Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 91

Search results for: Langmuir isotherm

91 Defluoridation of Water by Schwertmannite

Authors: Aparajita Goswami, Mihir K Purkait

Abstract:

In the present study Schwertmannite (an iron oxide hydroxide) is selected as an adsorbent for defluoridation of water. The adsorbent was prepared by wet chemical process and was characterized by SEM, XRD and BET. The fluoride adsorption efficiency of the prepared adsorbent was determined with respect to contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent dose and pH of the solution. The batch adsorption data revealed that the fluoride adsorption efficiency was highly influenced by the studied factors. Equilibrium was attained within one hour of contact time indicating fast kinetics and the adsorption data followed pseudo second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm data fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models for a concentration range of 5-30 mg/L. The adsorption system followed Langmuir isotherm model with maximum adsorption capacity of 11.3 mg/g. The high adsorption capacity of Schwertmannite points towards the potential of this adsorbent for fluoride removal from aqueous medium.

Keywords: Adsorption, fluoride, isotherm study, kinetics, schwertmannite.

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90 Adsorption of Lead from Synthetic Solution using Luffa Charcoal

Authors: C. Umpuch, N. Bunmanan, U. Kueasing, P. Kaewsan

Abstract:

This work was to study batch biosorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by Luffa charcoal. The effect of operating parameters such as adsorption contact time, initial pH solution and different initial Pb(II) concentration on the sorption of Pb(II) were investigated. The results showed that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions was initially rapid and the equilibrium time was 10 h. Adsorption kinetics of Pb(II) ions onto Luffa charcoal could be best described by the pseudo-second order model. At pH 5.0 was favorable for the adsorption and removal of Pb(II) ions. Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was better fitted for the adsorption of Pb(II) ions than Langmuir and Timkin isotherms, respectively. The highest monolayer adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm model was 51.02 mg/g. This study demonstrated that Luffa charcoal could be used for the removal of Pb(II) ions in water treatment.

Keywords: Lead (II), Luffa charcoal, Biosorption, initial pHsolution, contact time, adsorption isotherm.

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89 The Effect of Modification and Initial Concentration on Ammonia Removal from Leachate by Zeolite

Authors: Fulya Aydın, Ayşe Kuleyin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the capacity of natural Turkish zeolite for NH4-N removal from landfill leachate. The effects of modification and initial concentration on the removal of NH4-N from leachate were also investigated. The kinetics of adsorption of NH4-N has been discussed using three kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-second order model, the Elovich equation, the intraparticle diffuion model. Kinetic parameters and correlation coefficients were determined. Equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption of NH4-N were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherm models. Langmuir isotherm model was found to best represent the data for NH4-N.

Keywords: Leachate, Ammonium, zeolite

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88 Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution on the Surface of Znapso-34 Nanoporous Material

Authors: B. Abbad, A. Lounis, Tassalit Djilali

Abstract:

The effects of equilibrium time, solution pH, and sorption temperature of cationic methylene blue (MB) adsorption on nanoporous metallosilicoaluminophosphate ZnAPSO-34 was studied using a batch equilibration method. UV–VIS spectroscopy was used to obtain the adsorption isotherms at 20° C. The optimum period for adsorption was 300 min. However, MB removal increased from 81,82 % to 94,81 %. The equilibrium adsorption data was analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir isotherm was found to be the better-fitting model and the process followed pseudo second–order kinetics. The results showed that ZnAPSO-34 could be employed as an effective material and could be an attractive alternative for the removal of dyes and colors from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Adsorption, Dye, Metallosilicoaluminophosphate, Methylene Blue.

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87 Kinetics Study of Ammonia Removal from Synthetic Waste Water

Authors: Edison Muzenda, John Kabuba, Freeman Ntuli, Mansoor Mollagee

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate ammonium exchange capacity of natural and activated clinoptilolite from Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa. X – ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis showed that the clinoptilolite contained exchangeable ions of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. This analysis also confirmed that the zeolite sample had a high silicon composition compared to aluminium. Batch equilibrium studies were performed in an orbital shaker and the data fitted the Langmuir isotherm very well. The ammonium exchange capacity was found to increase with pH and temperature. Clinoptilolite functionalization with hydrochloric acid increased its ammonia uptake ability.

Keywords: Activated clinoptilolite, Ammonium exchange, Equilibrium, Functionalization, Langmuir isotherm

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86 Removal of Boron from Waste Waters by Ion- Exchange in a Batch System

Authors: Pelin Demirçivi, Gülhayat Nasün-Saygılı

Abstract:

Boron minerals are very useful for various industrial activities, such as glass industry and detergent industry, due to its mechanical and chemical properties. During the production of boron compounds, many of these are introduced into the environment in the form of waste. Boron is also an important micro nutrient for the plants to vegetate but if it exists in high concentrations, it could have toxic effects. The maximum boron level in drinking water for human health is given as 0.3 mg/L in World Health Organization (WHO) standards. The toxic effects of boron should be noted especially for dry regions, thus, in recent years, increasing attention has been paid to remove the boron from waste waters. In this study, boron removal is implemented by ion exchange process using Amberlite IRA-743 resin. Amberlite IRA-743 resin is a boron specific resin and it belongs to the polymerizate sorbent group within the aminopolyol functional group. Batch studies were performed to investigate the effects of various experimental parameters, such as adsorbent dose, initial concentration and pH, on the removal of boron. It is found that, when the adsorbent dose increases removal of boron from the liquid phase increases. However, an increase in the initial concentration decreases the removal of boron. The effective pH values for removal of boron are determined between 8.5 and 9. Equilibrium isotherms were also analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm is obeyed better than the Freundlich isotherm.

Keywords: Amberlite resin, boron removal, ion exchange, isotherm models.

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85 Study of Adsorption Isotherm Models on Rare Earth Elements Biosorption for Separation Purposes

Authors: Nice Vasconcelos Coimbra, Fábio dos Santos Gonçalves, Marisa Nascimento, Ellen Cristine Giese

Abstract:

The development of chemical routes for the recovery and separation of rare earth elements (REE) is seen as a priority and strategic action by several countries demanding these elements. Among the possibilities of alternative routes, the biosorption process has been evaluated in our laboratory. In this theme, the present work attempts to assess and fit the solution equilibrium data in Langmuir, Freundlich and DKR isothermal models, based on the biosorption results of the lanthanum and samarium elements by Bacillus subtilis immobilized on calcium alginate gel. It was observed that the preference of adsorption of REE by the immobilized biomass followed the order Sm (III)> La (III). It can be concluded that among the studied isotherms models, the Langmuir model presented better mathematical results than the Freundlich and DKR models.

Keywords: Rare earth elements, biosorption, Bacillus subtilis, adsorption isotherm models.

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84 Removal of Copper (II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Teak (Tectona grandis L.f) Leaves

Authors: S. Rathnakumar, R. Y. Sheeja, T. Murugesan

Abstract:

The experiments were performed in a batch set up under different concentrations of Cu (II) (0.2 g.l-1 to 0.9 g.l-1), pH (4- 6), temperatures (20oC – 40oC) with varying teak leaves powder (as biosorbent) dosage of 0.3 g.l-1 to 0.5 g.l-1. The kinetics of interactions were tested with pseudo first order Lagergran equation and the value for k1 was found to be 6.909 x 10-3 min-1. The biosorption data gave a good fit with Langmuir and Fruendlich isotherms and the Langmuir monolayer capacity (qm) was found to be 166.78 mg. g-1. Similarly the Freundlich adsorption capacity (Kf) was estimated as 2.49 l g-1. The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG were -62.42 KJ. mol-1, -0.219 KJ.mol-1 K-1 and -1.747 KJ.mol-1 at 293 K from a solution containing 0.4 g l-1 of Cu(II) showing the biosorption to be thermodynamically favourable. These results show good potentiality of using teak leaves as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Teak leaves, Cu(II) removal, biosorption, Lagergran, Langmuir, Fruendlich isotherm.

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83 Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Synthetic Nano Size ZeroValent Iron (nZVI)

Authors: A.R. Rahmani, M.T. Samadi, R. Noroozi

Abstract:

The present work was conducted for the synthesis of nano size zerovalent iron (nZVI) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal as a highly toxic pollutant by using this nanoparticles. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effects of Cr(VI), nZVI concentration, pH of solution and contact time variation on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI). nZVI was synthesized by reduction of ferric chloride using sodium borohydrid. SEM and XRD examinations applied for determination of particle size and characterization of produced nanoparticles. The results showed that the removal efficiency decreased with Cr(VI) concentration and pH of solution and increased with adsorbent dosage and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used for the adsorption equilibrium data and the Langmuir isotherm model was well fitted. Nanoparticle ZVI presented an outstanding ability to remove Cr(VI) due to high surface area, low particle size and high inherent activity.

Keywords: Adsorption, aqueous solution, Chromium, nZVI, removal.

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82 A Study on Removal of Toluidine Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Neem Leaf Powder

Authors: Himanshu Patel, R. T. Vashi

Abstract:

Adsorption of Toluidine blue dye from aqueous solutions onto Neem Leaf Powder (NLP) has been investigated. The surface characterization of this natural material was examined by Particle size analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The effects of process parameters such as initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact duration on the adsorption capacities have been evaluated, in which pH has been found to be most effective parameter among all. The data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich for explaining the equilibrium characteristics of adsorption. And kinetic models like pseudo first- order, second-order model and Elovich equation were utilized to describe the kinetic data. The experimental data were well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Free energy of adsorption (AG"), enthalpy change (AH') and entropy change (AS°) were also determined and evaluated.

Keywords: Adsorption, isotherm models, kinetic models, temperature, toluidine blue dye, surface chemistry.

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81 Cd2+ Ions Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Alginite

Authors: Vladimír Frišták, Martin Pipíška, Juraj Lesný

Abstract:

Alginite has been evaluated as an efficient pollution control material. In this paper, alginite from maar Pinciná (SR) for removal of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution was studied. The potential sorbent was characterized by X-ray fluorescence analysis (RFA) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis (FT-IR) and specific surface area (SSA) was also determined. The sorption process was optimized from the point of initial cadmium concentration effect and effect of pH value. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to interpret the sorption behavior of Cd2+ ions, and the results showed that experimental data were well fitted by the Langmuir equation. Alginite maximal sorption capacity (Qmax) for Cd2+ ions calculated from Langmuir isotherm was 34 mg/g. Sorption process was significantly affected by initial pH value in the range from 4.0-7.0. Alginite is a comparable sorbent with other materials for toxic metals removal. 

Keywords: Alginites, Cd2+, sorption, Qmax

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80 Banana Peels as an Eco-Sorbent for Manganese Ions

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the manganese removal from aqueous solution using Banana peels activated carbon (BPAC). Batch experiments have been carried out to determine the influence of parameters such as pH, biosorbent dose, initial metal ion concentrations and contact times on the biosorption process. From these investigations, a significant increase in percentage removal of manganese 97.4% is observed at pH value 5.0, biosorbent dose 0.8 g, initial concentration 20 ppm, temperature 25 ± 2°C, stirring rate 200 rpm and contact time 2h. The equilibrium concentration and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium of the experimental results were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; the Langmuir isotherm was found to well represent the measured adsorption data implying BPAC had heterogeneous surface. A raw groundwater samples were collected from Baharmos groundwater treatment plant network at Embaba and Manshiet Elkanater City/District-Giza, Egypt, for treatment at the best conditions that reached at first phase by BPAC. The treatment with BPAC could reduce iron and manganese value of raw groundwater by 91.4% and 97.1%, respectively and the effect of the treatment process on the microbiological properties of groundwater sample showed decrease of total bacterial count either at 22°C or at 37°C to 85.7% and 82.4%, respectively. Also, BPAC was characterized using SEM and FTIR spectroscopy.

Keywords: Biosorption, banana peels, isothermal models, manganese.

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79 Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solutions using Fuller's Earth

Authors: Tarun Kumar Naiya, Biswajit Singha, Ashim Kumar Bhattacharya, Sudip Kumar Das

Abstract:

Fuller’s earth is a fine-grained, naturally occurring substance that has a substantial ability to adsorb impurities. In the present study Fuller’s earth has been characterized and used for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The effect of various physicochemical parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage and shaking time on adsorption were studied. The result of the equilibrium studies showed that the solution pH was the key factor affecting the adsorption. The optimum pH for adsorption was 5. Kinetics data for the adsorption of Pb(II) was best described by pseudo-second order model. The effective diffusion co-efficient for Pb(II) adsorption was of the order of 10-8 m2/s. The adsorption data for metal adsorption can be well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum uptake of metal was 103.3 mg/g of adsorbent. Mass transfer analysis was also carried out for the adsorption process. The values of mass transfer coefficients obtained from the study indicate that the velocity of the adsorbate transport from bulk to the solid phase was quite fast. The mean sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm indicated that the metal adsorption process was chemical in nature. 

Keywords: Fuller's earth, Pseudo second order, Mass Transfer co-efficient, Langmuir

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78 Experimental Evaluation of Methane Adsorptionon Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and Determination of Model Isotherm

Authors: M. Delavar, A.A. Ghoreyshi, M. Jahanshahi, M. Irannejad

Abstract:

This study investigates the capacity of granular activated carbon (GAC) for the storage of methane through the equilibrium adsorption. An experimental apparatus consist of a dual adsorption vessel was set up for the measurement of equilibrium adsorption of methane on GAC using volumetric technique (pressure decay). Experimental isotherms of methane adsorption were determined by the measurement of equilibrium uptake of methane in different pressures (0-50 bar) and temperatures (285.15-328.15°K). The experimental data was fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir equations to determine the model isotherm. The results show that the experimental data is equally well fitted by the both model isotherms. Using the experimental data obtained in different temperatures the isosteric heat of methane adsorption was also calculated by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation from the Sips isotherm model. Results of isosteric heat of adsorption show that decreasing temperature or increasing methane uptake by GAC decrease the isosteric heat of methane adsorption.

Keywords: Methane adsorption, Activated carbon, Modelisotherm, Isosteric heat

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77 Impregnation of Cupper into Kanuma Volcanic Ash Soil to Improve Mercury Sorption Capacity

Authors: Jatindra N. Bhakta, Yukihiro Munekage

Abstract:

The present study attempted to improve the Mercury (Hg) sorption capacity of kanuma volcanic ash soil (KVAS) by impregnating the cupper (Cu). Impregnation was executed by 1 and 5% Cu powder and sorption characterization of optimum Hg removing Cu impregnated KVAS was performed under different operational conditions, contact time, solution pH, sorbent dosage and Hg concentration using the batch operation studies. The 1% Cu impregnated KVAS pronounced optimum improvement (79%) in removing Hg from water compare to control. The present investigation determined the equilibrium state of maximum Hg adsorption at 6 h contact period. The adsorption revealed a pH dependent response and pH 3.5 showed maximum sorption capacity of Hg. Freundlich isotherm model is well fitted with the experimental data than that of Langmuir isotherm. It can be concluded that the Cu impregnation improves the Hg sorption capacity of KVAS and 1% Cu impregnated KVAS could be employed as cost-effective adsorbent media for treating Hg contaminated water.

Keywords: Cupper, impregnation, isotherm, kanuma volcanic ash soil, mercury, sorption

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76 Biosorption of Heavy Metals Contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area using Desmodesmus sp.

Authors: P.P. Diale, E. Muzenda, T.S. Matambo, D. Glasser, D. Hildebrandt, J. Zimba

Abstract:

A vast array of biological materials, especially algae have received increasing attention for heavy metal removal. Algae have been proven to be cheaper, more effective for the removal of metallic elements in aqueous solutions. A fresh water algal strain was isolated from Zoo Lake, Johannesburg, South Africa and identified as Desmodesmus sp. This paper investigates the efficacy of Desmodesmus sp.in removing heavy metals contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area (WCA) water bodies. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models. The Langmuir maximum uptakes gave the sequence: Mn2+>Ni2+>Fe2+. The best results for kinetic study was obtained in concentration 120 ppm for Fe3+ and Mn2+, whilst for Ni2+ was at 20 ppm, which is about the same concentrations found in contaminated water in the WCA (Fe3+115 ppm, Mn2+ 121 ppm and Ni2+ 26.5 ppm).

Keywords: Biosorption, Green algae, Heavy metals, Remediation.

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75 Mitigation of Nitrate Pollution in Wastewater: A Case Study of the Treatment of Cassava Processing Effluent Using Cassava Peel Carbon Material

Authors: Olayinka Omotosho

Abstract:

The study investigated efficiency cassava peel carbon and Zinc Chloride activated cassava peel carbon at 1:3, 2:3 and 1:1 activation levels in the removal of nitrates from oxidized cassava processing wastewater. Results showed that the CPC and CPAC were effective in adsorption of nitrates. A summary of results from the study revealed that CPAC at 1:3 exhibited the highest initial decontamination (69.5% after 2 hrs) while CPAC at 1:1 activation ratio showed a slower initial decontamination rate. The CPC & CPAC exhibited Langmuir Rα values of 0.15, 0.11, 0.09, and 0.07 for the 0:1, 1:3, 2:3 and 1:1 confirming its suitability as adsorption material.

Keywords: Adsorption, Cassava, Activated Carbon, Nitrate, Isotherm, Langmuir.

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74 A Kinetic Study on the Adsorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions on Zeolite NaA

Authors: Dimitar Georgiev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Irena Markovska, Yancho Hristov, Dencho Stanev

Abstract:

The present paper reports the removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions using synthetic Zeolit NaA. The adsorption capacity of the sorbent (Zeolite NaA) strongly depends on simultaneous or not simultaneous (concurrent) presence of Cd(II) and Zn(II) in the sorbate. When Cd(II) and Zn(II) are present simultaneously (concurrently) in the sorbate, Zn(II) ions were sorbed at higher rate. Equilibrium data fitted Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms well. The applicability of the isotherm equation to describe the adsorption process was judged by the correlation coefficients R2. The Langmuir model yielded the best fit with R2 values equal to or higher than 0.970, as compared to the Freundlich and Tempkin models. The fact that 1/n values range from 0.322 to 0.755 indicates that the adsorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions also favored by the Freundlich model.

Keywords: Adsorption, adsorption capacity, kinetic sorption, Zeolite NaA

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73 Malt Bagasse Waste as Biosorbent for Malachite Green: An Ecofriendly Approach for Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution

Authors: H. C. O. Reis, A. S. Cossolin, B. A. P. Santos, K. C. Castro, G. M. Pereira, V. C. Silva, P. T. Sousa Jr, E. L. Dall’Oglio, L. G. Vasconcelos, E. B. Morais

Abstract:

In this study, malt bagasse, a low-cost waste biomass, was tested as a biosorbent to remove the cationic dye Malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Batch biosorption experiments were investigated as functions of different experimental parameters such as initial pH, salt (NaCl) concentration, contact time, temperature and initial dye concentration. Higher removal rates of MG were obtained at pH 8 and 10. The equilibrium and kinetic studies suggest that the biosorption follows Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was estimated at 117.65 mg/g (at 45 °C). According to Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model, biosorption of MG onto malt bagasse occurs physically. The thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy indicated that the MG biosorption onto malt bagasse is spontaneous and endothermic. The results of the ionic strength effect indicated that the biosorption process under study had a strong tolerance under high salt concentrations. It can be concluded that malt bagasse waste has potential for application as biosorbent for removal of MG from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Color removal, kinetic and isotherm studies, thermodynamic parameters, FTIR.

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72 Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Lead Adsorption on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangrove Propagule Waste by Phosphoric Acid Activation

Authors: Widi Astuti, Rizki Agus Hermawan, Hariono Mukti, Nurul Retno Sugiyono

Abstract:

The removal of lead ion (Pb2+) from aqueous solution by activated carbon with phosphoric acid activation employing mangrove propagule as precursor was investigated in a batch adsorption system. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters including pH and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the adsorption equilibrium, while the pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to describe kinetic process of Pb2+ adsorption. The results show that the adsorption data are seen in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, equilibrium, kinetic, Pb2+, mangrove propagule.

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71 Adsorption of Ferrous and Ferric Ions in Aqueous and Industrial Effluent onto Pongamia pinnata Tree Bark

Authors: M. Mamatha, H. B. Aravinda, E. T. Puttaiah, S. Manjappa

Abstract:

One of the causes of water pollution is the presence of heavy metals in water. In the present study, an adsorbent prepared from the raw bark of the Pongamia pinnata tree is used for the removal of ferrous or ferric ions from aqueous and waste water containing heavy metals. Adsorption studies were conducted at different pH, concentration of metal ion, amount of adsorbent, contact time, agitation and temperature. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied for the results. The Langmuir isotherms were best fitted by the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption was found to 146mg/g in waste water at a temperature of 30°C which is in agreement as comparable to the adsorption capacity of different adsorbents reported in literature. Pseudo second order model best fitted the adsorption of both ferrous and ferric ions.

Keywords: Adsorption, Adsorption isotherms, Heavy metals, Industrial effluents.

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70 Adsorption of Cadmium onto Activated and Non-Activated Date Pits

Authors: Munther I. Kandah, Fahmi A. Abu Al-Rub, Lucy Bawarish, Mira Bawarish, Hiba Al-Tamimi, Reem Khalil, Raja'a Sa, ada

Abstract:

In this project cadmium ions were adsorbed from aqueous solutions onto either date pits; a cheap agricultural and nontoxic material, or chemically activated carbon prepared from date pits using phosphoric acid. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch adsorption technique to assess the feasibility of using the prepared adsorbents. The effects of the process variables such as initial cadmium ions concentration, contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dose on the adsorption capacity of both adsorbents were studied. The experimental data were tested using different isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin- Radushkevich. The results showed that although the equilibrium data could be described by all models used, Langmuir model gave slightly better results when using activated carbon while Freundlich model, gave better results with date pits.

Keywords: Adsorption, Cadmium, Chemical Activation, DatePits.

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69 Adsorption of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Activated Carbon Prepared from Cashew Nut Shells

Authors: S. Tangjuank, N. Insuk , J. Tontrakoon , V. Udeye

Abstract:

Cashew nut shells were converted into activated carbon powders using KOH activation plus CO2 gasification at 1027 K. The increase both of impregnation ratio and activation time, there was swiftly the development of mesoporous structure with increasing of mesopore volume ratio from 20-28% and 27-45% for activated carbon with ratio of KOH per char equal to 1 and 4, respectively. Activated carbon derived from KOH/char ratio equal to 1 and CO2 gasification time from 20 to 150 minutes were exhibited the BET surface area increasing from 222 to 627 m2.g-1. And those were derived from KOH/char ratio of 4 with activation time from 20 to 150 minutes exhibited high BET surface area from 682 to 1026 m2.g-1. The adsorption of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) ion was investigated. This adsorbent exhibited excellent adsorption for Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) ion. Maximum adsorption presented at 99.61% at pH 6.5 and 98.87% at optimum conditions. The experimental data was calculated from Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum capacity of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions was found to be 28.90 m2.g-1 and 14.29 m2.g-1, respectively.

Keywords: Activated carbon, cashew nut shell, heavy metals, adsorption.

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68 Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Using Gypsum as a Low Cost Adsorbent

Authors: Muhammad A.Rauf, I.Shehadeh, Amal Ahmed, Ahmed Al-Zamly

Abstract:

Removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution by adsorbing it on Gypsum was investigated by batch method. The studies were conducted at 25°C and included the effects of pH and initial concentration of Methylene Blue. The adsorption data was analyzed by using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherm models. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 36 mg of the dye per gram of gypsum. The data were also analyzed in terms of their kinetic behavior and was found to obey the pseudo second order equation.

Keywords: Adsorption, Dye, Gypsum, Kinetics, Methylene Blue.

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67 Phenomenological and Theoretical Analysis of Relativistic Temperature Transformation and Relativistic Entropy

Authors: Marko Popovic

Abstract:

There are three possible effects of Special Theory of Relativity (STR) on a thermodynamic system. Planck and Einstein looked upon this process as isobaric; on the other hand Ott saw it as an adiabatic process. However plenty of logical reasons show that the process is isotherm. Our phenomenological consideration demonstrates that the temperature is invariant with Lorenz transformation. In that case process is isotherm, so volume and pressure are Lorentz covariant. If the process is isotherm the Boyles law is Lorentz invariant. Also equilibrium constant and Gibbs energy, activation energy, enthalpy entropy and extent of the reaction became Lorentz invariant.

Keywords: STR, relativistic temperature transformation, Boyle'slaw, equilibrium constant, Gibbs energy.

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66 Removal of Vanadium from Industrial Effluents by Natural Ion Exchanger

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Haribhau R. Aher, Priti M. Dhage

Abstract:

The removal vanadium from aqueous solution using natural exchanger was investigated. The effects of pH, contact time and exchanger dose were studied at ambient temperature (25 0C ± 2 0C). The equilibrium process was described by the Langmuir isotherm model with adsorption capacity for vanadium. The natural exchanger i.e. tamarindus seeds powder was treated with formaldehyde and sulpuric acid to increase the adsorptivity of metals. The maximum exchange level was attained as 80.1% at pH 3 with exchanger dose 5 g and contact time 60 min. Method is applied for removal of vanadium from industrial effluents.

Keywords: Industrial effluent, natural ion exchange, Tamarindus indica, vanadium.

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65 Evaluation of the Inhibitive Effect of Novel Quinoline Schiff Base on Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl Solution

Authors: Smita Jauhari, Bhupendra Mistry

Abstract:

Schiff base (E)-2-methyl-N-(tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinolin-4-ylmethylene)aniline (QMA) was synthesized, and its inhibitive effect for mild steel in 1N HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurement and electrochemical tests. From the weight loss measurements and electrochemical tests, it was observed that the inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in the Schiff base concentration and reaches a maximum at the optimum concentration. This is further confirmed by the decrease in corrosion rate. It is found that the system follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Keywords: Schiff base, acid corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, polarization.

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64 Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Biosorption of Textile Dye (Yellow Bemacid) onto Brahea edulis

Authors: G. Henini, Y. Laidani, F. Souahi, A. Labbaci, S. Hanini

Abstract:

Environmental contamination is a major problem being faced by the society today. Industrial, agricultural, and domestic wastes, due to the rapid development in the technology, are discharged in the several receivers. Generally, this discharge is directed to the nearest water sources such as rivers, lakes, and seas. While the rates of development and waste production are not likely to diminish, efforts to control and dispose of wastes are appropriately rising. Wastewaters from textile industries represent a serious problem all over the world. They contain different types of synthetic dyes which are known to be a major source of environmental pollution in terms of both the volume of dye discharged and the effluent composition. From an environmental point of view, the removal of synthetic dyes is of great concern. Among several chemical and physical methods, adsorption is a promising technique due to the ease of use and low cost compared to other applications in the process of discoloration, especially if the adsorbent is inexpensive and readily available. The focus of the present study was to assess the potentiality of Brahea edulis (BE) for the removal of synthetic dye Yellow bemacid (YB) from aqueous solutions. The results obtained here may transfer to other dyes with a similar chemical structure. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature. The biosorption kinetic data of the material (BE) was tested by the pseudo first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ΔG, enthalpy ΔH, and entropy ΔS have revealed that the adsorption of YB on the BE is feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. The equilibrium data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich, and Temkin isotherm models. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g: 12 mg/g; 1.5 g: 47.44 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at around pH value of 2 for the YB. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial dye concentration in solution (Co = 120 mg/l; q = 35.97 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.998) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 35.97 mg/g for YB.

Keywords: Adsorption, Brahea edulis, isotherm, yellow bemacid.

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63 Uranium Adsorption Using a Composite Material Based on Platelet SBA-15 Supported Tin Salt Tungstomolybdophosphoric Acid

Authors: H. Aghayan, F. A. Hashemi, R. Yavari, S. Zolghadri

Abstract:

In this work, a new composite adsorbent based on a mesoporous silica SBA-15 with platelet morphology and tin salt of tungstomolybdophosphoric (TWMP) acid was synthesized and applied for uranium adsorption from aqueous solution. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transfer infra-red, and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, and then, effect of various parameters such as concentration of metal ions and contact time on adsorption behavior was examined. The experimental result showed that the adsorption process was explained by the Langmuir isotherm model very well, and predominant reaction mechanism is physisorption. Kinetic data of adsorption suggest that the adsorption process can be described by the pseudo second-order reaction rate model.

Keywords: Platelet SBA-15, tungstomolybdophosphoric acid, adsorption, uranium ion.

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62 Removal of Methylene Blue Dye Using Roselle Petals from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Abdulali Ben Saleh, Mohamed Abudabbus

Abstract:

The present study based on removal of natural dyes of Roselle petals, then used Roselle petals powder (RPP) as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue dye (as a typical cationic or basic dye) from aqueous solutions. The present study shows that used Roselle petals powder exhibit adsorption trend for the dye. The adsorption processes were carried out at various conditions of temperatures ranging from 278 to 338 K ± 2 K , concentrations, processing time and a wide range of pH between 2.5-11. Adsorption isotherm equations such as Freundlich, and Langmuir were applied to calculate the values of respective constants. Adsorption study was found that the currently introduced adsorbent can be used to remove cationic dyes such as methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Adsorption, methylene blue, removal of dyes, Roselle petals powder.

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