Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30526
Closing the Achievement Gap Within Reading and Mathematics Classrooms by Fostering Hispanic Students- Educational Resilience

Authors: Hersh C. Waxman, Yolanda N. Padrón, Jee-Young Shin, Héctor H. Rivera

Abstract:

While many studies have conducted the achievement gap between groups of students in school districts, few studies have utilized resilience research to investigate achievement gaps within classrooms. This paper aims to summarize and discuss some recent studies Waxman, Padr├│n, and their colleagues conducted, in which they examined learning environment differences between resilient and nonresilient students in reading and mathematics classrooms. The classes consist of predominantly Hispanic elementary school students from low-income families. These studies all incorporated learning environment questionnaires and systematic observation methods. Significant differences were found between resilient and nonresilient students on their classroom learning environments and classroom behaviors. The observation results indicate that the amount and quality of teacher and student academic interaction are two of the most influential variables that promote student outcomes. This paper concludes by suggesting the following teacher practices to promote resiliency in schools: (a) using feedback from classroom observation and learning environment measures, (b) employing explicit teaching practices; and (c) understanding students on a social and personal level.

Keywords: achievement gap, classroom learning environments, educational resilience, systematic classroom observation

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1333252

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1606

References:


[1] H. C. Waxman, Y. N. Padrón, and A. García, "Educational issues and effective practices for Hispanic students," in Narrowing the achievement gap: Strategies for educating Latino, Black and Asian students, S. J. Paik and H. J. Walberg, Eds. New York: Springer, 2007, pp. 131-151.
[2] S. J. Condly, "Resilience in children: A review of the literature with implications for education," Urban Education, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 211- 236, May 2006.
[3] E. W. Gordon and B. M. Mejia, "Resilience as a factor in overcoming obstacles," in Optimizing student success in school with the other three Rs: Reasoning, resilience, and responsibility, R. J. Sternberg and R. F. Subotnik, Eds. Charlotte, NC: Information Age, 2006, pp. 143-175.
[4] H. C. Waxman, Y. N. Padr├│n, and J. P. Gray, Eds., Educational resiliency: Student, teacher, and school perspectives. Greenwich, CT: Information Age, 2004.
[5] A. Sacker and I. Schoon, "Educational resilience in later life: resources and assets in adolescence and return to education after leaving school at age 16," Social Science Research, vol. 36, pp. 873-896, July 2007.
[6] S. Goldstein and R. B. Brooks, Eds, Handbook of resilience in children. New York: Springer, 2006.
[7] B. Benard, "Turnaround teachers and schools," in Closing the achievement gap: A vision for changing beliefs and practices, 2nd ed. B. Williams, Ed. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2003, pp. 115-137.
[8] J. B. Manning, and J. A. Kovach, "The continuing challenges of excellence and equity," in Closing the achievement gap: A vision for changing beliefs and practices, 2nd ed. B. Williams, Ed. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2003, pp. 25-47.
[9] H. C. Waxman, R. G. Tharp, and R. S. Hilberg, Eds. Observational research in U. S. classrooms: New approaches for understanding cultural and linguistic diversity. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
[10] H. C. Waxman and H.-L. Chang, L., "Mixed method approaches for examining classroom learning environments for resilient and nonresilient students in urban elementary schools," in Contemporary approaches to research on learning environments: Worldviews, D. L. Fisher and M. S. Khine, Eds. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Publishers, 2006, pp. 195-220.
[11] D. Allen and B. J. Fraser, "Parent and student perceptions of classroom learning environment and its association with student outcomes," Learning Environments Research, vol. 10, pp. 67-82, Jan. 2007.
[12] B. J. Fraser and H. J. Walberg, "Research on teacher-student relationships and learning environments: Context, retrospect and prospect," International Journal of Educational Research, vol. 43, pp. 103-109, 2005.
[13] S. J. Wolf and B. J. Fraser, B. J. (2007). Learning environment, attitudes and achievement among middle-school science students using inquirybased laboratory activities. Research in Science Education, Online First.
[Online]. Available: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h18358k752803n26/fulltext.html
[14] S. L. Knight and H. C. Waxman, "Students' cognition and classroom instruction," in Effective teaching: Current research, H. C. Waxman and H. J. Walberg, Eds. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan, 1991, pp. 239-255.
[15] P. H. Winne and R. W. Marx, "Students' and teachers' views of thinking processes for classroom learning," Elementary School Journal, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 493-518, May 1982.
[16] M. Wittrock. "Students' thought processes," in Handbook of research in teaching, 3rd ed. M. Wittrock, Ed. New York: Macmillan, 1986, pp. 297-314.
[17] H. C. Waxman. "Investigating classroom and school learning environments: A review of recent research and developments in the field," Journal of Classroom Interaction, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 1-4, 1991.
[18] R. C. Chavez, "The use of high inference measures to study classroom climates: A review," Review of Educational Research, vol. 54, pp. 237- 261, Summer, 1984.
[19] R. A. Schultz, "Student importance ratings as indicator of structure of actual and ideal sociopsychological climates," Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 71, pp. 827-839, Dec. 1979.
[20] P. Oldfather, "Songs "come back to most of them": Students' experiences as researchers," Theory into Practice, vol. 34, pp. 131-137, Spring 1995.
[21] B. J. Fraser, "Students' perceptions of their classroom environments," in Windows into science classrooms: Problems associated with higher-level cognitive learning, K. Tobin, J. B. Kahle and B. J. Fraser, Eds. Bristol, PA: Falmer, 1990, pp. 199-221.
[22] B. J. Fraser, "Research on classroom and school climate," in Handbook of research on science teaching and learning, D. Gabel, Ed. New York: Macmillan, 1994, pp. 493-541.
[23] B. J. Fraser and D. L. Fisher, D. L, "Predicting students' outcomes from their perceptions of classroom psychosocial environment," American Educational Research Journal, vol. 19, pp. 498-518, Winter 1982.
[24] G. D. Haertel, H. J. Walberg, and E. H. Haertel, "Sociopsychological environments and learning: A quantitative synthesis," British Educational Research Journal, vol. 7, pp. 27-36, 1981.
[25] D. Gijbels, G. van de Watering, F. Dochy, and P. van den Bossche, "New learning environments and constructivism: The students- perspective," Instructional Science, vol. 34, pp. 213-226, May 2006.
[26] T. Wubbels, "Student perceptions of teacher-student relationships in class," International Journal of Educational Research, vol. 43, pp. 1-5, 2005.
[27] H. C. Waxman, "Systematic classroom observation," in Encyclopedia of education, 2nd ed. J. W. Guthrie, Ed. New York: Macmillan, 2003, pp. 303-310.
[28] J. A. Stallings and G. G. Mohlman, "Classroom observation techniques," in Educational research, methodology, and measurement: An International handbook, J. P. Keeves, Ed. Oxford, England: Pergamon, 1988, pp. 469-474.
[29] S. S. Stodolsky, "Classroom observation," in The new handbook of teacher evaluation: Assessing elementary and secondary school teachers, J. Millman and L. Darling-Hammond, Eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1990, pp. 175-190.
[30] L. W. Anderson and R. B. Burns, Research in classrooms: The study of teachers, teaching, and instruction. Oxford, England: Pergamon, 1989.
[31] H. C. Waxman and S. L. Huang, "Classroom observation research and the improvement of teaching," in New directions for teaching practice and research. H. C. Waxman and H. J. Walberg, Eds. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan, 1999, pp. 107-129.
[32] H. C. Waxman, "Classroom observations of effective teaching," in Teaching: Theory into practice, A. C. Ornstein, Ed. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1995, pp. 76-93.
[33] J. E. Brophy and T. L. Good, "Teacher behavior and student achievement," in Handbook of research on teaching, 3rd ed. M. C. Wittrock, Ed. New York: Macmillan, 1986, pp. 328-375.
[34] B. Rosenshine and R. Stevens, "Teaching functions," in Handbook of research on teaching, 3rd ed. M. C. Wittrock, Ed. New York: Macmillan, 1986, pp. 376-391.
[35] H. J. Walberg, "Generic practices," in Handbook of research on improving student achievement, G. Cawelti, Ed. Arlington, VA: Educational Research Services, 1995, pp. 7-19.
[36] N. Henderson and M. M. Milstein, Resiliency in schools: Making it happen for students and educations, Updated edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2003.
[37] G. D. Borman and L. T. Overman, "Academic resilience in mathematics among poor and minority students," The Elementary School Journal, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 178-195, Jan. 2004.
[38] Q. Gu and C. Day, "Teachers resilience: a necessary condition for effectiveness," Teaching and Teacher Education, vol. 23, pp. 1302- 1316, Nov. 2007.
[39] B. Benard, Turning it around for all youth: From risk to resilience, ERIC/CUE Digest No. 126, New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, 1997.
[40] J. H. McMillan and D. F. Reed, "At risk students and resiliency: Factors contributing to academic success," The Clearing House, vol. 67, pp. 137-140, 1994.
[41] J. C. Wayman, "The utility of educational resilience for studying degree attainment in school dropouts," Journal of Educational Research, vol. 95, pp. 167-178, 2002.
[42] C. Cefai, "Resilience for all: A study of classrooms as protective contexts," Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, vol. 12, pp. 119-134, Jun 2007.
[43] S. Howard, J. Dryden and B. Johnson, "Childhood resilience: Review and critique of literature," Oxford Review of Education, vol. 25, pp. 307- 323, Sep. 1999.
[44] J. M. Gore, "Beyond our differences, a reassembling of what matters in teacher education," Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 52, pp. 124-135, Mar/Apr. 2001.
[45] C. Pierce, "Importance of classroom climate for at-risk learners," Journal of Educational Research, vol. 88, pp. 37-42, Sep/Oct. 1994.
[46] G. M. Morrison and M. R. Allen, "Promoting student resilience in school contexts," Theory into Practice, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 162-169, 2007.
[47] H. C. Waxman, S. L. Huang, and M. C. Wang, "Investigating the multilevel classroom learning environment of resilient and nonresilient students from inner-city elementary schools," International Journal of Educational Research, vol. 27, pp. 343-353, 1997.
[48] M. E. Uguroglu, and H. J. Walberg, "Predicting achievement and motivation," Journal of Research and Development in Education, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1-12, 1986.
[49] D. L. Fisher and B. J. Fraser, "Validity and use of Classroom Environment Scale," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol. 5, pp. 261-271, 1983.
[50] S. L. Knight and H. C. Waxman, "Investigating the effects of the classroom learning environment on students' motivation in social studies," Journal of Social Studies Research, vol. 14, pp. 1-12, 1990.
[51] B. J. Fraser, "Two decades of classroom environment research," in Educational environments: Evaluation, antecedents and consequences, B. J. Fraser and H. J. Walberg, Eds. Oxford, England: Pergamon, 1991, pp. 3-27.
[52] Y. N. Padr├│n, H. C. Waxman, and S. L. Huang, "Classroom and instructional learning environment differences between resilient and non-resilient elementary school students." Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk of Failure, vol. 4, pp. 63-81, 1999.
[53] M. Dryden and B. J. Fraser, "Evaluating urban systematic reform using classroom learning environment instruments," presented at the American Educational Research Association, New York, 1996.
[54] B. J. Fraser, G. J. Anderson, and H. J. Walberg, Assessment of learning environments: Manual for Learning Environment Inventory (LEI) and My Class Inventory (MCI). Perth, Australia: Western Australian Institute of Technology, 1982.
[55] B. J. Fraser and P. O'Brien, "Student and teacher perceptions of the environment of elementary school classrooms," The Elementary School Journal, vol. 85, pp. 567-580. 1985.
[56] H. C. Waxman, and Y. N. Padr├│n, "Research-based teaching practices that improve the education of English language learners," in Teacher training and effective pedagogy in the context of student diversity, L. Minaya-Rowe. Ed. Greenwich, CT: Information Age, 2002, pp. 3-38.
[57] H. H. Rivera and H. C. Waxman, "Studying the classroom learning environment of resilient and nonresilient Hispanic children," Journal of At-Risk Issues, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 11-19, 2007.
[58] H. C. Waxman and Y. N. Padr├│n, "The uses of the Classroom Observation Schedule to improve classroom instruction," in Observational research in U. S. classrooms: New approaches for understanding cultural and linguistic diversity, H. C. Waxman, R. G. Tharp, and R. S. Hilberg, Eds. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 72-96.
[59] H.-L. Chang and H. C. Waxman, H. C. "Classroom behavior and mathematics learning environment differences among resilient, average, and nonresilient elementary school students," presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA, 2004.
[60] B. J. Fraser, D. L. Fisher, and C. J. McRobbie, "Development, validation, and use of personal and class forms of a new classroom environment instrument," presented at the American Educational Research Association, New York, 1996.
[61] H. C. Waxman and S.-Y. L. Huang, "Motivation and learning environment differences in inner-city middle school students," The Journal of Educational Research, vol. 90, pp. 93-102, Nov/Dec. 1996.
[62] H. C. Waxman, S.-Y. L. Huang, and Y. N. Padr├│n, "Motivation and learning environment differences between resilient and nonresilient Latino middle school students," Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, vol. 19, pp. 137-155, May 1997.
[63] S. M. Ross and L. J. Smith, Classroom observation measure observer-s manual. Memphis, TN: University of Memphis, Center for Research in Educational Policy. 1996.
[64] M. C. Wang, G. D. Haertel, G. D. and H. J. Walberg, "Toward a knowledge base for school learning," Review of Educational Research, vol. 63, pp. 249-294, Autumn, 1993.
[65] J. H. Storer, C. M. Cychosz, and B. L. Licklider, "Rural school personnel's perception and categorization of children at risk: A multimethodological account," Equity and Excellence in Education, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 36-45, Sep. 1995.
[66] R. González, R. and A. M. Padilla, "The academic resilience of Mexican American high school students," Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, vol. 19, pp. 301-317, Aug. 1997.
[67] B. J. Fraser, B. J. and D. L. Fisher, "Using short forms of classroom climate instruments to assess and improve classroom psychosocial environment," Journal of Research in Science Teaching, vol. 5, pp. 387- 413, 1986.
[68] H. C. Waxman, S. L. Huang, and Y. N. Padr├│n, " Investigating the pedagogy of poverty in inner-city middle level schools," Research in Middle Level Education, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 1-22, 1995.
[69] G. Nuthall and A. Alton-Lee, "Research on teaching and learning: Thirty years of change," The Elementary School Journal, vol. 90, pp. 546-570, 1990.
[70] J. E. Travis, "Alienation from learning: School effects on students," Journal for a Just and Caring Education, vol. 1, pp. 434-448, 1995.
[71] H. C. Waxman, "Reversing the cycle of educational failure for students in at-risk school environments," in Students at risk in at-risk schools: Improving environments for learning, H. C. Waxman, J. Walker de Felix, J. Anderson, and H. P. Baptiste, Eds. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin, 1992, pp. 1-9.
[72] H. C. Waxman and S.-Y. L. Huang, "Classroom instruction and learning environment differences between effective and ineffective urban elementary schools for African American students," Urban Education, vol. 32, pp. 7-44, 1997.
[73] L. Darling-Hammond, The right to learn: A blueprint for creating schools that work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997.
[74] H. C. Waxman and S.-Y. L. Huang, "Classroom learning environments in urban elementary, middle, and high schools," Learning Environments Research, vol. 1, pp. 95-113, 1998.
[75] A. Mitchell, "The emergence of a knowledge base for teaching diverse learners in big-city schools," in Engaging every learner, A, M. Blankstein, R. W. Cole, and P. D. Houston, Eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2007, pp. 59-81.