied wherever applicable. With the successful implementation of Quality Control tools an average saving of Rs. 4, 59, 445 per month is done.

Keywords: Milk, Procurement-demand, quality control tools.

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6 Oleate Induces Apoptosis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

Authors: A. Rohana, A. M., Fadzilah Adibah, M. S. Muhammad Roji

Abstract:

Oleic acid (C18:1) play an important role in proliferation of fat cells. In this study, the effect of oleate on cells viability in 3T3-L1 cells (fat cells) was investigated. The 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various concentrations of oleate in the presence of 23 mM glucose. Oleate was added to adipogenic media (day 0) to investigate the influence of oleate on proliferation of postconfluent preadipocytes after 24 h induction. 0.1 mM oleate promoted cell division by increasing 33.9% number of cells from basal control in postconfluent preadipocytes. However, there were no significantly different in cells viability with control cells when oleate concentrations were increased up to 0.5 mM. When added to differentiated adipocytes (day 12) for 48 h, the number of cells decreased as oleate concentrations increased. 92.7% of cells lost demonstrated apoptosis and necrosis after 48 h with 0.5 mM oleate. The fluorochrome staining was examined under fluorescence microscopy using acridine orange and ethidium bromide double staining. Furthermore, the presence of high lactate (60.6% increased from basal control) released into plasma has shown the direct cytotoxicity of 0.5 mM oleate on adipocytes.

Keywords: adipocytes, apoptosis, oleate, postconfluentpreadipocytes

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5 Experimental Validation of Treatment Planning for Multiple Radiotherapy Fields by EDR2 Film Dosimeter

Authors: Vahid Fayaz , Asieh Tavakol

Abstract:

To investigate the applicability of the EDR-2 film for clinical radiation dosimetry, percentage depth-doses, profiles and distributions in open and dynamically wedged fields were measured using film and compared with data from a Treatment Planning system.The validity of the EDR2 film to measure dose in a plane parallel to the beam was tested by irradiating 10 cm×10 cm and 4 cm×4 cm fields from a Siemens, primus linac with a 6MV beam and a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. The film was placed Horizontally between solid water phantom blocks and marked with pin holes at a depth of 10 cm from the incident beam surface. The film measurement results, in absolute dose, were compared with ion chamber measurements using a Welhoffer scanning water tank system and Treatment Planning system. Our results indicate a maximum underestimate of calculated dose of 8 % with Treatment Planning system.

Keywords: 6MV Photon , EDR-2 film, Radiotherapy, TreatmentPlanning system

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4 Microbial Leaching Process to Recover Valuable Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Iron Oxidizing Bacteria

Authors: Debabrata Pradhan, Dong J. Kim, Jong G. Ahn, Seoung W. Lee

Abstract:

Spent petroleum catalyst from Korean petrochemical industry contains trace amount of metals such as Ni, V and Mo. Therefore an attempt was made to recover those trace metal using bioleaching process. Different leaching parameters such as Fe(II) concentration, pulp density, pH, temperature and particle size of spent catalyst particle were studied to evaluate their effects on the leaching efficiency. All the three metal ions like Ni, V and Mo followed dual kinetics, i.e., initial faster followed by slower rate. The percentage of leaching efficiency of Ni and V were higher than Mo. The leaching process followed a diffusion controlled model and the product layer was observed to be impervious due to formation of ammonium jarosite (NH4)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6. In addition, the lower leaching efficiency of Mo was observed due to a hydrophobic coating of elemental sulfur over Mo matrix in the spent catalyst.

Keywords: Bioleaching, diffusion control, shrinking core, spentpetroleum catalyst.

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3 Virulent-GO: Prediction of Virulent Proteins in Bacterial Pathogens Utilizing Gene Ontology Terms

Authors: Chia-Ta Tsai, Wen-Lin Huang, Shinn-Jang Ho, Li-Sun Shu, Shinn-Ying Ho

Abstract:

Prediction of bacterial virulent protein sequences can give assistance to identification and characterization of novel virulence-associated factors and discover drug/vaccine targets against proteins indispensable to pathogenicity. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation which describes functions of genes and gene products as a controlled vocabulary of terms has been shown effectively for a variety of tasks such as gene expression study, GO annotation prediction, protein subcellular localization, etc. In this study, we propose a sequence-based method Virulent-GO by mining informative GO terms as features for predicting bacterial virulent proteins. Each protein in the datasets used by the existing method VirulentPred is annotated by using BLAST to obtain its homologies with known accession numbers for retrieving GO terms. After investigating various popular classifiers using the same five-fold cross-validation scheme, Virulent-GO using the single kind of GO term features with an accuracy of 82.5% is slightly better than VirulentPred with 81.8% using five kinds of sequence-based features. For the evaluation of independent test, Virulent-GO also yields better results (82.0%) than VirulentPred (80.7%). When evaluating single kind of feature with SVM, the GO term feature performs much well, compared with each of the five kinds of features.

Keywords: Bacterial virulence factors, GO terms, prediction, protein sequence.

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2 Simulation Tools for Fixed Point DSP Algorithms and Architectures

Authors: K. B. Cullen, G. C. M. Silvestre, N. J. Hurley

Abstract:

This paper presents software tools that convert the C/Cµ floating point source code for a DSP algorithm into a fixedpoint simulation model that can be used to evaluate the numericalperformance of the algorithm on several different fixed pointplatforms including microprocessors, DSPs and FPGAs. The tools use a novel system for maintaining binary point informationso that the conversion from floating point to fixed point isautomated and the resulting fixed point algorithm achieves maximum possible precision. A configurable architecture is used during the simulation phase so that the algorithm can produce a bit-exact output for several different target devices.

Keywords: DSP devices, DSP algorithm, simulation model, software

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1 Self-Organization of Clusters Having Locally Distributed Patterns for Highly Synchronized Inputs

Authors: Toshio Akimitsu, Yoichi Okabe, Akira Hirose

Abstract:

Many experimental results suggest that more precise spike timing is significant in neural information processing. We construct a self-organization model using the spatiotemporal pat-terns, where Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) tunes the conduction delays between neurons. We show that, for highly syn-chronized inputs, the fluctuation of conduction delays causes globally continuous and locally distributed firing patterns through the self-organization.

Keywords: Self-organization, synfire-chain, Spike-Timing DependentPlasticity, distributed information representation.

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