Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4684

Search results for: Fabric Printing Design.

4684 Fabric Printing Design: An Inspiration from Thai Kites

Authors: Suwit Sadsunk

Abstract:

This research paper was aimed to study different motifs found on Thai kites in order to be create new fabric printing designs. The objectives of the study were (1) to examine different motifs of Thai kites; and (2) to create appropriate printing designs for fabric based on an examination of motifs of Thai kites from primary and secondary sources. The study found that designs, motifs and colors found on Thai kites were various based on individual artisans’ imagination in each period. From the historical review, there have been 4 kinds of Thai kites namely I-Loom Kite, Pak Pao Kite, Chula Kite and Dui Dui Kite. Nowadays, the kite designs have been developed to be more various by shape and color such as snake- shaped kite, owl- shaped kite and peacock- shaped kite.

Keywords: Thai Kites, Fabric Printing Design.

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4683 Fabric Printing Design, an Inspired from the Five-Color Porcelain (Benjarong)

Authors: Suwit Sadsunk

Abstract:

The study is about the designed and decorative fabric printing that derived from the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong). The researcher examined the pattern and creativity of the decorative design of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) by the artists in order to apply for contemporary arts so that young generation will acknowledge the importance of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong). The research methodology is both quantitative and qualitative. The researcher conducted an in-depth interview with the operator of five-color porcelain (Benjarong) at Ampawa, Samutsongkram. The information from the interview can be useful and implemented for designing the fabric patterns. The researcher found that there were many formats and designs of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) from the past to the present. Its unique design can be applied for the fabric patterns and ready-to-wear clothes properly. After advertising and showing the work of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) publicly, there were more young people interested in the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) than expected which exceeded the objective with positive attitudes towards the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong).

Keywords: Decorative fabric printing, Five-color porcelain (Benjarong).

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4682 The Analysis of Printing Quality of Offset - Printing Ink with Coconut Oil Base

Authors: Wat Ploysri

Abstract:

The objectives of this research are to produce prototype coconut oil based solvent offset printing inks and to analyze a basic quality of printing work derived from coconut oil based solvent offset printing inks, by mean of bringing coconut oil for producing varnish and bringing such varnish to produce black offset printing inks. Then, analysis of qualities i.e. CIELAB value, density value, and dot gain value of printing work from coconut oil based solvent offset printing inks which printed on gloss-coated woodfree paper weighs 130 grams were done. The research result of coconut oil based solvent offset printing inks indicated that the suitable varnish formulation is using 51% of coconut oil, 36% of phenolic resin, and 14% of solvent oil 14%, while the result of producing black offset ink displayed that the suitable formula of printing ink is using varnish mixed with 20% of coconut oil, and the analyzing printing work of coconut oil based solvent offset printing inks which printed on paper, the results were as follows: CIELAB value of black offset printing ink is at L* = 31.90, a* = 0.27, and b* = 1.86, density value is at 1.27 and dot gain value was high at mid tone area of image area.

Keywords: Offset Printing, Coconut Oil, Printing Ink, Printing Quality.

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4681 The Impact Factors of the Environmental Pollution and Workers Health in Printing Industry

Authors: Kiurski J., Marić B., Djaković V., Adamović S., Oros I., Krstić J.

Abstract:

This paper presents the study of parameters affecting the environment protection in the printing industry. The paper has also compared LCA studies performed within the printing industry in order to identify common practices, limitations, areas for improvement, and opportunities for standardization. This comparison is focused on the data sources and methodologies used in the printing pollutants register. The presented concepts, methodology and results represent the contribution to the sustainable development management. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the result of the quantitative identification of hazardous substances emitted in printing industry of Novi Sad.

Keywords: LCA, parameters of pollution, printing industry, register

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4680 Color Shift of Printing with Hybrid Halftone Images for Overlay Misalignment

Authors: Xu Guoliang, Tan Qingping

Abstract:

Color printing proceeds with multiple halftone separations overlay. Because of separation overlay misalignment in printing, the percentage of different primary color combination may vary and it will result in color shift. In traditional printing procedure with AM halftone, every separation has different screening angle to make the superposition pattern in a random style, which will reduce the color shift. To evaluate the color shift of printing with hybrid halftoning, we simulate printing procedure with halftone images overlay and calculate the color difference between expected color and color in different overlay misalignment configurations. The color difference for hybrid halftone and AM halftone is very close. So the color shift for hybrid halftone is acceptable with current color printing procedure.

Keywords: color printing, AM halftone, Hybrid halftone, misalignment, color shift, Neugebauer Color Equation

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4679 Production Offset Inks, Solvent Base with Coconut Oil of Samut Songkhram Province for the Environment

Authors: Krairop Charoensopa, Weera Chotethammaporn

Abstract:

This research aimed to produce offset printing inks from Samut Songkram’s coconut oil and to test properties of the printing inks comparing with commercial offset printing inks. One of the ingredients in the process of mixing varnish is coconut oil – used to produce black offset printing inks which were the subject of testing issues in order to compare with commercial offset printing inks. Based on the results of research, the best formula for mixing varnish was 50% of coconut oil, 36% of phenolic resin, and 14% of solvent oil. At the same time, the best formula in producing black offset inks was mixing varnish with 20% of coconut oil 20%. Consequently, the result of testing of properties of coconut oil based solvent offset printing inks regarding viscosity, tack and ink flow, showed that offset printing inks with oil based solvent had the properties less than commercial offset printing ink. Additionally, the result of testing also indicate that the rate of properties in aspects of ink spread and setting time of coconut oil based solvent offset printing were higher than that of commercial offset printing inks.

Keywords: Offset Printing Inks, Varnish Oil.

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4678 A Method for Measurement and Evaluation of Drape of Textiles

Authors: L. Fridrichova, R. Knížek, V. Bajzík

Abstract:

Drape is one of the important visual characteristics of the fabric. This paper is introducing an innovative method of measurement and evaluation of the drape shape of the fabric. The measuring principle is based on the possibility of multiple vertical strain of the fabric. This method more accurately simulates the real behavior of the fabric in the process of draping. The method is fully automated, so the sample can be measured by using any number of cycles in any time horizon. Using the present method of measurement, we are able to describe the viscoelastic behavior of the fabric.

Keywords: Drape, drape shape, automated drape meter.

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4677 Crafting of Paper Cutting Techniques for Embellishment of Fashion Textiles

Authors: A. Vaidya-Soocheta, K. M. Wong-Hon-Lang

Abstract:

Craft and fashion have always been interlinked. The combination of both often gives stunning results. The present study introduces ‘Paper Cutting Craft Techniques’ like the Japanese –Kirigami, Mexican –PapelPicado, German –Scherenschnitte, Polish –Wycinankito in textiles to develop innovative and novel design structures as embellishments and ornamentation. The project studies various ways of using these paper cutting techniques to obtain interesting features and delicate design patterns on fabrics. While paper has its advantages and related uses, it is fragile rigid and thus not appropriate for clothing. Fabric is sturdy, flexible, dimensionally stable and washable. In the present study, the cut out techniques develop creative design motifs and patterns to give an inventive and unique appeal to the fabrics. The beauty and fascination of lace in garments have always given them a nostalgic charm. Laces with their intricate and delicate complexity in combination with other materials add a feminine touch to a garment and give it a romantic, mysterious appeal. Various textured and decorative effects through fabric manipulation are experimented along with the use of paper cutting craft skills as an innovative substitute for developing lace or “Broderie Anglaise” effects on textiles. A number of assorted fabric types with varied textures were selected for the study. Techniques to avoid fraying and unraveling of the design cut fabrics were introduced. Fabrics were further manipulated by use of interesting prints with embossed effects on cut outs. Fabric layering in combination with assorted techniques such as cutting of folded fabric, printing, appliqué, embroidery, crochet, braiding, weaving added a novel exclusivity to the fabrics. The fabrics developed by these innovative methods were then tailored into garments. The study thus tested the feasibility and practicability of using these fabrics by designing a collection of evening wear garments based on the theme ‘Nostalgia’. The prototypes developed were complemented by designing fashion accessories with the crafted fabrics. Prototypes of accessories add interesting features to the study. The adaptation and application of this novel technique of paper cutting craft on textiles can be an innovative start for a new trend in textile and fashion industry. The study anticipates that this technique will open new avenues in the world of fashion to incorporate its use commercially.

Keywords: Collection, fabric cutouts, nostalgia, prototypes.

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4676 Natural-Direction-Consistent 3D-Design and Printing Methods

Authors: Yasusi Kanada

Abstract:

Objects are usually horizontally sliced when printed by 3D printers. Therefore, if an object to be printed, such as a collection of fibers, originally has natural direction in shape, the printed direction contradicts with the natural direction. By using proper tools, such as field-oriented 3D paint software, field-oriented solid modelers, field-based tool-path generation software, and non-horizontal FDM 3D printers, the natural direction can be modeled and objects can be printed in a direction that is consistent with the natural direction. This consistence results in embodiment of momentum or force in expressions of the printed object. To achieve this goal, several design and manufacturing problems, but not all, have been solved. An application of this method is (Japanese) 3D calligraphy.

Keywords: 3D printing, Three-dimensional printing, Solid free-form fabrication, SFF, Fused deposition modeling, FDM, Additive manufacturing.

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4675 Effectiveness Evaluation of a Machine Design Process Based on the Computation of the Specific Output

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In this paper, effectiveness of a machine design process is evaluated on the basis of the specific output calculus. Concretely, a screw-worm gear mechanical transmission is designed by using the classical and the 3D-CAD methods. Strength analysis and drawing of the designed parts is substantially aided by employing the SolidWorks software. Quality of the design process is assessed by manufacturing (printing) the parts, and by computing the efficiency, specific load, as well as the specific output (work) of the mechanical transmission. Influence of the stroke, travelling velocity and load on the mechanical output, is emphasized. Optimal design of the mechanical transmission becomes possible by the appropriate usage of the acquired results.

Keywords: Mechanical transmission, design, screw, worm-gear, efficiency, specific output, 3D-printing.

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4674 Evaluations of 3D Concrete Printing Produced in the Environment of United Arab Emirates

Authors: Adil K. Tamimi, Tarig Ali, Rawan Anoohi, Ahmed Rajput, Kaltham Alkamali

Abstract:

3D concrete printing is one of the most innovative and modern techniques in the field of construction that achieved several milestones in that field for the following advantages: saving project’s time, ability to execute complicated shapes, reduce waste and low cost. However, the concept of 3D printing in UAE is relatively new where construction teams, including clients, consultants, and contractors, do not have the required knowledge and experience in the field. This is the most significant obstacle for the construction parties, which make them refrained from using 3D concrete printing compared to conventional concreting methods. This study shows the historical development of the 3D concrete printing, its advantages, and the challenges facing this innovation. Concrete mixes and materials have been proposed and evaluated to select the best combination for successful 3D concrete printing. The main characteristics of the 3D concrete printing in the fresh and hardened states are considered, such as slump test, flow table, compressive strength, tensile, and flexural strengths. There is need to assess the structural stability of the 3D concrete by testing the bond between interlayers of the concrete.  

Keywords: 3D printing, concrete mixes, workability, compressive strength, slump test, tensile strength, flexural strength.

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4673 Trends in Competitiveness of the Thai Printing Industry

Authors: Amon Lasomboon

Abstract:

Since the world printing industry has to confront globalization with a constant change, the Thai printing industry, as a small but increasingly significant part of the world printing industry, cannot inevitably escape but has to encounter with the similar change and also the need to revamp its production processes, designs and technology to make them more appealing to both international and domestic market. The essential question is what is the Thai competitive edge in the printing industry in changing environment? This research is aimed to study the Thai level of competitive edge in terms of marketing, technology, environment friendly, and the level of satisfaction of the process of using printing machines. To access the extent to which is the trends in competitiveness of Thai printing industry, both quantitative and qualitative study were conducted. The quantitative analysis was restricted to 100 respondents. The qualitative analysis was restricted to a focus group of 10 individuals from various backgrounds in the Thai printing industry. The findings from the quantitative analysis revealed that the overall mean scores are 4.53, 4.10, and 3.50 for the competitiveness of marketing, the competitiveness of technology, and the competitiveness of being environment friendly respectively. However, the level of satisfaction for the process of using machines has a mean score only 3.20. The findings from the qualitative analysis have revealed that target customers have increasingly reordered due to their contentment in both low prices and the acceptable quality of the products. Moreover, the Thai printing industry has a tendency to convert to ambient green technology which is friendly to the environment. The Thai printing industry is choosing to produce or substitute with products that are less damaging to the environment. It is also found that the Thai printing industry has been transformed into a very competitive industry which bargaining power rests on consumers who have a variety of choices.

Keywords: Competitiveness, Printing Industry

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4672 The Nature of the Complicated Fabric Textures: How to Represent in Primary Visual Cortex

Authors: J. L. Liu, L. Wang, B. Zhu, J. Zhou, W. D. Gao

Abstract:

Fabric textures are very common in our daily life. However, the representation of fabric textures has never been explored from neuroscience view. Theoretical studies suggest that primary visual cortex (V1) uses a sparse code to efficiently represent natural images. However, how the simple cells in V1 encode the artificial textures is still a mystery. So, here we will take fabric texture as stimulus to study the response of independent component analysis that is established to model the receptive field of simple cells in V1. We choose 140 types of fabrics to get the classical fabric textures as materials. Experiment results indicate that the receptive fields of simple cells have obvious selectivity in orientation, frequency and phase when drifting gratings are used to determine their tuning properties. Additionally, the distribution of optimal orientation and frequency shows that the patch size selected from each original fabric image has a significant effect on the frequency selectivity.

Keywords: Fabric Texture, Receptive Filed, Simple Cell, Spare Coding.

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4671 Noise Level Investigation in Printing Industry in Novi Sad, Serbia

Authors: Grujić S., Mihailović A., Kiurski J., Adamović S., Adamović D

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine noise level of six different types of machines in printing companies in Novi Sad. The A-weighted levels on Leq, Lmax and Lmin Sound Pressure Level (SPL) in dBA were measured. It was found that the folders, offset printing presses and binding machines are the predominant noise sources. The noise levels produced by 12 of 38 machines exceed the limiting threshold level of 85 dBA, tolerated by law. Since it was determined that the average noise level for folders (87.7 dB) exceeds the permitted value the octave analysis of noise was performed.

Keywords: noise levels, octave analysis, printing machines.

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4670 Motivation Factors to Influence the Decision to Choose Thai Fabric

Authors: Pisit Potjanajaruwit

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the motivation factors to influence the decision to choose Thai Fabric. A multiple-stage sample was utilized to collect 400 samples from working women who had diverse occupations all over Thailand. This research was a quantitative analysis and questionnaire was used a tool to collect data. Descriptive statistics used in this research included percentage, average, and standard deviation and inferential statistics included hypothesis testing of one way ANOVA. The research findings revealed that demographic factors and social factors had an influence to the positive idea of wearing Thai fabric (F = 5.377, P value < 0.05). The respondents who had the age over 41 years old had a better positive idea of wearing Thai fabric than other groups. Moreover, the findings revealed that age had influenced the positive idea of wearing Thai fabric (F = 3.918, P value < 0.05). The respondents who had the age over 41 years old also had stronger believe that wearing Thai fabric to work and social gatherings are socially acceptable than other groups.

Keywords: Decision, Motivation, Influence, Thai Fabric.

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4669 A Comparison Study of Fabric Objective Measurement (FOM) Using KES-FB and PhabrOmeter System on Warp Knitted Fabrics Handle – Smoothness, Stiffness and Softness

Authors: Ka-Yan Yim, Chi-Wai Kan

Abstract:

This paper conducts a comparison study using KES-FB and PhabrOmeter to measure 58 selected warp knitted fabric hand properties. Fabric samples were selected and measured by both KES-FB and PhabrOmeter. Results show differences between these two measurement methods. Smoothness and stiffness values obtained by KES-FB were found significant correlated (p value = 0.003 and 0.022) to the PhabrOmeter results while softness values between two measurement methods did not show significant correlation (p value = 0.828). Disagreements among these two measurement methods imply limitations on different mechanism principles when facing warp knitted fabrics. Subjective measurement methods and further studies are suggested in order to ascertain deeper investigation on the mechanisms of fabric hand perceptions.

Keywords: Fabric hand, fabric objective measurement, KES-FB, PhabrOmeter.

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4668 The Low-Cost Design and 3D Printing of Structural Knee Orthotics for Athletic Knee Injury Patients

Authors: Alexander Hendricks, Sean Nevin, Clayton Wikoff, Melissa Dougherty, Jacob Orlita, Rafiqul Noorani

Abstract:

Knee orthotics play an important role in aiding in the recovery of those with knee injuries, especially athletes. However, structural knee orthotics is often very expensive, ranging between $300 and $800. The primary reason for this project was to answer the question: can 3D printed orthotics represent a viable and cost-effective alternative to present structural knee orthotics? The primary objective for this research project was to design a knee orthotic for athletes with knee injuries for a low-cost under $100 and evaluate its effectiveness. The initial design for the orthotic was done in SolidWorks, a computer-aided design (CAD) software available at Loyola Marymount University. After this design was completed, finite element analysis (FEA) was utilized to understand how normal stresses placed upon the knee affected the orthotic. The knee orthotic was then adjusted and redesigned to meet a specified factor-of-safety of 3.25 based on the data gathered during FEA and literature sources. Once the FEA was completed and the orthotic was redesigned based from the data gathered, the next step was to move on to 3D-printing the first design of the knee brace. Subsequently, physical therapy movement trials were used to evaluate physical performance. Using the data from these movement trials, the CAD design of the brace was refined to accommodate the design requirements. The final goal of this research means to explore the possibility of replacing high-cost, outsourced knee orthotics with a readily available low-cost alternative.

Keywords: Knee Orthotics, 3D printing, finite element analysis.

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4667 Prediction Modeling of Compression Properties of a Knitted Sportswear Fabric Using Response Surface Method

Authors: Jawairia Umar, Tanveer Hussain, Zulfiqar Ali, Muhammad Maqsood

Abstract:

Different knitted structures and knitted parameters play a vital role in the stretch and recovery management of compression sportswear in addition to the materials use to generate this stretch and recovery behavior of the fabric. The present work was planned to predict the different performance indicators of a compression sportswear fabric with some ground parameters i.e. base yarn stitch length (polyester as base yarn and spandex as plating yarn involve to make a compression fabric) and linear density of the spandex which is a key material of any sportswear fabric. The prediction models were generated by response surface method for performance indicators such as stretch & recovery percentage, compression generated by the garment on body, total elongation on application of high power force and load generated on certain percentage extension in fabric. Certain physical properties of the fabric were also modeled using these two parameters.

Keywords: Compression, sportswear, stretch and recovery, statistical model, kikuhime.

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4666 Implementation of A Photo-Curable 3D Additive Manufacturing Technology with Coloring Gray Capability by Using Piezo Ink-Jet

Authors: Ming-Jong Tsai, Y. L. Cheng, Y. L. Kuo, S. Y. Hsiao, J .W. Chen, P. H. Liu, D. H. Chen

Abstract:

The 3D printing is a combination of digital technology, material science, intelligent manufacturing and control of opto-mechatronics systems. It is called the third industrial revolution from the view of the Economist Journal. A color 3D printing machine may provide the necessary support for high value-added industrial and commercial design, architectural design, personal boutique, and 3D artist’s creation. The main goal of this paper is to develop photo-curable color 3D manufacturing technology and system implementation. The key technologies include (1) Photo-curable color 3D additive manufacturing processes development and materials research (2) Piezo type ink-jet head control and Opto-mechatronics integration technique of the photo-curable color 3D laminated manufacturing system. The proposed system is integrated with single Piezo type ink-jet head with two individual channels for two primary UV light curable color resins which can provide for future colorful 3D printing solutions. The main research results are 16 grey levels and grey resolution of 75 dpi. 

Keywords: 3d printing, additive manufacturing, color, photo-curable, Piezo type ink-jet, UV Resin.

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4665 Does Material Choice Drive Sustainability of 3D Printing?

Authors: Jeremy Faludi, Zhongyin Hu, Shahd Alrashed, Christopher Braunholz, Suneesh Kaul, Leulekal Kassaye

Abstract:

Environmental impacts of six 3D printers using various materials were compared to determine if material choice drove sustainability, or if other factors such as machine type, machine size, or machine utilization dominate. Cradle-to-grave life-cycle assessments were performed, comparing a commercial-scale FDM machine printing in ABS plastic, a desktop FDM machine printing in ABS, a desktop FDM machine printing in PET and PLA plastics, a polyjet machine printing in its proprietary polymer, an SLA machine printing in its polymer, and an inkjet machine hacked to print in salt and dextrose. All scenarios were scored using ReCiPe Endpoint H methodology to combine multiple impact categories, comparing environmental impacts per part made for several scenarios per machine. Results showed that most printers’ ecological impacts were dominated by electricity use, not materials, and the changes in electricity use due to different plastics was not significant compared to variation from one machine to another. Variation in machine idle time determined impacts per part most strongly. However, material impacts were quite important for the inkjet printer hacked to print in salt: In its optimal scenario, it had up to 1/38th the impacts coreper part as the worst-performing machine in the same scenario. If salt parts were infused with epoxy to make them more physically robust, then much of this advantage disappeared, and material impacts actually dominated or equaled electricity use. Future studies should also measure DMLS and SLS processes / materials.

Keywords: 3D printing, Additive Manufacturing, Sustainability, Life-cycle assessment, Design for Environment.

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4664 Dynamic Risk Identification Using Fuzzy Failure Mode Effect Analysis in Fabric Process Industries: A Research Article as Management Perspective

Authors: A. Sivakumar, S. S. Darun Prakash, P. Navaneethakrishnan

Abstract:

In and around Erode District, it is estimated that more than 1250 chemical and allied textile processing fabric industries are affected, partially closed and shut off for various reasons such as poor management, poor supplier performance, lack of planning for productivity, fluctuation of output, poor investment, waste analysis, labor problems, capital/labor ratio, accumulation of stocks, poor maintenance of resources, deficiencies in the quality of fabric, low capacity utilization, age of plant and equipment, high investment and input but low throughput, poor research and development, lack of energy, workers’ fear of loss of jobs, work force mix and work ethic. The main objective of this work is to analyze the existing conditions in textile fabric sector, validate the break even of Total Productivity (TP), analyze, design and implement fuzzy sets and mathematical programming for improvement of productivity and quality dimensions in the fabric processing industry. It needs to be compatible with the reality of textile and fabric processing industries. The highly risk events from productivity and quality dimension were found by fuzzy systems and results are wrapped up among the textile fabric processing industry.

Keywords: Break Even Point, Fuzzy Crisp Data, Fuzzy Sets, Productivity, Productivity Cycle, Total Productive Maintenance.

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4663 Determination and Comparison of Fabric Pills Distribution Using Image Processing and Spatial Data Analysis Tools

Authors: Lenka Techniková, Maroš Tunák, Jiří Janáček

Abstract:

This work deals with the determination and comparison of pill patterns in 2 sets of fabric samples which differ in way of pill creation. The first set contains fabric samples with the pills created by simulation on a Martindale abrasion machine, while pills in the second set originated during normal wearing and maintenance. The goal of the study is to determine whether the pattern of the fabric pills created by simulation is the same as the pattern of naturally occurring pills. The system of determination and comparison of the pills is based on image processing and spatial data analysis tools. Firstly, 3D reconstruction of the fabric surfaces with the pills is realized with using a gradient fields method. The gradient fields method creates a 3D fabric surface from a set of 4 images. Thereafter, the pills are detected in 3D fabric surfaces using image-processing tools in the MATLAB software. Determination and comparison of the pills patterns of two sets of fabric samples is based on spatial data analysis using tools in R software.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction of the surface, image analysis tools, distribution of the pills, spatial data analysis tools.

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4662 Detection and Quantification of Ozone in Screen Printing Facilities

Authors: Kiurski J., Adamović S., Oros I., Krstić J., Đogo M.

Abstract:

Most often the contaminants are not taken seriously into consideration, and this behavior comes out directly from the lack of monitoring and professional reporting about pollution in the printing facilities in Serbia. The goal of planned and systematic ozone measurements in ambient air of the screen printing facilities in Novi Sad is to examine of its impact on the employees health, and to track trends in concentration. In this study, ozone concentrations were determined by using discontinuous and continuous method during the automatic and manual screen printing process. Obtained results indicates that the average concentrations of ozone measured during the automatic process were almost 3 to 28 times higher for discontinuous and 10 times higher for continuous method (1.028 ppm) compared to the values prescribed by OSHA. In the manual process, average concentrations of ozone were within prescribed values for discontinuous and almost 3 times higher for continuous method (0.299 ppm).

Keywords: indoor pollution, ozone, screen printing

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4661 The Research Report of Employment Trends in Printing Industry for Prepress

Authors: Weera Chotithammaporn

Abstract:

This research aims to study employment trends in printing industry for prepress support by Suan Sunandha University Fund. The objectives of this research are to explain the trends of the employment in Thai Printing Industry for prepress in Bangkok and the description of different personnel that prepress entrepreneur need and also the problems of employment. The population of prepress entrepreneurs is about 100 organizations in the area of Bangkok. The questionnaires has been taken and analyzed with SPSS program by using the average percentage and standard deviation. This research is multiple case studies. The conceptual framework is developed on the basis of the open systems theory. The research result show that 1. The most of prepress entrepreneur have trend to choose the employee by any sex, the age 25-29 years old, bachelor degree and have 1-2 years experience. 2. The most problems are the understanding in job, communication/relation and the understanding in new technology. 3. The trends aims to employment in 1-3 years have 57.8% for prepress industry in Bangkok. This research suggests that: 1. Thai printing industry for prepress in Bangkok need quality employee that expert in printing technology. 2. Prepress entrepreneur should have agreement to development with university for practice the employee. 3. Prepress entrepreneur should support personal to fulfill the knowledge.

Keywords: Printing Industry, Prepress.

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4660 3D-Printing Plates without “Support”

Authors: Yasusi Kanada

Abstract:

When printing a plate (or dish) by an FDM 3D printer, the process normally requires support material, which causes several problems. This paper proposes a method for forming thin plates without using wasteful support material. This method requires several extraordinary parameter values when slicing plates. The experiments show that the plates can, for the most part, be successfully formed using a conventional slicer and a 3D printer; however, seams between layers spoil them and the quality of printed objects strongly depends on the slicer.

Keywords: Fused deposition modeling (FDM), 3D printing, Support-less, Layer seam, Slicer.

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4659 Synthesis, Characterization and Coating of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric by Mechanical Thermo-Fixation Techniques to Impart Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Imana Shahrin Tania, Mohammad Ali

Abstract:

The present study reports the synthesis, characterization and application of nano-sized zinc-oxide (ZnO) particles on a cotton fabric surface. The aim of the investigations is to impart the antimicrobial activity on textile cloth. Nanoparticle is synthesized by wet chemical method from zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide. SEM (scanning electron micrograph) images are taken to demonstrate the surface morphology of nanoparticles. XRD analysis is done to determine the crystal size of the nanoparticle. With the conformation of nanoformation, the cotton woven fabric is treated with ZnO nanoparticle by mechanical thermo-fixation (pad-dry-cure) technique. To increase the wash durability of nano treated fabric, an acrylic binder is used as a fixing agent. The treated fabric shows up to 90% bacterial reduction for S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and 87% for E. coli (Escherichia coli) which is appreciable for bacteria protective clothing.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, zinc oxide, cotton fabric, antibacterial activity, binder.

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4658 Research on Residential Block Fabric: A Case Study of Hangzhou West Area

Authors: Wang Ye, Wei Wei

Abstract:

Residential block construction of big cities in China began in the 1950s, and four models had far-reaching influence on modern residential block in its development process, including unit compound and residential district in 1950s to 1980s, and gated community and open community in 1990s to now. Based on analysis of the four models’ fabric, the article takes residential blocks in Hangzhou west area as an example and carries on the studies from urban structure level and block spacial level, mainly including urban road network, land use, community function, road organization, public space and building fabric. At last, the article puts forward “Semi-open Sub-community” strategy to improve the current fabric.

Keywords: Hangzhou West Area, residential block model, residential block fabric, “Semi-open Sub-community” strategy.

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4657 Fully Printed Strain Gauges: A Comparison of Aerosoljet-Printing and Micropipette-Dispensing

Authors: Benjamin Panreck, Manfred Hild

Abstract:

Strain sensors based on a change in resistance are well established for the measurement of forces, stresses, or material fatigue. Within the scope of this paper, fully additive manufactured strain sensors were produced using an ink of silver nanoparticles. Their behavior was evaluated by periodic tensile tests. Printed strain sensors exhibit two advantages: Their measuring grid is adaptable to the use case and they do not need a carrier-foil, as the measuring structure can be printed directly onto a thin sprayed varnish layer on the aluminum specimen. In order to compare quality characteristics, the sensors have been manufactured using two different technologies, namely aerosoljet-printing and micropipette-dispensing. Both processes produce structures which exhibit continuous features (in contrast to what can be achieved with droplets during inkjet printing). Briefly summarized the results show that aerosoljet-printing is the preferable technology for specimen with non-planar surfaces whereas both technologies are suitable for flat specimen.

Keywords: Aerosoljet-printing, micropipette-dispensing, printed electronics, printed sensors, strain gauge.

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4656 Processing Design of Miniature Casting Incorporating Stereolithography Technologies

Authors: Pei-Hsing Huang, Wei-Ju Huang

Abstract:

Investment casting is commonly used in the production of metallic components with complex shapes, due to its high dimensional precision, good surface finish, and low cost. However, the process is cumbersome, and the period between trial casting and final production can be very long, thereby limiting business opportunities and competitiveness. In this study, we replaced conventional wax injection with stereolithography (SLA) 3D printing to speed up the trial process and reduce costs. We also used silicone molds to further reduce costs to avoid the high costs imposed by photosensitive resin.

Keywords: Investment casting, stereolithography, wax molding, 3D printing.

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4655 Surface Flattening Assisted with 3D Mannequin Based On Minimum Energy

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Rong-Qi Chen, Chien-Yu Lin

Abstract:

The topic of surface flattening plays a vital role in the field of computer aided design and manufacture. Surface flattening enables the production of 2D patterns and it can be used in design and manufacturing for developing a 3D surface to a 2D platform, especially in fashion design. This study describes surface flattening based on minimum energy methods according to the property of different fabrics. Firstly, through the geometric feature of a 3D surface, the less transformed area can be flattened on a 2D platform by geodesic. Then, strain energy that has accumulated in mesh can be stably released by an approximate implicit method and revised error function. In some cases, cutting mesh to further release the energy is a common way to fix the situation and enhance the accuracy of the surface flattening, and this makes the obtained 2D pattern naturally generate significant cracks. When this methodology is applied to a 3D mannequin constructed with feature lines, it enhances the level of computer-aided fashion design. Besides, when different fabrics are applied to fashion design, it is necessary to revise the shape of a 2D pattern according to the properties of the fabric. With this model, the outline of 2D patterns can be revised by distributing the strain energy with different results according to different fabric properties. Finally, this research uses some common design cases to illustrate and verify the feasibility of this methodology.

Keywords: Surface flattening, Strain energy, Minimum energy, approximate implicit method, Fashion design.

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