Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Functionalization

18 Functionalization and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes/ Polypropylene Nanocomposite

Authors: Mokhtar Awang, Wei-Vern Hor, Ehsan Mohammadpour, M Zaki Abdullah, Faiz Ahmad

Abstract:

Chemical and physical functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been commonly practiced to achieve better dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymer matrix. This work describes various functionalization methods (acidtreatment, non-ionic surfactant treatment with TritonX-100), fabrication of MWCNT/PP nanocomposites via melt blending and characterization of mechanical properties. Microscopy analysis (FESEM, TEM, XPS) showed effective purification of MWCNTs under acid treatment, and better dispersion under both chemical and physical functionalization techniques combined, in their respective order. Tensile tests showed increase in tensile strength for the nanocomposites that contain MWCNTs up to 2 wt%. A decrease in tensile strength was seen in samples that contain 4 wt% of MWCNTs for both raw and Triton X-100 functionalized, signifying MWCNT degradation/rebundling at composition with higher content of MWCNTs. For the acid-treated MWCNTs, however, the tensile results showed slight improvement even at 4wt%, indicating effective dispersion of MWCNTs.

Keywords: Multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), functionalization, dispersion, nanocomposite

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17 Functionalized Nanoparticles as Sorbents for Removal of Toxic Species

Authors: Jerina Majeed, Jayshree Ramkumar, S. Chandramouleeswaran, A. K. Tyagi

Abstract:

Removal of various toxic species from aqueous streams is of great importance. Sorption is one of the important remediation procedures as it involves the use of cheap and easily available materials. Also the advantage of regeneration of the sorbent involves the possibility of using novel sorbents. Nanosorbents are very important as the removal is based on the surface phenomena and this is greatly affected by surface charge and area. Functionalization has been very important to bring about the removal of metal ions with greater selectivity.

Keywords: Mercury, lead, thiol functionalization, ZnO NPs.

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16 Green-Reduction of Covalently Functionalized Graphene Oxide with Varying Stoichiometry

Authors: A. Pruna, D. Pullini, D. Busquets

Abstract:

Graphene-based materials were prepared by chemical reduction of covalently functionalized graphene oxide with environmentally friendly agents. Two varying stoichiometry of graphene oxide (GO) induced by using different chemical preparation conditions, further covalent functionalization of the GO materials with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride / N-hydroxysuccinimide and ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite as reducing agents were exploited in order to obtain controllable properties of the final solution-based graphene materials. The obtained materials were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed successful functionalization of the GO materials, while a comparison of the deoxygenation efficiency of the two-type functionalized graphene oxide suspensions by the different reducing agents has been made, revealing the strong dependence of their properties on the GO structure and reducing agents.

Keywords: Graphene oxide, covalent functionalization, reduction, ascorbic acid, sodium bisulfate.

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15 Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Using Nitric Acid Oxidation and DBD Plasma

Authors: M. Vesali Naseh, A. A. Khodadadi, Y. Mortazavi, O. Alizadeh Sahraei, F. Pourfayaz, S. Mosadegh Sedghi

Abstract:

In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were modified with nitric acid chemically and by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in an oxygen-based atmosphere. Used carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) floating catalyst method. For removing amorphous carbon and metal catalyst, MWNTs were exposed to dry air and washed with hydrochloric acid. Heating purified CNTs under helium atmosphere caused elimination of acidic functional groups. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) shows formation of oxygen containing groups such as C=O and COOH. Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) analysis revealed that functionalization causes generation of defects on the sidewalls and opening of the ends of CNTs. Results of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and gas chromatography(GC) indicate that nitric acid treatment create more acidic groups than plasma treatment.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), chemical treatment, functionalization, plasma.

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14 Functionalization of Polypropylene with Chiral Monomer for Improving Hemocompatibility

Authors: Xiaodong Xu, Dan Zhao, Xiujuan Chang, Chunming Li, Huiyun Zhou, Xin Li, Qiang Shi, Shifang Luan, Jinghua Yin

Abstract:

Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most commonly used plastics because of its low density, outstanding mechanical properties, and low cost. However, its drawbacks such as low surface energy, poor dyeability, lack of chemical functionalities, and poor compatibility with polar polymers and inorganic materials, have restricted the application of PP. To expand its application in biomedical materials, functionalization is considered to be the most effective way. In this study, PP was functionalized with a chiral monomer, (S)-1-acryloylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid ((S)-APCA), by free-radical grafting in the solid phase. The grafting degree of PP-g-APCA was determined by chemical titration method, and the chemical structure of functionalized PP was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, which confirmed that the chiral monomer (S)-APCA was successfully grafted onto PP. Static water contact angle results suggested that the surface hydrophilicity of PP was significantly improved by solid phase grafting and assistance of surface water treatment. Protein adsorption and platelet adhesion results showed that hemocompatibility of PP was greatly improved by grafting the chiral monomer.

Keywords: Functionalization, polypropylene, chiral monomer, hemocompatibility.

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13 Kinetics Study of Ammonia Removal from Synthetic Waste Water

Authors: Edison Muzenda, John Kabuba, Freeman Ntuli, Mansoor Mollagee

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate ammonium exchange capacity of natural and activated clinoptilolite from Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa. X – ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis showed that the clinoptilolite contained exchangeable ions of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. This analysis also confirmed that the zeolite sample had a high silicon composition compared to aluminium. Batch equilibrium studies were performed in an orbital shaker and the data fitted the Langmuir isotherm very well. The ammonium exchange capacity was found to increase with pH and temperature. Clinoptilolite functionalization with hydrochloric acid increased its ammonia uptake ability.

Keywords: Activated clinoptilolite, Ammonium exchange, Equilibrium, Functionalization, Langmuir isotherm

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12 Properties of MWCNTs/PAN Nanofiber Sheet Prepared from Chemically Modified MWCNTs

Authors: M. Seneewong-Na-Ayuttaya, T. Pongprayoon

Abstract:

The nanofiber sheet of Multiwall Cabon Nanotube (MWCNTs)/Polyacylonitile (PAN) composites was fabricated from electrospun nanofiber. Firstly the surface of MWCNTs was chemically modified, comparing two different techniques consisting of admicellar polymerization and functionalization to improve the dispersion and prevent the aggregation in the PAN matrix. The modified MWCNTs were characterized by the dispersion in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent, Laser particle size, and FTRaman. Lastly, DSC, SEM and mechanical properties of the nanofiber sheet were examined. The results show that the mechanical properties of the nanofiber sheet prepared from admicellar polymerization-modified MWCNTs were higher than those of the others.

Keywords: Multiwall carbon nanotube, admicellar polymerization, functionalization, nanofiber sheet.

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11 Surface Activation of Carbon Nanotubes Generating a Chemical Interaction in Epoxy Nanocomposite

Authors: Mohamed Eldessouki, Ebraheem Shady, Yasser Gowayed

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for having high elastic properties with high surface area that promote them as good candidates for reinforcing polymeric matrices. In composite materials, CNTs lack chemical bonding with the surrounding matrix which decreases the possibility of better stress transfer between the components. In this work, a chemical treatment for activating the surface of the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was applied and the effect of this functionalization on the elastic properties of the epoxy nanocomposites was studied. Functional amino-groups were added to the surface of the CNTs and it was evaluated to be about 34% of the total weight of the CNTs. Elastic modulus was found to increase by about 40% of the neat epoxy resin at CNTs’ weight fraction of 0.5%. The elastic modulus was found to decrease after reaching a certain concentration of CNTs which was found to be 1% wt. The scanning electron microscopic pictures showed the effect of the CNTs on the crack propagation through the sample by forming stress concentrated spots at the nanocomposite samples.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes functionalization, crack propagation, elastic modulus, epoxy nanocomposites.

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10 Ligand-Depended Adsorption Characteristics of Silver Nanoparticles on Activated Carbon

Authors: Hamza Simsir, Nurettin Eltugral, Selhan Karagoz

Abstract:

Surface modification and functionalization has been an important tool for scientists in order to open new frontiers in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Desired surface characteristics for the intended applications can be achieved with surface functionalization. In this work, the effect of water soluble ligands on the adsorption capabilities of silver nanoparticles onto AC which was synthesized from German beech wood was investigated. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the ligands. Silver nanoparticles with different surface coatings have average sizes range from 10 to 13 nm. They were synthesized in aqueous media by reducing Ag (I) ion in the presence of ligands. These particles displayed adsorption tendencies towards AC when they were mixed together and shaken in distilled water. Silver nanoparticles (NaBH4-AgNPs) reduced and stabilized by NaBH4 adsorbed onto AC with a homogenous dispersion of aggregates with sizes in the range of 100-400 nm. Beside, silver nanoparticles, which were prepared in the presence of both NaBH4 and PVA (NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs), demonstrated that NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs adsorbed and dispersed homogenously but, they aggregated with larger sizes on the AC surface (range from 300 to 600 nm). In addition, desorption resistance of Ag nanoparticles were investigated in distilled water. According to the results AgNPs were not desorbed on the AC surface in distilled water.

Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, ligand, silver nanoparticles.

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9 Preparation and Characterization of Self Assembled Gold Nanoparticles on Amino Functionalized SiO2 Dielectric Core

Authors: M.E.khosroshahi , M.S.Nourbakhsh

Abstract:

Wet chemistry methods are used to prepare the SiO2/Au nanoshells. The purpose of this research was to synthesize gold coated SiO2 nanoshells for biomedical applications. Tunable nanoshells were prepared by using different colloidal concentrations. The nanoshells are characterized by FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FTIR results confirmed the functionalization of the surfaces of silica nanoparticles with NH2 terminal groups. A tunable absorption was observed between 470-600 nm with a maximum range of 530-560 nm. Based on the XRD results three main peaks of Au (111), (200) and (220) were identified. Also AFM results showed that the silica core diameter was about 100 nm and the thickness of gold shell about 10 nm.

Keywords: Gold nanoshells, Synthesis, UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, AFM

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8 Effect of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of CNT-PAN Composite Nanofibers

Authors: O. Eren, N. Ucar, A. Onen, N. Kızıldag, O. F. Vurur, N. Demirsoy, I. Karacan

Abstract:

PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of concentration of CNT increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT results to decrease of diameter of nanofiber.

Keywords: Amine functionalized carbon nanotube, electrospinning, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile.

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7 Chitosan Functionalized [email protected] Core-Shell Nanomaterials for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: S. S. Pati, L. Herojit Singh, A. C. Oliveira, V. K. Garg

Abstract:

Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4-Au core shell nanoparticles have been prepared using a two-step wet chemical approach using NaBH4 as reducing agent for formation of Au in ethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction studies shows individual phases of Fe3O4 and Au in the as prepared samples with crystallite size of 5.9 and 11.4 nm respectively. The functionalization of the core-shell nanostructure with Chitosan has been confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with signatures of octahedral and tetrahedral sites of Fe3O4 below 600cm-1. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows decrease in particle-particle interaction in presence of Au shell (72% sextet) than pure oleic coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (88% sextet) at room temperature. At 80K, oleic acid coated Fe3O4 shows only sextets whereas the Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4 and Chitosan functionalized [email protected] core shell show presence of 5 and 11% doublet, respectively.

Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles, [email protected] core shell, iron oxide, Au nanoparticles.

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6 Kinetic Modeling of Transesterification of Triacetin Using Synthesized Ion Exchange Resin (SIERs)

Authors: Hafizuddin W. Yussof, Syamsutajri S. Bahri, Adam P. Harvey

Abstract:

Strong anion exchange resins with QN+OH-, have the potential to be developed and employed as heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification, as they are chemically stable to leaching of the functional group. Nine different SIERs (SIER1-9) with QN+OH-were prepared by suspension polymerization of vinylbenzyl chloridedivinylbenzene (VBC-DVB) copolymers in the presence of n-heptane (pore-forming agent). The amine group was successfully grafted into the polymeric resin beads through functionalization with trimethylamine. These SIERs are then used as a catalyst for the transesterification of triacetin with methanol. A set of differential equations that represents the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen- Watson (LHHW) and Eley-Rideal (ER) models for the transesterification reaction were developed. These kinetic models of LHHW and ER were fitted to the experimental data. Overall, the synthesized ion exchange resin-catalyzed reaction were welldescribed by the Eley-Rideal model compared to LHHW models, with sum of square error (SSE) of 0.742 and 0.996, respectively.

Keywords: Anion exchange resin, Eley-Rideal, Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson, transesterification.

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5 The Sequestration of Heavy Metals Contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area using Natural Zeolite

Authors: P.P. Diale, S.S.L. Mkhize, E. Muzenda, J. Zimba

Abstract:

For more than 120 years, gold mining formed the backbone the South Africa-s economy. The consequence of mine closure was observed in large-scale land degradation and widespread pollution of surface water and groundwater. This paper investigates the feasibility of using natural zeolite in removing heavy metals contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area (WCA), a water stream with high levels of heavy metals and radionuclide pollution. Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption behavior of natural zeolite with respect to Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. The data was analysed using the Langmuir and Freudlich isotherms. Langmuir was found to correlate the adsorption of Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ better, with the adsorption capacity of 11.9 mg/g, 1.2 mg/g, 1.3 mg/g, and 14.7 mg/g, respectively. Two kinetic models namely, pseudo-first order and pseudo second order were also tested to fit the data. Pseudo-second order equation was found to be the best fit for the adsorption of heavy metals by natural zeolite. Zeolite functionalization with humic acid increased its uptake ability.

Keywords: gold-mining, natural zeolites, water pollution, WestRand.

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4 Thermophysical and Heat Transfer Performance of Covalent and Noncovalent Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet-Based Water Nanofluids in an Annular Heat Exchanger

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Ahmad Amiri, Hamid K. Arzani, Salim Newaz Kazi, Ahmad Badarudin

Abstract:

The new design of heat exchangers utilizing an annular distributor opens a new gateway for realizing higher energy optimization. To realize this goal, graphene nanoplatelet-based water nanofluids with promising thermophysical properties were synthesized in the presence of covalent and noncovalent functionalization. Thermal conductivity, density, viscosity and specific heat capacity were investigated and employed as a raw data for ANSYS-Fluent to be used in two-phase approach. After validation of obtained results by analytical equations, two special parameters of convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop were investigated. The study followed by studying other heat transfer parameters of annular pass in the presence of graphene nanopletelesbased water nanofluids at different weight concentrations, input powers and temperatures. As a result, heat transfer performance and friction loss are predicted for both synthesized nanofluids.

Keywords: Heat transfer, nanofluid, turbulent flow, forced convection flow, graphene nanoplatelet.

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3 The Antibacterial Efficacy of Gold Nanoparticles Derived from Gomphrena celosioides and Prunus amygdalus (Almond) Leaves on Selected Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: M. E. Abalaka, S. Y. Daniyan, S. O. Adeyemo, D. Damisa

Abstract:

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained increasing interest in recent times. This is greatly due to their special features, which include unusual optical and electronic properties, high stability and biological compatibility, controllable morphology and size dispersion, and easy surface functionalization. In typical synthesis, AuNPs were produced by reduction of gold salt AuCl4 in an appropriate solvent. A stabilizing agent was added to prevent the particles from aggregating. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of gold nanoparticles was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas pneumonia using the disk diffusion method in a Müeller–Hinton Agar. The Au-NPs were effective against all bacteria tested. That the Au-NPs were successfully synthesized in suspension and were used to study the antibacterial activity of the two medicinal plants against some bacterial pathogens suggests that Au-NPs can be employed as an effective bacteria inhibitor and may be an effective tool in medical field. The study clearly showed that the Au-NPs exhibiting inhibition towards the tested pathogenic bacteria in vitro could have the same effects in vivo and thus may be useful in the medical field if well researched into.

Keywords: Gold Nanoparticles, Gomphrena celesioides, Prunus amygdalus, Pathogens.

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2 A Comparative Study of Single- and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Incorporation to Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for Solar Cells

Authors: G. Gokceli, O. Eksik, E. Ozkan Zayim, N. Karatepe

Abstract:

Alternative electrode materials for optoelectronic devices have been widely investigated in recent years. Since indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most preferred transparent conductive electrode, producing ITO films by simple and cost-effective solution-based techniques with enhanced optical and electrical properties has great importance. In this study, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT and MWCNT) incorporated into the ITO structure to increase electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, and chemical stability. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were firstly functionalized by acid treatment (HNO3:H2SO4), and the thermal resistance of CNTs after functionalization was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thin films were then prepared by spin coating technique and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), four-point probe measurement system and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The effects of process parameters were compared for ITO, MWCNT-ITO, and SWCNT-ITO films. Two factors including CNT concentration and annealing temperature were considered. The UV-Vis measurements demonstrated that the transmittance of ITO films was 83.58% at 550 nm, which was decreased depending on the concentration of CNT dopant. On the other hand, both CNT dopants provided an enhancement in the crystalline structure and electrical conductivity. Due to compatible diameter and better dispersibility of SWCNTs in the ITO solution, the best result in terms of electrical conductivity was obtained by SWCNT-ITO films with the 0.1 g/L SWCNT dopant concentration and heat-treatment at 550 °C for 1 hour.

Keywords: CNT incorporation, ITO electrode, spin coating, thin film.

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1 Using 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles to Improve Flexural Properties of Glass Fibers/Epoxy Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels

Authors: Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamed Khosravi, Saba Fayazzadeh

Abstract:

Lightweight and efficient structures have the aim to enhance the efficiency of the components in various industries. Toward this end, composites are one of the most widely used materials because of durability, high strength and modulus, and low weight. One type of the advanced composites is grid-stiffened composite (GSC) structures, which have been extensively considered in aerospace, automotive, and aircraft industries. They are one of the top candidates for replacing some of the traditional components, which are used here. Although there are a good number of published surveys on the design aspects and fabrication of GSC structures, little systematic work has been reported on their material modification to improve their properties, to our knowledge. Matrix modification using nanoparticles is an effective method to enhance the flexural properties of the fibrous composites. In the present study, a silanecoupling agent (3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane/3-GPTS) was introduced onto the silica (SiO2) nanoparticle surface and its effects on the three-point flexural response of isogrid E-glass/epoxy composites were assessed. Based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) spectra, it was inferred that the 3-GPTS coupling agent was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles after modification. Flexural test revealed an improvement of 16%, 14%, and 36% in stiffness, maximum load and energy absorption of the isogrid specimen filled with 3 wt.% 3- GPTS/SiO2 compared to the neat one. It would be worth mentioning that in these structures, considerable energy absorption was observed after the primary failure related to the load peak. In addition, 3- GPTMS functionalization had a positive effect on the flexural behavior of the multiscale isogrid composites. In conclusion, this study suggests that the addition of modified silica nanoparticles is a promising method to improve the flexural properties of the gridstiffened fibrous composite structures.

Keywords: Isogrid-stiffened composite panels, silica nanoparticles, surface modification, flexural properties.

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